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4,983
"Microstructural development of human newborn cerebral white matter assessed in vivo by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging."
[ "Alterations of the architecture of cerebral white matter in the developing human brain can affect cortical development and result in functional disabilities.", "A line scan diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence with diffusion tensor analysis was applied to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient, to calculate relative anisotropy, and to delineate three-dimensional fiber architecture in cerebral white matter in preterm (n = 17) and full-term infants (n = 7).", "To assess effects of prematurity on cerebral white matter development, early gestation preterm infants (n = 10) were studied a second time at term.", "In the central white matter the mean apparent diffusion coefficient at 28 wk was high, 1.8 microm2/ms, and decreased toward term to 1.2 microm2/ms.", "In the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the mean apparent diffusion coefficients at both times were similar (1.2 versus 1.1 microm2/ms).", "Relative anisotropy was higher the closer birth was to term with greater absolute values in the internal capsule than in the central white matter.", "Preterm infants at term showed higher mean diffusion coefficients in the central white matter (1.4 +/-", "0.24 versus 1.15 +/-", "0.09 microm2/ms, p = 0.016) and lower relative anisotropy in both areas compared with full-term infants (white matter, 10.9 +/- 0.6 versus 22.9 +/-", "3.0%, p = 0.001; internal capsule, 24.0 +/-", "4.44 versus 33.1 +/-", "0.6% p = 0.006).", "Nonmyelinated fibers in the corpus callosum were visible by diffusion tensor MRI as early as 28 wk; full-term and preterm infants at term showed marked differences in white matter fiber organization.", "The data indicate that quantitative assessment of water diffusion by diffusion tensor MRI provides insight into microstructural development in cerebral white matter in living infants." ]
false
5,836
"Induction of myelodysplasia by myeloid-derived suppressor cells."
[ "Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are age-dependent stem cell malignancies that share biological features of activated adaptive immune response and ineffective hematopoiesis.", "Here we report that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which are classically linked to immunosuppression, inflammation, and cancer, were markedly expanded in the bone marrow of MDS patients and played a pathogenetic role in the development of ineffective hematopoiesis.", "These clonally distinct MDSC overproduce hematopoietic suppressive cytokines and function as potent apoptotic effectors targeting autologous hematopoietic progenitors.", "Using multiple transfected cell models, we found that MDSC expansion is driven by the interaction of the proinflammatory molecule S100A9 with CD33.", "These 2 proteins formed a functional ligand/receptor pair that recruited components to CD33’s immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM), inducing secretion of the suppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β by immature myeloid cells.", "S100A9 transgenic mice displayed bone marrow accumulation of MDSC accompanied by development of progressive multilineage cytopenias and cytological dysplasia.", "Importantly, early forced maturation of MDSC by either all-trans-retinoic acid treatment or active immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif–bearing (ITAM-bearing) adapter protein (DAP12) interruption of CD33 signaling rescued the hematologic phenotype.", "These findings indicate that primary bone marrow expansion of MDSC driven by the S100A9/CD33 pathway perturbs hematopoiesis and contributes to the development of MDS." ]
false
7,912
"BC1 RNA, the transcript from a master gene for ID element amplification, is able to prime its own reverse transcription."
[ "ID elements are short interspersed elements (SINEs) found in high copy number in many rodent genomes.", "BC1 RNA, an ID-related transcript, is derived from the single copy BC1 RNA gene.", "The BC1 RNA gene has been shown to be a master gene for ID element amplification in rodent genomes.", "ID elements are dispersed through a process termed retroposition.", "The retroposition process involves a number of potential regulatory steps.", "These regulatory steps may include transcription in the appropriate tissue, transcript stability, priming of the RNA transcript for reverse transcription and integration.", "This study focuses on priming of the RNA transcript for reverse transcription.", "BC1 RNA gene transcripts are shown to be able to prime their own reverse transcription in an efficient intramolecular and site-specific fashion.", "This self-priming ability is a consequence of the secondary structure of the 3'-unique region.", "The observation that a gene actively amplified throughout rodent evolution makes a RNA capable of efficient self-primed reverse transcription strongly suggests that self-priming is at least one feature establishing the BC1 RNA gene as a master gene for amplification of ID elements." ]
false
18,670
"The DNA Methylome of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells"
[ "DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease.", "Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells.", "Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project.", "PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide.", "We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and <0.2% of non-CpG sites were methylated, demonstrating that non-CpG cytosine methylation is minor in human PBMC.", "Analysis of the PBMC methylome revealed a rich epigenomic landscape for 20 distinct genomic features, including regulatory, protein-coding, non-coding, RNA-coding, and repeat sequences.", "Integration of our methylome data with the YH genome sequence enabled a first comprehensive assessment of allele-specific methylation (ASM) between the two haploid methylomes of any individual and allowed the identification of 599 haploid differentially methylated regions (hDMRs) covering 287 genes.", "Of these, 76 genes had hDMRs within 2 kb of their transcriptional start sites of which >80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE).", "These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs.", "Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies." ]
false
19,238
"The human myelin basic protein gene is included within a 179-kilobase transcription unit: expression in the immune and central nervous systems."
[ "Two human Golli (for gene expressed in the oligodendrocyte lineage)-MBP (for myelin basic protein) cDNAs have been isolated from a human oligodendroglioma cell line.", "Analysis of these cDNAs has enabled us to determine the entire structure of the human Golli-MBP gene.", "The Golli-MBP gene, which encompasses the MBP transcription unit, is approximately 179 kb in length and consists of 10 exons, seven of which constitute the MBP gene.", "The human Golli-MBP gene contains two transcription start sites, each of which gives rise to a family of alternatively spliced transcripts.", "At least two Golli-MBP transcripts, containing the first three exons of the gene and one or more MBP exons, are produced from the first transcription start site.", "The second family of transcripts contains only MBP exons and produces the well-known MBPs.", "In humans, RNA blot analysis revealed that Golli-MBP transcripts were expressed in fetal thymus, spleen, and human B-cell and macrophage cell lines, as well as in fetal spinal cord.", "These findings clearly link the expression of exons encoding the autoimmunogen/encephalitogen MBP in the central nervous system to cells and tissues of the immune system through normal expression of the Golli-MBP gene.", "They also establish that this genetic locus, which includes the MBP gene, is conserved among species, providing further evidence that the MBP transcription unit is an integral part of the Golli transcription unit and suggest that this structural arrangement is important for the genetic function and/or regulation of these genes." ]
false
33,370
"Targeting A20 Decreases Glioma Stem Cell Survival and Tumor Growth"
[ "Glioblastomas are deadly cancers that display a functional cellular hierarchy maintained by self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs).", "GSCs are regulated by molecular pathways distinct from the bulk tumor that may be useful therapeutic targets.", "We determined that A20 (TNFAIP3), a regulator of cell survival and the NF-kappaB pathway, is overexpressed in GSCs relative to non-stem glioblastoma cells at both the mRNA and protein levels.", "To determine the functional significance of A20 in GSCs, we targeted A20 expression with lentiviral-mediated delivery of short hairpin RNA (shRNA).", "Inhibiting A20 expression decreased GSC growth and survival through mechanisms associated with decreased cell-cycle progression and decreased phosphorylation of p65/RelA. Elevated levels of A20 in GSCs contributed to apoptotic resistance: GSCs were less susceptible to TNFalpha-induced cell death than matched non-stem glioma cells, but A20 knockdown sensitized GSCs to TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis.", "The decreased survival of GSCs upon A20 knockdown contributed to the reduced ability of these cells to self-renew in primary and secondary neurosphere formation assays.", "The tumorigenic potential of GSCs was decreased with A20 targeting, resulting in increased survival of mice bearing human glioma xenografts.", "In silico analysis of a glioma patient genomic database indicates that A20 overexpression and amplification is inversely correlated with survival.", "Together these data indicate that A20 contributes to glioma maintenance through effects on the glioma stem cell subpopulation.", "Although inactivating mutations in A20 in lymphoma suggest A20 can act as a tumor suppressor, similar point mutations have not been identified through glioma genomic sequencing: in fact, our data suggest A20 may function as a tumor enhancer in glioma through promotion of GSC survival.", "A20 anticancer therapies should therefore be viewed with caution as effects will likely differ depending on the tumor type." ]
false
36,474
"Efficient targeting of expressed and silent genes in human ESCs and iPSCs using zinc-finger nucleases"
[ "Realizing the full potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) requires efficient methods for genetic modification.", "However, techniques to generate cell type–specific lineage reporters, as well as reliable tools to disrupt, repair or overexpress genes by gene targeting, are inefficient at best and thus are not routinely used.", "Here we report the highly efficient targeting of three genes in human pluripotent cells using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)–mediated genome editing.", "First, using ZFNs specific for the OCT4 (POU5F1) locus, we generated OCT4-eGFP reporter cells to monitor the pluripotent state of hESCs.", "Second, we inserted a transgene into the AAVS1 locus to generate a robust drug-inducible overexpression system in hESCs.", "Finally, we targeted the PITX3 gene, demonstrating that ZFNs can be used to generate reporter cells by targeting non-expressed genes in hESCs and hiPSCs." ]
false
54,440
"Empirical Bayesian models for analysing molecular serotyping microarrays"
[ "BACKGROUND Microarrays offer great potential as a platform for molecular diagnostics, testing clinical samples for the presence of numerous biomarkers in highly multiplexed assays.", "In this study applied to infectious diseases, data from a microarray designed for molecular serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae was used, identifying the presence of any one of 91 known pneumococcal serotypes from DNA extracts.", "This microarray incorporated oligonucleotide probes for all known capsular polysaccharide synthesis genes and required a statistical analysis of the microarray intensity data to determine which serotype, or combination of serotypes, were present within a sample based on the combination of genes detected. \n", "RESULTS We propose an empirical Bayesian model for calculating the probabilities of combinations of serotypes from the microarray data.", "The model takes into consideration the dependencies between serotypes, induced by genes they have in common, and by homologous genes which, although not identical, are similar to each other in sequence.", "For serotypes which are very similar in capsular gene composition, extra probes are included on the microarray, providing additional information which is integrated into the Bayesian model.", "For each serotype combination with high probability, a second model, a Bayesian random effects model is applied to determine the relative abundance of each serotype. \n", "CONCLUSIONS To assess the accuracy of the proposed analysis we applied our methods to experimental data from samples containing individual serotypes and samples containing combinations of serotypes with known levels of abundance.", "All but two of the known serotypes of S. pneumoniae that were tested as individual samples could be uniquely determined by the Bayesian model.", "The model also enabled the presence of combinations of serotypes within samples to be determined.", "Serotypes with very low abundance within a combination of serotypes can be detected (down to 2% abundance in this study).", "As well as detecting the presence of serotype combinations, an approximate measure of the percentage abundance of the serotypes within the combination can be obtained." ]
true
70,115
"Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit"
[ "Summary.", "We consider the problem of comparing complex hierarchical models in which the number of parameters is not clearly defined.", "Using an information theoretic argument we derive a measure pD for the effective number of parameters in a model as the difference between the posterior mean of the deviance and the deviance at the posterior means of the parameters of interest.", "In general pD approximately corresponds to the trace of the product of Fisher's information and the posterior covariance, which in normal models is the trace of the ‘hat’ matrix projecting observations onto fitted values.", "Its properties in exponential families are explored.", "The posterior mean deviance is suggested as a Bayesian measure of fit or adequacy, and the contributions of individual observations to the fit and complexity can give rise to a diagnostic plot of deviance residuals against leverages.", "Adding pD to the posterior mean deviance gives a deviance information criterion for comparing models, which is related to other information criteria and has an approximate decision theoretic justification.", "The procedure is illustrated in some examples, and comparisons are drawn with alternative Bayesian and classical proposals.", "Throughout it is emphasized that the quantities required are trivial to compute in a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis." ]
false
70,490
"Simplifying likelihood ratios"
[ "Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease.", "This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease.", "Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside." ]
false
72,159
"induction of early IFN-inducible genes in the absence of type"
[ "On recognition of influenza virus (Flu) by TLR7, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce type I IFN in significant amounts.", "Synthetic TLR7 ligands induce the maturation of pDCs, as evidenced by the expression of costimulatory molecules and the production of proinflammatory cytokines; however, they induce only low-level production of IFN-alpha.", "To dissect the TLR7 signaling in pDCs and how these different profiles are induced, we studied the effects of 2 TLR7 ligands (Flu and CL097) on the activation of blood-isolated pDCs and the human GEN2.2 pDC cell line.", "Type I IFN production by pDCs correlates with differential interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) translocation into the nucleus induced by the 2 TLR7 ligands.", "Surprisingly, with both activators we nevertheless observed the rapid expression of the IFN-inducible genes mxa, cxcl10, and trail within 4 hours of stimulation.", "This expression, controlled by STAT1 phosphorylation, was independent of type I IFN.", "STAT1 activation was found to be strictly dependent on the PI3K-p38MAPK pathway, showing a new signaling pathway leading to rapid expression of IFN-inducible genes after TLR7 triggering.", "Thus, pDCs, through this unusual TLR7 signaling, have the capacity to promptly respond to viral infection during the early phases of the innate immune response." ]
false
79,447
"Arteriolar function in visceral adipose tissue is impaired in human obesity."
[ "OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between adipose tissue phenotype and depot-specific microvascular function in fat. \n", "METHODS AND RESULTS In 30 obese subjects (age 42±11 years, body mass index 46±11 kg/m(2)) undergoing bariatric surgery, we intraoperatively collected visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and characterized depot-specific adipose phenotypes.", "We assessed vasomotor function of the adipose microvasculature using videomicroscopy of small arterioles (75-250 μm) isolated from different fat compartments.", "Endothelium-dependent, acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation was severely impaired in visceral arterioles, compared to the subcutaneous depot (P<0.001 by ANOVA).", "Nonendothelium dependent responses to papaverine and nitroprusside were similar.", "Endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibition with N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester reduced subcutaneous vasodilation but had no effect on severely blunted visceral arteriolar responses.", "Visceral fat exhibited greater expression of proinflammatory, oxidative stress-related, hypoxia-induced, and proangiogenic genes; increased activated macrophage populations; and had a higher capacity for cytokine production ex vivo. \n", "CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide clinical evidence that the visceral microenvironment may be intrinsically toxic to arterial health providing a potential mechanism by which visceral adiposity burden is linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease.", "Our findings also support the evolving concept that both adipose tissue quality and quantity may play significant roles in shaping cardiovascular phenotypes in human obesity." ]
true
87,758
"Common Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index Correlate with Local but Not Global Atheroma Burden: A Cross Sectional Study Using Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography"
[ "BACKGROUND Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed.", "We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA). \n", "METHODS 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited.", "CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed.", "WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR).", "The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50-70%, 3 = 70-99%, 4 = vessel occlusion.", "The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated. \n", "RESULTS The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11.", "Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045), however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01) with no correlation with the rest of the body.", "ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β -0.39, p = 0.012), which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels.", "On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45), while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β -0.45 p = 0.005). \n", "CONCLUSION ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease.", "However this is primarily due to a strong correlation with ilio-femoral atheroma burden." ]
true
92,308
"Loss of immune escape mutations during persistent HCV infection in pregnancy enhances replication of vertically transmitted viruses"
[ "Globally, about 1% of pregnant women are persistently infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV).", "Mother-to-child transmission of HCV occurs in 3-5% of pregnancies and accounts for most new childhood infections.", "HCV-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the clearance of acute HCV infections, but in the 60-80% of infections that persist, these cells become functionally exhausted or select for mutant viruses that escape T cell recognition.", "Increased HCV replication during pregnancy suggests that maternofetal immune tolerance mechanisms may further impair HCV-specific CTLs, limiting their selective pressure on persistent viruses.", "To assess this possibility, we characterized circulating viral quasispecies during and after consecutive pregnancies in two women.", "This revealed a loss of some escape mutations in HLA class I epitopes during pregnancy that was associated with emergence of more fit viruses.", "CTL selective pressure was reimposed after childbirth, at which point escape mutations in these epitopes again predominated in the quasispecies and viral load dropped sharply.", "Importantly, the viruses transmitted perinatally were those with enhanced fitness due to reversion of escape mutations.", "Our findings indicate that the immunoregulatory changes of pregnancy reduce CTL selective pressure on HCV class I epitopes, thereby facilitating vertical transmission of viruses with optimized replicative fitness." ]
false
92,499
"The journey of developing hematopoietic stem cells."
