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background : the present study was carried out to assess the effects of community nutrition intervention based on advocacy approach on malnutrition status among school - aged children in shiraz , iran.materials and methods : this case - control nutritional intervention has been done between 2008 and 2009 on 2897 primary and secondary school boys and girls ( 7 - 13 years old ) based on advocacy approach in shiraz , iran . the project provided nutritious snacks in public schools over a 2-year period along with advocacy oriented actions in order to implement and promote nutritional intervention . for evaluation of effectiveness of the intervention growth monitoring indices of pre- and post - intervention were statistically compared.results:the frequency of subjects with body mass index lower than 5% decreased significantly after intervention among girls ( p = 0.02 ) . however , there were no significant changes among boys or total population . the mean of all anthropometric indices changed significantly after intervention both among girls and boys as well as in total population . the pre- and post - test education assessment in both groups showed that the student 's average knowledge score has been significantly increased from 12.5 3.2 to 16.8 4.3 ( p < 0.0001).conclusion : this study demonstrates the potential success and scalability of school feeding programs in iran . community nutrition intervention based on the advocacy process model is effective on reducing the prevalence of underweight specifically among female school aged children .
INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants Instruments Procedure First step Second step Third step Forth step Interventions Fifth step (assessment) Data analysis RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION
backgroundanemia in patients with cancer who are undergoing active therapy is commonly encountered and may worsen quality of life in these patients . the effect of blood transfusion is often temporary and may be associated with serious adverse events . erythropoiesis - stimulating agents are not effective in 30%50% of patients and may have a negative effect on overall survival.aimsto assess the efficacy and feasibility of intravenous iron therapy in patients with cancer who have non - iron - deficiency anemia and who are undergoing treatment with chemotherapy without the use of erythropoiesis - stimulating agents.methodsadult patients with solid cancers and non - iron - deficiency anemia were included . ferric sucrose at a dose of 200 mg was given in short intravenous infusions weekly for a total of 12 weeks . hemoglobin level was measured at baseline , every 3 weeks , and 2 weeks after the last iron infusion ( week 14 ) . adverse events related to intravenous iron were prospectively reported.resultsof 25 patients included , 19 ( 76.0% ) completed at least three iron infusions and 14 ( 56.0% ) finished the planned 12 weeks of therapy . the mean hemoglobin level of the 25 patients at baseline was 9.6 g / dl ( median , 9.9 g / dl ; range , 6.9 g / dl 10.9 g / dl ) . the mean change in hemoglobin level for the 15 patients who completed at least 9 treatments was 1.7 g / dl ( median , 1.1 g / dl ; range , 1.9 g / dl to 3.2 g / dl ) ; it reached 2.1 g / dl ( median , 1.3 g / dl ; range , 0.2 g / dl to 4.6 g / dl ; p = 0.0007 ) for the 14 patients who completed all 12 weekly treatments . five ( 20.0% ) patients were transfused and considered as treatment failures . no treatment - related adverse events were reported.conclusionintravenous iron treatment alone is safe and may reduce blood transfusion requirements and improve hemoglobin level in patients with cancer who are undergoing anticancer therapy . further randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings .
Introduction Patients and methods Study design Treatment Assessment Statistical analysis Results Discussion Conclusion
tardive dystonia ( td ) is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medications , more with typical antipsychotics , that is potentially irreversible in affected patients . studies show that newer atypical antipsychotics have a lower risk of td . as a result , many clinicians may have developed a false sense of security when prescribing these medications . we report a case of 20-year - old male with hyperthymic temperament and borderline intellectual functioning , who developed severe td after low dose short duration exposure to atypical antipsychotic risperidone and then olanzapine . the goal of this paper is to alert the reader to be judicious and cautious before using casual low dose second generation antipsychotics in patient with no core psychotic features , hyperthymic temperament , or borderline intellectual functioning suggestive of organic brain damage , who are more prone to develop adverse effects such as td and monitor the onset of td in patients taking atypical antipsychotics .
INTRODUCTION CASE REPORT DISCUSSION Declaration of patient consent Financial support and sponsorship Conflicts of interest
many lepidopteran insects are agricultural pests that affect stored grains , food and fiber crops . these insects have negative ecological and economic impacts since they lower crop yield , and pesticides are expensive and can have off - target effects on beneficial arthropods . a better understanding of lepidopteran immunity will aid in identifying new targets for the development of specific insect pest management compounds . a fundamental aspect of immunity , and therefore a logical target for control , is the induction of antimicrobial peptide ( amp ) expression . these peptides insert into and disrupt microbial membranes , thereby promoting pathogen clearance and insect survival . pathways leading to amp expression have been extensively studied in the dipteran drosophila melanogaster . however , diptera are an important group of pollinators and pest management strategies that target their immune systems is not recommended . recent advances have facilitated investigation of lepidopteran immunity , revealing both conserved and derived characteristics . although the general pathways leading to amp expression are conserved , specific components of these pathways , such as recognition proteins have diverged . in this review we highlight how such comparative immunology could aid in developing pest management strategies that are specific to agricultural insect pests .
1. Introduction 2. Insect Immunity 3. Signaling Pathways Involved in Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Expression 3.1. Induction of AMP Genes by the NF-kB Family of Transcription Factors 3.2. Recognition and Proteolytic Cascades 3.3. Toll Pathway 3.4. IMD Pathway 4. Conclusions
we present an unusual case of recurrent cough syncope in a 43-year - old woman , which was initially thought to be seizures . syncopal episodes were triggered by paroxysms of cough and were characterized by unresponsiveness and myoclonic jerks in her extremities . she had a left - sided glomus jugulare tumor that extended into the posterior cranial fossa with evidence of worsening communicating hydrocephalus on brain imaging . we postulate that bouts of cough produced increased intracranial pressure both by raising intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressures as well as by transient obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow secondary to intermittent tonsillar herniation during cough . this resulted in diffuse decrease in cerebral blood flow causing syncope . the patient 's syncopal episodes decreased in frequency once an external ventricular drain was placed followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt . search for factors that can increase intracranial pressure seems warranted in patients with recurrent cough syncope .
Introduction Case report Discussion Conflict of interest
world - wide , infertility affects 1015% of couples who are trying to conceive , and about 15% of these cases are caused by male factors , which affect 1 out of 20 men in the general population . most cases of male infertility are idiopathic , apart from several etiologies , such as obstruction of deferent duct , varicocele , sexual dysfunction , and cryptorchidism . although assisted reproductive technology ( art ) has helped many sterile couples to conceive , non - obstructive azoospermia ( noa ) , which accounts for a considerable proportion of male infertility , has a dramatically lower rate of sperm retrieval and clinical pregnancy . the etiological mechanism of noa is unknown , but factors such as oxidative stress were considered to have effects on spermatogenesis , and some antioxidants have been effective in protecting spermatogenesis . therefore , it is helpful to explore the underlying pathogenesis of noa in these patients . micrornas are a class of small rnas that do not code amino acid sequences , but they play fundamental roles in regulating gene expression after transcription . lian et al . found 154 down - regulated mirnas and 19 up - regulated mirnas in testes of noa patients compared to fertile males , by using microarray technologies . furthermore , some of the mirnas have been shown to affect the proliferation , apoptosis , and dna damage in germ cells [ 911 ] . mir-210 is one of the 19 up - regulated mirnas in testes of noa patients , located within the genomic loci of transcript ak123483 . it can be induced by hypoxia , and plays an essential role in cell adaptation to hypoxia . mir-210 also affects regulation of diverse physiological processes , such as angiogenesis , cell survival , proliferation , cell cycle arrest , protein modification , and dna damage repair . although mir-210 has been shown to be involved in regulation of physiological processes in various diseases and to be an up - regulated mirna in testes of noa patients , it remains unknown how mir-210 affects spermatogenesis . hence , the aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which mir-210 is involved in the pathogenesis of spermatogenesis . we enrolled 25 patients ( aged 1841 years ) with azoospermia ( proven by 3 semen analyses from testicular biopsies from the first affiliated hospital of anhui medical university ) . pathological examinations were performed on each testicular specimen . combined with clinical features , 4 patients were diagnosed as having sertoli - cell - only syndrome ( scos ) , 7 patients were diagnosed as having maturation arrest ( ma ) , 8 patients were diagnosed as having hypospermatogenesis , and the other 6 patients were diagnosed as having obstructive azoospermia ( oa ) . all patients provided informed consent before their participation in this study . our local medical ethics committee approved this study before it began . to examine the location of insulin - like growth factor ii ( igf2 ) in human testicular tissues , we performed immunohistochemistry staining to detect the igf2 expression . tissues were cut into sections for immunoperoxidase staining after being treated with 4% pfa and paraffin wax . after the specific treatment with standard - procedure immunohistochemistry staining as described as lian et al . , sections were incubated with igf2 antibody ( abcam ) overnight at 4c and biotinylated secondary antibody ( abcam ) for 2 h at room temperature . to detect expression of mir-210 , rnas were extracted from nt-2 cells or tissues and subjected to real - time pcr as described as lian et al . . briefly , rna extraction was performed following a standard trizol protocol , real - time pcr was carried out with the abi step one system ( applied biosystems ) , and the sybr premix ex taq ii kit ( takara bio , inc . ) was used . primers for q - rt pcr were as follows : forward primer : 5-caataactgtgcgtgtgacagc-3 reverse primer : 5-tatggttttgacgactgtgtgat-3 forward primer : 5-cagcacatatactaaaattggaacg-3 reverse primer : 5-acgaatttgcgtgtcatcc-3 western blot analysis was carried out to detect protein expression of igf2 in the human testicular tissues in the 3 groups and in nt2 cells . anti - igf2 ( abcam ) was used for western blot analysis , and we used -actin as a loading control to detect expression of igf2 . we supplemented the medium with 10% fetal bovine serum ( life technology inc . ) , 1% antibiotics ( 100 units / ml penicillin , and 100 ug / ml streptomycin , life technology inc . ) . cells were incubated at 37c in a humidified incubator with 5% co2 . to transfect oligonucleotides and plasmids into nt-2 cells , lipofectamine rnaimax ( invitrogen ) and fugene hd ( roche ) all processes were performed in accordance with the protocols supplied by manufacturers . in this study , all the experiments were performed independently at least 3 times . we enrolled 25 patients ( aged 1841 years ) with azoospermia ( proven by 3 semen analyses from testicular biopsies from the first affiliated hospital of anhui medical university ) . pathological examinations were performed on each testicular specimen . combined with clinical features , 4 patients were diagnosed as having sertoli - cell - only syndrome ( scos ) , 7 patients were diagnosed as having maturation arrest ( ma ) , 8 patients were diagnosed as having hypospermatogenesis , and the other 6 patients were diagnosed as having obstructive azoospermia ( oa ) . all patients provided informed consent before their participation in this study . to examine the location of insulin - like growth factor ii ( igf2 ) in human testicular tissues , we performed immunohistochemistry staining to detect the igf2 expression . tissues were cut into sections for immunoperoxidase staining after being treated with 4% pfa and paraffin wax . after the specific treatment with standard - procedure immunohistochemistry staining as described as lian et al . , sections were incubated with igf2 antibody ( abcam ) overnight at 4c and biotinylated secondary antibody ( abcam ) for 2 h at room temperature . rnas were extracted from nt-2 cells or tissues and subjected to real - time pcr as described as lian et al . . briefly , rna extraction was performed following a standard trizol protocol , real - time pcr was carried out with the abi step one system ( applied biosystems ) , and the sybr premix ex taq ii kit ( takara bio , inc . ) was used . primers for q - rt pcr were as follows : forward primer : 5-caataactgtgcgtgtgacagc-3 reverse primer : 5-tatggttttgacgactgtgtgat-3 forward primer : 5-cagcacatatactaaaattggaacg-3 reverse primer : 5-acgaatttgcgtgtcatcc-3 western blot analysis was carried out to detect protein expression of igf2 in the human testicular tissues in the 3 groups and in nt2 cells . anti - igf2 ( abcam ) was used for western blot analysis , and we used -actin as a loading control to detect expression of igf2 . we supplemented the medium with 10% fetal bovine serum ( life technology inc . ) , 1% antibiotics ( 100 units / ml penicillin , and 100 ug / ml streptomycin , life technology inc . ) . cells were incubated at 37c in a humidified incubator with 5% co2 . to transfect oligonucleotides and plasmids into nt-2 cells , lipofectamine rnaimax ( invitrogen ) and fugene hd ( roche ) the igf2 gene is part of a cluster of imprinted genes expressing the single polypeptide as igf2 , which is only produced from the paternal allele . the maternal allele is transcriptionally silent . to clarify the location of igf2 in human testicular tissues , we found igf2 located in spermatocytes in the testes of patients with oa ( figure 1 ) . because igf2 is located in spermatocytes of the testis , we detected the expression of igf2 in cases with ma , hypospermatogenesis , and oa , but not in the scos patients . we found that igf2 was down - regulated in patients with ma and hypospermatogenesis compared to oa patients , which was considered as the control group with normal spermatogenesis , although without a significant difference ( figures 2 , 3 ) , possibly because there were fewer samples and longer preservation times of some samples . quantitative real - time pcr was performed to examined mir-210 expression in the testis of patients with ma , hypospermatogenesis , and oa . we found that mir-210 was significantly up - regulated in the testis of ma and hypospermatogenesis patients compared to oa patients ( figure 4 ) . however , due to errors in the rna extraction in the preliminary experiment , 3 testis samples ( 1 each ) from ma , hypospermatogenesis , and oa patients were damaged and were not tested . in the targetscan database , because the 3utr of the igf2-mrna has a putative mir-210-binding site , igf2 was predicted to be a potential target of mir-210 . to identify whether the igf2 gene was targeted by mir-210 directly , renilla luciferase reporters , which include the wild - type full - length 3utr forms of mir-210 seeding sites , figure 5 shows that there was a 60% decrease in luciferase activity after cotransfection of the mir-210 mimic and the renilla luciferase reporters into nt2 cells , and inhibiting mir-210 expression increased activity of the reporter renilla luciferase . expression of igf2 protein was also significantly lower in the nt2 cells transfected with mir-210 mimics than in control cells , and knockdown of mir-210 with mir-210 inhibitor increased protein expression of igf2 ( figures 6 ) . the igf2 gene is part of a cluster of imprinted genes expressing the single polypeptide as igf2 , which is only produced from the paternal allele . the maternal allele is transcriptionally silent . to clarify the location of igf2 in human testicular tissues , we found igf2 located in spermatocytes in the testes of patients with oa ( figure 1 ) . because igf2 is located in spermatocytes of the testis , we detected the expression of igf2 in cases with ma , hypospermatogenesis , and oa , but not in the scos patients . we found that igf2 was down - regulated in patients with ma and hypospermatogenesis compared to oa patients , which was considered as the control group with normal spermatogenesis , although without a significant difference ( figures 2 , 3 ) , possibly because there were fewer samples and longer preservation times of some samples . quantitative real - time pcr was performed to examined mir-210 expression in the testis of patients with ma , hypospermatogenesis , and oa . we found that mir-210 was significantly up - regulated in the testis of ma and hypospermatogenesis patients compared to oa patients ( figure 4 ) . however , due to errors in the rna extraction in the preliminary experiment , 3 testis samples ( 1 each ) from ma , hypospermatogenesis , and oa patients were damaged and were not tested . in the targetscan database , because the 3utr of the igf2-mrna has a putative mir-210-binding site , igf2 was predicted to be a potential target of mir-210 . to identify whether the igf2 gene was targeted by mir-210 directly , renilla luciferase reporters , which include the wild - type full - length 3utr forms of mir-210 seeding sites , were used . figure 5 shows that there was a 60% decrease in luciferase activity after cotransfection of the mir-210 mimic and the renilla luciferase reporters into nt2 cells , and inhibiting mir-210 expression increased activity of the reporter renilla luciferase . expression of igf2 protein was also significantly lower in the nt2 cells transfected with mir-210 mimics than in control cells , and knockdown of mir-210 with mir-210 inhibitor increased protein expression of igf2 ( figures 6 ) . during recent decades several studies have focused on the effects of mirnas on spermatogenesis in male infertility [ 911,17 ] . however , it was not understood how mir-210 , which is one of the up - regulated mirnas in testes of patients with noa , was involved in spermatogenesis in male infertility . the transformation of diploid spermatogonia into mature haploid cells in spermatogenesis is a complex biological process in the testes of males . the insulin / igf system takes part in the processes of cell proliferation , cell growth , differentiation , and survival , which affects nearly every organ in the body . also , insulin / igf plays an important role in the proper function of the testis in males . igf2 binds to igf1r and insr - a with a high affinity and binds to insr - a / igf1r , insr - b / igf1r , but with lower affinity . found that in inactivated insr and igf1r , there was a 79% reduction in daily sperm production in adult mouse testes by a conditional ko approach . taken together , the aforementioned data suggest that igf2 might be involved in the process of spermatogenesis . to examine the specific mechanism by which mir-210 is associated with the process of spermatogenesis , quantitative real - time pcr was performed to detect mir-210 expression . we found that mir-210 was significantly up - regulated in the testes of subjects with ma and hypospermatogenesis patients compared to oa . these results agree with findings of lian et al . using microarray technologies performed in noa and normal controls . several studies have suggested that this mirna could be mediated by hypoxia and participate in various types of regulation of angiogenesis , cell survival , proliferation , cell cycle arrest , and protein modification [ 1214 ] . furthermore , some researchers even found that mir-210 might be considered as one of the indicated markers in some diseases , such as clear cell renal cell carcinoma and acute myeloid leukemia . in the present study we found that igf2 was targeted by mir-210 directly in the in vitro experiment in nt2 cells , and mir-210 might be associated with spermatogenesis by targeting igf2 in male infertility . firstly , as some errors occurred in the rna extraction in the preliminary experiment , mir-210 of 3 testes samples were damaged and not detected in the subsequent quantitative real - time pcr experiment , which might have affected our results . secondly , we did not investigate the functions of mir-210 and igf2 in vitro or in vivo , and we plan to do this in future research . we demonstrated that mir-210 might be associated with spermatogenesis by targeting igf2 in male infertility . future mechanistic studies on the role of mir-210/igf2 in the process of spermatogenesis in male infertility will provide new insights into the diagnosis and management of male infertility .
