at which school were first responders on the scene for?
[ "independence high school" ]
Our prayers are with the students, educators & families at Independence High School & all the first responders on the scene. #PatriotPride— Doug Ducey (@dougducey) February 12, 2016
what website is linked in the tweet?
[ "instagram" ]
I can finally say it out loud and proud: I'm going to a galaxy far far away! Lupita Nyong'o (@Lupita_Nyongo) June 2, 2014
when does he say kaine is able?
[ "5:09 pm- jul 22, 2016." ]
KAINE IS ABLE!!!— Cory Booker (@CoryBooker) July 23, 2016
what is up to us to keep doing?
[ "exploring" ]
Cassini showed us the beauty of Saturn. It revealed the best in us. Now it's up to us to keep exploring. CassiniSaturn (@CassiniSaturn) September 15, 2017
where can you see girls doing that?
[ "at the bar" ]
Nicki your video was just you twerking, I see girls doing that at the bar every fri&sat. 💁🏼 #TeamTaylor— ChristinaBeex3 (@Christinabeex3) July 22, 2015
who did they kil on tape
[ "eric" ]
Sean Abbott - thinking about you too, mate!— Kevin Pietersen (@KP24) November 27, 2014
kaine took hundreds of thousands of dollars in what?
[ "gifts" ]
Is it the same Kaine that took hundreds of thousands of dollars in gifts while Governor of Virginia and didn't get indicted while Bob M did?— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) July 23, 2016
who say he's gay because he watches rupaul's drag race?
[ "andrew garfield" ]
Andrew Garfield says he's gay because he watches RuPaul's Drag Race. You know, like that kid who thinks he's Asian because he watches Naruto— Justin Whang 🐙 (@HotPikachuSex) July 6, 2017
what kind of contract did he have?
[ "a non-guaranteed contract" ]
The Cavs have released Edy Tavares. No surprise. He was on a non-guaranteed contract. Roster stands at 19. — Jason Lloyd (@JasonLloydNBA) October 11, 2017
what will senator rand paul do if he keeps obama plan?
[ "tax it" ]
Shorter Obama: If you like your college savings plan, you can keep it. But I'm gonna tax the hell out of it. #sotu— Senator Rand Paul (@SenRandPaul) January 21, 2015
who was reported as having knowledge of abuse while at penn state?
[ "greg schiano." ]
In response to media reports from earlier today:I never saw any abuse, nor had reason to suspect any abuse, during my time at Penn State.— Greg Schiano (@OSUCoachSchiano) July 12, 2016
what did the white people do?
[ "steal from us" ]
@jtimberlake @iJesseWilliams Did you like the part when Jesse talked about white people stealing from us? That should resonate with you.— sockruhtese (@sockruhtese) June 27, 2016
at what age is he suing the obama administration?
[ "15 years old" ]
Met this guy the other day in Paris. Now 15 and suing the Obama Administration over climate change. #2degrees— John D. Sutter (@jdsutter) November 30, 2015
who is she celebrating?
[ "caitlyn" ]
Let's celebrate Caitlyn & use her moment to uplift trans folks facing insurmountable economic barriers for affirming healthcare.— Janet Mock (@janetmock) June 1, 2015
what is the hashtag in this post?
[ "#rupertsfault" ]
All Christian militia people and anyone they've hurt. #RupertsFault— Aziz Ansari (@azizansari) January 12, 2015
who do we need more men like?
[ "drake" ]
We need more men like Drake who will call out trash who objectify, harass and grope women.— Luke Waltham (@lukewaltham) November 16, 2017
who is the distributor of the interview?
[ "sony pictures" ]
.@SonyPictures don't cave, fight: release @TheInterview free online globally. Ask viewers for voluntary $5 contribution to fight #Ebola.— Mitt Romney (@MittRomney) December 18, 2014
what are these memes based on?
[ "suarez and the world cup" ]
Let's see some biting memes!! #worldcup #suarez ChristopherDReed (@Chrisreed619) June 24, 2014
what does trump wanted voted for
[ "graham-cassidy" ]
I hope Republican Senators will vote for Graham-Cassidy and fulfill their promise to Repeal & Replace ObamaCare. Money direct to States!— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) September 20, 2017
which celebrity does harnidh kaur think should represent this celebration?
[ "kendall jenner" ]
Vogue India: we've completed 10 years in India!Vogue India: we need to celebrate India!Vogue India: let's put Kendall Jenner on the cover!— Peglet (@PedestrianPoet) May 4, 2017
what does molly have little of after reading?
[ "words" ]