[ "Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) develop during embryogenesis in a complex process that involves multiple anatomical sites.", "Once HSC precursors have been specified from mesoderm, they have to mature into functional HSCs and undergo self-renewing divisions to generate a pool of HSCs.", "During this process, developing HSCs migrate through various embryonic niches, which provide signals for their establishment and the conservation of their self-renewal ability.", "These processes have to be recapitulated to generate HSCs from embryonic stem cells.", "Elucidating the interactions between developing HSCs and their niches should facilitate the generation and expansion of HSCs in vitro to exploit their clinical potential." ]
false
97,884
"The sacroiliac joint in the spondyloarthropathies."
[ "The term spondyloarthropathy (SpA) describes and defines a group of related inflammatory joint disease that share characteristic clinical features and a unique association with the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule HLA-B27.", "Five subgroups can be differentiated: ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, and undifferentiated SpA. The sacroiliac joints are centrally involved in the SpA, most clearly and pathognomonic in ankylosing spondylitis, in which most patients are affected early in the disease.", "Overcoming some of the diagnostic difficulties of early sacroiliitis, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was shown to visualize both acute and chronic changes in the sacroiliac joints.", "The inflammation in the sacroiliac joints in patients with SpA was recently examined in more detail; using immunohistology and in situ hybridrization, T cells, macrophages, and various cytokines were found in infiltrates.", "Biopsy specimens were obtained under guided computed tomography, and in the same study, intra-articular corticosteroid treatment was successfully undertaken.", "Further investigation of such biopsy specimens showed the absence of DNA of reactive arthritis-associated bacteria.", "The pathogenesis of the SpA and the reason for the tropism for the sacroiliac joints is still obscure.", "The nature of the relation of the genetic background of SpA to initially triggering bacterial infections remains to be established.", "In chronic disease, autoimmune mechanisms might be more important." ]
false
102,662
"A rapid method for extraction of cotton (Gossypium spp.) genomic DNA suitable for RFLP or PCR analysis"
[ "Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA fromGossypium (cotton) species is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharide, oxidizable quinones, and other interfering substances.", "We describe a procedure that consistently permits isolation of cotton genomic DNA of satisfactory size and quality for RFLP and PCR analysis, as well as for most routine cloning applications.", "Several antioxidants, phenol-binding reagents, and phenol oxidase inhibitors are used throughout the procedure, and most polysaccharides are eliminated early in the procedure by isolation of nuclei." ]
false
103,007
"Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990."
[ "The current reference curves of stature and weight for the UK were first published in 1966 and have been used ever since despite increasing concern that they may not adequately describe the growth of present day British children.", "Using current data from seven sources new reference curves have been estimated from birth to 20 years for children in 1990.", "The great majority of the data are nationally representative.", "The analysis used Cole's LMS method and has produced efficient estimates of the conventional centiles and gives a good fit to the data.", "These curves differ from the currently used curves at key ages for both stature and weight.", "In view of the concerns expressed about the current curves and the differences between them and the new curves, it is proposed that the curves presented here should be adopted as the new UK reference curves." ]
false
104,130
"The suture provides a niche for mesenchymal stem cells of craniofacial bones"
[ "Bone tissue undergoes constant turnover supported by stem cells.", "Recent studies showed that perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the turnover of long bones.", "Craniofacial bones are flat bones derived from a different embryonic origin than the long bones.", "The identity and regulating niche for craniofacial-bone MSCs remain unknown.", "Here, we identify Gli1+ cells within the suture mesenchyme as the main MSC population for craniofacial bones.", "They are not associated with vasculature, give rise to all craniofacial bones in the adult and are activated during injury repair.", "Gli1+ cells are typical MSCs in vitro.", "Ablation of Gli1+ cells leads to craniosynostosis and arrest of skull growth, indicating that these cells are an indispensable stem cell population.", "Twist1(+/-) mice with craniosynostosis show reduced Gli1+ MSCs in sutures, suggesting that craniosynostosis may result from diminished suture stem cells.", "Our study indicates that craniofacial sutures provide a unique niche for MSCs for craniofacial bone homeostasis and repair." ]
false
106,301
"Cardiac neural crest cells contribute to the dormant multipotent stem cell in the mammalian heart"
[ "Arodent cardiac side population cell fraction formed clonal spheroids in serum-free medium, which expressed nestin, Musashi-1, and multi-drug resistance transporter gene 1, markers of undifferentiated neural precursor cells.", "These markers were lost following differentiation, and were replaced by the expression of neuron-, glial-, smooth muscle cell–, or cardiomyocyte-specific proteins.", "Cardiosphere-derived cells transplanted into chick embryos migrated to the truncus arteriosus and cardiac outflow tract and contributed to dorsal root ganglia, spinal nerves, and aortic smooth muscle cells.", "Lineage studies using double transgenic mice encoding protein 0–Cre/Floxed-EGFP revealed undifferentiated and differentiated neural crest-derived cells in the fetal myocardium.", "Undifferentiated cells expressed GATA-binding protein 4 and nestin, but not actinin, whereas the differentiated cells were identified as cardiomyocytes.", "These results suggest that cardiac neural crest-derived cells migrate into the heart, remain there as dormant multipotent stem cells—and under the right conditions—differentiate into cardiomyocytes and typical neural crest-derived cells, including neurons, glia, and smooth muscle." ]
false
116,792
"The mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway mediates epileptogenesis in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy."
[ "Understanding molecular mechanisms mediating epileptogenesis is critical for developing more effective therapies for epilepsy.", "We recently found that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is involved in epileptogenesis, and mTOR inhibitors prevent epilepsy in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex.", "Here, we investigated the potential role of mTOR in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy initiated by status epilepticus.", "Acute kainate-induced seizures resulted in biphasic activation of the mTOR pathway, as evident by an increase in phospho-S6 (P-S6) expression.", "An initial rise in P-S6 expression started approximately 1 h after seizure onset, peaked at 3-6 h, and returned to baseline by 24 h in both hippocampus and neocortex, reflecting widespread stimulation of mTOR signaling by acute seizure activity.", "After resolution of status epilepticus, a second increase in P-S6 was observed in hippocampus only, which started at 3 d, peaked 5-10 d, and persisted for several weeks after kainate injection, correlating with the development of chronic epileptogenesis within hippocampus.", "The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, administered before kainate, blocked both the acute and chronic phases of seizure-induced mTOR activation and decreased kainate-induced neuronal cell death, neurogenesis, mossy fiber sprouting, and the development of spontaneous epilepsy.", "Late rapamycin treatment, after termination of status epilepticus, blocked the chronic phase of mTOR activation and reduced mossy fiber sprouting and epilepsy but not neurogenesis or neuronal death.", "These findings indicate that mTOR signaling mediates mechanisms of epileptogenesis in the kainate rat model and that mTOR inhibitors have potential antiepileptogenic effects in this model." ]
false
118,568
"Acute administration of recombinant Angiopoietin-1 ameliorates multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome and improves survival in murine sepsis."
[ "INTRODUCTION Endothelial activation leading to vascular barrier breakdown plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in sepsis.", "Increasing evidence suggests that the function of the vessel-protective factor Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a ligand of the endothelial-specific Tie2 receptor, is inhibited by its antagonist Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) during sepsis.", "In order to reverse the effects of the sepsis-induced suppression of Ang-1 and elevation of Ang-2 we aimed to investigate whether an intravenous injection of recombinant human (rh) Ang-1 protects against MODS in murine sepsis. \n", "METHODS Polymicrobiological abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).", "Mice were treated with either 1 μg of intravenous rhAng-1 or control buffer immediately after CLP induction and every 8h thereafter.", "Sham-operated animals served as time-matched controls. \n", "RESULTS Compared to buffer-treated controls, rhAng-1 treated septic mice showed significant improvements in several hematologic and biochemical indicators of MODS.", "Moreover, rhAng-1 stabilized endothelial barrier function, as evidenced by inhibition of protein leakage from lung capillaries into the alveolar compartment.", "Histological analysis revealed that rhAng-1 treatment attenuated leukocyte infiltration in lungs and kidneys of septic mice, probably due to reduced endothelial adhesion molecule expression in rhAng-1 treated mice.", "Finally, the protective effects of rhAng-1 treatment were reflected by an improved survival time in a lethal CLP model. \n", "CONCLUSIONS In a clinically relevant murine sepsis model, intravenous rhAng-1 treatment alone is sufficient to significantly improve a variety of sepsis-associated organ dysfunctions and survival time, most likely by preserving endothelial barrier function.", "Further studies are needed to pave the road for clinical application of this therapy concept." ]
true
120,626
"Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes"
[ "Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.", "In obese individuals, adipose tissue releases increased amounts of non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that are involved in the development of insulin resistance.", "When insulin resistance is accompanied by dysfunction of pancreatic islet β-cells — the cells that release insulin — failure to control blood glucose levels results.", "Abnormalities in β-cell function are therefore critical in defining the risk and development of type 2 diabetes.", "This knowledge is fostering exploration of the molecular and genetic basis of the disease and new approaches to its treatment and prevention." ]
false
123,859
"Tracking the fate of glomerular epithelial cells in vivo using serial multiphoton imaging in novel mouse models with fluorescent lineage tags"
[ "Podocytes are critical in the maintenance of a healthy glomerular filter; however, they have been difficult to study in the intact kidney because of technical limitations.", "Here we report the development of serial multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of the same glomeruli over several days to visualize the motility of podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in vivo.", "In podocin-GFP mice, podocytes formed sporadic multicellular clusters after unilateral ureteral ligation and migrated into the parietal Bowman's capsule.", "The tracking of single cells in podocin-confetti mice featuring cell-specific expression of CFP, GFP, YFP or RFP revealed the simultaneous migration of multiple podocytes.", "In phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)-GFP mice, serial MPM found PEC-to-podocyte migration and nanotubule connections.", "Our data support a highly dynamic rather than a static nature of the glomerular environment and cellular composition.", "Future application of this new approach should advance our understanding of the mechanisms of glomerular injury and regeneration." ]
false
140,874
"CTCF binding at the H19 imprinting control region mediates maternally inherited higher-order chromatin conformation to restrict enhancer access to Igf2."
[ "It is thought that the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) directs the silencing of the maternally inherited Igf2 allele through a CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator.", "The ICR has been shown to interact physically with a silencer region in Igf2, differentially methylated region (DMR)1, but the role of CTCF in this chromatin loop and whether it restricts the physical access of distal enhancers to Igf2 is not known.", "We performed systematic chromosome conformation capture analyses in the Igf2/H19 region over >160 kb, identifying sequences that interact physically with the distal enhancers and the ICR.", "We found that, on the paternal chromosome, enhancers interact with the Igf2 promoters but that, on the maternal allele, this is prevented by CTCF binding within the H19 ICR.", "CTCF binding in the maternal ICR regulates its interaction with matrix attachment region (MAR)3 and DMR1 at Igf2, thus forming a tight loop around the maternal Igf2 locus, which may contribute to its silencing.", "Mutation of CTCF binding sites in the H19 ICR leads to loss of CTCF binding and de novo methylation of a CTCF target site within Igf2 DMR1, showing that CTCF can coordinate regional epigenetic marks.", "This systematic chromosome conformation capture analysis of an imprinting cluster reveals that CTCF has a critical role in the epigenetic regulation of higher-order chromatin structure and gene silencing over considerable distances in the genome." ]
false
143,251
"De novo assembly of a PML nuclear subcompartment occurs through multiple pathways and induces telomere elongation."
[ "Telomerase-negative tumor cells use an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway that involves DNA recombination and repair to maintain their proliferative potential.", "The cytological hallmark of this process is the accumulation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear protein at telomeric DNA to form ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs).", "Here, the de novo formation of a telomeric PML nuclear subcompartment was investigated by recruiting APB protein components.", "We show that functionally distinct proteins were able to initiate the formation of bona fide APBs with high efficiency in a self-organizing and self-propagating manner.", "These included: (1) PML and Sp100 as the constituting components of PML nuclear bodies, (2) telomere repeat binding factors 1 and 2 (TRF1 and TRF2, respectively), (3) the DNA repair protein NBS1 and (4) the SUMO E3 ligase MMS21, as well as the isolated SUMO1 domain, through an interacting domain of another protein factor.", "By contrast, the repair factors Rad9, Rad17 and Rad51 were less efficient in APB nucleation but were recruited to preassembled APBs.", "The artificially created APBs induced telomeric extension through a DNA repair mechanism, as inferred from their colocalization with sites of non-replicative DNA synthesis and histone H2A.X phosphorylation, and an increase of the telomere repeat length.", "These activities were absent after recruitment of the APB factors to a pericentric locus and establish APBs as functional intermediates of the ALT pathway." ]
false
152,245
"Effects of an opal termination codon preceding the nsP4 gene sequence in the O'Nyong-Nyong virus genome on Anopheles gambiae infectivity."
[ "The genomic RNA of an alphavirus encodes four different nonstructural proteins, nsP1, nsP2, nsP3, and nsP4.", "The polyprotein P123 is produced when translation terminates at an opal termination codon between nsP3 and nsP4.", "The polyprotein P1234 is produced when translational readthrough occurs or when the opal termination codon has been replaced by a sense codon in the alphavirus genome.", "Evolutionary pressures appear to have maintained genomic sequences encoding both a stop codon (opal) and an open reading frame (arginine) as a general feature of the O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) genome, indicating that both are required at some point.", "Alternate replication of ONNVs in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts may determine predominance of a particular codon at this locus in the viral quasispecies.", "However, no systematic study has previously tested this hypothesis in whole animals.", "We report here the results of the first study to investigate in a natural mosquito host the functional significance of the opal stop codon in an alphavirus genome.", "We used a full-length cDNA clone of ONNV to construct a series of mutants in which the arginine between nsP3 and nsP4 was replaced with an opal, ochre, or amber stop codon.", "The presence of an opal stop codon upstream of nsP4 nearly doubled (75.5%) the infectivity of ONNV over that of virus possessing a codon for the amino acid arginine at the corresponding position (39.8%).", "Although the frequency with which the opal virus disseminated from the mosquito midgut did not differ significantly from that of the arginine virus on days 8 and 10, dissemination did began earlier in mosquitoes infected with the opal virus.", "Although a clear fitness advantage is provided to ONNV by the presence of an opal codon between nsP3 and nsP4 in Anopheles gambiae, sequence analysis of ONNV RNA extracted from mosquito bodies and heads indicated codon usage at this position corresponded with that of the virus administered in the blood meal.", "These results suggest that while selection of ONNV variants is occurring, de novo mutation at the position between nsP3 and nsP4 does not readily occur in the mosquito.", "Taken together, these results suggest that the primary fitness advantage provided to ONNV by the presence of an opal codon between nsP3 and nsP4 is related to mosquito infectivity." ]
false
153,744
"Down-regulation of a host microRNA by a Herpesvirus saimiri noncoding RNA."
[ "T cells transformed by Herpesvirus saimiri express seven viral U-rich noncoding RNAs of unknown function called HSURs.", "We noted that conserved sequences in HSURs 1 and 2 constitute potential binding sites for three host-cell microRNAs (miRNAs).", "Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that HSURs 1 and 2 interact with the predicted miRNAs in virally transformed T cells.", "The abundance of one of these miRNAs, miR-27, is dramatically lowered in transformed cells, with consequent effects on the expression of miR-27 target genes.", "Transient knockdown and ectopic expression of HSUR 1 demonstrate that it directs degradation of mature miR-27 in a sequence-specific and binding-dependent manner.", "This viral strategy illustrates use of a ncRNA to manipulate host-cell gene expression via the miRNA pathway." ]
false
159,469
"HTRF: A Technology Tailored for Drug Discovery –A Review of Theoretical Aspects and Recent Applications"
[ "HTRF (Homogeneous Time Resolved Fluorescence) is the most frequently used generic assay technology to measure analytes in a homogenous format, which is the ideal platform used for drug target studies in high-throughput screening (HTS).", "This technology combines fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology (FRET) with time-resolved measurement (TR).", "In TR-FRET assays, a signal is generated through fluorescent resonance energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor molecule when in close proximity to each other.", "Buffer and media interference is dramatically reduced by dual-wavelength detection, and the final signal is proportional to the extent of product formation.", "The HTRF assay is usually sensitive and robust that can be miniaturized into the 384 and 1536-well plate formats.", "This assay technology has been applied to many antibody-based assays including GPCR signaling (cAMP and IP-One), kinases, cytokines and biomarkers, bioprocess (antibody and protein production), as well as the assays for protein-protein, proteinpeptide, and protein-DNA/RNA interactions.", "Since its introduction to the drug-screening world over ten years ago, researchers have used HTRF to expedite the study of GPCRs, kinases, new biomarkers, protein-protein interactions, and other targets of interest.", "HTRF has also been utilized as an alternative method for bioprocess monitoring.", "The first-generation HTRF technology, which uses Europium cryptate as a fluorescence donor to monitor reactions between biomolecules, was extended in 2008 through the introduction of a second-generation donor, Terbium cryptate (Tb), enhancing screening performance.", "Terbium cryptate possesses different photophysical properties compared to Europium, including increased quantum yield and a higher molar extinction coefficient.", "In addition to being compatible with the same acceptor fluorophors used with Europium, it can serve as a donor fluorophore to green-emitting fluors because it has multiple emission peaks including one at 490 nm.", "Moreover, all Terbium HTRF assays can be read on the same HTRF-compatible instruments as Europium HTRF assays.", "Overall, HTRF is a highly sensitive, robust technology for the detection of molecular interactions in vitro and is widely used for primary and secondary screening phases of drug development.", "This review addresses the general principles of HTRF and its current applications in drug discovery." ]
false