backgroundmicrornas ( mirnas ) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis . microrna-210 ( mir-210 ) expression was up - regulated in the testes of sterile men with non - obstructive azoospermia ( noa ) . however , the underlying mechanisms of mir-210 involved in the spermatogenesis in patients with noa are unknown.material/methodsexpression of mir-210 and insulin - like growth factor ii ( igf2 ) in the testes of noa cases ( only including maturation arrest and hypospermatogenesis ) were detected in this study . we carried out in vitro experiments to determine if igf2 was directly targeted by mir-210 in nt2 cells.resultscompared with obstructive azoospermia ( oa ) as normal control , our results suggest that mir-210 was significantly up - regulated in testis of patients with noa ( p<0.05 ) , and igf2 was down - regulated , but without a significant difference . the results also indicated that igf2 was directly targeted by mir-210 in nt2 cells.conclusionsthe results showed that mir-210 was involved in spermatogenesis by targeting igf2 in male infertility .
Background Material and Methods Human testicular samples Immunohistochemistry Staining RNA extraction and real-time PCR Western blotting Cell lines/cell culture and transfection Statistical analysis Results IGF2 located in spermatocytes in the testis of patients with OA Down-regulation of IGF2 in testes of MA and hypospermatogenesis patients Up-regulation of miR-210 in testis of MA and hypospermatogenesis patients IGF2 was targeted directly by miR-210 Discussion Conclusions
objective . the objective of this study was to describe the recent clinical characteristics of labor using 3 systems of japanese midwife - led primary delivery care , as follows : ( 1 ) those intending to give birth at home managed by midwives who do not belong to our hospital , ( 2 ) those planning to give birth in our hospital managed by the same midwives , and ( 3 ) those planning to give birth managed by midwives who belong to our hospital . methods . a retrospective cohort study was performed . results . there were no significant differences in the obstetric or neonatal outcomes among the 3 groups . the rate of transfers during labor with the system involving midwives belonging to our hospital was higher than those with the other 2 systems . in addition , the timing of transfers in the system with the midwives belonging to our hospital was earlier than with the other 2 systems . among the 3 groups , there were no significant differences in the rate of the main 2 indications for transfers : fetal heart rate abnormality and failure to progress . conclusion . there were no significant differences in perinatal outcomes among the 3 systems ; however , there were some differences in the status of transfers to obstetric shared care .
1. Introduction 2. Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion
type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance , and enpp1 plays an important role in insulin resistance . we investigated the association of the enpp1 k121q polymorphism with both diabetes and obesity ( body mass index [ bmi ] ) in korean male workers . the study design was case - control . subjects were 1,945 male workers ( type 2 diabetes , 195 ; non - diabetes , 1,750 ) of nuclear power plants who received examinations from march to october in 2004 . we collected venous blood samples under fasting ( 8 hr ) conditions , calculated bmi by height and weight , and assessed relevant biochemical factors . the results of this study demonstrated that the enpp1 121q genotype ( kq+qq types ) was not associated with type 2 diabetes ( odds ratios [ or ] , 0.854 ; 95% confidence interval [ ci ] , 0.571 - 1.278 ) or obesity ( or , 0.933 ; 95% ci , 0.731 - 1.190 ) . in addition , the frequency of the q allele was not related to type 2 diabetes ( or , 0.911 ; 95% ci , 0.630 - 1.319 ) or obesity ( or , 0.962 ; 95% ci , 0.767 - 1.205 ) . we concluded that the enpp1 121q allele is not a critical determinant for either diabetes or obesity in korean males . the discordance between the results of this study and those derived from studies of dominican , south asian , caucasian , finnish , and french populations might be due to differences in genetic backgrounds between these populations .
INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS Subjects DNA extraction and PCR Statistical analysis RESULTS DISCUSSION
lipid apheresis is used to treat patients with severe hyperlipidemia by reducing low - density lipoprotein cholesterol ( ldl - c ) . this study examines the effect of apheresis on the lipid panel and cardiac event rates before and after apheresis . an electronic health record screen of ambulatory patients identified 11 active patients undergoing lipid apheresis with 10/11 carrying a diagnosis of fh . baseline demographics , pre- and postapheresis lipid levels , highest recorded ldl - c , cardiac events , current medications , and first apheresis treatment were recorded . patients completed a questionnaire and self - reported risk factors and interest in alternative treatment . there were significant reductions in mean total cholesterol ( 58.4% ) , ldl - c ( 71.9% ) , triglycerides ( 51% ) , high - density lipoprotein ( hdl ) cholesterol ( 9.3% ) , and non - hdl ( 68.2% ) values . thirty - four cardiac events were documented in 8 patients before apheresis , compared with 9 events in 5 patients after apheresis . our survey showed a high prevalence of statin intolerance ( 64% ) , with the majority ( 90% ) of participants indicating an interest in alternative treatment options . our results have shown that lipid apheresis primary effect is a marked reduction in ldl - c cholesterol levels and may reduce the recurrence of cardiac events . apheresis should be compared to the newer alternative treatment modalities in a randomized fashion due to patient interest in alternative options .
1. Introduction 2. Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion
background : agenesis of the inferior vena cava ( ivc ) as a cause of recurrent deep vein thrombosis ( dvt ) is uncommon.case:a 33-year - old male with no family history of thrombophilia , who had experienced multiple recurrent episodes of dvt over a 15-year period of unknown cause , was admitted into our hospital because of cellulitis in the right leg . computer tomography with contrast of the abdomen showed an absence of ivc.conclusion:congenital absence of the ivc could be a rare risk factor for idiopathic dvt , especially in young individuals .
Background: Case: Conclusion: Background Case Conclusion
we examined the usefulness of brief neuropsychological tests and serum a as a predictive test for detecting mci / ad in older adults . serum a levels were measured from 208 subjects who were cognitively normal at enrollment and blood draw . twenty - eight of the subjects subsequently developed mci ( n = 18 ) or ad ( n = 10 ) over the follow - up period . baseline measures of global cognition , memory , language fluency , and serum a142 and the ratio of serum a142/a140 were significant predictors for future mci / ad using cox regression with demographic variables , apoe 4 , vascular risk factors , and specific medication as covariates . an optimal sensitivity of 85.2% and specificity of 86.5% for predicting mci / ad was achieved using roc analyses . brief neuropsychological tests and measurements of a142 obtained via blood warrants further study as a practical and cost effective method for wide - scale screening for identifying older adults who may be at - risk for pathological cognitive decline .
1. Introduction 2. Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion
we compared serum polychlorinated dibenzo - p - dioxins ( pcdds ) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans ( pcdfs ) among residents of two homes to levels among age- and sex - matched comparison subjects . the residents of the two homes consumed contaminated eggs and beef from animals raised at the homes . the animals had greater soil contact than those raised with conventional commercial husbandry practices . the comparison subjects were from a similar rural area , but did not consume home - produced beef and eggs . serum levels of 2,3,7 , 8-substituted tetra- , penta- , and hexacdds and penta- , hexa- , and heptacdfs were increased between 2- and 6-fold in residents from one home ; contaminated eggs and beef were consumed by residents for 2 - 15 years . elevations were less for those in the other index home , where only home - produced eggs were consumed for 2 years ; a 3-fold elevation of 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexacdd as compared to controls was most apparent . very strong bivariate correlations among all of the 2,3,7 , 8 penta- and hexacdds / cdfs were observed . the elevations observed verify that pcdd / pcdf - contaminated food contributed to the body burden of these compounds . the blood levels among the highest exposed participants are generally higher than those observed in other studies of u.s . contaminated - fish consumers and higher than average adipose tissue levels observed in u.s . urban populations . there are sufficient animal toxicologic and human epidemiologic data to recommend that exposures be reduced . in the study area , pentachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol incineration sources have been identified , and the animal contamination and blood elevations probably reflect these sources . soil reference values and site - specific risk assessments should include estimates of exposures to contamination in home - produced animal products . such estimates can be verified with limited pcdd / pcdf sampling of animals and humans.imagesfigure 1figure 2
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we have previously demonstrated that rad6 and -catenin enhance each other 's expression through a positive feedback loop to promote breast cancer development / progression . while -catenin has been implicated in melanoma pathogenesis , rad6 function has not been investigated . here , we examined the relationship between rad6 and -catenin in melanoma development and progression . eighty - eight cutaneous tumors , 30 nevi , 29 primary melanoma , and 29 metastatic melanomas , were immunostained with anti--catenin and anti - rad6 antibodies . strong expression of rad6 was observed in only 27% of nevi as compared to 100% of primary and 96% of metastatic melanomas . -catenin was strongly expressed in 97% of primary and 93% of metastatic melanomas , and unlike rad6 , in 93% of nevi . none of the tumors expressed nuclear -catenin . -catenin was exclusively localized on the cell membrane of 55% of primary , 62% of metastatic melanomas , and only 10% of nevi . cytoplasmic -catenin was detected in 90% of nevi , 17% of primary , and 8% of metastatic melanoma , whereas 28% of primary and 30% of metastatic melanomas exhibited -catenin at both locations . these data suggest that melanoma development and progression are associated with rad6 upregulation and membranous redistribution of -catenin and that -catenin and rad6 play independent roles in melanoma development .
1. Introduction 2. Materials and Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion
upon oxidation of the heterocyclic ring in 2-deoxyguanosine ( dg ) , the initial electrophilic intermediate displays a wide range of reactivities with nucleophiles leading to many downstream products . in the present study , the product profiles were mapped when aqueous solutions of dg were allowed to react with nh4cl in the presence of the photooxidants riboflavin and rose bengal as well as the diffusible one - electron oxidant na2ircl6 . product characterization identified the 2-deoxyribonucleosides of spiroiminodihydantoin , 5-guanidinohydantoin , and oxazolone resulting from h2o as the nucleophile . when nh3 was the nucleophile , a set of constitutional isomers that are diastereotopic were also observed , giving characteristic masses of dg + 31 . esi+-ms / ms of these nh3 adducts identified them to be spirocycles with substitution of either the c5 or c8 carbonyl with an amine . the nh3 adducts exhibit acid - catalyzed hydrolysis to spiroiminodihydantoin . quantification of the nh3 and h2o adducts resulting from oxidation of dg in the nucleoside , single - stranded , and duplex oligodeoxynucleotide contexts were monitored allowing mechanisms for product formation to be proposed . these data also provide a cautionary note to those who purify their oligonucleotide samples with ammonium salts before oxidation because this will lead to unwanted side reactions in which ammonia participates in product formation .