I hardly have words after reading this. Wow. Oliver Sacks on Learning He Has Terminal Cancer via @lolashoes— Molly O'Neill (@molly_oneill) February 19, 2015
what airline experienced a debacle?
[ "#jetblue" ]
#JetBlue Major debacle on flight 760 in Philly- pilot accuses passengers of accusing him of being intoxicated demands all passengers back— Lisa Carter-Knight (@drinkwaterevent) October 8, 2014
where do people need to be evacuated?
[ "east aleppo" ]
I can't & we can't all be happy until all the remaining people who want to leave are evacuated from East Aleppo. - Fatemah— Bana Alabed (@AlabedBana) December 20, 2016
how much money was spent?
[ "29" ]
This is what $29 gets you at the grocery store—what families on SNAP (i.e. food stamps) have to live on for a week. Gwyneth Paltrow (@GwynethPaltrow) April 9, 2015
what show will she be closing?
[ "victoria secret fashion show" ]
Crazy nervous to close the Victoria's Secret fashion show tonight!!! Better get one last gym sesh in LOL!!!!— christine teigen (@chrissyteigen) November 18, 2017
how many people were pronounced dead by emts?
[ "4" ]
EMTs and paramedics pronaunce 4 20 y/os dead. 15 wounded: one severly injured evacuated, four moderetly and 10 lightly Magen David Adom (@Mdais) January 8, 2017
tweet does not exist
[ "tweet does not exist" ]
"Let's hear it for the Fat One" -@jtimberlake when @realjoeyfatone made the night & jumped on stage!!! #blessed Ashley Ragg (@raggly) July 11, 2014
what country made history today?
[ "ireland" ]
Ireland also make history today as the 1st to chase down 300+ THREE separate times in World Cup History #cwc15 ICC (@ICC) February 16, 2015
what kind of bath
[ "ice bath" ]
Giannis gets an ICE BATH from his teammates after sealing the WIN!! # Milwaukee Bucks (@Bucks) December 30, 2017
who is the president elect?
[ "donald trump" ]
Vladimir #Putin: I offer New Year greetings to President Obama & his family, also to President-elect @realDonaldTrump & the American people! РоссиЯ 🇷🇺 (@Russia) December 30, 2016
who can they see in the snl40 rehearsal?
[ "kanye west" ]
I can see Kanye West in #SNL40 rehearsal: “I’m so bad, I can sing the song flat on my back!” Um, not really. — Eric Deggans at NPR (@Deggans) February 16, 2015
in what direction did nicki minaj say she was looking?
[ "to the right" ]
lol says what all? I'm looking at my own face on the screen when I'm looking to the right. I turn Bak & look @ her 😂 NICKI MINAJ (@NICKIMINAJ) November 23, 2015
what is @samcruzin praising?
[ "pizza bagels" ]
God bless whoever invented pizza bagels— the rat whisperer (@SamCruzin) January 24, 2016
where did philae land?
[ "on a comet" ]
Philae:10 years in transitLanded on cometBounced (x2)Stuck in shadeSCIENCED ANYWAYLost powerWaitedOne month to goFOUND BY ROSETTA— Katie Mack (@AstroKatie) September 5, 2016
what friend of sage karam died in 2015?
[ "justin" ]
I can't find the proper words to describe the pain and sympathy I feel for Justin and his family. #RIPJustin— Sage Karam (@SageKaram) August 25, 2015
who is being compared to smokey bear?
[ "pharrell" ]
Pharrell vs Smokey the Bear. who did it better ? ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ (@cjallstar) January 27, 2014
what did coke celebrate to cause some to boycot them?
[ "the diversity of our country." ]
If you're tweeting #boycottcoke because they celebrated the diversity of our country, look inward, YOU are what is wrong w/the US. Not them. — @boopumpkins (@boopumpkins) February 3, 2014
what day is it when the supprt was shown to lgbt?
[ "spirt day for glaad" ]
VIDEO: The cast of @BBCAmerica #OrphanBlack support LGBT youth for #spiritday @OrphanBlack GLAAD (@glaad) October 16, 2014
what kind of president did the message call for?
[ "a woman president" ]
.@HillaryClinton I think it's high time for a woman president. You will get my vote.— Ron Carlivati (@carlivatiron) April 12, 2015
when was the goal for all evacuations to be completed?
[ "tomorrow" ]
37500 people have been evacuated from #Aleppo so far. The goal is to complete all evacuations until tomorrow.— Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu (@MevlutCavusoglu) December 20, 2016
what reports should we be sceptical of?
[ "reports of this person being aggressive." ]
#IfIDieInPoliceCustody don't trust any report of me being aggressive, I put my humanity aside in interactions w/ cops to come home to my kid— jamilah (@JamilahLemieux) July 17, 2015