164,189
"Chk1 inhibits replication factory activation but allows dormant origin firing in existing factories"
[ "Replication origins are licensed by loading MCM2-7 hexamers before entry into S phase.", "However, only ∼10% of licensed origins are normally used in S phase, with the others remaining dormant.", "When fork progression is inhibited, dormant origins initiate nearby to ensure that all of the DNA is eventually replicated.", "In apparent contrast, replicative stress activates ataxia telangiectasia and rad-3-related (ATR) and Chk1 checkpoint kinases that inhibit origin firing.", "In this study, we show that at low levels of replication stress, ATR/Chk1 predominantly suppresses origin initiation by inhibiting the activation of new replication factories, thereby reducing the number of active factories.", "At the same time, inhibition of replication fork progression allows dormant origins to initiate within existing replication factories.", "The inhibition of new factory activation by ATR/Chk1 therefore redirects replication toward active factories where forks are inhibited and away from regions that have yet to start replication.", "This minimizes the deleterious consequences of fork stalling and prevents similar problems from arising in unreplicated regions of the genome." ]
false
164,985
"Fra-1 protooncogene regulates IL-6 expression in macrophages and promotes the generation of M2d macrophages"
[ "The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a prominent role in the growth of tumor cells.", "As the major inflammatory component of the TME, M2d macrophages are educated by the TME such that they adopt an immunosuppressive role that promotes tumor metastasis and progression.", "Fra-1 forms activator protein-1 heterodimers with Jun partners and drives gene transcription.", "Fra-1 is thought to drastically induce tumorigenesis and progression.", "However, the functional role of Fra-1 in the generation of M2d macrophages is poorly understood to date.", "Here, we demonstrate that 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells, when co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophage cells, skew the RAW264.7 macrophage cell differentiation into M2d macrophages.", "The 4T1 cells stimulate de novo overexpression of Fra-1 in RAW264.7 cells, and then Fra-1 binds to the interleukin 6 (IL-6) promoter to increase the production of the cytokine IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells.", "IL-6 acts in an autocrine fashion to skew RAW264.7 macrophage cell differentiation into M2d macrophages.", "These findings open new insights into how to reverse M2d macrophage-induced immune tolerance to improve the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches." ]
false
169,264
"Analysis of SiO2 nanoparticles binding proteins in rat blood and brain homogenate"
[ "A multitude of nanoparticles, such as titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, gold oxide, silver oxide, iron oxide, and silica oxide, are found in many chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and electronic products.", "Recently, SiO2 nanoparticles were shown to have an inert toxicity profile and no association with an irreversible toxicological change in animal models.", "Hence, exposure to SiO2 nanoparticles is on the increase.", "SiO2 nanoparticles are routinely used in numerous materials, from strengthening filler for concrete and other construction composites, to nontoxic platforms for biomedical application, such as drug delivery and theragnostics.", "On the other hand, recent in vitro experiments indicated that SiO2 nanoparticles were cytotoxic.", "Therefore, we investigated these nanoparticles to identify potentially toxic pathways by analyzing the adsorbed protein corona on the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles in the blood and brain of the rat.", "Four types of SiO2 nanoparticles were chosen for investigation, and the protein corona of each type was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology.", "In total, 115 and 48 plasma proteins from the rat were identified as being bound to negatively charged 20 nm and 100 nm SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively, and 50 and 36 proteins were found for 20 nm and 100 nm arginine-coated SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively.", "Higher numbers of proteins were adsorbed onto the 20 nm sized SiO2 nanoparticles than onto the 100 nm sized nanoparticles regardless of charge.", "When proteins were compared between the two charges, higher numbers of proteins were found for arginine-coated positively charged SiO2 nanoparticles than for the negatively charged nanoparticles.", "The proteins identified as bound in the corona from SiO2 nanoparticles were further analyzed with ClueGO, a Cytoscape plugin used in protein ontology and for identifying biological interaction pathways.", "Proteins bound on the surface of nanoparticles may affect functional and conformational properties and distributions in complicated biological processes." ]
false
175,735
"Inferring nucleosome positions with their histone mark annotation from ChIP data"
[ "MOTIVATION The nucleosome is the basic repeating unit of chromatin.", "It contains two copies each of the four core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and about 147 bp of DNA.", "The residues of the histone proteins are subject to numerous post-translational modifications, such as methylation or acetylation.", "Chromatin immunoprecipitiation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a technique that provides genome-wide occupancy data of these modified histone proteins, and it requires appropriate computational methods. \n", "RESULTS We present NucHunter, an algorithm that uses the data from ChIP-seq experiments directed against many histone modifications to infer positioned nucleosomes.", "NucHunter annotates each of these nucleosomes with the intensities of the histone modifications.", "We demonstrate that these annotations can be used to infer nucleosomal states with distinct correlations to underlying genomic features and chromatin-related processes, such as transcriptional start sites, enhancers, elongation by RNA polymerase II and chromatin-mediated repression.", "Thus, NucHunter is a versatile tool that can be used to predict positioned nucleosomes from a panel of histone modification ChIP-seq experiments and infer distinct histone modification patterns associated to different chromatin states. ", "AVAILABILITY The software is available at http://epigen.molgen.mpg.de/nuchunter/." ]
true
188,911
"Generation of large numbers of dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow cultures supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor"
[ "Antigen-presenting, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-rich dendritic cells are known to arise from bone marrow.", "However, marrow lacks mature dendritic cells, and substantial numbers of proliferating less-mature cells have yet to be identified.", "The methodology for inducing dendritic cell growth that was recently described for mouse blood now has been modified to MHC class II-negative precursors in marrow.", "A key step is to remove the majority of nonadherent, newly formed granulocytes by gentle washes during the first 2-4 d of culture.", "This leaves behind proliferating clusters that are loosely attached to a more firmly adherent \"stroma.", "\"", "At days 4-6 the clusters can be dislodged, isolated by 1-g sedimentation, and upon reculture, large numbers of dendritic cells are released.", "The latter are readily identified on the basis of their distinct cell shape, ultrastructure, and repertoire of antigens, as detected with a panel of monoclonal antibodies.", "The dendritic cells express high levels of MHC class II products and act as powerful accessory cells for initiating the mixed leukocyte reaction.", "Neither the clusters nor mature dendritic cells are generated if macrophage colony-stimulating factor rather than granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is applied.", "Therefore, GM-CSF generates all three lineages of myeloid cells (granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells).", "Since > 5 x 10(6) dendritic cells develop in 1 wk from precursors within the large hind limb bones of a single animal, marrow progenitors can act as a major source of dendritic cells.", "This feature should prove useful for future molecular and clinical studies of this otherwise trace cell type." ]
false
195,352
"Insulin action and resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes"
[ "Nutritional excess is a major forerunner of type 2 diabetes.", "It enhances the secretion of insulin, but attenuates insulin's metabolic actions in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.", "However, conflicting evidence indicates a lack of knowledge of the timing of these events during the development of obesity and diabetes, pointing to a key gap in our understanding of metabolic disease.", "This Perspective reviews alternate viewpoints and recent results on the temporal and mechanistic connections between hyperinsulinemia, obesity and insulin resistance.", "Although much attention has addressed early steps in the insulin signaling cascade, insulin resistance in obesity seems to be largely elicited downstream of these steps.", "New findings also connect insulin resistance to extensive metabolic cross-talk between the liver, adipose tissue, pancreas and skeletal muscle.", "These and other advances over the past 5 years offer exciting opportunities and daunting challenges for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes." ]
false
202,259
"Effect of lowering blood pressure on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients on dialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials"
[ "BACKGROUND Patients undergoing dialysis have a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.", "Although several trials have shown the cardiovascular benefits of lowering blood pressure in the general population, there is uncertainty about the efficacy and tolerability of reducing blood pressure in patients on dialysis.", "We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of blood pressure lowering in patients on dialysis. \n", "METHODS We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library database for trials reported between 1950 and November, 2008, without language restriction.", "We extracted a standardised dataset from randomised controlled trials of blood pressure lowering in patients on dialysis that reported cardiovascular outcomes.", "Meta-analysis was done with a random effects model. \n", "FINDINGS We identified eight relevant trials, which provided data for 1679 patients and 495 cardiovascular events.", "Weighted mean systolic blood pressure was 4.5 mm Hg lower and diastolic blood pressure 2.3 mm Hg lower in actively treated patients than in controls.", "Blood pressure lowering treatment was associated with lower risks of cardiovascular events (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92; p=0.009), all-cause mortality (RR 0.80, 0.66-0.96; p=0.014), and cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.71, 0.50-0.99; p=0.044) than control regimens.", "The effects seem to be consistent across a range of patient groups included in the studies. \n", "INTERPRETATION Treatment with agents that lower blood pressure should routinely be considered for individuals undergoing dialysis to reduce the very high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate in this population." ]
true
207,972
"Interaction of an adenovirus E3 14.7-kilodalton protein with a novel tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducible cellular protein containing leucine zipper domains."
[ "Early region 3 (E3) of group C human adenoviruses (Ad) encodes several inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) cytolysis, including an E3 14.7-kDa protein (E3-14.7K) and a heterodimer containing two polypeptides of 10.4 and 14.5 kDa.", "To understand the mechanism by which the viral proteins inhibit TNF-alpha functions, the E3-14.7K protein was used to screen a HeLa cell cDNA library to search for interacting proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system.", "A novel protein containing multiple leucine zipper domains without any significant homology with any known protein was identified and has been named FIP-2 (for 14.7K-interacting protein).", "FIP-2 interacted with E3-14.7K both in vitro and in vivo.", "It colocalized with Ad E3-14.7K in the cytoplasm, especially near the nuclear membrane, and caused redistribution of the viral protein.", "FIP-2 by itself does not cause cell death; however, it can reverse the protective effect of E3-14.7K on cell killing induced by overexpression of the intracellular domain of the 55-kDa TNF receptor or by RIP, a death protein involved in the TNF-alpha and Fas apoptosis pathways.", "Deletion analysis indicates that the reversal effect of FIP-2 depends on its interaction with E3-14.7K.", "Three major mRNA forms of FIP-2 have been detected in multiple human tissues, and expression of the transcripts was induced by TNF-alpha treatment in a time-dependent manner in two different cell lines.", "FIP-2 has consensus sequences for several potential posttranslational modifications.", "These data suggest that FIP-2 is one of the cellular targets for Ad E3-14.7K and that its mechanism of affecting cell death involves the TNF receptor, RIP, or a downstream molecule affected by either of these two molecules." ]
false
213,017
"PML induces compaction, TRF2 depletion and DNA damage signaling at telomeres and promotes their alternative lengthening."
[ "The alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism allows cancer cells to escape senescence and apoptosis in the absence of active telomerase.", "A characteristic feature of this pathway is the assembly of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (APBs) at telomeres.", "Here, we dissected the role of APBs in a human ALT cell line by performing an RNA interference screen using an automated 3D fluorescence microscopy platform and advanced 3D image analysis.", "We identified 29 proteins that affected APB formation, which included proteins involved in telomere and chromatin organization, protein sumoylation and DNA repair.", "By integrating and extending these findings, we found that APB formation induced clustering of telomere repeats, telomere compaction and concomitant depletion of the shelterin protein TRF2 (also known as TERF2).", "These APB-dependent changes correlated with the induction of a DNA damage response at telomeres in APBs as evident by a strong enrichment of the phosphorylated form of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase.", "Accordingly, we propose that APBs promote telomere maintenance by inducing a DNA damage response in ALT-positive tumor cells through changing the telomeric chromatin state to trigger ATM phosphorylation." ]
false
219,475
"Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells tip the balance of immune protection to tumor promotion in the premetastatic lung."
[ "The mechanisms by which a primary tumor affects a selected distant organ before tumor cell arrival remain to be elucidated.", "This report shows that Gr-1+CD11b+ cells are significantly increased in lungs of mice bearing mammary adenocarcinomas before tumor cell arrival.", "In the premetastatic lungs, these immature myeloid cells significantly decrease IFN-gamma production and increase proinflammatory cytokines.", "In addition, they produce large quantities of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and promote vascular remodeling.", "Deletion of MMP9 normalizes aberrant vasculature in the premetastatic lung and diminishes lung metastasis.", "The production and activity of MMP9 is selectively restricted to lungs and organs with a large number of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells.", "Our work reveals a novel protumor mechanism for Gr-1+CD11b+ cells that changes the premetastatic lung into an inflammatory and proliferative environment, diminishes immune protection, and promotes metastasis through aberrant vasculature formation.", "Thus, inhibition of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells could normalize the premetastatic lung environment, improve host immunosurveillance, and inhibit tumor metastasis." ]
false
226,488
"Activin/Nodal signalling in stem cells."
[ "Activin/Nodal growth factors control a broad range of biological processes, including early cell fate decisions, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis.", "Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which the Activin/Nodal signalling pathway governs stem cell function in these different stages of development.", "We describe recent findings that associate Activin/Nodal signalling to pathological conditions, focusing on cancer stem cells in tumorigenesis and its potential as a target for therapies.", "Moreover, we will discuss future directions and questions that currently remain unanswered on the role of Activin/Nodal signalling in stem cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation." ]
false
236,204
"Distinct RNA-dependent RNA polymerases are required for RNAi triggered by double-stranded RNA versus truncated transgenes in Paramecium tetraurelia"
[ "In many eukaryotes, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) play key roles in the RNAi pathway.", "They have been implicated in the recognition and processing of aberrant transcripts triggering the process, and in amplification of the silencing response.", "We have tested the functions of RdRP genes from the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia in experimentally induced and endogenous mechanisms of gene silencing.", "In this organism, RNAi can be triggered either by high-copy, truncated transgenes or by directly feeding cells with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA).", "Surprisingly, dsRNA-induced silencing depends on the putatively functional RDR1 and RDR2 genes, which are required for the accumulation of both primary siRNAs and a distinct class of small RNAs suggestive of secondary siRNAs.", "In contrast, a third gene with a highly divergent catalytic domain, RDR3, is required for siRNA accumulation when RNAi is triggered by truncated transgenes.", "Our data further implicate RDR3 in the accumulation of previously described endogenous siRNAs and in the regulation of the surface antigen gene family.", "While only one of these genes is normally expressed in any clonal cell line, the knockdown of RDR3 leads to co-expression of multiple antigens.", "These results provide evidence for a functional specialization of Paramecium RdRP genes in distinct RNAi pathways operating during vegetative growth." ]
false
238,409
"Mechanisms of Renal Cell Apoptosis Induced by Cyclosporine A: A Systematic Review of in vitro Studies"
[ "Background:Chronic cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity (CCN) is a major cause of chronic renal dysfunction and has no effective clinical interventions yet.", "Objective: To reveal the mechanisms of renal cell apoptosis in CCN, we analyzed all in vitro studies of such mechanisms.", "Methods: We collected all in vitro studies about the mechanisms of renal cell apoptosis induced by CsA in Medline (1966 to July 2010), Embase (1980 to July 2010) and ISI (1986 to July 2010), evaluated their quality according to in vitro standards and extracted data following the PICOS principles and synthesized the data.", "Results: First,CsA could upregulate Fas and Fas-L expression, increase FADD and apoptosis enzymes (caspase-2, -3, -4, -7, -8, -9 and -10) and downregulate the Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Second, CsA could induce oxidative stress and damage the antioxidant defense system.", "Third, CsA could increase the expression of HERP, GRP78 and CHOP.", "Fourth, CsA could induce renal cell apoptosis and increase their iNOS and p53 expression in cultured cells.", "Conclusions: At least four pathways are involved in renal cell apoptosis induced by CsA in different cell species.", "Caspases might be their final common pathway in vitro.", "They might all provide potential points for interventions, but these need to be confirmed in vivo." ]
false
243,694
"Blood stem cells emerge from aortic endothelium by a novel type of cell transition"
[ "The ontogeny of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during embryonic development is still highly debated, especially their possible lineage relationship to vascular endothelial cells.", "The first anatomical site from which cells with long-term HSC potential have been isolated is the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM), more specifically the vicinity of the dorsal aortic floor.", "But although some authors have presented evidence that HSCs may arise directly from the aortic floor into the dorsal aortic lumen, others support the notion that HSCs first emerge within the underlying mesenchyme.", "Here we show by non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of live zebrafish embryos, that HSCs emerge directly from the aortic floor, through a stereotyped process that does not involve cell division but a strong bending then egress of single endothelial cells from the aortic ventral wall into the sub-aortic space, and their concomitant transformation into haematopoietic cells.", "The process is polarized not only in the dorso-ventral but also in the rostro-caudal versus medio-lateral direction, and depends on Runx1 expression: in Runx1-deficient embryos, the exit events are initially similar, but much rarer, and abort into violent death of the exiting cell.", "These results demonstrate that the aortic floor is haemogenic and that HSCs emerge from it into the sub-aortic space, not by asymmetric cell division but through a new type of cell behaviour, which we call an endothelial haematopoietic transition." ]