Introduction Results and Discussion Conclusion Experimental Section
a review of the literature and an extensive medline search revealed that this is the first case report of the use of guaifenesin to increase sperm motility . he reported an inability to conceive with his wife after 18 months of unprotected intercourse . a semen analysis was performed that included spermatozoa count , liquefaction , morphology , motility , viscosity and volume . two months after guaifenesin therapy the semen analysis was repeated that demonstrated marked improvement in both total sperm count and motility . evidence for the effectiveness of guaifenesin is almost entirely anecdotal . given the mechanism of action of guaifenesin , it is not clear from this case why the patient demonstrated such a large improvement in both sperm count and motility . additional studies of the effects of guaifenesin on male fertility could yield information of the medication s effect on men with normal or decreased total sperm counts . there are currently anecdotal reports and popular news media stories on the use of guaifenesin , particularly the brand name product robitussin ( pfizer , inc . , new york , ny ) , for use in treating both male and female infertility.14 guaifenesin is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist expectoration of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections . its mode of action in treating infertility is not well understood , but it appears to decrease mucus viscosity . a 32-year - old male patient presented to his primary care provider for an infertility evaluation . the patient is a nonsmoker , who consumes little or no alcohol with no known allergies . a recent screening exam for pulmonary tuberculosis was negative and the patient had recently undergone a required military service physical exam . he reported an inability to conceive with his wife after 18 months of unprotected , regular intercourse . as part of a routine infertility evaluation a semen analysis was performed that included spermatozoa count , liquefaction , morphology , motility , viscosity and volume ( cpt code 89320 ) . initial results of the semen analysis demonstrated low sperm count and motility ( table 1 ) . this sample , as well as the follow - up sample , were obtained through masturbation and provided to the lab within 30 minutes of collection . the patient s primary care provider offered treatment with guaifenesin 600 mg extended release tablets twice daily . the repeat semen analysis demonstrated marked improvement in both total sperm count and motility ( table 1 ) . the patient made no other significant lifestyle changes during the treatment course with guaifenesin . at the time of writing this case report describes the semen analysis laboratory results in a male patient who was given guaifenesin . guaifenesin is a mucolytic agent usually taken orally to assist the expectoration of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections . scientific evidence for the effectiveness of guaifenesin is almost entirely anecdotal ; a review of medical literature revealed very limited data on use of guaifenesin for infertility.5,6 there appeared to be some improvement in a small study without controls of female infertility related to hostile cervical mucus.5 check regards guaifenesin as the simplest but least effective method of improving cervical mucus.7 given the proposed mechanism of action of guaifenesin , it is not clear from this case why the patient demonstrated such a large improvement in both sperm count and motility . additional study of the effects of guaifenesin on male fertility suggests the need to conduct a more rigorous placebo - controlled clinical trial that could yield information of the medication s effects on men with normal or decreased total sperm counts .
backgrounda review of the literature and an extensive medline search revealed that this is the first case report of the use of guaifenesin to increase sperm motility.casea 32-year - old male presented for an infertility evaluation . he reported an inability to conceive with his wife after 18 months of unprotected intercourse . a semen analysis was performed that included spermatozoa count , liquefaction , morphology , motility , viscosity and volume . initial results of the semen analysis demonstrated low sperm count and motility . the provider offered treatment with guaifenesin 600 mg extended release tablets twice daily . two months after guaifenesin therapy the semen analysis was repeated that demonstrated marked improvement in both total sperm count and motility.conclusionevidence for the effectiveness of guaifenesin is almost entirely anecdotal . given the mechanism of action of guaifenesin , it is not clear from this case why the patient demonstrated such a large improvement in both sperm count and motility . additional studies of the effects of guaifenesin on male fertility could yield information of the medication s effect on men with normal or decreased total sperm counts .
Background Case Conclusion Background Case Conclusion
this was a cross - sectional study that investigated pesticide exposure and its risk factors targeting vegetable farmers selected through cluster sampling . the sampling size calculated with p = .05 was 211 vegetable farmers and 37 farms . the mean usage of pesticide was 21.35 liters . risk factors included damaged backpack sprayer ( 34.7% ) , spills on hands ( 31.8% ) , and spraying against the wind ( 58% ) . the top 3 pesticides used were pyrethroid ( 46.4% ) , organophosphates ( 24.2% ) , and carbamates ( 21.3% ) . those who were exposed to fungicides and insecticides also had higher total pesticide exposure . furthermore , a farmer who was a pesticide applicator , mixer , loader , and who had not been given instructions through training was at risk of having higher pesticide exposure . the most prevalent symptoms were headache ( 64.1% ) , muscle pain ( 61.1% ) , cough ( 45.5% ) , weakness ( 42.4% ) , eye pain ( 39.9% ) , chest pain ( 37.4% ) , and eye redness ( 33.8% ) . the data can be used for the formulation of an integrated program on safety and health in the vegetable industry .
1. Introduction 2. Methodology 3. Results and Discussion 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion
cardiac progenitor cells are multipotent stem cells isolated from both embryonic and adult hearts in several species and are able to differentiate at least into smooth muscle cells , endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes . the embryonic origin of these cells has not yet been demonstrated , but it has been suggested that these cells may derive from the first and secondary heart fields and from the neural crest . in the last decade , two different populations of cardiac progenitor or stem cells have been identified and isolated , i.e. , the islet1 positive ( isl1 + ) and c - kit positive ( c - kit+)/stem cell antigen-1 positive ( sca-1 + ) cells . until 2012 , these two populations have been considered two separate entities with different roles and a different origin , but new evidence now suggests a connection between the two populations and that the two populations may represent two subpopulations of a unique pool of cardiac stem cells , derived from a common immature primitive cell . to find a common consensus on this concept is very important in furthering the application of stem cells to cardiac tissue engineering .
Islet1 positive cells during heart development Isl1 positive cells in the adult heart Concluding remarks
objectiveprimary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis ( pdlg ) is a rare neoplasm with a short survival time of a few months . there is currently no standardized therapeutic approach for pdlg.materials and methodswe report on a 53-year - old male patient who presented with epileptic seizures , gait disturbance , paraparesis and sensory deficits in the dermatomes t8-10.resultsmagnetic resonance imaging ( mri ) revealing numerous spinal and cranial gadolinium - enhancing nodules in the meninges and histopathology led us to diagnose primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis with who grade iii astrocytic cells . consecutively , the patient underwent craniospinal radiotherapy ( 30 gy ) and 11 sequential cycles of temozolomide . this regimen led to partial tumor regression . thirteen months later , spinal mri revealed tumor progression . second - line chemotherapy with 5 cycles of irinotecan and bevacizumab did not prevent further clinical deterioration . the patient died twenty - two months after diagnosis , being the longest survival time described thus far with respect to pdlg consisting of astrocytic tumor cells.conclusionsradiochemotherapy including temozolomide , as established standard therapy for brain malignant astrocytomas , might be valid as a basic therapeutic strategy for this pdlg subtype .
Objective Materials and methods Results Conclusions Introduction Case Report Discussion Conflict of interests
purpose : to investigate to what degree the presence of hypertension ( htn ) and poor glycemic control ( gc ) influences the likelihood of having microalbuminuria ( mau ) among cuban americans with type 2 diabetes ( t2d).methods : a cross - sectional study conducted in cuban americans ( n = 179 ) with t2d . participants were recruited from a randomly generated mailing list purchased from knowledge - base marketing , inc . blood pressure ( bp ) was measured twice and averaged using an adult size cuff . glycosylated hemoglobin ( a1c ) levels were measured from whole blood samples with the roche tina - quant method . first morning urine samples were collected from each participant to determine mau by a semiquantitative assay ( immunodip).results : mau was present in 26% of cuban americans with t2d . a significantly higher percentage of subjects with ma had htn ( p = 0.038 ) and elevated a1c ( p = 0.002 ) than those with normoalbuminuria . logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for covariates , subjects with poor gc were 6.76 times more likely to have mau if they had hypertension compared with those without hypertension ( p = 0.004 ; 95% confidence interval [ ci ] : 1.83 , 23.05).conclusion : the clinical significance of these findings emphasizes the early detection of mau in this hispanic subgroup combined with bp and good gc , which are fundamentals in preventing and treating diabetes complications and improving individuals renal and cardiovascular outcomes .
Introduction Methods Design Study population Study variables Dietary assessment Blood collection Urinary albumin Data analysis Results Discussion Limitations of the study Conclusion
introduction : breast cancer accounts for 19 - 34% of all cancer cases among women in india . there is high mortality due to late stage diagnosis as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and nonexistent breast cancer screening programs . early detection and prompt treatment offer the greatest chance of long - term survival and breast self - examination ( bse ) seems to be a important viable optional substitute for early detection of cancer.objectives:1 ) to assess the level of knowledge of degree college female students on bse . 2 ) to determine the effectiveness of planned teaching program among degree college female students on bse . 3 ) to find the association between pretest knowledge and selected demographic variables.materials and methods : pre - experimental one group pretestpost - test design was carried out among 40 degree female students by using cluster sampling method from selected colleges of udupi district.results:the data analyzed showed that majority ( 52% ) of them was in the age group of 18 - 19 years and 72% of them were had average knowledge on bse in the pretest score . out of 40 participants only one student was performing bse occasionally.conclusions:awareness regarding breast self examination among young generations is useful and it is the most important viable tool for early detection .
INTRODUCTION Purpose Objectives Hypotheses Assumption Variables MATERIALS AND METHODS Data collection instruments Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Data collection procedure RESULT DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS
der p 1 was isolated from house dust mite fecal pellets ( allergon ) by a multistep procedure 6 involving immunoaffinity chromatography on immobilized anti der p 1 mab ( clone 4c1 ; indoor biotechnologies ) , removal of contaminating serine proteases on immobilized soybean trypsin inhibitor ( sigma chemical co. ) , and finally fast protein liquid chromatography ( fplc ) to remove low - molecular - mass contaminants . the purity of the preparation was confirmed by nh2-terminal sequencing on an automatic amino acid sequencer ( applied biosystems , inc . ) , sds - page analysis ( 15% gel ) , and demonstration that enzymatic activity was completely dependent on preactivation with cysteine and totally inhibited by e-64 ( l - trans - epoxysuccinyl - leucylamido [ 4-guanidino]butane ) . protein concentration was determined using a bicinchoninic acid ( bca ) microtiter plate assay and confirmed spectrophotometrically using the empirical absorption coefficient value for der p 1 of e ( 280 nm ) = 16.4 . before use , der p 1 was preactivated with 5 mm cysteine ( sigma chemical co. ) to regenerate its thiol group , which becomes oxidized during purification . the catalytic activity of der p 1 was ascertained in a continuous rate ( kinetic ) assay using the fluorogenic peptide substrate n - tert - butoxy - carbonyl ( boc)-gln - ala - arg7-amino-4-methyl - coumarin ( amc ; reference 6 ) . to block the proteolytic activity of cysteine - activated der p 1 , 1,000-fold molar excess of e-64 ( sigma chemical co. ) was used ; a similar molar ratio of the cysteine protease inhibitor iodoacetamide ( sigma chemical co. ) was used as another sulfhydryl reactive agent . the cells ( 2 10 ) were suspended in rpmi ( gibco life technologies ) and stimulated for 3 d at 37c with con a ( 5 g / ml final concentration ) in the presence of il-2 ( 100 u / ml ) in a humidified atmosphere of 5% co2 . cd25 cleavage was performed by incubating 10 cells with up to 10 g / ml der p 1 ( preactivated with 5 mm cysteine ) for 1 h at 37c in a total volume of 200 l serum - free aim v medium ( gibco life technologies ) . the cells were then resuspended in rpmi containing 2% fcs , stained for 45 min at room temperature in the dark with fitc - labeled anti mouse cd25 mab ( clone amt-13 ; sigma chemical co. ) , and fixed with 5% formaldehyde . the expression of other t cell surface markers , namely cd3 , cd4 , and cd8 , was monitored in the same way using appropriate pe- or fitc - labeled antibodies ( clone kt3 , beckman coulter ; and clones yts191.1 and kt15 [ serotec ltd . five groups of 10 female cba / j mice were given six weekly intraperitoneal injections of 10 g of proteolytically active der p 1 , 10 g of e-64blocked der p 1 , 10 g of iodoacetamide - blocked der p 1 , 10 g of ova ( as proteolytically inactive antigen ; sigma chemical co. ) , or 10 g of ova with e-64 , respectively . a tail bleed was obtained 1 wk before the start of immunization ( prebleed ) , and a total bleed was obtained by cardiac puncture 1 wk after the last injection ( final bleed ) . the proteolytic activity of der p 1 and its inhibition with e-64 or iodoacetamide in the immunization mixture were ascertained as described above . serum samples were initially titrated to determine the optimal dilution for testing each antibody isotype and subclass . the optimal dilutions used here were 1/10 for detecting total ige , der p 1specific ige , and ova - specific ige and 1/20,000 , 1/40,000 , and 1/250 for detecting der p 1specific igg , igg1 , and igg2b , respectively . mouse ige ( clone r35 - 72 ; pharmingen ) as capture antibody and a second biotinylated monoclonal anti der p 1specific ige , ova - specific ige ( measured using samples that have been depleted of igg on a protein g column [ pharmacia ] ) , and der p 1specific igg , igg1 , and igg2b were detected on microtiter plates coated with a 4 g / ml solution of either der p 1 or ova and developed with biotinylated ( for ige clone r35 - 118 and igg1 clone a85 - 1 [ pharmingen ] and for igg2b clone ab275 [ the binding site ] ) or alkaline phosphatase conjugated isotype - specific antibodies ( for igg ; sigma chemical co. ) . alkaline phosphatase conjugated extravidine ( sigma chemical co. ) was used in conjunction with biotinylated antibodies . unpaired student 's t test was used to compare levels of antibody responses between the different immunization groups ; p < 0.05 was considered significant . der p 1 was isolated from house dust mite fecal pellets ( allergon ) by a multistep procedure 6 involving immunoaffinity chromatography on immobilized anti der p 1 mab ( clone 4c1 ; indoor biotechnologies ) , removal of contaminating serine proteases on immobilized soybean trypsin inhibitor ( sigma chemical co. ) , and finally fast protein liquid chromatography ( fplc ) to remove low - molecular - mass contaminants . the purity of the preparation was confirmed by nh2-terminal sequencing on an automatic amino acid sequencer ( applied biosystems , inc . ) , sds - page analysis ( 15% gel ) , and demonstration that enzymatic activity was completely dependent on preactivation with cysteine and totally inhibited by e-64 ( l - trans - epoxysuccinyl - leucylamido [ 4-guanidino]butane ) . protein concentration was determined using a bicinchoninic acid ( bca ) microtiter plate assay and confirmed spectrophotometrically using the empirical absorption coefficient value for der p 1 of e ( 280 nm ) = 16.4 . before use , der p 1 was preactivated with 5 mm cysteine ( sigma chemical co. ) to regenerate its thiol group , which becomes oxidized during purification . the catalytic activity of der p 1 was ascertained in a continuous rate ( kinetic ) assay using the fluorogenic peptide substrate n - tert - butoxy - carbonyl ( boc)-gln - ala - arg7-amino-4-methyl - coumarin ( amc ; reference 6 ) . to block the proteolytic activity of cysteine - activated der p 1 , 1,000-fold molar excess of e-64 ( sigma chemical co. ) was used ; a similar molar ratio of the cysteine protease inhibitor iodoacetamide ( sigma chemical co. ) was used as another sulfhydryl reactive agent . spleen t cells were obtained from c57bl/6j mice using standard procedures . the cells ( 2 10 ) were suspended in rpmi ( gibco life technologies ) and stimulated for 3 d at 37c with con a ( 5 g / ml final concentration ) in the presence of il-2 ( 100 u / ml ) in a humidified atmosphere of 5% co2 . cd25 cleavage was performed by incubating 10 cells with up to 10 g / ml der p 1 ( preactivated with 5 mm cysteine ) for 1 h at 37c in a total volume of 200 l serum - free aim v medium ( gibco life technologies ) . the cells were then resuspended in rpmi containing 2% fcs , stained for 45 min at room temperature in the dark with fitc - labeled anti mouse cd25 mab ( clone amt-13 ; sigma chemical co. ) , and fixed with 5% formaldehyde . the expression of other t cell surface markers , namely cd3 , cd4 , and cd8 , was monitored in the same way using appropriate pe- or fitc - labeled antibodies ( clone kt3 , beckman coulter ; and clones yts191.1 and kt15 [ serotec ltd . five groups of 10 female cba / j mice were given six weekly intraperitoneal injections of 10 g of proteolytically active der p 1 , 10 g of e-64blocked der p 1 , 10 g of iodoacetamide - blocked der p 1 , 10 g of ova ( as proteolytically inactive antigen ; sigma chemical co. ) , or 10 g of ova with e-64 , respectively . a tail bleed was obtained 1 wk before the start of immunization ( prebleed ) , and a total bleed was obtained by cardiac puncture 1 wk after the last injection ( final bleed ) . the proteolytic activity of der p 1 and its inhibition with e-64 or iodoacetamide in the immunization mixture were ascertained as described above . serum samples were initially titrated to determine the optimal dilution for testing each antibody isotype and subclass . the optimal dilutions used here were 1/10 for detecting total ige , der p 1specific ige , and ova - specific ige and 1/20,000 , 1/40,000 , and 1/250 for detecting der p 1specific igg , igg1 , and igg2b , respectively . mouse ige ( clone r35 - 72 ; pharmingen ) as capture antibody and a second biotinylated monoclonal anti der p 1specific ige , ova - specific ige ( measured using samples that have been depleted of igg on a protein g column [ pharmacia ] ) , and der p 1specific igg , igg1 , and igg2b were detected on microtiter plates coated with a 4 g / ml solution of either der p 1 or ova and developed with biotinylated ( for ige clone r35 - 118 and igg1 clone a85 - 1 [ pharmingen ] and for igg2b clone ab275 [ the binding site ] ) or alkaline phosphatase conjugated isotype - specific antibodies ( for igg ; sigma chemical co. ) . alkaline phosphatase conjugated extravidine ( sigma chemical co. ) was used in conjunction with biotinylated antibodies . unpaired student 's t test was used to compare levels of antibody responses between the different immunization groups ; p < 0.05 was considered significant . der p 1 is a 25-kd cysteine protease whose structure has been modeled 7 on the crystal structure of papain , with which it shows considerable sequence similarities , most notably for residues involved in the enzyme active site 8 . the proteolytic activity of der p 1 can be inhibited by e-64 , the class - specific inhibitor of microbial origin 9 . this inhibition is brought about when cysteine within the der p 1 active site forms a thioether covalent bond with the epoxy group of e-64 . this is an irreversible process that does not lead to significant structural changes , as evidenced by crystallographic studies of a papain e-64 complex 10 . we have purified der p 1 from fecal pellets using a multistep procedure and confirmed its purity by nh2-terminal sequencing , sds - page analysis , and demonstration that enzymatic activity was completely dependent on preactivation with cysteine and inhibited by e-64 and iodoacetamide ( fig . 1 ) . we have recently shown that der p 1 selectively cleaves human cd25 from the surfaces of peripheral blood t cells 4 . here we demonstrate that der p 1 also selectively cleaves cd25 from cultured mouse spleen t cells ( fig . 2 ) , which is not surprising given the high degree of sequence homology that exists between human 11 and mouse 12 cd25 . this observation has therefore provided the justification for using this animal species for testing our hypothesis , namely that the proteolytic activity of der p 1 is a major contributor to its allergenicity . intraperitoneal immunization of groups of 10 cba / j mice with either proteolytically active or inactive ( e-64blocked ) der p 1 over a 6-wk period showed a statistically significant enhancement in total ige ( p < 0.01 ) and der p 1specific ige ( p < 0.02 ) responses in animals immunized with proteolytically active der p 1 . this effect was ige specific , as der p 1specific igg , igg1 , and igg2b responses increased to the same extent with proteolytically active or inactive der p 1 ( fig . we are not sure why the igg1 response did not follow that of ige , as these two isotypes are considered to be coregulated in the mouse . however , the ige - restricted enhancement seen in response to immunization with proteolytically active der p 1 does suggest a mechanism that is unique to ige isotype switching / synthesis . furthermore , our control experiments clearly show that the ige - specific effect observed here is not due to e-64 exerting a suppressive influence on ige production by a mechanism that is independent of its binding to the der p 1 enzyme active site ( fig . , suppression of total ige ( p < 0.04 ) and der p 1specific ige ( p < 0.05 ) productions was also obtained when the proteolytic activity of der p 1 was blocked with iodoacetamide , another sulfhydryl reactive agent . second , the ige antibody response to ova , a proteolytically inactive antigen , was not suppressed when the animals were immunized with ova plus e-64 . our results are direct evidence that the cysteine protease activity of der p 1 induces a significant increase in ige responses . such an effect is clearly consistent with the ability of der p 1 to proteolytically cleave mouse cd25 and induce a th2 response by modulating the balance between il-4 and ifn- 13 . the recent demonstration in mice that leishmania mexicana cysteine proteinase deficient mutants potentiate a th1 response , compared with the th2 response normally seen in response to infection with wild - type parasite 14 , is also of great relevance here . allergic individuals could potentially be achieved by administering der p 1 in a catalytically inactive ( mutant ) form . on the other hand , exploring the potential th2 adjuvant property of the proteolytic activity of der p 1 would have important implications in defining principles for modulation of th1-mediated pathological conditions . our demonstration that the cysteine protease activity of der p 1 enhances total ige production , apart from increasing der p 1-specific ige , suggests that this allergen may play a central role in destabilizing the microenvironment within target tissues to one that is proallergic and thus aids in the initiation and propagation of the allergic cascade . in other words , the proteolytic activity of der p 1 may exert an ige - specific adjuvant effect . the in vivo relevance of the proteolytic activity of der p 1 is further highlighted by reports demonstrating that it increases the permeability of the human respiratory epithelium to macromolecules 1516 . such observations , together with our current findings showing a direct effect on the immune system , indicate that the proteolytic activity of der p 1 is a major contributor to its allergenicity .
the house dust mite dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen der p 1 is the most immunodominant allergen involved in the expression of dust mite specific immunoglobulin ( ig)e mediated hypersensitivity . the reason for this potent ige - eliciting property of der p 1 remains unknown , but there is mounting in vitro evidence linking the allergenicity of der p 1 to its cysteine protease activity . here we demonstrate for the first time that immunization of mice with proteolytically active der p 1 results in a significant enhancement in total ige and der p 1specific ige synthesis compared with animals immunized with der p 1 that was irreversibly blocked with the cysteine protease inhibitor e-64 . we conclude that the proteolytic activity of der p 1 is a major contributor to its allergenicity .
Materials and Methods Der p 1 Preparation. CD25 Cleavage. Immunization Protocol. Antibody Detection. Results and Discussion
backgroundgiven the risk of paralysis associated with cervical transforaminal injection , is it time to reconsider transforaminal injections of the lumbar spine ? arguments for discontinuing lumbar injections have been discussed in the anesthesia literature , raising concern about the risks of epidural steroid injections ( esis).methodsin a 47-year - old man , paraplegia of the lower extremities developed , specifically conus medullaris syndrome , after he underwent an esi for recurrent pain . correct needle placement was verified with epidurography . immediately after the injection , the patient felt his legs going dead ; paraplegia of the lower extremities was noted.resultsan initial magnetic resonance imaging study performed after the patient was transferred to the emergency department was unremarkable . however , a later neurosurgical evaluation showed conus medullaris syndrome , and a second magnetic resonance imaging study showed the conus infarct . we conducted a search of the pubmed database of articles from 2002 to 2011 containing the following keywords : complications , lumbar epidural steroid injection(s ) , cauda equina syndrome , conus medullaris infarction , spinal cord infarction , spinal cord injury , paralysis , paresis , plegia , paresthesia , and anesthesia.conclusionssummarizing this case and 5 similar cases , we weigh the potential benefits and risks of esi . although one can safely assume that this severe , devastating complication is rare , we speculate that its true incidence remains unknown , possibly because of medicolegal implications . we believe that the rarity of this complication should not preclude the continued use of transforaminal esi ; rather , it should be emphasized for discussion with patients during the consent process .
Background Methods Results Conclusions Case report Literature review Discussion Conclusion
because of rampant concern that estrogenic chemicals in the environment may be adversely affecting the health of humans and wildlife , reliable methods for detecting and characterizing estrogenic chemicals are needed . it is important that general agreement be reached on which tests to use and that these tests then be applied to the testing of both man - made and naturally occurring chemicals . as a step toward developing a comprehensive approach to screening chemicals for estrogenic activity , three assays for detecting estrogenicity were conducted on 10 chemicals with known or suspected estrogenic activity . the assays were 1 ) competitive binding with the mouse uterine estrogen receptor , 2 ) transcriptional activation in hela cells transfected with plasmids containing an estrogen receptor and a response element , and 3 ) the uterotropic assay in mice . the chemicals studied were 17 beta - estradiol , diethylstilbestrol , tamoxifen , 4-hydroxytamoxifen , methoxychlor , the methoxychlor metabolite 2,2-bis(p - hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane ( hpte ) , endosulfan , nonylphenol , o , p'-ddt , and kepone . these studies were conducted to assess the utility of this three - assay combination in the routine screening of chemicals , or combinations of chemicals , for estrogenic activity . results were consistent among the three assays with respect to what is known about the estrogenic activities of the chemicals tested and their requirements for metabolic activation . by providing information on three levels of hormonal activity ( receptor binding , transcriptional activation , and an in vivo effect in an estrogen - responsive tissue ) , an informative profile of estrogenic activity is obtained with a reasonable investment of resources.imagesp1296-afigure 1.figure 2.figure 3.figure 4.figure 5 .
Images
the amyloid cascade hypothesis remains a robust model of ad neurodegeneration . however , amyloid deposits contain proteins besides a , such as apolipoprotein e ( apoe ) . inheritance of the apoe4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for late - onset ad . however , there is no consensus on how different apoe isotypes contribute to ad pathogenesis . it has been hypothesized that apoe and apoe4 in particular is an amyloid catalyst or pathological chaperone . alternatively it has been posited that apoe regulates a clearance , with apoe4 been worse at this function compared to apoe3 . these views seem fundamentally opposed . the former would indicate that removing apoe will reduce ad pathology , while the latter suggests increasing brain apoe levels may be beneficial . here we consider the scientific basis of these different models of apoe function and suggest that these seemingly opposing views can be reconciled . the optimal therapeutic target may be to inhibit the interaction of apoe with a rather than altering apoe levels . such an approach will not have detrimental effects on the many beneficial roles apoe plays in neurobiology . furthermore , other a binding proteins , including act and apo j can inhibit or promote a oligomerization / polymerization depending on conditions and might be manipulated to effect ad treatment .
1. Introduction 2. Background: ApoE as Amyloid Catalyst 3. Background: ApoE in A 4. Synthesis 5. A 6. Potential Efficacy and Dangers of A 7. Potential Toxic Mechanism of ApoE-Induced A 8. Conclusion
musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common problems affecting the elderly . the resulting loss of mobility and physical independence can be particularly devastating in this population . the aim of this article is to present some of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders of the elderly , such as fractures , osteoporosis , osteoarthritis , microcrystal disorders , infections , and tumors .
INTRODUCTION Search criteria Fractures Osteoarthritis and associated conditions Microcrystal disorders Infection Paget's disease CONCLUSION
although the association between episodic migraine and psychiatric comorbidities is well documented , few studies have focused on the comorbidity with chronic migraine ( cm ) and discrepancies exist between population - based and clinic - based data . the objective of this study is to compare demographic and psychiatric comorbidity correlates between cm samples drawn from the community and tertiary care . all inhabitants from a city borough were interviewed for the presence of headaches occurring 15 or more days per month . cm was diagnosed after subjects had been interviewed and examined by a headache doctor . participants were also assessed with a structured interview by a psychiatrist , who assigned diagnoses based on the dsm - iv . the same investigators assessed all patients consecutively seen in a university - based outpatient headache center over a 4-month period . the samples consist of 41 individuals from the community and 43 from the headache center . sociodemographic profiles were similar between groups with the exception of the mean number of years of formal education . among individuals from the community , psychiatric diagnoses were present in 65.9 % of cases , relative to 83.7 % in those from the headache center ( p = 0.06 ) . phobias ( 41.9 vs. 29.3 % ) and depression ( 32.6 vs. 29.3 % ) were more frequent in patients from the headache center , but this difference did not reach statistical significance . thus the frequency of psychiatric disorders in patients with cm was elevated in both settings , being higher in the specialty care clinic .
Introduction Methods Population study Clinic study Statistical analysis Results Discussion
oxidative stress triggers dna and lipid peroxidation , leading to the formation of electrophiles that react with dna to form adducts . a product of this pathway , ( 3-(2-deoxy--d - erythro - pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-]purine-10(3h)-one ) , or m1dg , is mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells and is repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway . in vivo , m1dg is oxidized to a primary metabolite , ( 3-(2-deoxy--d - erythro - pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-]purine-6,10(3h,5h)-dione , or 6-oxo - m1dg , which is excreted in urine , bile , and feces . we have developed a specific monoclonal antibody against 6-oxo - m1dg and have incorporated this antibody into a procedure for the immunoaffinity isolation of 6-oxo - m1dg from biological matrices . the purified analyte is quantified by lc - ms / ms using a stable isotope - labeled analogue ( [ 15n5]-6-oxo - m1dg ) as an internal standard . healthy male sprague dawley rats excreted 6-oxo - m1dg at a rate of 3501893 fmol / kgd in feces . this is the first report of the presence of the major metabolite of m1dg in rodents without exogenous introduction of m1dg .
Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion
although postherpetic neuralgia ( phn ) is a common chronic pain syndrome , the pathophysiology of this disorder is not well known and management is often very difficult . n - methyl - d - aspartate ( nmda ) receptor antagonists are known to be effective in phn , and magnesium , a physiological blocker of nmda receptors , is widely used to treat various chronic pain disorders . here , we present a case of the phn refractory to conventional treatment , which was treated successfully with transforaminal epidural injection of magnesium sulphate at the affected dermatome .