who will be arriving soon?
[ "investigators." ]
Workers are now removing debris from the top of the bridge. Investigators hope to move into the area shortly. BonneyLakePolice PIO (@BLPoliceDept) April 14, 2015
why is school canceled tomorrow?
[ "damage across the district." ]
School has been canceled tomorrow Mar 26 due to damage across the district. Updates tomorrow morning - Thanks for your patience. Dr. Romines— Moore Public Schools (@MoorePublicSch) March 26, 2015
what do certain people cause?
[ "death and destruction" ]
Interesting that certain Middle-Eastern countries agree with the ban. They know if certain people are allowed in it's death & destruction!— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) February 4, 2017
what makes this a good thing?
[ "he's an actual talk show host!" ]
Jeez, @sethmeyers @LateNightSeth makes eye contact,subtly refers to cards, responds to what guests say...he's, like, an actual TALK show host!— kentucker (@kentucker) February 25, 2014
where did this all take place?
[ "mayor rahm emanuel's office" ]
200 people at #chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel's office protesting police handling of black men. #ferguson #cnn billkirkos (@KirkosBill) November 25, 2014
who did kikwete say had lived his life?
[ "madiba" ]
Madiba has lived his life, it is for us to live the legacy. #FarewellTheeMadiba— Jakaya Kikwete (@jmkikwete) December 15, 2013
who are the persian cheetahs playing?
[ "bosnian dragons" ]
Good luck to our Persian Cheetahs as they take on the Bosnian Dragons! No matter the result you boys have made us proud! Go #TeamMelli— Hassan Rouhani (@HassanRouhani) June 25, 2014
what world doesn't exist?
[ "collusion" ]
..."collusion," which doesn't exist. The Dems are using this terrible (and bad for our country) Witch Hunt for evil politics, but the R's...— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) October 29, 2017
what were people protesting at rahm emanuel's office?
[ "police handling of black men" ]
200 people at #chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel's office protesting police handling of black men. #ferguson #cnn billkirkos (@KirkosBill) November 25, 2014
who is lin manuel?
[ "a twitter user" ]
Only the brilliant @Lin_Manuel could pull off "Tim Kaine in the membrane" (!!!) #BroadwayForHillaryhttps:// shauna (@goldengateblond) October 18, 2016
what state park is being mentioned
[ "copper breaks state park is mentioned" ]
Check it out! Rangers at Copper Breaks State Park confirmed the radar is picking up grasshoppers & beetles! #texomawx NWS Norman (@NWSNorman) July 22, 2015
how old was the child when his dad was deported?
[ "3 years old" ]
#iwishmyteacherknew how much I miss my dad since he got deported #edchat #ImmigrationReform Kyle Schwartz (@kylemschwartz) April 6, 2015
what were patients of seattle children's thrilled to receive
[ "gifts from marvel" ]
Thank you to @Marvel for sending gifts for our patients. They were thrilled to receive them! Seattle Children's (@seattlechildren) March 8, 2015
what length are julia louis-dreyfus's tweets sometimes?
[ "short" ]
Just when you thought... Julia Louis-Dreyfus (@OfficialJLD) September 28, 2017
what does sarah believe is outdated?
[ "this persons' rules for friends and family" ]
I understand. I suggest u consider updating ur rules 4 friends & fam as they seem to apply mostly 2 females & are outdated. Sarah Silverman (@SarahKSilverman) March 26, 2017
what soccer team did marco van basten play on in 1988
[ "tekkers" ]
Goal Marco van Basten in the Euro 1988 final ... Always gonna be the greatest goal ever #Football #Tekkers #Love #❤️ Daniel Judge (@Djudge22) October 1, 2015
how long can you go to the game?
[ "5 minutes" ]
You can never go 5min of a soccer game without this happening 😂😂😂"@EpicSportVines: Minion Soccer | Richard Torres (@richee_torres) June 19, 2014
who is dr.who and where it is
[ "its a studio" ]
When we visited the #DoctorWho studios, we shot by the back of the Tardis because the front was already like this. Tom Brevoort (@TomBrevoort) November 22, 2015
what is information food for?
[ "the brain" ]
Information is food for the brain; insufficient access is unhealthy for anyone and it materially impacts human rights issues on all levels.— Alan P. Gross (@AlanPGross) February 7, 2015