false
253,672
"Probable person to person transmission of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Eastern China, 2013: epidemiological investigation"
[ "OBJECTIVE To determine whether the novel avian influenza H7N9 virus can transmit from person to person and its efficiency. \n", "DESIGN Epidemiological investigations conducted after a family cluster of two patients with avian H7N9 in March 2013. \n", "SETTING Wuxi, Eastern China. \n", "PARTICIPANTS Two patients, their close contacts, and relevant environments.", "Samples from the patients and environments were collected and tested by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), viral culture, and haemagglutination inhibition assay.", "Any contacts who became ill had samples tested for avian H7N9 by rRT-PCR.", "Paired serum samples were obtained from contacts for serological testing by haemagglutination inhibition assays. \n", "MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES Clinical data, history of exposure before the onset of illnesses, and results of laboratory testing of pathogens and further analysis of sequences and phylogenetic tree to isolated strains. \n", "RESULTS The index patient became ill five to six days after his last exposure to poultry.", "The second patient, his daughter aged 32, who provided unprotected bedside care in the hospital, had no known exposure to poultry.", "She developed symptoms six days after her last contact with her father.", "Two strains were isolated successfully from the two patients.", "Genome sequence and analyses of phylogenetic trees showed that both viruses were almost genetically identical.", "Forty three close contacts of both patients were identified.", "One had mild illness but had negative results for avian H7N9 by rRT-PCR.", "All 43 close contacts tested negative for haemagglutination inhibition antibodies specific for avian H7N9. \n", "CONCLUSIONS The infection of the daughter probably resulted from contact with her father (the index patient) during unprotected exposure, suggesting that in this cluster the virus was able to transmit from person to person.", "The transmissibility was limited and non-sustainable." ]
true
263,364
"Genetic Variation in the Interleukin-28B Gene Is Associated with Spontaneous Clearance and Progression of Hepatitis C Virus in Moroccan Patients"
[ "BACKGROUND Genetic variation in the IL28B gene has been strongly associated with treatment outcomes, spontaneous clearance and progression of the hepatitis C virus infection (HCV).", "The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of polymorphisms at this locus with progression and outcome of HCV infection in a Moroccan population. \n", "METHODS We analyzed a cohort of 438 individuals among them 232 patients with persistent HCV infection, of whom 115 patients had mild chronic hepatitis and 117 had advanced liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma), 68 individuals who had naturally cleared HCV and 138 healthy subjects.", "The IL28B SNPs rs12979860 and rs8099917 were genotyped using a TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination assay. \n", "RESULTS The protective rs12979860-C and rs8099917-T alleles were more common in subjects with spontaneous clearance (77.9% vs 55.2%; p = 0.00001 and 95.6% vs 83.2%; p = 0.0025, respectively).", "Individuals with clearance were 4.69 (95% CI, 1.99-11.07) times more likely to have the C/C genotype for rs12979860 polymorphism (p = 0.0017) and 3.55 (95% CI, 0.19-66.89) times more likely to have the T/T genotype at rs8099917.", "Patients with advanced liver disease carried the rs12979860-T/T genotype more frequently than patients with mild chronic hepatitis C (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 0.99-3.61; p = 0.0532) and this risk was even more pronounced when we compared them with healthy controls (OR = 4.27; 95% CI, 2.08-8.76; p = 0.0005).", "The rs8099917-G allele was also associated with advanced liver disease (OR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.40-3.93; p = 0.0100). \n", "CONCLUSIONS In the Moroccan population, polymorphisms near the IL28B gene play a role both in spontaneous clearance and progression of HCV infection." ]
true
266,641
"CD127 expression inversely correlates with FoxP3 and suppressive function of human CD4+ T reg cells"
[ "Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical regulators of immune tolerance.", "Most T reg cells are defined based on expression of CD4, CD25, and the transcription factor, FoxP3.", "However, these markers have proven problematic for uniquely defining this specialized T cell subset in humans.", "We found that the IL-7 receptor (CD127) is down-regulated on a subset of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood.", "We demonstrate that the majority of these cells are FoxP3+, including those that express low levels or no CD25.", "A combination of CD4, CD25, and CD127 resulted in a highly purified population of T reg cells accounting for significantly more cells that previously identified based on other cell surface markers.", "These cells were highly suppressive in functional suppressor assays.", "In fact, cells separated based solely on CD4 and CD127 expression were anergic and, although representing at least three times the number of cells (including both CD25+CD4+ and CD25−CD4+ T cell subsets), were as suppressive as the “classic” CD4+CD25hi T reg cell subset.", "Finally, we show that CD127 can be used to quantitate T reg cell subsets in individuals with type 1 diabetes supporting the use of CD127 as a biomarker for human T reg cells." ]
false
275,294
"Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D"
[ "All vertebrates, including humans, obtain most of their daily vitamin D requirement from casual exposure to sunlight.", "During exposure to sunlight, the solar ultraviolet B photons (290-315 nm) penetrate into the skin where they cause the photolysis of 7-dehydrocholesterol to precholecalciferol.", "Once formed, precholecalciferol undergoes a thermally induced rearrangement of its double bonds to form cholecalciferol.", "An increase in skin pigmentation, aging, and the topical application of a sunscreen diminishes the cutaneous production of cholecalciferol.", "Latitude, season, and time of day as well as ozone pollution in the atmosphere influence the number of solar ultraviolet B photons that reach the earth's surface, and thereby, alter the cutaneous production of cholecalciferol.", "In Boston, exposure to sunlight during the months of November through February will not produce any significant amounts of cholecalciferol in the skin.", "Because windowpane glass absorbs ultraviolet B radiation, exposure of sunlight through glass windows will not result in any production of cholecalciferol.", "It is now recognized that vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency are common in elderly people, especially in those who are infirm and not exposed to sunlight or who live at latitudes that do not provide them with sunlight-mediated cholecalciferol during the winter months.", "Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency exacerbate osteoporosis, cause osteomalacia, and increase the risk of skeletal fractures.", "Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency can be prevented by encouraging responsible exposure to sunlight and/or consumption of a multivitamin tablet that contains 10 micrograms (400 IU) vitamin D." ]
false
279,052
"Genomic imprinting in development, growth, behavior and stem cells."
[ "Genes that are subject to genomic imprinting in mammals are preferentially expressed from a single parental allele.", "This imprinted expression of a small number of genes is crucial for normal development, as these genes often directly regulate fetal growth.", "Recent work has also demonstrated intricate roles for imprinted genes in the brain, with important consequences on behavior and neuronal function.", "Finally, new studies have revealed the importance of proper expression of specific imprinted genes in induced pluripotent stem cells and in adult stem cells.", "As we review here, these findings highlight the complex nature and developmental importance of imprinted genes." ]
false
285,794
"Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis C Virus RNA by Light Cycler PCR and Comparison with Two Different PCR Assays"
[ "The new Light Cycler technology was adapted to the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in clinical samples.", "Sera from 81 patients were tested by Light Cycler PCR, AMPLICOR HCV Monitor assay, and in-house PCR.", "Our data demonstrate that Light Cycler is a fast and reliable method for the detection and quantitation of HCV RNA." ]
false
293,661
"Targeting arginine metabolism pathway to treat arginine-dependent cancers."
[ "The significant disparities in metabolism between tumor and normal cells have inspired the development of metabolism-based anti-tumor therapeutics.", "Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid because normal cells can not only synthesize arginine de novo but also take up extracellular arginine.", "Several types of tumors have abnormalities in arginine metabolism enzymes and completely rely on extracellular arginine to support necessary biological processes.", "This property is referred to as arginine auxotrophy.", "Taking advantage of characteristic arginine auxotrophy in tumors, arginine deprivation, which is generally induced by the use of arginine deiminase (ADI) and arginase I, has been investigated as a novel strategy for cancer therapy.", "Arginine deprivation demonstrated promising efficacy against arginine-auxotrophic tumors.", "By integrating perspectives from both clinical oncologists and laboratory scientists, this article reviews the important aspects of arginine deprivation as a promising anticancer therapy." ]
false
301,838
"Rank Signaling Links the Development of Invariant γδ T Cell Progenitors and Aire+ Medullary Epithelium"
[ "The thymic medulla provides a specialized microenvironment for the negative selection of T cells, with the presence of autoimmune regulator (Aire)-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) during the embryonic-neonatal period being both necessary and sufficient to establish long-lasting tolerance.", "Here we showed that emergence of the first cohorts of Aire(+) mTECs at this key developmental stage, prior to αβ T cell repertoire selection, was jointly directed by Rankl(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cells and invariant Vγ5(+) dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) progenitors that are the first thymocytes to express the products of gene rearrangement.", "In turn, generation of Aire(+) mTECs then fostered Skint-1-dependent, but Aire-independent, DETC progenitor maturation and the emergence of an invariant DETC repertoire.", "Hence, our data attributed a functional importance to the temporal development of Vγ5(+) γδ T cells during thymus medulla formation for αβ T cell tolerance induction and demonstrated a Rank-mediated reciprocal link between DETC and Aire(+) mTEC maturation." ]
false
301,866
"Long-term immune deficiency after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: B-cell deficiency is associated with late infections."
[ "Immune reconstitution was analyzed in 140 consecutive patients who were 2-year disease-free and who underwent myeloablative allogeneic transplantation.", "A CD4 and CD8 defect was observed involving naive, terminally differentiated, memory and competent cells and above limits values for activated subsets.", "Natural killer cells normalize at six months while we observed expansion of CD19(+)/CD5(+) B cells after three months and a persisting defect of memory B cells.", "Chronic graft-versus-host disease did not influence significantly those parameters for CD8 subsets while the naïve and competent CD4 subsets were strongly affected.", "But the most profound impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease was on B-cell subsets, especially on the memory B population.", "The cumulative incidence of late severe infections was low (14% at four years).", "Using Cox's models, only low B-cell counts at 12 (P=0.02) and 24 (P=0.001) months were associated with the hazard of developing late infection, in particular if patients did not develop chronic graft-versus-host disease." ]
false
306,006
"The stimulatory potency of T cell antigens is influenced by the formation of the immunological synapse."
[ "T cell activation is predicated on the interaction between the T cell receptor and peptide-major histocompatibility (pMHC) ligands.", "The factors that determine the stimulatory potency of a pMHC molecule remain unclear.", "We describe results showing that a peptide exhibiting many hallmarks of a weak agonist stimulates T cells to proliferate more than the wild-type agonist ligand.", "An in silico approach suggested that the inability to form the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) could underlie the increased proliferation.", "This conclusion was supported by experiments that showed that enhancing cSMAC formation reduced stimulatory capacity of the weak peptide.", "Our studies highlight the fact that a complex interplay of factors determines the quality of a T cell antigen." ]
false
306,311
"Control of glutamate clearance and synaptic efficacy by glial coverage of neurons."
[ "Analysis of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus revealed that glutamate clearance and, as a consequence, glutamate concentration and diffusion in the extracellular space, is associated with the degree of astrocytic coverage of its neurons.", "Reduction in glutamate clearance, whether induced pharmacologically or associated with a relative decrease of glial coverage in the vicinity of synapses, affected transmitter release through modulation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors.", "Astrocytic wrapping of neurons, therefore, contributes to the regulation of synaptic efficacy in the central nervous system." ]
false
308,862
"Duration of androgen suppression in the treatment of prostate cancer."
[ "BACKGROUND The combination of radiotherapy plus long-term medical suppression of androgens (> or = 2 years) improves overall survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.", "We compared the use of radiotherapy plus short-term androgen suppression with the use of radiotherapy plus long-term androgen suppression in the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer. \n", "METHODS We randomly assigned patients with locally advanced prostate cancer who had received external-beam radiotherapy plus 6 months of androgen suppression to two groups, one to receive no further treatment (short-term suppression) and the other to receive 2.5 years of further treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (long-term suppression).", "An outcome of noninferiority of short-term androgen suppression as compared with long-term suppression required a hazard ratio of more than 1.35 for overall survival, with a one-sided alpha level of 0.05.", "An interim analysis showed futility, and the results are presented with an adjusted one-sided alpha level of 0.0429. \n", "RESULTS A total of 1113 men were registered, of whom 970 were randomly assigned, 483 to short-term suppression and 487 to long-term suppression.", "After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 132 patients in the short-term group and 98 in the long-term group had died; the number of deaths due to prostate cancer was 47 in the short-term group and 29 in the long-term group.", "The 5-year overall mortality for short-term and long-term suppression was 19.0% and 15.2%, respectively; the observed hazard ratio was 1.42 (upper 95.71% confidence limit, 1.79; P=0.65 for noninferiority).", "Adverse events in both groups included fatigue, diminished sexual function, and hot flushes. \n", "CONCLUSIONS The combination of radiotherapy plus 6 months of androgen suppression provides inferior survival as compared with radiotherapy plus 3 years of androgen suppression in the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer.", "(ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00003026.)" ]
true
313,394
"A Functional Neuroimaging Study of Sound Localization: Visual Cortex Activity Predicts Performance in Early-Blind Individuals"
[ "Blind individuals often demonstrate enhanced nonvisual perceptual abilities.", "However, the neural substrate that underlies this improved performance remains to be fully understood.", "An earlier behavioral study demonstrated that some early-blind people localize sounds more accurately than sighted controls using monaural cues.", "In order to investigate the neural basis of these behavioral differences in humans, we carried out functional imaging studies using positron emission tomography and a speaker array that permitted pseudo-free-field presentations within the scanner.", "During binaural sound localization, a sighted control group showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the occipital lobe, which was not seen in early-blind individuals.", "During monaural sound localization (one ear plugged), the subgroup of early-blind subjects who were behaviorally superior at sound localization displayed two activation foci in the occipital cortex.", "This effect was not seen in blind persons who did not have superior monaural sound localization abilities, nor in sighted individuals.", "The degree of activation of one of these foci was strongly correlated with sound localization accuracy across the entire group of blind subjects.", "The results show that those blind persons who perform better than sighted persons recruit occipital areas to carry out auditory localization under monaural conditions.", "We therefore conclude that computations carried out in the occipital cortex specifically underlie the enhanced capacity to use monaural cues.", "Our findings shed light not only on intermodal compensatory mechanisms, but also on individual differences in these mechanisms and on inhibitory patterns that differ between sighted individuals and those deprived of vision early in life." ]
false
313,403
"High-Infiltration of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Predicts Unfavorable Clinical Outcome for Node-Negative Breast Cancer"
[ "The tumor microenvironment is composed of tumor cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and infiltrating immune cells, which may inhibit or promote tumor growth and progression.", "The objectives of this retrospective study were to characterize the density of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in breast cancer, and to correlate the density of TAMs with clinicopathological parameters.", "Paraffin-embedded specimens and clinicopathological data, including up to 5 years follow-up information, were obtained from 172 breast cancer patients.", "Immunohistochemical staining for CD68 (marker for macrophages) was performed and evaluated in a blinded fashion.", "We found that TAMs were significantly frequent in high histopathological grade breast cancer patients.", "Breast cancer patients with a high density of TAMs had significantly lower rates of disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival than patients with low density of TAMs.", "Furthermore, high-infiltration of TAMs indicated worse survival rate for patients with node-negative breast cancer.", "In conclusion, the number of TAMs in the tumor stroma is an independent predictor of survival time for breast cancer patients.", "High-infiltration of TAMs is a significant unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with invasive breast cancer and, as such, is a potentially useful prognostic marker for breast cancer." ]
false
317,204
"Murine Dishevelled 3 Functions in Redundant Pathways with Dishevelled 1 and 2 in Normal Cardiac Outflow Tract, Cochlea, and Neural Tube Development"
[ "Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are important signaling components of both the canonical beta-catenin/Wnt pathway, which controls cell proliferation and patterning, and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which coordinates cell polarity within a sheet of cells and also directs convergent extension cell (CE) movements that produce narrowing and elongation of the tissue.", "Three mammalian Dvl genes have been identified and the developmental roles of Dvl1 and Dvl2 were previously determined.", "Here, we identify the functions of Dvl3 in development and provide evidence of functional redundancy among the three murine Dvls.", "Dvl3(-/-) mice died perinatally with cardiac outflow tract abnormalities, including double outlet right ventricle and persistent truncus arteriosis.", "These mutants also displayed a misorientated stereocilia in the organ of Corti, a phenotype that was enhanced with the additional loss of a single allele of the PCP component Vangl2/Ltap (LtapLp/+).", "Although neurulation appeared normal in both Dvl3(-/-) and LtapLp/+ mutants, Dvl3(+/-);LtapLp/+ combined mutants displayed incomplete neural tube closure.", "Importantly, we show that many of the roles of Dvl3 are also shared by Dvl1 and Dvl2.", "More severe phenotypes were observed in Dvl3 mutants with the deficiency of another Dvl, and increasing Dvl dosage genetically with Dvl transgenes demonstrated the ability of Dvls to compensate for each other to enable normal development.", "Interestingly, global canonical Wnt signaling appeared largely unaffected in the double Dvl mutants, suggesting that low Dvl levels are sufficient for functional canonical Wnt signals.", "In summary, we demonstrate that Dvl3 is required for cardiac outflow tract development and describe its importance in the PCP pathway during neurulation and cochlea development.", "Finally, we establish several developmental processes in which the three Dvls are functionally redundant." ]
false
323,030
"Dynamics of adherens junctions in epithelial establishment, maintenance, and remodeling"