CASE REPORT DISCUSSION
purposeto evaluate the association between the size of peripheral retinal nonperfusion and the number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections in patients with treatment - nave central retinal vein occlusion ( crvo).methodsfifty - four patients with treatment - nave crvo and macular edema were included . each patient underwent a full ophthalmologic examination including optical coherence tomography imaging and ultrawide - field fluorescein angiography . monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections were applied according to the recommendations of the german ophthalmologic society . two ophthalmologists quantified the areas of peripheral retinal nonperfusion ( group 1= less than five disc areas , group 2= more than five disc areas ) . correlation analyses between the size of nonperfusion with best - corrected visual acuity , central subfield thickness , and the number of intravitreal injections were performed.resultsbest-corrected visual acuity improved significantly after intravitreal injections ( p<0.001 , both groups ) . final central subfield thickness after treatment did not significantly differ between both groups ( p=0.92 , p=0.96 , respectively ) . mean number of injections in group 1 and group 2 was 4.122.73 and 9.323.84 , respectively ( p<0.001 ) . there was a significant positive correlation between areas of nonperfusion and the number of injections in each group . ( r=0.97 , p<0.001 ; r=0.94 , p<0.001 , respectively).conclusionperipheral retinal nonperfusion in patients with crvo correlates significantly with the number of needed intravitreal ranibizumab injections . ultrawide - field fluorescein angiography is a useful tool for detection of peripheral retinal ischemia , which may have direct implications in the diagnosis , follow - up , and treatment of these patients .
Introduction Methods Patient selection Image acquisition Image processing and analysis Data collection Statistical analysis Results Discussion Conclusion
background and objectives : there is a wide variation of reported incidence of small bowel obstruction ( sbo ) after laparoscopic roux - en - y gastric bypass ( lgb ) . there is also wide variation in technique , not only in placement of the roux limb , but also regarding closure or nonclosure of the mesenteric defects . the objective of this study was to examine the incidence and characteristics of sbo after antecolic antegastric bypass with nonclosure of the mesenteric defect of the jejunojejunal anastomosis.methods:this is a retrospective review of a series of consecutive lgbs over a 3-year period . all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique . in no case was the mesenteric defect closed . a prospectively maintained database was used for data collection . patients who returned with an sbo were the study group , and those who underwent revisional bariatric surgery or conversion to open operation were excluded.results:there were 249 primary lgbs performed during the study period ; 15 of the operations were followed by sbo , for an incidence of 6.0% . four cases were caused by an internal hernia ( ih ) , for an incidence of 1.6% , and 11 were caused by adhesions , which accounted for 73% of the sbos.conclusions:sbo after lgb is a relatively common complication . the incidence of sbo from ih with nonclosure of the mesenteric defect is similar to that in other series where the defect is closed . regardless of the cause of the sbo , operative treatment of the patient who has a gastric bypass remains the definitive standard and should not be delayed .
INTRODUCTION METHODS Surgical Technique RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS
the two - stage exchange arthroplasty ( one- or two - stage ) is believed to be the gold standard for the management of infections following total knee arthroplasty . we herein report a novel two - stage exchange arthroplasty technique using an antibiotic - impregnated cement intramedullary nail , which can be easily prepared during surgery using a straight thoracic tube and a steinmann pin , and may provide additional stability to the knee to maintain normal mechanical axis . in addition , there is less pain between the period of prosthesis removal and subsequent reimplantation . less soft tissue contracture , less scar adhesion , easy removal of the cement intramedullary nail , and successful infection control are the advantages of this technique .
SURGICAL TECHNIQUE DISCUSSION
mental fatigue is for many a distressing and long - term problem after stroke . this mental fatigue will make it more difficult for the person to return to work and previous activities . the intention with this study is to investigate mental fatigue in relation to depression and cognitive functions . we examined 24 well - rehabilitated stroke subjects , who suffered from mental fatigue one year or more after a stroke , and 24 healthy controls . subjects were examined using self - assessment scales for mental fatigue , depression and anxiety , and cognitive tests . the results showed a highly increased rating for mental fatigue for the stroke group ( p < 0.001 ) . these participants also had a significantly higher rating on the depression ( p < 0.001 ) and anxiety ( p < 0.001 ) scales . furthermore , they had a slower information processing speed ( p < 0.001 ) and made more errors in a demanding attention and speed test ( p < 0.05 ) . among the cognitive tests , processing speed and errors made in an attention and speed test were significant predictors for mental fatigue . we suggest mental fatigue following a stroke to be related to cognitive impairments , primarily information processing speed . mental fatigue should also be treated as a separate phenomenon and should be differentiated from , and not confused with , depression , even if overlapping symptoms exist .
1. Background 2. Materials and Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion
cigarette smoke is considered a major risk factor for vascular diseases . there are many toxic compounds in cigarette smoke , including acrolein and other ,-unsaturated aldehydes , which are regarded as mediators of inflammation and vascular dysfunction . furthermore , recent studies have revealed that acrolein , an ,-unsaturated aldehyde in cigarette smoke , induces inflammatory mediator expression , which is known to be related to vascular diseases . in this study , we investigated whether korean red ginseng ( krg ) water extract suppressed acrolein - induced cyclooxygenase ( cox)-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells ( huvecs ) . acrolein - induced cox-2 expression was accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylated p38 in huvecs and krg inhibited cox-2 expression in huvecs . these results suggest that krg suppresses acrolein - induced cox-2 expression via inhibition of the p38 mitogen - activated protein kinase signaling pathway . in addition , krg exhibited an inhibitory effect on acrolein - induced apoptosis , as demonstrated by annexin v propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase - mediated dutp nick end - labeling assay . consistent with these results , krg may exert a vasculoprotective effect through inhibition of cox-2 expression in acrolein - stimulated human endothelial cells .
Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Conflicts of interest
abstractthe crispr / cas9 technology is a welcome breakthrough for genome editing , owing to its precision , efficiency , versatility and ease of adoption . we recently reported the first application of crispr / cas9 for biallelic mutations in stably transformed populus , extending the species range of this powerful technology to woody perennials . an underappreciated obstacle in genome editing of outcrossing species is the frequent occurrence of sequence polymorphisms that can render crispr / cas9 unproductive . we discuss experimental evidence as well as genome - wide computational analysis to demonstrate the sensitivity of crispr / cas9 to allelic heterozygosity , and highlight tools and strategies that can help deal with such sequence polymorphisms . with its specificity , crispr / cas9 offers a less equivocal means than previous approaches for discerning functional redundancy of paralogous genes that are prevalent in plant genomes . continuing improvements of the crispr / cas9 system for multiplex genome engineering should facilitate these efforts . the paradigm shift brought about by crispr / cas9 promises to accelerate not only basic research but also applied crop improvement progress .
ABBREVIATIONS None HIGH-EFFICIENCY GENOME EDITING OF PRECISION EDITING BY CRISPR/CAS9 HARNESSING SEQUENCE POLYMORPHISMS OF OUTCROSSING SPECIES FOR EFFICIENT CRISPR/CAS9 EDITING CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS DISCLOSURE OF POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Funding
like co@fe3o4 , which recently underwent extensive study to elucidate both the oxidative stability of the core and the phase of the shell , fept@fe3o4 core shell nanoparticles can be used as building blocks to form nanocomposites with enhanced magnetic properties with the potential for novel applications . these include magnetic data storage , catalysis , and targeted drug delivery . in terms of nanomagnetics specifically , our hope is that the presence of an inert oxide shell may function to inhibit agglomeration of the cores upon annealing ; this is a necessary step in creating an ordered l10 fept bimetallic structure with a higher magnetic coercivity . the determination of the core composition is important for tailoring their synthesis in order to ultimately achieve the desired 50:50 fept alloy composition . a solution of core shell particles was drop - cast onto a 3 mm holey carbon copper grid . edx data were acquired using an fei osiris tem equipped with a high brightness schottky x - feg gun and a super - x edx system comprising four silicon drift detectors , each approximately 30 mm in area and arranged symmetrically around an optic axis to achieve a collection solid angle of 0.9 sr . edx data were collected in the form of spectrum images , in which a focused electron probe was scanned in a raster across a region of interest in the scanning tem ( stem ) . at each point in the scan , structural information was obtained from the electron scattering incident on a high angle annular dark field ( haadf ) detector , and simultaneously , an edx spectrum was obtained by collecting x - rays emitted from the local volume probed by the electron beam . the resulting edx spectrum image was a three - dimensional data set whose ( x , y ) axes correspond to the position of the probe and whose z axis corresponds to the energy of the detected x - ray . spectrum images were acquired with a probe current of approximately 0.7 na , an acceleration voltage of 200 kv , a spatial sampling of between 0.5 and 1 nm / pixel and 50100 ms / pixel dwell times . x - ray intensities were obtained by fitting a model of the edx spectra to the experimental data using weighted least - squares and atomic fractions were quantified from intensities using the cliff lorimer quantification . the edx model and the quantification were implemented in hyperspy and will be available in future releases of the software . figure 1a displays a haadf stem image obtained during the acquisition of a spectrum image enclosing a cluster of 13 co@fe3o4 nanoparticles . although the particle morphologies are seen to vary slightly from one particle to another , the majority of particles have a round core approximately 20 nm in diameter surrounded by a thin shell approximately 5 nm in thickness . the edx elemental maps for cobalt , iron , and oxygen ( figure 1b d ) , obtained by integration of the element s background - subtracted k - line x - ray peak , show that individual particles are comprised of a cobalt core surrounded by a shell composed of iron and oxygen , as expected . the largest particle in the lower left region of the map appears to have more iron in the core compared to the smaller particles . these conventional edx element maps show the location of the various elements , but the composition of the particle core , for example , can not be determined by elemental mapping due to the presence of the shell above and below the core in projection . elemental maps of ( b ) cobalt , ( c ) iron , and ( d ) oxygen display the location of the various elements with respect to the particle morphology ( scale bar = 50 nm , greyscale = x - ray counts ) . the edx spectrum image data of the co@fe3o4 nanoparticle cluster shown in figure 1a was subsequently processed using bss methods in hyperspy . first , the spectral dimension in the data set was binned by four from 5 ev / channel to 20 ev / channel in order to increase the number of counts per channel . next , we note that the binning step is necessary in order to optimize the accuracy of the variance stabilization channel . the first three principal components , pc#0 , pc#1 , and pc#2 , exhibited significantly greater variance than the remaining components ( figure 2a ) , which suggests that there are only three phases present in the sample . that being the case , those three pca components should be a linear combination of the spectra and distribution maps of those phases , but the mixing matrix is unknown . next , we compute numerically the first derivative of the pca spectral components in order to diminish the correlation caused by the edx background , and we use fastica to estimate the mixing matrix and compute the independent components ( ics ) ic#0 , ic#1 , and ic#2 ( figure 2b ) and their distribution maps ( figure 2c e ) from the pca results . component independence is a much more stringent property than uncorrelatedness imposed by pca . if we disregard the small copper peaks contained in all the independent components , likely originating from the copper support mesh , we see that ic#0 contains cobalt x - ray peaks , ic#1 iron and oxygen peaks , and ic#2 a carbon peak . the three ics appear to belong to the three phases present in the originally scanned area : the core , shell , and supporting film . this hypothesis is explored further in the next section . at this point , however , it is important to note that , unlike in the conventional edx mapping shown in figure 1 , no elements were selected prior to performing ica , and thus , the analysis is free of external bias , except for the choice of the number of components . result of bss by pca and ica of an edx si of a co@fe3o4 core ( b ) corresponding independent component spectra contain the expected x - ray lines for the elements present . independent component maps ( c e ) show that ( c ) ic#0 is concentrated in the nanoparticle cores , ( d ) ic#1 in the shells , and ( e ) ic#2 everywhere on the carbon supporting film ( scale = 50 nm , greyscale = normalized weighting ) . we now move on to the analysis of a second cluster of particles comprised of a bimetallic iron / platinum core surrounded by an iron oxide shell . a crystalline core surrounded by a polycrystalline oxide shell is observed in the representative high - resolution stem haadf image shown in figure 3 . the particle morphologies were found to have a mean core diameter of approximately 3.3 nm and mean shell thickness of approximately 1.7 nm ( figure 4a ) . also visible were pure iron oxide particles ( in the lower right - hand corner of figure 4a ) . ica of a cluster of bimetallic platinum / iron nanoparticle seeds coated by fe3o4 shells . ( b ) scree plot of the first 50 principal components showing the first three components lying above the noise . ( c e ) element maps of ( c ) platinum , ( d ) iron , and ( e ) oxygen . ( f h ) . the ic maps ( f ) ic#0 , ( g ) ic#1 , and ( h ) ic#2 and ( i ) the corresponding ic spectra . from the selected element maps ( figure 4c e ) , it is clear that , with the exception of the two particles in the lower right - hand corner , the particles are comprised of a platinum rich core surrounded by an iron oxide shell . however , it is not clear from the maps alone whether iron is present in the core . by conventional elemental mapping , one can not tell whether the particles contain a pure platinum core surrounded by an iron oxide shell or whether iron is alloyed with platinum to form a bimetallic core . we now address these questions by performing bss on the same edx spectrum image using the same procedure detailed before . once again , by inspecting the scree plot ( figure 4b ) , we find that the sample consists of three phases . the spatial distribution of ic#0 is concentrated in the particle cores , ic#1 in a shell around the cores , and ic#2 is approximately uniformly distributed over the map ( figure 4f h ) . if we again disregard the spurious copper peak , ic#0 contains iron and platinum x - ray peaks , ic#1 iron and oxygen peaks , and ic#2 a single carbon peak ( figure 4i ) . from this analysis it appears that the ica components represent the different phases present in the edx spectrum image ; ic#0 , ic#1 , and ic#2 genuinely represent the bimetallic fept cores , iron oxide shells and the carbon support , respectively . in order to verify the accuracy of the ica results , we evaluated whether ic#0 represented the true composition of the core by analyzing bare fept seed particle clusters obtained from the same chemical synthesis but extracted prior to the shell addition step . being made from the same synthesis , the composition of the bimetallic seed particles are expected to match to the composition of the bimetallic cores in the core shell particles analyzed in figure 4 . a total of 12 edx sis were acquired in order to capture and analyze multiple fept bimetallic seed clusters . the segmentation of one of the edx sis is shown in figure 5a , b . to accurately extract the intensity of the fe k and pt l peaks , a model composed of one gaussian per x - ray line and a background based on kramers and small expressions as developed elsewhere was used , as shown in green in figure 5c . the only free parameters of the model were the area of the gaussian and the height of the background , which was negligible . the mean reduced over the fit of all particles was 1.01 , indicating that the discrepancies between the model and the data are in accordance with the poisson noise variance . the intensities of fe k and pt l peaks in the fitted model were quantified using the cliff lorimer method . the obtained compositions are plotted for each particle in figure 5d along with the fitting error estimated from poisson statistics . the raw data were decomposed using pca on all fept seed data and the first three components were retained for noise reduction . the 103 individual fept bimetallic seeds analyzed were found to have a mean composition of 82.0 at . % pt , which lies well within one standard deviation of the average bimetallic seed composition . the data points in figure 5d are displayed in order of ascending particle size . as such , the calculated compositions on the right - hand side tend to have a smaller error bar on account of the signal noise ratio being higher for larger particles . the compositions of the larger seed particles are also closer to the mean composition and to the composition of ic#0 , confirming the homogeneity of the composition and the validity of the bss analysis . summary of the composition of 103 bare fept bimetallic nanoparticles extracted from a synthesis prior to the shell addition step . ( b ) segmentation of the edx spectrum image prior to quantification of each particle . ( c ) fitting of the edx spectrum from a single seed ( circled in ( b ) ) to a model spectrum to determine the fe k and pt l peak intensities . ( d ) particle seed compositions obtained by quantifying the fitted intensities from 103 different particles ( error bars = 1 standard deviation ) . a comparison of raw edx spectra extracted from fept bimetallic seed particles and from pure fe3o4 particles with ic#0 and ic#1 , respectively , is provided in figure 6 . in both cases , the ics were scaled by a constant to obtain a best fit to the raw spectra . despite the strong overall agreement in each case , the carbon peak difference in both cases is caused by the separation of carbon into a different component ( ic#2 ) . the difference in the shell cu peaks are not due to a compositional difference as the cu signal is spurious in origin . the iron oxide particle spectrum also contains small silicon and sulfur peaks which likely originate from residue on the carbon film . the difference in the pt m core peak may be due to the attenuation of pt m x - rays in the shell of the core shell nanoparticles and in nearby particles along the trajectory to the detector . the strong overall similarity between the raw and ic spectra provide direct evidence showing that the spectral components extracted by ica from the core shell spectrum image data are strongly representative of the buried core , surrounding shell , and carbon support compositions . comparison between raw edx spectra extracted from a fept bimetallic seed particle ( top ) and from an iron oxide particle ( bottom ) with ic#0 and ic#1 , respectively . the fept seed and fe3o4 x when analyzing beam - sensitive materials , the main limitation to the accuracy of the bss analysis method that we propose is the intensity of the edx signal achievable without inducing significant sample damage . in our case , despite the use of a high efficiency edx system , the number of collected x - rays is low . in order to avoid the artifacts that arise when using the variance - stabilizing transformation out of its domain of application , we have binned the data by four in the spectral dimension from 5 ev / channel to 20 ev / channel . given that the resolution of our edx detector is approximately 130 ev at mn k and that there were no overlapping x - ray lines , in our case , the increase in the number of counts per channel ( and hence in the accuracy of the analysis ) comes without significant resolution loss and , therefore , should not have any adverse effect in the analysis . a blind source separation method based on pca and ica has been applied to the analysis of edx spectrum images of core the analysis has accurately determined the number of phases in the analyzed volume ( core , shell , and supporting film ) as well as their spectra and distribution maps . we have confirmed the accuracy of the analysis by comparing the calculated spectra from the platinum iron core and the iron oxide shell to those obtained from these structures in isolation , and the excellent agreement suggests that bss , therefore , can be used to accurately analyze edx data . the use of ica on edx spectrum image data promises to be a powerful technique for extracting buried compositions at the nanoscale in a variety of materials , and further testing on the method s applicability to different systems is now being initiated .