what character did kenny baker play?
[ "r2-d2" ]
So sorry to hear about this. It was lovely working with Kenny. Kenny Baker, Star Wars R2-D2 actor, dies aged 81 Ewan McGregor (@mcgregor_ewan) August 13, 2016
who is rob kardashian exposing?
[ "blac chyna" ]
me seeing Rob Kardashian expose Blac Chyna right now Nicole Madrid (@nicolemadridd) July 5, 2017
what can't they wait to welcome them too?
[ "the movement house" ]
The caravan has arrived! Welcome @shailenewoodley & friends, can't wait to welcome you to the movement house. :) Democracy Spring (@DemSpring) July 24, 2016
what two examples does he mention in contrasting how blacks and whites are treated differently.
[ "pumpkinfest and ferguson" ]
If anyone wanted to question if racism still exist in America, please research the coverage of #pumpkinfest riot and compare it to #Ferguson— Meech (@MindOvr_Matter) October 20, 2014
who is the important player in the sec next season?
[ "jzenor" ]
Ralph D. Russo @ralphDrussoAPImportant player in the SEC next season. , 9:39:58 PM
who will kill the families of mockingbirds?
[ "trump" ]
To Kill a Mockingbird? Nobody kills Mockingbirds better than me. I will kill the families of Mockingbirds. Believe me. #TrumpBookReport— Liam van der Spek (@SpekOfTheDevil) October 20, 2016
what hotel was the eating breakfast in bed record broken at?
[ "shangri-la hotel in shanghai" ]
Today, Pudong Shangri-La, #Shanghai broke the #GuinnessWorldRecord for most people eating breakfast in bed! @GWR Shangri-La Hotels (@ShangriLaHotels) November 12, 2014
what do all the shows have in common?
[ "they don't have american hosts" ]
I can’t watch the Daily Show, Last Week Tonight, James Corden, OR The Bee Woman show because I’d be taking work away from an AMERICAN HOST.— Late Night Donald (@LateNightDonald) March 28, 2017
what does the team need to do from now until february
[ "improve as a team" ]
Wenger: "From now until February we must improve as a team, get encouragement from this win and hopefully have more players back" #AFCvBOR— Arsenal FC (@Arsenal) November 26, 2014
what is the hashtag for this new game?
[ "#barbtruth" ]
The #BarbTruth proof you asked for. Play a fun new game: Is It Mo Ryan in 1983 or Is It Barb from #StrangerThings? Mo Ryan (@moryan) July 27, 2016
who yells at daddy on the internet?
[ "florida gators" ]
Barrett Sallee @BarrettSalleeNiece and nephew (UF fans) staying with us. 6YO says "We like Florida Gators." My 5YO says "Florida Gators yell at… , 12:42:18 AM
who are people suggesting will be playing brother voodoo?
[ "chitwetel ejiofor" ]
A few people are suggesting that Chiwetel Ejiofor could be playing Brother Voodoo in #DoctorStrange. Weird idea, but he'd play it well.— Duncan Forbes (@WhiskeyWin) January 23, 2015
wharf is samaritan' s purse?
[ "a charity organization." ]
Watch a short video message from our Program Manager in Arkansas. #tornado #arwx Samaritan's Purse (@SamaritansPurse) April 29, 2014
whose death was jeremy refering to?
[ "bob welch's death" ]
RIP Bob Welch. To say he had an infectious personality doesn't do him any justice. Way too soon. Sad, sad day. Jeremy Barfield (@BarfieldRage) June 10, 2014
when therese runs out of rope, is she taken?
[ "home" ]
"when i run out of rope you bring me home"i'm not even a larry fan but well, isn't it too obvious 😏# threse (@thresepatricia) May 2, 2017
what does iran’s security depend on?
[ "it’s own people" ]
Iran's security and stability depend on its own people, who — unlike the peoples of Trumps regional "bffs"—have the right to vote and to protest. These hard-earned rights will be protected, and infiltrators will not be allowed to sabotage them through violence and destruction.— Javad Zarif (@JZarif) January 2, 2018
who should the ny jets sign as quaterback?
[ "lebron james" ]
.@nyjets please just sign LeBron as your QB because this is ridiculous — Kristian Winfield (@Krisplashed) August 15, 2017
who were the tangerines sent to?
[ "children in donetsk" ]
Darijo #Srna sent 20 tonnes of tangerines to children in #Donetsk Find out all details: FC SHAKHTAR ENGLISH (@FCShakhtar_eng) November 11, 2014
how many years has president nieto been in office?
[ "1 year" ]
1 President is real. W/Pres Nieto in #Mexico. Good meeting a man also making progress in his 1st year in office. @EPN Kevin Spacey (@KevinSpacey) May 7, 2014
what is our goal, according to this tweeter?