[ "The epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)-catenin complex binds to cytoskeletal components and regulatory and signaling molecules to form a mature adherens junction (AJ).", "This dynamic structure physically connects neighboring epithelial cells, couples intercellular adhesive contacts to the cytoskeleton, and helps define each cell's apical-basal axis.", "Together these activities coordinate the form, polarity, and function of all cells in an epithelium.", "Several molecules regulate AJ formation and integrity, including Rho family GTPases and Par polarity proteins.", "However, only recently, with the development of live-cell imaging, has the extent to which E-cadherin is actively turned over at junctions begun to be appreciated.", "This turnover contributes to junction formation and to the maintenance of epithelial integrity during tissue homeostasis and remodeling." ]
false
323,335
"Long-term outcome of patients with asystole induced by head-up tilt test."
[ "AIMS To analyse the long-term outcome of the largest reported cohort of patients presenting asystole during head-up tilt test. \n", "METHODS AND RESULTS Since 1990, 1322 patients with syncope of unknown origin have undergone tilt-table testing.", "Of those, 330 patients (24 X 9%) presented an abnormal response (syncope or pre-syncope).", "Furthermore, 58 of those patients (17 X 5%) suffered a period of asystole (> or = 3000 ms) during the test.", "Asystole (median (interquartile range)) lasted 10 (4, 19 X 2) s (range 3-90).", "Two different protocols (angles) of tilting (Westminster (60 degrees) n=1124; isoproterenol (80 degrees) n=198)) influenced the time to the syncopal episode (13 (6 X 5, 20 X 5) vs 2 (1, 6 X 5) min, P=0,0005) but not the duration of the asystole.", "During this period, therapy for asystole featured three different stages: first patients were treated with pacemakers; later drug therapy (metoprolol and/or etilefrine) was recommended; lastly (from 1995), no specific treatment was given.", "In a cohort age- and gender-matched study, those patients without were compared to those with asystole in a 2:1 basis.", "During 40 X 7 months of follow-up (17 X 7, 66 X 8), 12 patients (20 X 6%) with asystole had syncopal recurrences.", "Furthermore, 34 patients (28 X 8%) without asystole presented syncopal episodes during a follow-up of 51 X 6 months (29 X 3, 73 X 1) (P=ns).", "The Kaplan-Meier analysis in patients with and without asystole showed a mean time free of recurrence of 92 X 6 +/-", "6 months vs 82 X 6 +/-", "4 X 7 months (P=ns).", "The previous number of syncopes had a significant relationship with recurrences (P=0 X 002), but not therapy.", "There were no cardiac related deaths. \n", "CONCLUSIONS (1) Asystole during head-up tilt test does not imply a malignant outcome and syncope recurrence is low; (2) pacemaker or drug therapy do not significantly influence outcome which correlates to the previous number of syncopal episodes but not to gender, age, asystole occurrence, asystole duration and timing to asystole during head-up tilt test; (3) tilting protocol (angle) might influence time to and incidence of asystole during head-up tilt test." ]
true
327,319
"ZINC 15 – Ligand Discovery for Everyone"
[ "Many questions about the biological activity and availability of small molecules remain inaccessible to investigators who could most benefit from their answers.", "To narrow the gap between chemoinformatics and biology, we have developed a suite of ligand annotation, purchasability, target, and biology association tools, incorporated into ZINC and meant for investigators who are not computer specialists.", "The new version contains over 120 million purchasable \"drug-like\" compounds--effectively all organic molecules that are for sale--a quarter of which are available for immediate delivery.", "ZINC connects purchasable compounds to high-value ones such as metabolites, drugs, natural products, and annotated compounds from the literature.", "Compounds may be accessed by the genes for which they are annotated as well as the major and minor target classes to which those genes belong.", "It offers new analysis tools that are easy for nonspecialists yet with few limitations for experts.", "ZINC retains its original 3D roots--all molecules are available in biologically relevant, ready-to-dock formats.", "ZINC is freely available at http://zinc15.docking.org." ]
false
335,029
"Condensin-mediated remodeling of the mitotic chromatin landscape in fission yeast"
[ "The eukaryotic genome consists of DNA molecules far longer than the cells that contain them.", "They reach their greatest compaction during chromosome condensation in mitosis.", "This process is aided by condensin, a structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family member.", "The spatial organization of mitotic chromosomes and how condensin shapes chromatin architecture are not yet fully understood.", "Here we use chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) to study mitotic chromosome condensation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.", "This showed that the interphase landscape characterized by small chromatin domains is replaced by fewer but larger domains in mitosis.", "Condensin achieves this by setting up longer-range, intrachromosomal DNA interactions, which compact and individualize chromosomes.", "At the same time, local chromatin contacts are constrained by condensin, with profound implications for local chromatin function during mitosis.", "Our results highlight condensin as a major determinant that changes the chromatin landscape as cells prepare their genomes for cell division." ]
false
341,324
"Efficacy of the 6-month thrice-weekly regimen in the treatment of new sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis under clinical trial conditions."
[ "BACKGROUND Under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme of India, patients with new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis are treated with a thrice-weekly regimen of antitubercular drugs (2H(3)R(3)Z(3)E(3)/4H(3)R(3) [H isoniazid, R rifampicin, Z pyrazinamide and E ethambutol]) for 6 months.", "We conducted a retrospective analysis of the efficacy andtolerability of this regimen under clinical trial conditions in HIV-negative patients with newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. \n", "METHODS We retrospectively analysed the data on patients assigned to the control regimen (2H (3)R(3)Z(3)E(3)/4H(3)R(3)) in two clinical trials during 2001-06 at the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai, India. \n", "RESULTS Of the 268 patients treated with this regimen, data for efficacy analysis were available for 249.", "At the end of treatment, of 249 patients, 238 (96%) had a favourable status.", "Treatment failure occurred in the remaining 11: 7 in whom the organisms were initially drug-susceptible and 4 with initial drug resistance.", "Of the 238 patients who had a favourable status at the end of treatment, 14 (6%) had recurrence of tuberculosis during the following 24 months.", "In the intention-to-treat analysis, 245 (94%) of 262 patients had a favourable status at the end of treatment.", "Of the 28 patients with initial drug resistance, 24 (86%) had a favourable outcome.", "Only 4 of these 24 patients were found to have recurrence of tuberculosis in 2 years of follow-up.", "Among the 221 patients initially infected with drug-susceptible organisms, drug resistance did not develop in any of the 7 patients in whom the treatment failed or the 10 who had recurrence of tuberculosis.", "Further, 5 of the 7 patients in whom the treatment failed continued to excrete drug-susceptible bacilli at 6 months.", "Adverse drug reactions were observed in 38 (14%) of the 262 patients.", "Only 3 (1.1%) needed a modification in the treatment. \n", "CONCLUSION This thrice-weekly 6-month regimen of antitubercular drugs, when administered under full supervision, is associated with a high rate of favourable treatment outcomes in HIV-negative patients with newly diagnosed sputum smearpositive pulmonary tuberculosis.", "There are few adverse drug reactions in these patients." ]
true
343,052
"Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response in IL-1beta-induced human synovial fibroblasts and collagen-induced arthritis in mouse model."
[ "Curcumin, a major component of turmeric, has been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.", "The present study was performed to determine whether curcumin is efficacious against both collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice and IL-1beta-induced activation in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs).", "DBA/1 mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (CII) and treated with curcumin every other day for 2weeks after the initial immunization.", "For arthritis, we evaluated the incidence of disease and used an arthritis index based on paw thickness.", "In vitro proliferation of CII- or concanavalin A-induced splenic T cells was examined using IFN-gamma production.", "Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were examined in the mouse ankle joint and serum IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes were analyzed.", "The expression levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human FLSs were also determined.", "The results showed that compared with untreated CIA mice, curcumin-treated mice downregulated clinical arthritis score, the proliferation of splenic T cells, expression levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in the ankle joint, and expression levels of IgG2a in serum.", "Additionally, by altering nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB transcription activity in FLSs, curcumin inhibited PGE(2) production, COX-2 expression, and MMP secretion.", "These results suggest that curcumin can effectively suppress inflammatory response by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators and regulating humoral and cellular immune responses." ]
false
344,240
"Loss of IGF-IEa or IGF-IEb impairs myogenic differentiation."
[ "Actions of protein products resulting from alternative splicing of the Igf1 gene have received increasing attention in recent years.", "However, the significance and functional relevance of these observations remain poorly defined.", "To address functions of IGF-I splice variants, we examined the impact of loss of IGF-IEa and IGF-IEb on the proliferation and differentiation of cultured mouse myoblasts.", "RNA interference-mediated reductions in total IGF-I, IGF-IEa alone, or IGF-IEb alone had no effect on cell viability in growth medium.", "However, cells deficient in total IGF-I or IGF-IEa alone proliferated significantly slower than control cells or cells deficient in IGF-IEb in serum-free media.", "Simultaneous loss of both or specific loss of either splice variant significantly inhibited myosin heavy chain (MyHC) immunoreactivity by 70-80% (P < 0.01) under differentiation conditions (48 h in 2% horse serum) as determined by Western immunoblotting.", "This loss in protein was associated with reduced MyHC isoform mRNAs, because reductions in total IGF-I or IGF-IEa mRNA significantly reduced MyHC mRNAs by approximately 50-75% (P < 0.05).", "Loss of IGF-IEb also reduced MyHC isoform mRNA significantly, with the exception of Myh7, but to a lesser degree (∼20-40%, P < 0.05).", "Provision of mature IGF-I, but not synthetic E peptides, restored Myh3 expression to control levels in cells deficient in IGF-IEa or IGF-IEb.", "Collectively, these data suggest that IGF-I splice variants may regulate myoblast differentiation through the actions of mature IGF-I and not the E peptides." ]
false
350,542
"Antimicrobial peptide pleurocidin synergizes with antibiotics through hydroxyl radical formation and membrane damage, and exerts antibiofilm activity."
[ "BACKGROUND Pleurocidin, a 25-mer antimicrobial peptide (AMP), is known to exert bactericidal activity.", "However, the synergistic activity and mechanism(s) of pleurocidin in combination with conventional antibiotics, and the antibiofilm effect of the peptide are poorly understood. \n", "METHODS The interaction between pleurocidin and antibiotics was evaluated using checkerboard assay.", "To study the mechanism(s) involved in their synergism, we detected hydroxyl radical formation using 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein, measured the NAD(+)/NADH ratio by NAD(+) cycling assay, observed change in bacterial viability with the hydroxyl radical scavenger thiourea, and investigated cytoplasmic membrane damage using propidium iodide.", "Also, the antibiofilm effect of pleurocidin was examined with the tissue culture plate method. \n", "RESULTS All combinations of pleurocidin and antibiotics showed synergistic interaction against bacterial strains (fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI)≤0.5) except for Enterococcus faecium treated with a combination of the peptide and ampicillin (FICI=0.75).", "We identified that pleurocidin alone and in combinations with antibiotics induced formation of hydroxyl radicals.", "The oxidative stress was caused by a transient NADH depletion and the addition of thiourea prevented bacterial death, especially in the case of the combined treatment of pleurocidin and ampicillin showing synergisms.", "The combination of pleurocidin and erythromycin increased permeability of bacterial cytoplasmic membrane.", "Additionally, pleurocidin exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on preformed biofilm of bacterial organisms.", "In conclusion, pleurocidin synergized with antibiotics through hydroxyl radical formation and membrane-active mechanism, and exerted antibiofilm activity. ", "GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE The synergistic effect between pleurocidin and antibiotics suggests the AMP is a potential therapeutic agent and adjuvant for antimicrobial chemotherapy." ]
true
356,218
"Outcome of pregnancy in women with moderate or severe renal insufficiency."
[ "BACKGROUND Pregnant women with mild preexisting renal disease have relatively few complications of pregnancy, but the risks of maternal and obstetrical complications in women with moderate or severe renal insufficiency remain uncertain. \n", "METHODS We determined the frequency and types of maternal and obstetrical complications and the outcomes of pregnancy in 67 women with primary renal disease (82 pregnancies).", "All the women had initial serum creatinine concentrations of at least 1.4 mg per deciliter (124 mumol per liter) and gestations that continued beyond the first trimester. \n", "RESULTS The mean (+/-", "SD) serum creatinine concentration increased from 1.9 +/-", "0.8 mg per deciliter (168 +/-", "71 mumol per liter) in early pregnancy to 2.5 +/-", "1.3 mg per deciliter (221 +/-", "115 mumol per liter) in the third trimester.", "The frequency of hypertension rose from 28 percent at base line to 48 percent in the third trimester, and that of high-grade proteinuria (urinary protein excretion, > 3000 mg per liter) from 23 percent to 41 percent.", "For the 70 pregnancies (57 women) for which data were available during pregnancy and immediately post partum, pregnancy-related loss of maternal renal function occurred in 43 percent.", "Eight of these pregnancies (10 percent of the total) were associated with rapid acceleration of maternal renal insufficiency.", "Obstetrical complications included a high rate of preterm delivery (59 percent) and growth retardation (37 percent).", "The infant survival rate was 93 percent. \n", "CONCLUSIONS Among pregnant women with moderate or severe renal insufficiency, the rates of complications due to worsening renal function, hypertension, and obstetrical complications are increased, but fetal survival is high." ]
true
364,522
"High-mobility group box-1 protein induces osteogenic phenotype changes in aortic valve interstitial cells."
[ "OBJECTIVES Calcific aortic valve (AV) disease is known to be an inflammation-related process.", "High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been reported to participate in several inflammatory diseases.", "The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the HMGB1-TLR4 axis is involved in calcific AV disease, and to evaluate the effect of HMGB1, and its potential mechanisms, on the pro-osteogenic phenotype change of valvular interstitial cells (VICs). \n", "METHODS Expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 in human calcific AVs was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and immunoblotting.", "Cultured VICs were used as an in vitro model.", "The VICs were stimulated with HMGB1 for analysis, with versus without TLR4 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA), c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK MAPK), and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inhibitors. \n", "RESULTS Enhanced accumulation of HMGB1 and TLR4 was observed in calcific valves.", "Moreover, we found that HMGB1 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and promoted the osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VICs.", "In addition, HMGB1 induced phosphorylation of JNK MAPK and NF-κB. However, these effects were markedly suppressed by siRNA silencing of TLR4.", "In addition, blockade of JNK MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation prohibited HMGB1-induced production of pro-osteogenic factors, and mineralization of VICs. \n", "CONCLUSIONS The HMGB1 protein may promote osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VICs, through the TLR4-JNK-NF-κB signaling pathway." ]
true
365,896
"RiboSys, a high-resolution, quantitative approach to measure the in vivo kinetics of pre-mRNA splicing and 3'-end processing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
[ "We describe methods for obtaining a quantitative description of RNA processing at high resolution in budding yeast.", "As a model gene expression system, we constructed tetON (for induction studies) and tetOFF (for repression, derepression, and RNA degradation studies) yeast strains with a series of reporter genes integrated in the genome under the control of a tetO7 promoter.", "Reverse transcription and quantitative real-time-PCR (RT-qPCR) methods were adapted to allow the determination of mRNA abundance as the average number of copies per cell in a population.", "Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) measurements of transcript numbers in individual cells validated the RT-qPCR approach for the average copy-number determination despite the broad distribution of transcript levels within a population of cells.", "In addition, RT-qPCR was used to distinguish the products of the different steps in splicing of the reporter transcripts, and methods were developed to map and quantify 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation.", "This system permits pre-mRNA production, splicing, 3'-end maturation and degradation to be quantitatively monitored with unprecedented kinetic detail, suitable for mathematical modeling.", "Using this approach, we demonstrate that reporter transcripts are spliced prior to their 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation, that is, cotranscriptionally." ]
false
368,506
"Generation of mice with a conditional allele for the p75(NTR) neurotrophin receptor gene."
[ "The p75(NTR) neurotrophin receptor has been implicated in multiple biological and pathological processes.", "While significant advances have recently been made in understanding the physiologic role of p75(NTR) , many details and aspects remain to be determined.", "This is in part because the two existing knockout mouse models (Exons 3 or 4 deleted, respectively), both display features that defy definitive conclusions.", "Here we describe the generation of mice that carry a conditional p75(NTR) (p75(NTR-FX) ) allele made by flanking Exons 4-6, which encode the transmembrane and all cytoplasmic domains, by loxP sites.", "To validate this novel conditional allele, both neural crest-specific p75(NTR) /Wnt1-Cre mutants and conventional p75(NTR) null mutants were generated.", "Both mutants displayed abnormal hind limb reflexes, implying that loss of p75(NTR) in neural crest-derived cells causes a peripheral neuropathy similar to that seen in conventional p75(NTR) mutants.", "This novel conditional p75(NTR) allele will offer new opportunities to investigate the role of p75(NTR) in specific tissues and cells." ]
false
371,289
"A Triple-Stain Flow Cytometric Method to Assess Plasma- and Acrosome-Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Bovine Sperm Immediately after Thawing in Presence of Egg-Yolk Particles1"
[ "Abstract Simultaneously evaluating postthaw viability and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa by flow cytometry would provide a valuable testing tool in both research and routine work.", "In the present study, a new triple-stain combination was developed for the simultaneous evaluation of viability and acrosome integrity of bovine sperm processed in egg yolk-based extender by flow cytometer.", "SYBR-14 and propidium iodide (PI) enabled the discrimination of sperm cells from egg yolk and debris particles, which was instrumental for the flow cytometric analyses of frozen-thawed bovine sperm, because it implied that washing steps to remove egg yolk were no longer required.", "In addition, phycoerythrin-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PE-PNA) was used to discriminate acrosome-damaged/reacted sperm cells from acrosome-intact cells.", "Repeatability was calculated using two processed ejaculates of 10 bulls.", "Three straws per batch were analyzed in duplicate measurements.", "Method-agreement analysis between the SYBR-14/PE-PNA/PI and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated PNA was performed, with FITC-PNA/PI staining being carried out on 14 frozen-thawed semen samples immediately after thawing and after a 3-h incubation at 37°C.", "The British Standards Institution repeatability index of the SYBR-14/PE-PNA/PI combination was 2.6%.", "On average, the FITC-PNA/PI method showed a 6.3% overestimation of the live and acrosome-intact sperm cell subpopulation.", "In conclusion, the new triple-stain combination is highly repeatable and easy to use in routine application, and it provides a more precise estimate for the rate of sperm cells with intact head membrane and acrosome compared to the generally used and validated FITC-PNA/PI staining." ]