the chemical composition of core shell nanoparticle clusters have been determined through principal component analysis ( pca ) and independent component analysis ( ica ) of an energy - dispersive x - ray ( edx ) spectrum image ( si ) acquired in a scanning transmission electron microscope ( stem ) . the method blindly decomposes the si into three components , which are found to accurately represent the isolated and unmixed x - ray signals originating from the supporting carbon film , the shell , and the bimetallic core . the composition of the latter is verified by and is in excellent agreement with the separate quantification of bare bimetallic seed nanoparticles .
Materials and Methods Results Discussion Conclusions
ca2+/calmodulin - dependent protein kinase ii ( camkii ) functions both in regulation of insulin secretion and neurotransmitter release through common downstream mediators . therefore , we hypothesized that pancreatic - cells acquire and store the information contained in calcium pulses as a form of metabolic memory , just as neurons store cognitive information . to test this hypothesis , we developed a novel paradigm of pulsed exposure of - cells to intervals of high glucose , followed by a 24-h consolidation period to eliminate any acute metabolic effects . strikingly , - cells exposed to this high - glucose pulse paradigm exhibited significantly stronger insulin secretion . this metabolic memory was entirely dependent on camkii . metabolic memory was reflected on the protein level by increased expression of proteins involved in glucose sensing and ca2 + -dependent vesicle secretion , and by elevated levels of the key - cell transcription factor mafa . in summary , like neurons , human and mouse - cells are able to acquire and retrieve information .
Introduction Materials and methods Results and discussion
a common framework for describing functional status information ( fsi ) in health records is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value . the world health organization 's ( who 's ) international classification of functioning , disability and health ( icf ) , which has been approved by all its member states , provides this common language and framework . the biopsychosocial model of functioning and disability embodied in the icf goes beyond disease and conceptualizes functioning from the individual 's body , person , and lived experience vantage points , thereby allowing for planning interventions targeted at the individual 's body , the individual as a whole or toward the environment . this framework then permits the evaluation of both the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these different interventions in devising programs at the personal or societal level .
Introduction New Language of Health and Functioning Classification of Functional Status Conclusion
the centers for disease control and prevention ( cdc ) and united states preventive services task force ( uspstf ) recommend universal hiv screening for all pregnant women entering prenatal care [ 1 , 2 ] . this screening enables hiv - infected women and their infants to benefit from appropriate and timely interventions such as antiretroviral medications . when the recommended antiretroviral and obstetric interventions are used , a woman who knows of her hiv infection early in pregnancy now has a less than 2% chance of delivering an hiv - infected infant . without intervention , this risk is approximately 25% in the united states [ 36 ] . testing for hiv began in 1985 with the introduction of the enzyme immunoassay ( eia ) . in order to account for false positive results using screening tests in a low - prevalence population , confirmatory testing has been implemented using a western blot or immunofluorescence assay . in a low - prevalence population , the false positive rate using the eia is increased compared to a high - prevalence population , and the positive predictive value of any test will always depend on the prevalence of the condition in the population tested . in testing performed by the cdc , the eia positive predictive value ranges from 71 to 83% in populations with hiv prevalence from 0.5 to 1% . some investigators believe that the presence of alloantibodies account for the increased false positive rate associated with pregnancy , transfusions , transplantation , and autoimmune diseases . however , risk factors specific to pregnancy that account for this are poorly understood . conversely , a recent large retrospective study found that the false positive hiv eia rate was lower in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant individuals ( 0.14% versus 0.21% ) . our objective was to determine if any maternal characteristics correlated with false positive hiv eia testing at delivery . this was a review of all women who delivered at parkland memorial hospital in dallas , tex , from october 1 , 2005 through september 30 , 2008 . all women routinely received serum hiv testing at their initial prenatal visit and at time of presentation to labor and delivery for delivery via the opt - out approach with the abbott commander hiv ab hiv-1/hiv-2 ( rdna ) eia ( abbott laboratories , abbott park , ill ) . hiv test results performed at the time of delivery were analyzed in this study . a woman was considered hiv negative if eia testing was negative . positive test results were confirmed with the fluorognost immunofluorescent assay ( ifa ) hiv-1 ( sanochemia corp , stamford , conn , usa ) . women were considered to be falsely positive if eia results were positive and the ifa was negative . women delivered in this time period were identified through the obstetric operations database and linked to the pathology database for hiv , hepatitis b surface antigen ( hbsag ) , and rapid plasma reagin ( rpr ) results . maternal characteristics , including race , parity , age , singleton versus multiple gestation , and a diagnoses of diabetes or hypertension were obtained using the obstetrics operations database . laboratory results drawn 28 days prior to delivery through seven days after delivery were included . the study was approved by the institutional review board at the university of texas southwestern medical center . categorical data were reported as frequencies , and statistical significance was determined using analysis . statistical analyses were performed using sas , version 9.2 ( sas institute , cary , nc ) . a total of 47,794 women were identified who delivered during the study time frame . compared to hiv negative patients , false positive patients were more likely to be nulliparous ( 43% versus 31% , p < 0.001 ) and younger ( mean age 23.9 5.7 versus 26.2 5.9 , p < 0.001 ) . hiv positive patients were significantly older than false positive patients ( 27.4 versus 23.9 , p < 0.001 ) and hiv negative patients ( 27.4 versus 26.2 , p = 0.012 ) . of the 47,794 women , 47,391 ( 99% ) were hiv negative , 145 ( 0.3% ) had a false positive test , 172 ( 0.4% ) were true positives , and 86 ( 0.2% ) tested equivocal or were missing hiv results . the specificity of the hiv eia test was 99.7% with a positive predictive value of 54.3% . the sensitivity of the eia test was presumed to be near 100% , as the false negative rate using the eia has been previously demonstrated to be negligible in studies performed by the manufacturer . table 2 shows the prevalence of diabetes , hypertension , hepatitis b , and results of syphilis testing in the study population . hiv positive women were more likely to test positive for hepatitis b surface antigen ( 1% versus 0% , p = 0.002 ) and rpr ( 2% versus 0% , p = 0.02 ) . there was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes or hypertension between the three groups . there was also no significant difference in the rate of hbsag and rpr positivity between the hiv negative and false positive groups . when evaluating the interaction between nulliparity and age , there is a significant correlation between the two variables ; that is , parous patients are likely to be older and , therefore , nulliparity and age are not independent predictors of hiv false positivity . however , when the hiv testing groups ( positive , false positive , negative ) are stratified by parity , the comparison of age across the three groups remains significant only in nulliparous women ( table 3 , p = 0.0003 ) . the interaction between parity and age means that the difference in age between nulliparous and parous women is different depending on the hiv status . for example , in the hiv positive group the nulliparous and parous women are closer in age than in the false positive group . this was the first population - based study to evaluate risk factors for hiv false positivity in pregnant women presenting for delivery at a large urban institution . we found that younger and nulliparous women were more likely to have false positive testing using the hiv eia . the observed positive predictive value ( ppv ) of 54.3% was lower than the previously reported by the cdc ( ppv 7183% ) in a nonpregnant population , suggesting that pregnancy may be associated with a higher rate of false positivity . the low positive predictive value of the hiv eia in our study may have been impacted by the relatively low hiv prevalence ( 0.4% ) in our population . this information could be useful for counseling women who test positive for hiv at delivery and emphasizes the limitations of eia testing if used as a rapid test to determine the need for intrapartum and neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis . the false positive rates of currently available rapid hiv tests have been reported to be much lower than has been found with eia testing in this study . evaluated the hiv false positive rate in over 900 pregnant women , most of whom were hispanic , using both the eia and a rapid point - of - care ( poct ) test , oraquick . they found that while there were no false positive tests with the oraquick , there were seven false positives using the eia ( ppv 100% versus 35.7% ) . in the mother - infant rapid intervention at delivery ( miriad ) study , jamieson et al . found that the ppv of the oraquick test was 90% while the ppv of the eia was 74% [ 12 , 13 ] . current recommendations by the cdc and the american college of obstetricians and gynecologists include rapid hiv screening for women presenting to labor and delivery with undocumented hiv status and for repeat hiv testing in the third trimester for women at high risk or who live in areas with high hiv prevalence [ 7 , 14 , 15 ] . a woman testing preliminarily positive for hiv in labor should be counseled that she may have hiv infection and that her neonate may be exposed , and immediate antiretroviral prophylaxis should be recommended without waiting for confirmatory test results . the results of our study may aid in counseling women if they test preliminarily positive for hiv using the eia , while awaiting confirmatory testing results . it remains to be determined whether the same risk factors for false positive hiv eia testing apply to the poct tests used in a real life setting . our study found that the positive predictive value of eia testing was only 54.3% and that younger nulliparous women were more likely to test falsely positive . importantly , our data may represent the real world performance of the eia testing in a large obstetric population - based setting . investigators also have noted a significant relationship between influenza vaccination and false positive screening for hiv antibodies [ 1618 ] . a potential reason for this cross reactivity is that there are similarities in homology between the transmembrane domains of the influenza envelope protein hemagglutinin and the hiv-1 envelope proteins . in our population , there were no significant differences in age or parity and influenza vaccination acceptance rates ( unpublished data ) . women in our study were from a single institution , with a predominantly hispanic background , and therefore the results may not be applicable to all populations . reasons for false positive hiv serology may vary depending on the geographical region . while we did find a significant association between young age , nulliparity , and hiv false positive testing , our study does not have the capability to identify a causal relationship or explain why this association may exist . in addition , our study can not address if these same risk factors for false positive testing apply to all other hiv tests . further studies are needed to confirm our findings , elucidate the biological mechanisms for increased hiv eia false positivity in young , nulliparous women , and compare this conventional testing method with contemporary rapid screening assays , including poct .
objective . to examine risk factors for false positive hiv enzyme immunoassay ( eia ) testing at delivery . study design . a review of pregnant women who delivered at parkland hospital between 2005 and 2008 was performed . patients routinely received serum hiv eia testing at delivery , with positive results confirmed through immunofluorescent testing . demographics , hiv , hepatitis b surface antigen ( hbsag ) , and rapid plasma reagin ( rpr ) results were obtained . statistical analyses included pearson 's chi - square and student 's t - test . results . of 47,794 patients , 47,391 ( 99% ) tested negative , 145 ( 0.3% ) falsely positive , 172 ( 0.4% ) positive , and 86 ( 0.2% ) equivocal or missing hiv results . the positive predictive value of eia was 54.3% . patients with false positive results were more likely nulliparous ( 43% versus 31% , p < 0.001 ) and younger ( 23.9 5.7 versus 26.2 5.9 years , p < 0.001 ) . hiv positive patients were older than false positive patients and more likely positive for hbsag and rpr . conclusion . false positive hiv testing at delivery using eia is associated with young maternal age and nulliparity in this population .
1. Introduction 2. Materials and Methods 3. Results 4. Comment
the present study was designed to explore the effects of gas6 and axl gene polymorphisms on adiposity , systemic inflammation , and insulin resistance in adolescents . after multistage sampling from the data of the taipei children heart study - iii , we collected 358 boys and 369 girls with an average age of 13.3 years . we genotyped the adolescents ' gas6 rs8191973 , gas6 rs8191974 , axl rs4802113 , and axl rs2304232 polymorphisms . significantly higher body mass index ( bmi ) , waist circumference ( wc ) , and hscrp levels were found in boys with the gg genotype of gas6 rs8191974 than a allele carriers ; higher il-6 and insulin levels and increased homa - ir were found in boys with the gg genotype of axl rs2304232 than the a allele carriers . there was a significant difference in hscrp levels of boys with the tt , tc , and cc genotypes of axl rs4802113 . boys with both the gg genotype of gas6 rs8191973 and the gg genotype of gas6 rs8191974 exhibited higher bmi , wc , il-6 , and hscrp levels than the boys carrying both the c allele of the gas6 rs8191973 and the a allele of the gas6 rs8191974 . in conclusion , gas6 and axl polymorphisms are associated with adiposity , systemic inflammation , and insulin resistance in adolescents , especially in boys .