[ "a medicare-for-all, single payer system." ]
Never lose sight of the fact that our ultimate goal is not just playing defense. Our goal is a Medicare-for-all, single payer system.— Bernie Sanders (@SenSanders) March 12, 2017
what convention is happening?
[ "gop" ]
Rep. Michael McCaul at the #GOPConvention: "It's time to take back our country and make America safe again" CNN Politics (@CNNPolitics) July 19, 2016
what is thembi looking at at the moment?
[ "harare" ]
#ZimShutDown2016 this is what Harare looks like at the moment Thembi Manyike (@mamakaonou) July 6, 2016
who is pumped to be racing?
[ "michael phelps" ]
Pumped to be racing again... Happy with the time tonight right where I wanted to be!!— Michael Phelps (@MichaelPhelps) April 25, 2014
what does lily-rose want to conquer?
[ "the world and herself" ]
No one is going to hand me success. I must go out & get it myself.That’s why I’m here. To dominate. To conquer. Both the world, and myself. — Lily-Rose M. Depp (@LilyRoseMelDepp) July 16, 2015
what did nba do to wizards' assistant coach?
[ "he has been fined $5,000." ] NBA @InsideHoopsWizards assistant coach Sidney Lowe has been fined $5,000, and the Wizards were fined $15,000 by the NBA: , 12:12:57 AM
who caused destruction on florissant
[ "vandals" ]
Vandals cause more destruction on Florissant. St. Louis County PD (@stlcountypd) November 26, 2014
who is tony stewart thanking for his personal success?
[ "all of his supporters" ]
1yr ago today my life changed. Thank you to everyone that worked so hard to get me back to where I'm at today. It's your life, live it!— Tony Stewart (@TonyStewart) August 5, 2014
why would that stop you from reading it?
[ "there is no reason it would stop me." ]
I have read the Bhagavad Gita... but I am not a Hindu.— Jada Pinkett Smith (@jadapsmith) September 19, 2017
what kind of tattoo does josh have?
[ "met" ]
Watching the first pitch while getting a met tattoo— Josh Davis (@JDeezal) October 28, 2015
which actors have died recenlty?
[ "paul walker" ]
I'm so saddened by Paul Walkers death. Beautiful person and talent gone way to soon. #RIPPaulWalker— Mary J. Blige (@maryjblige) December 1, 2013
where did someone just die?
[ "on the course" ]
Can't believe that they are sending out players to finish the 2nd and final round when someone just died on the course!!! #RIPiainMcgregor— Joel Sjöholm (@SwedishTORO) May 11, 2014
who did romney and obama hypothetically change hair with?
[ "their wives." ]
If Romney and Obama switched hair with their wives... #Debates Shelby White (@shelbywhite) October 17, 2012
what percentage will ariana grande take someone up on?
[ "100000000000%" ]
I will 100000000000% take you up on this. Ariana Grande (@ArianaGrande) October 27, 2015
how were the opening and closing remarks described?
[ "fumbled and incoherent" ]
.@JebBush's opening and closing in the debate were said by all to be terrible--fumbled around, incoherent.— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) December 22, 2015
what do fans do at this worldcup?
[ "they break through a security checkpoint." ]
#CHILE fans break through security checkpoint & storm into stadium via pressroom #Chile VS #Spain #worldcup2014— Gustavo (@gustavocnn) June 18, 2014
what makes sriracha2go go good?
[ "portability" ]
YESSSSSS!!!! For more portability options, to take your #sriracha wherever you go! sriracha2go's photo BaconCupcake74 (@BaconCupcake74) January 21, 2016
what was nicki minaj tweeting that she was looking at?
[ "her face" ]
lol says what all? I'm looking at my own face on the screen when I'm looking to the right. I turn Bak & look @ her 😂 NICKI MINAJ (@NICKIMINAJ) November 23, 2015
what show was kelly watching?
[ "too many cooks" ]
I made it 2/3rds of the way through TOO MANY COOKS and started to have a panic attack. Will resume watching sometime tomorrow.— Richard Kelly (@JRichardKelly) November 7, 2014
what was the result of this crime?
[ "eric garner died." ]
Eric Garner died cuz he was selling cigs by the single. That's a crime in NYC. Death is inexcusable. Police behavior sure looked inexcusable— John Nolte (@NolteNC) December 3, 2014
what is the name of the bag?
[ "a motion sickness bag" ]
I hope I don't need this! We're about to fly into 60mph tropical storm winds off Fla on a USAF Hurricane Hunter! Thom Patterson (@thompatterson) September 1, 2016