false
374,902
"Universal voluntary HIV testing with immediate antiretroviral therapy as a strategy for elimination of HIV transmission: a mathematical model."
[ "BACKGROUND Roughly 3 million people worldwide were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2007, but an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of treatment and a further 2.7 million became infected with HIV in 2007.", "Prevention efforts might reduce HIV incidence but are unlikely to eliminate this disease.", "We investigated a theoretical strategy of universal voluntary HIV testing and immediate treatment with ART, and examined the conditions under which the HIV epidemic could be driven towards elimination. \n", "METHODS We used mathematical models to explore the effect on the case reproduction number (stochastic model) and long-term dynamics of the HIV epidemic (deterministic transmission model) of testing all people in our test-case community (aged 15 years and older) for HIV every year and starting people on ART immediately after they are diagnosed HIV positive.", "We used data from South Africa as the test case for a generalised epidemic, and assumed that all HIV transmission was heterosexual. \n", "FINDINGS The studied strategy could greatly accelerate the transition from the present endemic phase, in which most adults living with HIV are not receiving ART, to an elimination phase, in which most are on ART, within 5 years.", "It could reduce HIV incidence and mortality to less than one case per 1000 people per year by 2016, or within 10 years of full implementation of the strategy, and reduce the prevalence of HIV to less than 1% within 50 years.", "We estimate that in 2032, the yearly cost of the present strategy and the theoretical strategy would both be US$1.7 billion; however, after this time, the cost of the present strategy would continue to increase whereas that of the theoretical strategy would decrease. \n", "INTERPRETATION Universal voluntary HIV testing and immediate ART, combined with present prevention approaches, could have a major effect on severe generalised HIV/AIDS epidemics.", "This approach merits further mathematical modelling, research, and broad consultation." ]
true
380,526
"Common variants in DGKK are strongly associated with risk of hypospadias"
[ "Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia.", "We performed a genome-wide association study using pooled DNA from 436 individuals with hypospadias (cases) and 494 controls of European descent and selected the highest ranked SNPs for individual genotyping in the discovery sample, an additional Dutch sample of 133 cases and their parents, and a Swedish series of 266 cases and 402 controls.", "Individual genotyping of two SNPs (rs1934179 and rs7063116) in DGKK, encoding diacylglycerol kinase κ, produced compelling evidence for association with hypospadias in the discovery sample (allele-specific odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, P = 2.5 × 10−11 and OR = 2.3, P = 2.9 × 10−9, respectively) and in the Dutch (OR = 3.9, P = 2.4 × 10−5 and OR = 3.8, P = 3.4 × 10−5) and Swedish (OR = 2.5, P = 2.6 × 10−8 and OR = 2.2, P = 2.7 × 10−6) replication samples.", "Expression studies showed expression of DGKK in preputial tissue of cases and controls, which was lower in carriers of the risk allele of rs1934179 (P = 0.047).", "We propose DGKK as a major risk gene for hypospadias." ]
false
381,602
"Neutrophils Suppress Intraluminal NK Cell-Mediated Tumor Cell Clearance and Enhance Extravasation of Disseminated Carcinoma Cells."
[ "UNLABELLED Immune cells promote the initial metastatic dissemination of carcinoma cells from primary tumors.", "In contrast to their well-studied functions in the initial stages of metastasis, the specific roles of immunocytes in facilitating progression through the critical later steps of the invasion-metastasis cascade remain poorly understood.", "Here, we define novel functions of neutrophils in promoting intraluminal survival and extravasation at sites of metastatic dissemination.", "We show that CD11b(+)/Ly6G(+) neutrophils enhance metastasis formation via two distinct mechanisms.", "First, neutrophils inhibit natural killer cell function, which leads to a significant increase in the intraluminal survival time of tumor cells.", "Thereafter, neutrophils operate to facilitate extravasation of tumor cells through the secretion of IL1β and matrix metalloproteinases.", "These results identify neutrophils as key regulators of intraluminal survival and extravasation through their cross-talk with host cells and disseminating carcinoma cells. ", "SIGNIFICANCE This study provides important insights into the systemic contributions of neutrophils to cancer metastasis by identifying how neutrophils facilitate intermediate steps of the invasion-metastasis cascade.", "We demonstrate that neutrophils suppress natural killer cell activity and increase extravasation of tumor cells.", "Cancer Discov; 6(6); 630-49.", "©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 561." ]
false
393,001
"High Km soluble 5'-nucleotidase from human placenta. Properties and allosteric regulation by IMP and ATP."
[ "A human placental soluble \"high Km\" 5'-nucleotidase has been separated from \"low Km\" 5'-nucleotidase and nonspecific phosphatase by AMP-Sepharose affinity chromatography.", "The enzyme was purified 8000-fold to a specific activity of 25.6 mumol/min/mg.", "The subunit molecular mass is 53 kDa, and the native molecular mass is 210 kDa, suggesting a tetrameric structure.", "Soluble high Km 5'-nucleotidase is most active with IMP and GMP and their deoxy derivatives.", "IMP is hydrolyzed 15 times faster than AMP.", "The enzyme has a virtually absolute requirement for magnesium ions and is regulated by them.", "Purine nucleoside 5'-triphosphates strongly activate the enzyme with the potency order dATP greater than ATP greater than GTP.", "2,3-Diphosphoglycerate activates the enzyme as potently as ATP.", "Three millimolar ATP decreased the Km for IMP from 0.33 to 0.09 mM and increased the Vmax 12-fold.", "ATP activation was modified by the IMP concentration.", "At 20 microM IMP the ATP-dependent activation curve was sigmoidal, while at 2 mM IMP it was hyperbolic.", "The A0.5 values for ATP were 2.26 and 0.70 mM, and the relative maximal velocities were 32.9 and 126.0 nmol/min, respectively.", "Inorganic phosphate shifts the hyperbolic substrate velocity relationship for IMP to a sigmoidal one.", "With physiological concentrations of cofactors (3 mM ATP, 1-4 mM Pi, 150 mM KCl) at pH 7.4, the enzyme is 25-35 times more active toward 100 microM IMP than 100 microM AMP.", "These data show that: (a) soluble human placental high Km 5'-nucleotidase coexists in human placenta with the low Km enzyme; (b) under physiological conditions the enzyme favors the hydrolysis of IMP and is critically regulated by IMP, ATP, and Pi levels; and (c) kinetic properties of ATP and IMP are each modified by the other compound suggesting complex interaction of the associated binding sites." ]
false
406,733
"Histones are incorporated in trans during reassembly of the yeast PHO5 promoter."
[ "In yeast, remodeling of PHO5 promoter chromatin upon activation is accompanied by transient hyperacetylation and subsequent eviction of histones from the promoter in trans.", "In the course of rerepression, nucleosomes have to be reassembled on the promoter.", "We have analyzed where the histones for reassembly of the inactive promoter chromatin come from.", "The use of a strain with two differently tagged and differently regulated versions of histone H3 allowed us to discriminate between histones originating from the chromatin fraction and histones arising from the soluble histone pool.", "In this way, we show that the incorporated histones originate from a source in trans.", "Promoter closure occurs very rapidly, and the histone chaperones Asf1 and Hir1 as well as the SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeling complex appear to be important for rapid reassembly of nucleosomes at the PHO5 promoter." ]
false
409,280
"National study of physician awareness and adherence to cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines."
[ "BACKGROUND Few data have evaluated physician adherence to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines according to physician specialty or patient characteristics, particularly gender. \n", "METHODS AND RESULTS An online study of 500 randomly selected physicians (300 primary care physicians, 100 obstetricians/gynecologists, and 100 cardiologists) used a standardized questionnaire to assess awareness of, adoption of, and barriers to national CVD prevention guidelines by specialty.", "An experimental case study design tested physician accuracy and determinants of CVD risk level assignment and application of guidelines among high-, intermediate-, or low-risk patients.", "Intermediate-risk women, as assessed by the Framingham risk score, were significantly more likely to be assigned to a lower-risk category by primary care physicians than men with identical risk profiles (P<0.0001), and trends were similar for obstetricians/gynecologists and cardiologists.", "Assignment of risk level significantly predicted recommendations for lifestyle and preventive pharmacotherapy.", "After adjustment for risk assignment, the impact of patient gender on preventive care was not significant except for less aspirin (P<0.01) and more weight management recommended (P<0.04) for intermediate-risk women.", "Physicians did not rate themselves as very effective in their ability to help patients prevent CVD.", "Fewer than 1 in 5 physicians knew that more women than men die each year from CVD. \n", "CONCLUSIONS Perception of risk was the primary factor associated with CVD preventive recommendations.", "Gender disparities in recommendations for preventive therapy were explained largely by the lower perceived risk despite similar calculated risk for women versus men.", "Educational interventions for physicians are needed to improve the quality of CVD preventive care and lower morbidity and mortality from CVD for men and women." ]
true
410,286
"TECHNICAL ADVANCE Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated"
[ "The Agrobacterium vacuum infiltration method has made it possible to transform Arabidopsis thaliana without plant tissue culture or regeneration.", "In the present study, this method was evaluated and a substantially modified transformation method was developed.", "The labor-intensive vacuum infiltration process was eliminated in favor of simple dipping of developing floral tissues into a solution containing Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 5% sucrose and 500 microliters per litre of surfactant Silwet L-77.", "Sucrose and surfactant were critical to the success of the floral dip method.", "Plants inoculated when numerous immature floral buds and few siliques were present produced transformed progeny at the highest rate.", "Plant tissue culture media, the hormone benzylamino purine and pH adjustment were unnecessary, and Agrobacterium could be applied to plants at a range of cell densities.", "Repeated application of Agrobacterium improved transformation rates and overall yield of transformants approximately twofold.", "Covering plants for 1 day to retain humidity after inoculation also raised transformation rates twofold.", "Multiple ecotypes were transformable by this method.", "The modified method should facilitate high-throughput transformation of Arabidopsis for efforts such as T-DNA gene tagging, positional cloning, or attempts at targeted gene replacement." ]
false
418,246
"Pathway connectivity and signaling coordination in the yeast stress-activated signaling network"
[ "Stressed cells coordinate a multi-faceted response spanning many levels of physiology.", "Yet knowledge of the complete stress-activated regulatory network as well as design principles for signal integration remains incomplete.", "We developed an experimental and computational approach to integrate available protein interaction data with gene fitness contributions, mutant transcriptome profiles, and phospho-proteome changes in cells responding to salt stress, to infer the salt-responsive signaling network in yeast.", "The inferred subnetwork presented many novel predictions by implicating new regulators, uncovering unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways, and pointing to previously unknown 'hubs' of signal integration.", "We exploited these predictions to show that Cdc14 phosphatase is a central hub in the network and that modification of RNA polymerase II coordinates induction of stress-defense genes with reduction of growth-related transcripts.", "We find that the orthologous human network is enriched for cancer-causing genes, underscoring the importance of the subnetwork's predictions in understanding stress biology." ]
false
427,082
"Premigratory and migratory neural crest cells are multipotent in vivo."
[ "The neural crest (NC) is an embryonic stem/progenitor cell population that generates a diverse array of cell lineages, including peripheral neurons, myelinating Schwann cells, and melanocytes, among others.", "However, there is a long-standing controversy as to whether this broad developmental perspective reflects in vivo multipotency of individual NC cells or whether the NC is comprised of a heterogeneous mixture of lineage-restricted progenitors.", "Here, we resolve this controversy by performing in vivo fate mapping of single trunk NC cells both at premigratory and migratory stages using the R26R-Confetti mouse model.", "By combining quantitative clonal analyses with definitive markers of differentiation, we demonstrate that the vast majority of individual NC cells are multipotent, with only few clones contributing to single derivatives.", "Intriguingly, multipotency is maintained in migratory NC cells.", "Thus, our findings provide definitive evidence for the in vivo multipotency of both premigratory and migrating NC cells in the mouse." ]
false
427,865
"Implementing the ESHRE 'poor responder' criteria in research studies: methodological implications."
[ "The Bologna criteria for defining poor ovarian response (POR) during IVF provide a useful template for new research in this field of assisted conception.", "However, designing studies around the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology POR criteria can be methodologically challenging, as the new definition includes various POR subpopulations with diverse baseline characteristics and unknown clinical prognosis.", "When designing RCTs, potential result bias may be introduced if women from each subpopulation are not evenly allocated between intervention groups.", "In the case of small or moderate-size RCTs, a single-sequence randomization method may not ensure balanced allocation between groups.", "Stratified randomization methods provide an alternative methodological approach.", "Depending on the chosen methodology, patient characteristics and outcomes within each intervention group may be better reported according to relevant subpopulations." ]
false
432,261
"Generation of gene-edited rats by delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 protein and donor DNA into intact zygotes using electroporation"
[ "The generation of gene-edited animals using the CRISPRs/Cas9 system is based on microinjection into zygotes which is inefficient, time consuming and demands high technical skills.", "We report the optimization of an electroporation method for intact rat zygotes using sgRNAs and Cas9 protein in combination or not with ssODNs (~100 nt).", "This resulted in high frequency of knockouts, between 15 and 50% of analyzed animals.", "Importantly, using ssODNs as donor template resulted in precise knock-in mutations in 25-100% of analyzed animals, comparable to microinjection.", "Electroporation of long ssDNA or dsDNA donors successfully used in microinjection in the past did not allow generation of genome-edited animals despite dsDNA visualization within zygotes.", "Thus, simultaneous electroporation of a large number of intact rat zygotes is a rapid, simple, and efficient method for the generation of a variety of genome-edited rats." ]
false
435,529
"Uridylation of miRNAs by HEN1 SUPPRESSOR1 in Arabidopsis"
[ "HEN1-mediated 2'-O-methylation has been shown to be a key mechanism to protect plant microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as well as animal piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) from degradation and 3' terminal uridylation [1-8].", "However, enzymes uridylating unmethylated miRNAs, siRNAs, or piRNAs in hen1 are unknown.", "In this study, a genetic screen identified a second-site mutation hen1 suppressor1-2 (heso1-2) that partially suppresses the morphological phenotypes of the hypomorphic hen1-2 allele and the null hen1-1 allele in Arabidopsis.", "HESO1 encodes a terminal nucleotidyl transferase that prefers to add untemplated uridine to the 3' end of RNA, which is completely abolished by 2'-O-methylation.", "heso1-2 affects the profile of u-tailed miRNAs and siRNAs and increases the abundance of truncated and/or normal sized ones in hen1, which often results in increased total amount of miRNAs and siRNAs in hen1.", "In contrast, overexpressing HESO1 in hen1-2 causes more severe morphological defects and less accumulation of miRNAs.", "These results demonstrate that HESO1 is an enzyme uridylating unmethylated miRNAs and siRNAs in hen1.", "These observations also suggest that uridylation may destabilize unmethylated miRNAs through an unknown mechanism and compete with 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activities in hen1.", "This study shall have implications on piRNA uridylation in hen1 in animals." ]
false
437,924
"Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis to Prevent HIV Infection: Current Status, Future Opportunities and Challenges"
[ "As the global incidence of HIV exceeds 2 million new infections annually, effective interventions to decrease HIV transmission are needed.", "Randomized, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with a fixed-dose combination tablet containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine can significantly reduce HIV incidence among diverse at-risk populations.", "In these studies, the efficacy of PrEP was correlated with levels of adherence.", "Official guidelines recommend provision of PrEP to people at greatest risk of HIV acquisition, and demonstration projects suggest that high levels of uptake and adherence are possible outside of controlled studies.", "However, several potential barriers to implementing PrEP remain.", "These challenges include low awareness and utilization of PrEP by at-risk individuals, uncertainty about adherence in ‘real-world’ settings, the majority of healthcare providers being untrained in PrEP provision, limited data about potential adverse effects from long-term use of tenofovir–emtricitabine, high costs of PrEP medications, and stigma associated with PrEP use and the behaviors that would warrant PrEP.", "Innovative pharmacologic chemoprophylactic approaches could provide solutions to some of these challenges.", "Less-than-daily oral dosing regimens and long-acting injectable medications could reduce pill burdens and facilitate adherence, and local delivery of PrEP medications to genital compartments via gels, rings and films may limit systemic drug exposure and potential toxicities.", "As the portfolio of chemoprophylactic agents and delivery systems expands to meet the diverse sexual health needs and product preferences of individuals who may benefit from PrEP, it is hoped that antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis could become an acceptable, feasible, and highly effective addition to existing HIV prevention strategies." ]
false
439,670
"Prepregnancy BMI and the risk of gestational diabetes: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis."
[ "The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI).", "The design is a systematic review of observational studies published in the last 30 years.", "Four electronic databases were searched for publications (1977-2007).", "BMI was elected as the only measure of obesity, and all diagnostic criteria for GDM were accepted.", "Studies with selective screening for GDM were excluded.", "There were no language restrictions.", "The methodological quality of primary studies was assessed.", "Some 1745 citations were screened, and 70 studies (two unpublished) involving 671 945 women were included (59 cohorts and 11 case-controls).", "Most studies were of high or medium quality.", "Compared with women with a normal BMI, the unadjusted pooled odds ratio (OR) of an underweight woman developing GDM was 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69 to 0.82).", "The OR for overweight, moderately obese and morbidly obese women were 1.97 (95% CI 1.77 to 2.19), 3.01 (95% CI 2.34 to 3.87) and 5.55 (95% CI 4.27 to 7.21) respectively.", "For every 1 kg m(-2) increase in BMI, the prevalence of GDM increased by 0.92% (95% CI 0.73 to 1.10).", "The risk of GDM is positively associated with prepregnancy BMI.", "This information is important when counselling women planning a pregnancy." ]
false
456,304
"Multiple risk behaviour: increasing socio-economic gap over time?"