1. Introduction 2. Materials and Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion
infertility is one of the crucial and critical events in sex life which engages 1015% of couples all over the world , and as one of the most distressful life experiences , exposes couples to social and psychological problems . couples , who are faced with this critical situation , are prone to depression , anxiety , loss of self - esteem and dissatisfaction with their sex life more than others . however , the intensity of psychological problems resulting from cultural - social circumstances varies in different societies , to the point that the frequency of anxiety in infertile couples has been reported in a wide range from 48% to 96% . although , the advances in assisted reproductive techniques have opened new doors for infertile couples , but studies have shown that these treatments are accompanied with stress , anxiety and depression . but the intensity of these disorders could be defined by the cause of the infertility . evaluating the related factors of depression and anxiety among iranian infertile couples showed that women who were infertile themselves showed higher levels of anxiety and depression than women with male factor infertility . however , in societies that define women as the main source of fertility , starting assisted reproductive treatments with limited successful outcomes could be harmful to these women 's mental health . utilization of assisted reproductive techniques requires processes such as daily injection to stimulate ovulation , vaginal ultrasound and painful processes such as oocyte aspiration which are all too expensive and alongside with the fear of failure could become a harmful condition . although , fertile women , who start assisted reproductive treatments due to their husband 's infertility have natural biological conditions to get pregnant , but they have to tolerate these critical processes due to male factor infertility . also , women are under more cultural and social pressures . these conditions could affect the vulnerability of fertile women during assisted reproductive treatment ; therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of assisted reproductive treatments on fertile women 's mental health . thus , the prospective study conducted on 70 fertile women who referred to receive assisted reproduction treatments ( in vitro fertilization / intracytoplasmic sperm injection ) due to male infertility . subjects had referred to the fertility and infertility center of esfahan from september 2013 to march 2014 . the number of samples was calculated based on 80% test power and 95% confidence level . inclusion criteria were primary infertility , not having any corporal and mental illnesses , not being a drug addict according to individual 's report , not having a history of mental illnesses , and not experiencing severe distress over 1-month prior to the treatment based on holmes - rahe scale . exclusion criteria included experiencing distressful conditions during the study , discontinuation of the treatment and the cancellation of egg harvesting . the study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the isfahan university of medical sciences . mental health evaluation tool was the valid 28-questioned general health questionnaire that measures mental health on likert scale ( 03 ) in hypochondriasis , anxiety , social impairment , and depression dimensions . in this method gaining the score of 5 in each subscale and 23 in all dimensions together was defined as having a mental disorder . sampling was conducted through simple sampling ; that is , all persons , who referred to fertility and infertility center of esfahan for treatment and to start the process protocol due to male factor infertility were interviewed . then by referring to their medical records and conducting holmes - rahe scale , their eligibility for the study was assessed . after being considered eligible for entering the study , their demographical features including age , educational level of couples , economic condition , and the duration of their infertility were recorded . ovulation was stimulated through the long protocol in all the participants . during the treatment period , ovarian reaction conditions and number of injections employed for ovarian stimulation were followed - up . 3 h after the pickup process , and under appropriate circumstances , the questionnaire for general health was completed again . if the circumstances were inappropriate filling of the questionnaire was delayed for 2 h. research data were analyzed using spss software version 16 [ spss inc . : chicago , il , usa ] , statistical paired t - tests and multi - variable linear regression tests . seven qualified subjects quit the study because of the unwillingness to continue ( three persons ) and ovarian hyper stimulation ( four persons ) . demographic and clinical data results showed no significant difference in the mean score of different dimension of mental health before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting [ table 2 ] . also , the rate of psychological disorder in the anxiety dimension showed no significant different before the induction ( 71.4% ) and after the pickup ( 66.7% ) ( p = 0.19 ) . but the level of depression after pickup ( 31.7% ) was significantly lower than before the induction ( 39.7% ) ( p = 0.007 ) . comparison of mental health dimensions b and a results showed no significant difference in the dimension of hypochondriasis before the induction ( 61.9% ) and after the harvesting ( 66.7% ) ( p = 0.07 ) . also , the level of social impairment showed no significant difference before the induction ( 84.1% ) and after the pickup ( 87.3% ) ( p = 0.08 ) . the results of multi - variable linear regression to evaluate the relation between underlying variables and mental health condition before starting the process with the level of depression and anxiety after the harvesting are shown in table 3 . the relation between mental health dimensions and background variables after ovulation stimulation the level of depression after egg harvesting was related to physical condition , depression and social impairment , independent from underlying variables . also , the level of depression after egg harvesting was related to the economic condition , it also showed a significant relation with social impairment and hypochondriasis [ table 3 ] . the present study aimed to assess the level of mental health in fertile women undergoing assisted reproductive treatments as a result of male factor infertility , at the beginning of ovulation stimulation process , and the effect of this process on their mental health . results showed that these women do not start assisted reproduction treatment under appropriate mental health conditions . but the level of depression and anxiety disorders at the beginning of ovulation stimulation was higher in the present research than other reports . this would indicate that the process of treatment in fertile women is also a critical one and might affect their mental health . in a pursuit , to achieve a conceptual model for the effect of ovulation induction on women 's health , its negative effects on women 's functioning and health have been shown . a qualitative study showed that iranian infertile couples show emotional reactions such as fear , concern , anxiety and depression as a result of fear of the failure of treatment during fertility treatment . however , these mental disorders may be harmful even for women with appropriate fertility potentials . also being angry with their husbands due to their infertility could be another explanation for women 's mental reactions . positive correlation between the level of depression and anxiety and other dimensions of experiences during infertility treatment might be accompanied with social impairment , thus affecting the levels of depression and anxiety . efforts to conceal infertility and efforts to get treatment as a result of concerns about being labeled as infertile , are common among iranian couples . this , by itself , could increase the level of anxiety among women when treatment starts . another reason for the high level of depression and anxiety among women at the beginning of the ovulation stimulation might be the negative impact of gonadotropin - releasing hormone ( gnrh ) agonists on the mental health . although , this research did not evaluate mental health before and after the beginning of gnrh agonists , but this might explain women 's psychological disorders before ovulation stimulation regarding high frequency of mental disorders at the time of ovulation stimulation . with regards to the negative impact of anxiety and depression during the treatment on the result of assisted reproduction treatment , it is necessary that this group of women would be examined before the treatment process , since they are exposed to risks of mental health disorders , and be treated in case of high levels of depression and anxiety . following the assessment of the main hypothesis of the research , that is the effect of ovulation stimulation on women 's mental health , study results showed that ovulation stimulation does not affect mental health ; the level of depression and anxiety , and the measure of psychological disorders in these two - dimensions did not show a significant difference before the ovulation and after the harvesting process . on the contrary , the depression level was decreased after the harvesting process . the negative impact of distress of infertility treatment on the level of depression has already been reported . the cessation of treatment distress with the conclusion of ovulation stimulation and harvesting processes might be a reason for the decrease of depression level in subjects under study . furthermore , results showed that fertile women 's level of depression and anxiety does not depend on the reaction of the ovary to the ovulation stimulation , and as these women have no problem in ovarian response to ovulation stimulation , their mental health depends more on other factors . in addition , all subjects , who sustained the research were those who reached the stage of the harvesting process ; the potential for ovum production was proven for these women . this would enhance the self - esteem of subjects and decrease their concern over ovarian nonresponsiveness . but direct correlation between the level of anxiety and depression in the stage after harvesting process with social impairment and hypochondriasis indicates that in this stage also the awareness of social dysfunction , independent from financial status , will have its own effect on mental health . factors other than ovulation stimulation process which might influence the individuals levels of depression and anxiety have not been assessed in the present research . depression and anxiety might result from a variety of factors , which require more extensive research . another result of this research was that financial status , independent from the quantity of follicle obtained from ovulation stimulation , showed a reverse correlation with anxiety level after harvesting process . in ozken 's research , also financial status was a factor determining the anxiety in infertile couples . regarding financial pressures resulting from high costs of assisted reproduction treatments , which lead to the success of only 35% for each cycle , women 's concerns over the success of results in fertilization as an outcome of infertility of the partner detected after harvesting process while insemination in laboratory are not far from expectation . nevertheless , although women are healthy in terms of fertility in couples undergoing male factor infertility treatment , effort to have babies not by normal methods and facing difficult , costly treatment protocols might threaten their evaluation of their feminine role , thus reducing their self - esteem . another finding of this research was the existence of correlation between depression level after treatment process and anxiety level at the first stage , while this correlation was observed between depression level after treatment process and anxiety level at the second stage . this finding indicates that women , who enter the process of treatment with a higher anxiety level are prone to a higher level of depression ; therefore necessary measures should be taken to prevent it . one of this study 's limitations was that mental health assessment was conducted after starting the primary stages of the treatment therefore , the stress of this stage could affect the mental health during the whole process . this study showed that fertile women who undergo assisted reproduction treatments do not start the treatment process in an appropriate mental health condition , and this condition would continue during the whole process until egg harvesting . therefore , it is suggested that before starting the treatment the mental health of these women should be evaluated using screening tools and counseling sessions would be applied for vulnerable women .
introduction : the process of assisted reproductive treatment is a stressful situation in the treatment of infertile couples and it would harm the mental health of women . fertile women who started infertility treatment due to male factor infertility have reported to experience less stress and depression than other women before the assisted reproductive process but considering the cultural and social factors and also the etiology of the assisted reproductive process , it could affect the metal health of these women . therefore , this study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of fertile women who undergo assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility.materials and methods : this study was a prospective study on 70 fertile women who underwent assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility . the exclusion criterion was to stop super ovulation induction . to assess mental health , anxiety and depression dimensions of the general health questionnaire were used . before starting ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting , the general health questionnaire was filled by women who were under treatment . data were analyzed using multi - variable linear regression , paired t - test , and chi-square.results:the results showed that the mean score of depression and anxiety before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting were not significantly different ; but the rate of mental health disorder in the depression dimension was significantly decreased after oocytes harvesting ( 31.7% vs. 39.7% ) . also , there was a significant relation between the level of anxiety and depression before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting ( p < 0.05 ) . the anxiety level after oocyte harvesting had a positive and significant correlation with the economic situation ( p < 0.05).conclusion : this study revealed that the process of assisted reproductive treatment does not affect the mental health in fertile women independently , but these women start assisted reproductive process with high levels of depression and anxiety . therefore , prior to the assisted reproductive treatment mental health consultation is needed .
INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS Financial support and sponsorship Conflicts of interest
introduction . low serum vitamin d levels are associated with increased postural sway . vitamin d varies seasonally . this study investigates whether postural sway varies seasonally and is associated with serum vitamin d and falls . methods . in a longitudinal observational study , eighty - eight independently mobile community - dwelling older adults ( 69.7 7.6 years ) were evaluated on five occasions over one year , measuring postural sway ( force platform ) , vitamin d levels , fall incidence , and causes and adverse outcomes . mixed - methods poisson regression was used to determine associations between measures . results . postural sway did not vary over the year . vitamin d levels varied seasonally ( p < 0.001 ) , peaking in summer . incidence of falls ( p = 0.01 ) and injurious falls ( p = 0.02 ) were lower in spring , with the highest fall rate at the end of autumn . postural sway was not related to vitamin d ( p = 0.87 ) or fall rates , but it was associated with fall injuries ( irr 1.59 ( ci 1.14 to 2.24 , p = 0.007 ) . conclusions . postural sway remained stable across the year while vitamin d varied seasonally . participants with high values for postural sway demonstrated higher rates of injurious falls . this study provides important evidence for clinicians and researchers providing interventions measuring balance outcomes across seasons .
1. Introduction 2. Materials and Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Limitations 6. Conclusion
backgroundthe abortifacient claim of senna alata ( s. alata ) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent . this speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence . the present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from s. alata leaves.methodstwenty four pregnant rats ( 143.991.21 g ) allocated randomly to four groups : a , b , c and d respectively received , 0.5 ml of distilled water , 250 , 500 and 1000 mg / kg body weight of the s. alata extracted alkaloids orally , once daily from day 10 until day 18 post - coitum . the indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period . the results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and duncan 's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.resultsthin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with rf values of 0.28 , 0.33 , 0.39 , 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with meyer 's and wagner 's reagents , respectively . the number of implantation sites and corpora lutea , as well as the concentrations of fsh , lh , progesterone , weight of uterus , uterine/ body weight ratio , glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly ( p < 0.05 ) whereas the resorption index , pre- and post - implantation losses , uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly . none of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths . the alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain , as well as feed and water intake.conclusionoverall , the alkaloids from s. alata leaves exhibited anti - implantation , anti - gonadotropic , anti - progesteronic , embryonic resorptive , feto - maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient . the alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract .
Introduction Methods Plant material and authentication Chemicals and reagents Animals Extraction of alkaloids Analysis of the alkaloids Analysis of abortifacient activity Determination of estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activities Preparation of serum and uterine homogenates Determination of some reproductive hormones Statistical analysis Results Discussion Conclusion Conflict of Interest
background . the prognostic significance of erg expression in prostate cancer ( pca ) has generated mixed results . we sought to investigate the prognostic significance of erg expression in a localized cohort of men with pca . material and methods . we investigated erg protein expression in a cohort of 198 men with localized pca . erg expression was correlated with patients ' clinical outcome and several pathological parameters , including gleason score ( gs ) , pathological stage , surgical margin , and extra - capsular extension . results . erg expression was detected in 86/198 ( 43.4% ) patients exclusively in neoplastic epithelium . overall , erg mean expression intensity was 1.01 1.27 versus 0.37 0.83 in acinar pca compared to foamy type pca ( p < 0.001 ) . in hgpin , erg intensity levels were comparable to those in foamy type pca ( 0.13 0.56 ) but significantly lower than those in acinar pca ( p < 0.001 ) . erg expression was significantly associated with extra - prostatic extension and higher pathological stage and showed a trend toward seminal vesicle invasion . herein , erg expression was documented in 50/131 ( 38.1% ) patients with pt2 versus 30/55 ( 54.5% ) patients with pt3 ( p = 0.04 ) . erg association with higher pathological stage was more pronounced in patients with gs > 7 . grouping patients into those with gs 7 versus > 7 , there was no significant association between erg expression and gs . similarly , no association was present in relation to either surgical margins or postsurgical serum psa levels . conclusion . we report significant association between erg protein levels and extra - prostatic extension and higher pathological stage . erg expression is not associated with adverse clinical outcome and is of limited prognostic value in localized pca .