Dataset Card for TweetQA

Dataset Summary

With social media becoming increasingly popular on which lots of news and real-time events are reported, developing automated question answering systems is critical to the effectiveness of many applications that rely on real-time knowledge. While previous question answering (QA) datasets have concentrated on formal text like news and Wikipedia, the first large-scale dataset for QA over social media data is presented. To make sure the tweets are meaningful and contain interesting information, tweets used by journalists to write news articles are gathered. Then human annotators are asked to write questions and answers upon these tweets. Unlike other QA datasets like SQuAD in which the answers are extractive, the answer are allowed to be abstractive. The task requires model to read a short tweet and a question and outputs a text phrase (does not need to be in the tweet) as the answer.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

  • question-answering: The dataset can be used to train a model for Open-Domain Question Answering where the task is to answer the given questions for a tweet. The performance is measured by comparing the model answers to the the annoted groundtruth and calculating the BLEU-1/Meteor/ROUGE-L score. This task has an active leaderboard which can be found here and ranks models based on BLEU-1, Meteor and ROUGLE-L.



Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Sample data:

  "Question": "who is the tallest host?",
  "Answer": ["sam bee","sam bee"],
  "Tweet": "Don't believe @ConanOBrien's height lies. Sam Bee is the tallest host in late night. #alternativefacts\u2014 Full Frontal (@FullFrontalSamB) January 22, 2017",
  "qid": "3554ee17d86b678be34c4dc2c04e334f"

The test split doesn't include answers so the Answer field is an empty list.

Data Fields

  • Question: a question based on information from a tweet
  • Answer: list of possible answers from the tweet
  • Tweet: source tweet
  • qid: question id

Data Splits

The dataset is split in train, validation and test set. The train set cointains 10692 examples, the validation set 1086 and the test set 1979 examples.

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

With social media becoming increasingly popular on which lots of news and real-time events are reported, developing automated question answering systems is critical to the effectiveness of many applications that rely on real-time knowledge. While previous question answering (QA) datasets have concentrated on formal text like news and Wikipedia, the first large-scale dataset for QA over social media data is presented. To make sure the tweets are meaningful and contain interesting information, tweets used by journalists to write news articles are gathered. Then human annotators are asked to write questions and answers upon these tweets. Unlike other QA datasets like SQuAD in which the answers are extractive, the answer are allowed to be abstractive. The task requires model to read a short tweet and a question and outputs a text phrase (does not need to be in the tweet) as the answer.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The authors look into the the archived snapshots of two major news websites (CNN, NBC), and then extract the tweet blocks that are embedded in the news articles. In order to get enough data, they first extract the URLs of all section pages (e.g. World, Politics, Money, Tech) from the snapshot of each home page and then crawl all articles with tweets from these section pages. Then, they filter out the tweets that heavily rely on attached media to convey information, for which they utilize a state-of-the-art semantic role labeling model trained on CoNLL-2005 (He et al., 2017) to analyze the predicate-argument structure of the tweets collected from news articles and keep only the tweets with more than two labeled arguments. This filtering process also automatically filters out most of the short tweets. For the tweets collected from CNN, 22.8% of them were filtered via semantic role labeling. For tweets from NBC, 24.1% of the tweets were filtered.