[ "BACKGROUND Unhealthy behaviours often occur in combination.", "In this study the relationship between education and lifestyle, defined as a cluster of risk behaviours, has been analysed with the purpose to assess socio-economic changes in multiple risk behaviour over time. \n", "METHODS Cross-sectional data from the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 1997, 2001 and 2004 were analysed.", "This study is restricted to persons aged ≥ 15 years with information on those health behaviours and education (n = 7431, n = 8142 and n = 7459, respectively).", "A lifestyle index was created based on the sum of the four unhealthy behaviours: smokers vs. non-smokers, risky versus non-risky alcohol use, sedentaryness vs. physically active and poor vs. healthy diet.", "The lifestyle index was dichotomized as low (0-2) vs. high (3-4).", "For the assessment of socio-economic inequalities in multiple risk behaviour, summary measures as Odds Ratio (OR) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated using logistic regression, stratified by sex. \n", "RESULTS Of the adult population, 7.5% combined three to four unhealthy behaviours.", "Lower educated men are the most at risk.", "Besides, the OR among men significantly increased from 1.6 in 2001 to 3.4 in 2004 (P = 0.029).", "The increase of the OR among women was less pronounced.", "The RII, on the other hand, did not show any gradient, neither for men nor for women. \n", "CONCLUSION Multiple risk behaviour is more common among lower educated people.", "An increasing polarization in socio-economic inequalities is assessed from 2001 to 2004 among men.", "Therefore, health promotion programmes should focus on the lower socio-economic classes and target risk behaviours simultaneously." ]
true
457,630
"Variations and Trends in Health Burden of Visual Impairment Due to Cataract: A Global Analysis."
[ "Purpose To evaluate the global trends in health burden of people visually impaired from cataract in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and its correlations with national levels of socioeconomic development. ", "Methods Global, regional, and national DALY numbers, crude rate, and age-standardized rate of cataract vision loss by age and sex were obtained from the database of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.", "The human development index, per capita gross domestic product, and other country-level data were derived from international open databases.", "Regression analysis was used to assess the correlations between age-standardized DALY rate and socioeconomic variables. ", "Results The global DALY numbers of cataract vision loss increased by 89.42%, from 2048.18 (95%CI [confidence interval]: 1457.60-2761.80) thousands in 1990 to 3879.74 (95% CI: 2766.07-5232.43) thousands in 2015 (P < 0.001).", "Females had higher DALY number 315.83 (95%CI: 237.17-394.4) and crude rate 38.29 (95%CI: 35.35-41.23) after adjusting for age and country (all P < 0.001).", "The age-standardized DALY rate was higher in countries with low human development index (HDI), with 91.03 (95%CI: 73.04-108.75) for low HDI, 81.67 (95%CI: 53.24-108.82) for medium HDI, 55.89 (95%CI: 36.87-69.63) for high HDI, and 17.10 (95%CI: 13.91-26.84) for very high HDI countries (P < 0.01), respectively.", "The national age-standardized DALY rates in 2015 were negatively associated with both HDI (R2 = 0.489, P < 0.001) and per capita gross domestic product (R2 = 0.331, P < 0.001).", "Stepwise multiple regression showed that HDI was significantly correlated with national age-standardized DALY rates in 2015 after adjusting for other confounding factors (P < 0.001). ", "Conclusions The global health burden of vision loss due to cataract increased between 1990 and 2015 despite considerable efforts from the World Health Organization and VISION 2020 initiatives." ]
false
461,550
"Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems."
[ "Functional elucidation of causal genetic variants and elements requires precise genome editing technologies.", "The type II prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas adaptive immune system has been shown to facilitate RNA-guided site-specific DNA cleavage.", "We engineered two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems and demonstrate that Cas9 nucleases can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells.", "Cas9 can also be converted into a nicking enzyme to facilitate homology-directed repair with minimal mutagenic activity.", "Lastly, multiple guide sequences can be encoded into a single CRISPR array to enable simultaneous editing of several sites within the mammalian genome, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology." ]
false
463,309
"Transformation of intact yeast cells treated with alkali cations."
[ "Intact yeast cells treated with alkali cations took up plasmid DNA.", "Li+, Cs+, Rb+, K+, and Na+ were effective in inducing competence.", "Conditions for the transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D13-1A with plasmid YRp7 were studied in detail with CsCl.", "The optimum incubation time was 1 h, and the optimum cell concentration was 5 x 10(7) cells per ml.", "The optimum concentration of Cs+ was 1.0 M. Transformation efficiency increased with increasing concentrations of plasmid DNA.", "Polyethylene glycol was absolutely required.", "Heat pulse and various polyamines or basic proteins stimulated the uptake of plasmid DNA.", "Besides circular DNA, linear plasmid DNA was also taken up by Cs+-treated yeast cells, although the uptake efficiency was considerably reduced.", "The transformation efficiency with Cs+ or Li+ was comparable with that of conventional protoplast methods for a plasmid containing ars1, although not for plasmids containing a 2 microns origin replication." ]
false
463,533
"Health-Related Quality of Life as Measured with EQ-5D among Populations with and without Specific Chronic Conditions: A Population-Based Survey in Shaanxi Province, China"
[ "INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by EQ-5D and to investigate the influence of chronic conditions and other risk factors on HRQoL based on a distributed sample located in Shaanxi Province, China. \n", "METHODS A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was performed to select subjects.", "EQ-5D was employed to measure the HRQoL. The likelihood that individuals with selected chronic diseases would report any problem in the EQ-5D dimensions was calculated and tested relative to that of each of the two reference groups.", "Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate factors associated with EQ VAS. \n", "RESULTS The most frequently reported problems involved pain/discomfort (8.8%) and anxiety/depression (7.6%).", "Nearly half of the respondents who reported problems in any of the five dimensions were chronic patients.", "Higher EQ VAS scores were associated with the male gender, higher level of education, employment, younger age, an urban area of residence, access to free medical service and higher levels of physical activity.", "Except for anemia, all the selected chronic diseases were indicative of a negative EQ VAS score.", "The three leading risk factors were cerebrovascular disease, cancer and mental disease.", "Increases in age, number of chronic conditions and frequency of physical activity were found to have a gradient effect. \n", "CONCLUSION The results of the present work add to the volume of knowledge regarding population health status in this area, apart from the known health status using mortality and morbidity data.", "Medical, policy, social and individual attention should be given to the management of chronic diseases and improvement of HRQoL. Longitudinal studies must be performed to monitor changes in HRQoL and to permit evaluation of the outcomes of chronic disease intervention programs." ]
true
464,511
"Memory and Modularity in Cell-Fate Decision Making"
[ "Genetically identical cells sharing an environment can display markedly different phenotypes.", "It is often unclear how much of this variation derives from chance, external signals, or attempts by individual cells to exert autonomous phenotypic programs.", "By observing thousands of cells for hundreds of consecutive generations under constant conditions, we dissect the stochastic decision between a solitary, motile state and a chained, sessile state in Bacillus subtilis.", "We show that the motile state is 'memoryless', exhibiting no autonomous control over the time spent in the state.", "In contrast, the time spent as connected chains of cells is tightly controlled, enforcing coordination among related cells in the multicellular state.", "We show that the three-protein regulatory circuit governing the decision is modular, as initiation and maintenance of chaining are genetically separable functions.", "As stimulation of the same initiating pathway triggers biofilm formation, we argue that autonomous timing allows a trial commitment to multicellularity that external signals could extend." ]
false
469,066
"Lpd depletion reveals that SRF specifies radial versus tangential migration of pyramidal neurons"
[ "During corticogenesis, pyramidal neurons (∼80% of cortical neurons) arise from the ventricular zone, pass through a multipolar stage to become bipolar and attach to radial glia, and then migrate to their proper position within the cortex.", "As pyramidal neurons migrate radially, they remain attached to their glial substrate as they pass through the subventricular and intermediate zones, regions rich in tangentially migrating interneurons and axon fibre tracts.", "We examined the role of lamellipodin (Lpd), a homologue of a key regulator of neuronal migration and polarization in Caenorhabditis elegans, in corticogenesis.", "Lpd depletion caused bipolar pyramidal neurons to adopt a tangential, rather than radial-glial, migration mode without affecting cell fate.", "Mechanistically, Lpd depletion reduced the activity of SRF, a transcription factor regulated by changes in the ratio of polymerized to unpolymerized actin.", "Therefore, Lpd depletion exposes a role for SRF in directing pyramidal neurons to select a radial migration pathway along glia rather than a tangential migration mode." ]
false
470,625
"Identification of p18 INK4c as a tumor suppressor gene in glioblastoma multiforme."
[ "Genomic alterations leading to aberrant activation of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) complexes drive the pathogenesis of many common human tumor types.", "In the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), these alterations are most commonly due to homozygous deletion of p16(INK4a) and less commonly due to genomic amplifications of individual genes encoding cyclins or cdks.", "Here, we describe deletion of the p18(INK4c) cdk inhibitor as a novel genetic alteration driving the pathogenesis of GBM.", "Deletions of p18(INK4c) often occurred in tumors also harboring homozygous deletions of p16(INK4a).", "Expression of p18(INK4c) was completely absent in 43% of GBM primary tumors studied by immunohistochemistry.", "Lentiviral reconstitution of p18(INK4c) expression at physiologic levels in p18(INK4c)-deficient but not p18(INK4c)-proficient GBM cells led to senescence-like G(1) cell cycle arrest.", "These studies identify p18(INK4c) as a GBM tumor suppressor gene, revealing an additional mechanism leading to aberrant activation of cyclin/cdk complexes in this terrible malignancy." ]
false
471,735
"Two-stage control of an oxidative stress regulon: the Escherichia coli SoxR protein triggers redox-inducible expression of the soxS regulatory gene."
[ "Escherichia coli responds to the redox stress imposed by superoxide-generating agents such as paraquat by activating the synthesis of as many as 80 polypeptides.", "Expression of a key group of these inducible proteins is controlled at the transcriptional level by the soxRS locus (the soxRS regulon).", "A two-stage control system was hypothesized for soxRS, in which an intracellular redox signal would trigger the SoxR protein as a transcriptional activator of the soxS gene and the resulting increased levels of SoxS protein would activate transcription of the various soxRS regulon genes (B. Demple and C.F. Amábile Cuevas, Cell 67:837-839, 1990).", "We have constructed operon fusions of the E. coli lac genes to the soxS promoter to monitor soxS transcription.", "Expression from the soxS promoter is strongly inducible by paraquat in a manner strictly dependent on a functional soxR gene.", "Several other superoxide-generating agents also trigger soxR(+)-dependent soxS expression, and the inductions by paraquat and phenazine methosulfate were dependent on the presence of oxygen.", "Numerous other oxidative stress agents (H2O2, gamma rays, heat shock, etc.) failed to induce soxS, while aerobic growth of superoxide dismutase-deficient bacteria triggered soxR-dependent soxS expression.", "These results indicate a specific redox signal for soxS induction.", "A direct role for SoxR protein in the activation of the soxS gene is indicated by band-shift and DNase I footprinting experiments that demonstrate specific binding of the SoxR protein in cell extracts to the soxS promoter.", "The mode of SoxR binding to DNA appears to be similar to that of its homolog MerR in that the SoxR footprint spans the -10 to -35 region of the soxS promoter." ]
false
471,921
"Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association."
[ "Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter.", "Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent increased risk for cardiovascular events in relation to both short- and long-term exposure to present-day concentrations of ambient particulate matter.", "Several plausible mechanistic pathways have been described, including enhanced coagulation/thrombosis, a propensity for arrhythmias, acute arterial vasoconstriction, systemic inflammatory responses, and the chronic promotion of atherosclerosis.", "The purpose of this statement is to provide healthcare professionals and regulatory agencies with a comprehensive review of the literature on air pollution and cardiovascular disease.", "In addition, the implications of these findings in relation to public health and regulatory policies are addressed.", "Practical recommendations for healthcare providers and their patients are outlined.", "In the final section, suggestions for future research are made to address a number of remaining scientific questions." ]
false
474,325
"Non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: helmet versus facial mask"
[ "The helmet is a new interface with the potential of increasing the success rate of non-invasive ventilation by improving tolerance.", "To perform a physiological comparison between the helmet and the conventional facial mask in delivering non-invasive ventilation in hypercapnic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.", "Prospective, controlled, randomized study with cross-over design.", "In 10 patients we evaluated gas exchange, inspiratory effort, patient–ventilator synchrony and patient tolerance after 30 min of non-invasive ventilation delivered either by helmet or facial mask; both trials were preceded by periods of spontaneous unassisted breathing.", "Arterial blood gases, inspiratory effort, duration of diaphragm contraction and ventilator assistance, effort-to-support delays (at the beginning and at the end of inspiration), number of ineffective efforts, and patient comfort.", "Non-invasive ventilation improved gas exchange (p< 0.05) and inspiratory effort (p< 0.01) with both interfaces.", "The helmet, however, was less efficient than the mask in reducing inspiratory effort (p< 0.05) and worsened the patient–ventilator synchrony, as indicated by the longer delays to trigger on (p< 0.05) and cycle off (p< 0.05) the mechanical assistance and by the number of ineffective efforts (p< 0.005).", "Patient comfort was no different with the two interfaces.", "Helmet and facial mask were equally tolerated and both were effective in ameliorating gas exchange and decreasing inspiratory effort.", "The helmet, however, was less efficient in decreasing inspiratory effort and worsened the patient–ventilator interaction." ]
false
485,020
"Case Management and Client Access to Health and Social Services in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment"
[ "A primary goal of case management is to coordinate services across treatment settings and to integrate substance abuse services with other types of services offered in the community, including housing, mental health, medical, and social services.", "However, case management is a global construct that consists of several key dimensions, which include extent of case management coverage, the degree of management of the referral process, and the location of case management activity (on-site, off-site, or both).", "This study examines the relationship between specific dimensions of case management and the utilization of health and ancillary social services in outpatient substance abuse treatment.", "In general, results suggest that more active case management during the referral process and providing case management both on-site and off-site are most consistent with our predictions of greater use of health and ancillary social services by substance abuse clients.", "However, these effects are specific to general health care and mental health services.", "Case management appears to have little effect on use of social services or aftercare plans." ]
false
493,346
"Evidence that the Ipl1-Sli15 (Aurora Kinase-INCENP) Complex Promotes Chromosome Bi-orientation by Altering Kinetochore-Spindle Pole Connections"
[ "How sister kinetochores attach to microtubules from opposite spindle poles during mitosis (bi-orientation) remains poorly understood.", "In yeast, the ortholog of the Aurora B-INCENP protein kinase complex (Ipl1-Sli15) may have a role in this crucial process, because it is necessary to prevent attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules from the same spindle pole.", "We investigated IPL1 function in cells that cannot replicate their chromosomes but nevertheless duplicate their spindle pole bodies (SPBs).", "Kinetochores detach from old SPBs and reattach to old and new SPBs with equal frequency in IPL1+ cells, but remain attached to old SPBs in ipl1 mutants.", "This raises the possibility that Ipl1-Sli15 facilitates bi-orientation by promoting turnover of kinetochore-SPB connections until traction of sister kinetochores toward opposite spindle poles creates tension in the surrounding chromatin." ]
false
496,873
"CRITICAL REVIEW Cutaneous Vasculitis Update: Diagnostic Criteria,"
[ "Vasculitis, inflammation of the vessel wall, can result in mural destruction with hemorrhage, aneurysm formation, and infarction, or intimal-medial hyperplasia and subsequent stenosis leading to tissue ischemia.", "The skin, in part due to its large vascular bed, exposure to cold temperatures, and frequent presence of stasis, is involved in many distinct as well as un-named vasculitic syndromes that vary from localized and self-limited to generalized and life-threatening with multi-organ disease.", "To exclude mimics of vasculitis, diagnosis of cutaneous vasculitis requires biopsy confirmation where its acute signs (fibrinoid necrosis), chronic signs (endarteritis obliterans), or past signs (acellular scar of healed arteritis) must be recognized and presence of extravascular findings such as patterned fibrosis or collagenolytic granulomas noted.", "Although vasculitis can be classified by etiology, many cases have no identifiable cause, and a single etiologic agent can elicit several distinct clinicopathologic expressions of vasculitis.", "Therefore, the classification of cutaneous vasculitis is best approached morphologically by determining vessel size and principal inflammatory response.", "These histologic patterns roughly correlate with pathogenic mechanisms that, when coupled with direct immunofluorescent examination, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) status, and findings from work-up for systemic disease, allow for specific diagnosis, and ultimately, more effective therapy.", "Herein, we review cutaneous vasculitis focusing on diagnostic criteria, classification, epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and evaluation of the cutaneous vasculitis patient." ]
false
502,591
"E2F-dependent histone acetylation and recruitment of the Tip60 acetyltransferase complex to chromatin in late G1."
[ "E2F proteins can either activate or repress transcription.", "Following mitogenic stimulation, repressive E2F4-p130-histone deacetylase complexes dissociate from, while activating species (E2F1, -2, and -3) associate with, target promoters.", "Histones H3 and H4 simultaneously become hyperacetylated, but it remains unclear whether this is a prerequisite or a consequence of E2F binding.", "Here, we show that activating E2F species are required for hyperacetylation of target chromatin in human cells.", "Overexpression of a dominant-negative (DN) E2F1 mutant in serum-stimulated T98G cells blocked all E2F binding, H4 acetylation, and, albeit partially, H3 acetylation.", "Target gene activation and S-phase entry were also blocked by DN E2F1.", "Conversely, ectopic activation of E2F1 rapidly induced H3 and H4 acetylation, demonstrating a direct role for E2F in these events.", "E2F1 was previously shown to bind the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) p300/CBP and PCAF/GCN5.", "In our hands, ectopically expressed E2F1 also bound the unrelated HAT Tip60 and induced recruitment of five subunits of the Tip60 complex (Tip60, TRRAP, p400, Tip48, and Tip49) to target promoters in vivo.", "Moreover, E2F-dependent recruitment of Tip60 to chromatin occurred in late G(1) following serum stimulation.", "We speculate that the activities of multiple HAT complexes account for E2F-dependent acetylation, transcription, and S-phase entry." ]
false
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for "scifact"

Dataset Summary

SciFact, a dataset of 1.4K expert-written scientific claims paired with evidence-containing abstracts, and annotated with labels and rationales

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

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Languages

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Dataset Structure

Data Instances

claims

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 2.72 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 0.25 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 2.97 MB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

{
    "cited_doc_ids": [14717500],
    "claim": "1,000 genomes project enables mapping of genetic sequence variation consisting of rare variants with larger penetrance effects than common variants.",
    "evidence_doc_id": "14717500",
    "evidence_label": "SUPPORT",
    "evidence_sentences": [2, 5],
    "id": 3
}

corpus

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 2.72 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 7.63 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 10.35 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "abstract": "[\"Alterations of the architecture of cerebral white matter in the developing human brain can affect cortical development and res...",
    "doc_id": 4983,
    "structured": false,
    "title": "Microstructural development of human newborn cerebral white matter assessed in vivo by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging."
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

claims

  • id: a int32 feature.
  • claim: a string feature.
  • evidence_doc_id: a string feature.
  • evidence_label: a string feature.
  • evidence_sentences: a list of int32 features.
  • cited_doc_ids: a list of int32 features.

corpus

  • doc_id: a int32 feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • abstract: a list of string features.
  • structured: a bool feature.

Data Splits

claims

train validation test
claims 1261 450 300

corpus

train
corpus 5183

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

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Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

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Who are the source language producers?

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Annotations

Annotation process

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Who are the annotators?

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Personal and Sensitive Information

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Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

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Discussion of Biases

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Other Known Limitations

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Additional Information

Dataset Curators

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Licensing Information

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Citation Information

@inproceedings{scifact2020
  title={ Fact or Fiction: Verifying Scientific Claims},
  author={David,  Wadden and Kyle, Lo and Lucy Lu, Wang and Shanchuan, Lin and Madeleine van, Zuylen and Arman, Cohan and  Hannaneh, Hajishirzi},
  booktitle={2011 AAAI Spring Symposium Series},
  year={2020},
}

Contributions

Thanks to @thomwolf, @lhoestq, @dwadden, @patrickvonplaten, @mariamabarham, @lewtun for adding this dataset.

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