Who are the source language producers?

Twitter users.


Annotation process

The Amazon Mechanical Turk workers were used to collect question-answer pairs for the filtered tweets. For each Human Intelligence Task (HIT), the authors ask the worker to read three tweets and write two question-answer pairs for each tweet. To ensure the quality, they require the workers to be located in major English speaking countries (i.e. Canada, US, and UK) and have an acceptance rate larger than 95%. Since the authors use tweets as context, lots of important information are contained in hashtags or even emojis. Instead of only showing the text to the workers, they use javascript to directly embed the whole tweet into each HIT. This gives workers the same experience as reading tweets via web browsers and help them to better compose questions. To avoid trivial questions that can be simply answered by superficial text matching methods or too challenging questions that require background knowledge, the authors explicitly state the following items in the HIT instructions for question writing:

  • No Yes-no questions should be asked.
  • The question should have at least five words.
  • Videos, images or inserted links should not be considered.
  • No background knowledge should be required to answer the question. To help the workers better follow the instructions, they also include a representative example showing both good and bad questions or answers in the instructions. As for the answers, since the context they consider is relatively shorter than the context of previous datasets, they do not restrict the answers to be in the tweet, otherwise, the task may potentially be simplified as a classification problem. The workers are allowed to write their answers in their own words, but the authors require the answers to be brief and can be directly inferred from the tweets. After they retrieve the QA pairs from all HITs, they conduct further post-filtering to filter out the pairs from workers that obviously do not follow instructions. They remove QA pairs with yes/no answers. Questions with less than five words are also filtered out. This process filtered 13% of the QA pairs. The dataset now includes 10,898 articles, 17,794 tweets, and 13,757 crowdsourced question-answer pairs. All QA pairs were written by 492 individual workers.

Who are the annotators?

Amazon Mechanical Turk workers.

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

From the paper:

It is also worth noting that the data collected from social media can not only capture events and developments in real-time but also capture individual opinions and thus requires reasoning related to the authorship of the content as is illustrated in Table 1.

Specifically, a significant amount of questions require certain reasoning skills that are specific to social media data:

  • Understanding authorship: Since tweets are highly personal, it is critical to understand how questions/tweets related to the authors.
  • Oral English & Tweet English: Tweets are often oral and informal. QA over tweets requires the understanding of common oral English. Our TWEETQA also requires understanding some tweet-specific English, like conversation-style English.
  • Understanding of user IDs & hashtags: Tweets often contains user IDs and hashtags, which are single special tokens. Understanding these special tokens is important to answer person- or event-related questions.

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

The annotated answers are validated by the authors as follows: For the purposes of human performance evaluation and inter-annotator agreement checking, the authors launch a different set of HITs to ask workers to answer questions in the test and development set. The workers are shown with the tweet blocks as well as the questions collected in the previous step. At this step, workers are allowed to label the questions as “NA” if they think the questions are not answerable. They find that 3.1% of the questions are labeled as unanswerable by the workers (for SQuAD, the ratio is 2.6%). Since the answers collected at this step and previous step are written by different workers, the answers can be written in different text forms even they are semantically equal to each other. For example, one answer can be “Hillary Clinton” while the other is “@HillaryClinton”. As it is not straightforward to automatically calculate the overall agreement, they manually check the agreement on a subset of 200 random samples from the development set and ask an independent human moderator to verify the result. It turns out that 90% of the answers pairs are semantically equivalent, 2% of them are partially equivalent (one of them is incomplete) and 8% are totally inconsistent. The answers collected at this step are also used to measure the human performance. 59 individual workers participated in this process.

Dataset Curators

Xiong, Wenhan and Wu, Jiawei and Wang, Hong and Kulkarni, Vivek and Yu, Mo and Guo, Xiaoxiao and Chang, Shiyu and Wang, William Yang.

Licensing Information

CC BY-SA 4.0.

Citation Information

  title={TweetQA: A Social Media Focused Question Answering Dataset},
  author={Xiong, Wenhan and Wu, Jiawei and Wang, Hong and Kulkarni, Vivek and Yu, Mo and Guo, Xiaoxiao and Chang, Shiyu and Wang, William Yang},
  booktitle={Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics},


Thanks to @anaerobeth for adding this dataset.

Downloads last month

Models trained or fine-tuned on tweet_qa