1. Introduction 2. Material and Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion
purpose : a further understanding of the anterior supramalleolar artery ( asma ) and its potential applications in reconstructive surgery.materials and methods : a total of 24 fresh lower limbs from fresh cadavers were injected with red latex for dissection . the type of origin , course , diameter of the pedicle , and the distance between the origin of the asma from the anterior tibial artery to the extensor retinaculum ( o - r ) were recorded . bi - foliate fasciocutaneous flaps were harvested using the branches of the asma.results:we found four types of origin of the asma , and we have accordingly classified them into four types . 10 of them were type a , 7 were type b , 6 were type c and 1 was type d. the mean o - r ( origin of asma to retinaculum ) distance was 2.0 0.8 cm . the diameter of the medial branch ( d1 ) , the diameter of the lateral branch ( d2 ) , and the diameter of artery stem ( d3 ) ( only in type a ) were 1.0 0.2 mm , 0.8 0.3 mm , 1.1 0.2 mm , respectively . the mean pedicle length of the lateral flap ( l1 ) and medial flap ( l2 ) were 5.1 1.0 cm and 3.7 0.6 cm , respectively.conclusions:the asma exists constantly with four different types of origin . its sizable diameter and lengthy pedicle make it suitable for bi - foliate fasciocutaneous flap transfer .
INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS
ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion ( df prom ) measurements are performed in the field of physical therapy to estimate ankle motion during functional activities1 and to prevent lower extremity injuries2 . although in the clinical setting , ankle df prom is frequently measured under non - weight - bearing ( non - wb ) conditions1 , 3 , 4 , many researchers have stated that the wb position is more appropriate for estimating the amount of ankle df motion during functional activities5 , 6 . therefore , wb ankle df prom should be measured during interventions focused on increasing ankle df prom . limited ankle df prom with knee extended may result from gastrocnemius tightness and insufficient posterior talar glide7 . thus , gastrocnemius stretching and talocrural joint mobilization have been performed as intervention strategies to increase ankle df prom3 , 8 , 9 . previous studies have reported a significant increase in ankle df prom after these interventions3 , 8 , 9 ; however , to our knowledge , no study has demonstrated the combined effect of both interventions on wb ankle df prom . therefore , the aim of the present study was to examine the influence of gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization on wb ankle df prom . in total , 11 male subjects with bilateral limited non - wb ankle df prom with knee extended ( mean age , 22.82 3.09 years ; mean height , 175.91 3.39 cm ; mean weight , 69.55 3.78 kg ; mean non - wb ankle df prom , 4.17 2.48 ) participated in this study . inclusion criteria were 1 ) ankle df prom with knee extension < 10 ; 2 ) ankle df prom with knee flexion > 10 ; and 3 ) > 5 difference in ankle df prom between knee extension and knee flexion conditions on bilateral sides in non - wb positions3 . subjects with a history of surgery on the lower extremity , fracture , or neurological diseases were excluded from this study . all participants signed an informed consent form approved by the institutional research review committee of inje university prior to participation in this study . the study protocol of this study complies with the ethical standard of the declaration of helsinki . wb ankle df prom with knee extended was measured following the procedures suggested by munteanu et al10 . subjects stood in front of a wall and placed the leg being tested behind the contralateral leg in a lunge posture . subjects were asked to place both hands on the wall and then lean forward without heel - off and knee flexion until maximum stretch was felt in the gastrocnemius on the tested leg . the force applied to the tested leg was maintained at 60 5% of the subject s weight using scales11 . an examiner determined the maximum tibial inclination using an inclinometer to measure the wb ankle df prom with knee extended . measurements of wb ankle df prom were repeated 3 times for each ankle under pre- and post - intervention conditions . the mean value of 3 trials was used for data analysis . for gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization , subjects leaned forward against the wall in the same lunge posture as that during measurement of wb ankle df prom with knee extended until the maximum gastrocnemius stretch was felt . subjects held the end - range posture while an examiner provided the talus of the tested leg with sustained anterior - to - posterior gliding force . an intervention trial was performed for 30 s , and 10 trials were repeated with 30-s rest periods for each ankle . the difference in wb ankle df prom with knee extended between pre- and post - intervention conditions was analyzed using a paired t - test . wb ankle df prom with knee extended was significantly increased in post - intervention compared with pre - intervention conditions ( 42.60 5.49 versus 38.24 4.69 , p < 0.001 ) . our findings demonstrate that gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization significantly increases wb ankle df prom with knee extended . stretching exercises increase tolerance , resulting in increased rom12 . additionally , increased displacement of the myotendinous junction ( mtj ) after gastrocnemius stretching for 5 min was found in a previous study13 . therefore , the change in tolerance and/or increase in mtj displacement might have influenced our findings . the addition of talocrural joint mobilization to gastrocnemius stretching is another possible explanation for our findings . previous research by dinh et al.3 showed a 4.25 increase in wb ankle df prom with knee extended after gastrocnemius stretching alone for 3 weeks . although gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization was applied for 5 min in the present study , the amount of increase in wb ankle df prom after intervention ( i.e. , 4.36 ) was similar to that found previously . considering this outcome , despite the relatively short period of intervention in the present study , it may be inferred that the addition of talocrural joint mobilization might maximize the effects of general gastrocnemius stretching . thus , we conclude that gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization might decrease gastrocnemius tightness and increase posterior talar gliding movement , which effectively increases wb ankle df prom with the knee extended . first , although non - wb ankle df prom was used as an inclusion criterion , changes in non - wb ankle df prom after intervention were not measured . however , we believe that wb ankle df prom is clinically more important because most functional activities are performed under the wb condition . second , our study included only male subjects , and the results can not be generalized to women .
[ purpose ] the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gastrocnemius stretching combined with talocrural joint mobilization on weight - bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion . [ subjects ] eleven male subjects with bilateral limited ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion with knee extended participated in this study . [ methods ] all subjects received talocrural joint mobilization while performing gastrocnemius stretching . ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was measured using an inclinometer under weight - bearing conditions before and immediately after intervention . a paired t - test was used to analyze the difference between weight - bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion pre- and post - intervention . [ results ] a significant increase in weight - bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was found post - intervention compared with pre - intervention . [ conclusion ] these findings demonstrate that gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization is effective for increasing weight - bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion .
INTRODUCTION SUBJECTS AND METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION
nephrotoxicity is one of the limiting factors for using doxorubicin ( dox ) . interleukin 1 has major role in dox - induced nephrotoxicity , so we investigated the effect of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist diacerein ( dia ) on dox - induced nephrotoxicity . dia ( 25 and 50 mg / kg / day ) was administered orally to rats for 15 days , in the presence or absence of nephrotoxicity induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of dox ( 15 mg / kg ) at the 11th day . we measured levels of serum urea , creatinine , renal reduced glutathione ( gsh ) , malondialdehyde ( mda ) , total nitrites ( nox ) , catalase , and superoxide dismutase ( sod ) . in addition , caspase-3 , tumor necrosis factor alpha ( tnf ) , nuclear factor kappa b ( nfb ) expressions , and renal histopathology were assessed . our results showed that dox - induced nephrotoxicity was ameliorated or reduced by both doses of dia , but diacerein high dose ( dhd ) showed more improvement than diacerein low dose ( dld ) . this protective effect was manifested by significant improvement in all measured parameters compared to dox treated group by using dhd . dld showed significant improvement of creatinine , mda , nox , gsh , histopathology , and immunohistochemical parameters compared to dox treated group .
1. Introduction 2. Materials and Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion
suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally , and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide . therefore , we investigated the association between weight control behaviors ( wcb ) and suicide ideation and attempt , focusing on inappropriate weight control measures . we used data from the 2014 korea youth risk behavior web - based survey , representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years . adolescents were classified into groups based on wcb : appropriate wcb , inappropriate wcb , and no wcb . we performed logistic regression models to examine associations between wcb and suicide ideation and attempt , controlling for covariates . both boys and girls with inappropriate wcb were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt . underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate wcb were more likely to think or attempt suicide , and underweight girls with inappropriate wcb were also more likely to attempt suicide . among five common wcb combinations , the combination of " regular exercise , fasting , eating less " was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt . we confirmed that inappropriate wcb is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among korean adolescents . given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate wcb , encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative .
INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS Data and participants Variables Statistical analyses Ethics statement RESULTS DISCUSSION
green fluorescent protein ( gfp ) and gfp - like fluorescent proteins owe their photophysical properties to an autocatalytically formed intrinsic chromophore . according to quantum mechanical calculations , the excited state of chromophore model systems has significant dihedral freedom , which may lead to fluorescence quenching intersystem crossing . molecular dynamics simulations with freely rotating chromophoric dihedrals were performed on green , yellow , and blue fluorescent proteins in order to model the dihedral freedom available to the chromophore in the excited state . most current theories suggest that a restriction in the rotational freedom of the fluorescent protein chromophore will lead to an increase in fluorescence brightness and/or quantum yield . according to our calculations , the dihedral freedom of the systems studied ( bfp > a5 > yfp > gfp ) increases in the inverse order to the quantum yield . in all simulations , the chromophore undergoes a negatively correlated hula twist ( also known as a bottom hula twist mechanism ) .
Introduction Experimental Section Results and Discussion Conclusion
in this era of precision medicine , our understanding and knowledge of the molecular landscape associated with lung cancer pathogenesis continues to evolve . this information is being increasingly exploited to treat advanced stage lung cancer patients with tailored , targeted therapy . during the management of these patients , minimally invasive procedures to obtain samples for tissue diagnoses are desirable . cytologic fine - needle aspirates are often utilized for this purpose and are important not only for rendering diagnoses to subtype patients lung cancers , but also for ascertaining molecular diagnostic information for treatment purposes . thus , cytologic fine - needle aspirates must be utilized and triaged judiciously to achieve both objectives . in this review , strategies in utilizing fine - needle aspirates will be discussed in the context of our current understanding of the clinically actionable molecular aberrations underlying non - small cell lung cancer and the molecular assays applied to these samples in order to obtain treatment - relevant molecular diagnostic information .
FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION SPECIMEN PROCESSING EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR ANAPLASTIC LYMPHOMA KINASE EMERGING MOLECULAR GENETIC BIOMARKERS CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
purposeappendiceal tumors are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include typical neuroendocrine tumors ( tnet ) , goblet cell carcinoids ( gcc ) , and atypical gcc . atypical gcc are classified into signet - ring cell cancers ( srcc ) and poorly differentiated appendiceal adenocarcinoids . the prognosis and management of these diseases is unclear because there are no prospective studies . the aim of this study is to assess the characteristics and outcome of appendiceal tnet , gcc , and srcc patients.materials and methodsappendiceal tnet , gcc , and srcc patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 were identified in the surveillance epidemiology and end results ( seer ) database . demographics , type of surgery , and clinicopathologic characteristics were collected . survival functions were estimated by the kaplan - meier method , and log - rank test was used to assess the difference in overall survival ( os ) among the three histologies.resultsthe seer database yielded 1,021 tnet patients , 1,582 with gcc , and 534 srcc patients . tnet presented at a younger age ( p < 0.001 ) . patients with srcc presented with advanced stage disease ( p < 0.001 ) . the median os ( mos ) for gcc and tnet patients was not reached ; mos for srcc was 24 months . multivariate analysis stratified for stage revealed significantly longer survival for tnet and gcc than srcc ( p < 0.001).conclusionthis is the largest report to date for appendiceal neuroendocrine tumor patients , suggesting a spectrum of diseases with different characteristics and outcomes . in this report , we present a treatment approach for this complex spectrum of disease , based on the experience of ohio state and emory universities investigators .
Introduction Materials and Methods 1. Patients 2. Statistical analysis Results 1. Characteristics of patients with TNET, GCC, and SRCC 2. Survival outcome of patients with TNET, GCC, and SRCC Discussion Conclusion
we have prepared two new diastereoisomeric 2-aza-5-phosphabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes from naturally occurring trans-4-hydroxy - l - proline in six chemical operations . these syntheses are concise and highly efficient , with straightforward purification . when we used these chiral phosphines as catalysts for reactions of -substituted allenoates with imines , we obtained enantiomerically enriched pyrrolines in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities . these two diastereoisomeric phosphines functioned as pseudoenantiomers , providing their chiral pyrrolines with opposite absolute configurations .
Supplementary Material
we report a case of igg4-related disease ( igg4-rd ) diagnosed after 3 years of follow - up for idiopathic membranous nephropathy ( mn ) . mn has been considered as glomerular lesion of igg4-related kidney diseases in recent years and was diagnosed simultaneously with or after a diagnosis of igg4-rd in previously reported cases . in the present case , igg4-rd developed 3 years after the diagnosis of idiopathic mn , indicating a possible relationship between idiopathic mn and igg4-rd through common underlying mechanisms of development .
Background Case report Discussion
purposeto evaluate retinopathy associated with interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis c.methodsone hundred patients with chronic hepatitis c undergoing interferon therapy were examined for the presence of cotton wool spots , retinal hemorrhages , cystoid macular edema , capillary non - perfusion , and arteriolar occlusion . complete ophthalmological examination including indirect ophthalmoscopic fundus examination was carried out for all patients and colored fundus photography and fluorescein angiography were carried out for the patients with positive fundus findings . the follow - up period was 9 months.resultssixteen percent of patients developed retinopathy in the form of cotton wool spots , retinal hemorrhages , cystoid macular edema , and capillary non-perfusion.conclusioninterferon therapy can lead to retinopathy which is mostly reversible and dose related . periodic fundoscopic examinations help in early detection and prevent progression to permanent visual loss .
Introduction Patients and methods Treatment protocol Follow-up Results Discussion Conclusion
nathan , as an oncology fellow , knew well that white blood cells fought infections . this was an experiment repeated in front of us all the time , he says : chemotherapy lowered his patients ' white blood cells and increased their risk of infections . mackaness had shown that macrophage activation did not depend on direct contact with t cells ( 1 ) , suggesting the possibility of a secreted factor . when nathan tested the supernatant from activated t cells , he saw that it did indeed induce macrophage activation ( 2 ) . nathan got a rough idea of the molecular weight ( 3 ) , but that was the best anyone could do , he says . protein separation methods were primitive , and cloned proteins and monoclonal antibodies would only become available a decade later . henry murray , one of nathan 's collaborators , sums up the feeling of frustration : we were all nibbling at the edges of the same problem . nathan therefore changed tack to take a closer look at the activated macrophages . short - lived neutrophils were known to produce hydrogen peroxide , and nathan found the same was true of longer - lived activated macrophages ( 4 ) . unlike previous signs of macrophage activation increased spreading , phagocytosis , and glucose metabolism this so - called respiratory burst ifn had been on the cover of time magazine , and recombinant murine ifn was found to induce macrophages to kill tumor cells ( 5 ) . nathan , now a faculty member in zanvil cohn 's macrophage factory at rockefeller university ( new york , ny ) , thought ifn might also activate macrophages to kill intracellular parasites . consistent with this idea , ifn was made by antigen - stimulated t cells and was associated with defense from infection . now the respiratory burst gave nathan an assay , berish rubin ( down the street at the new york blood center ) supplied an ifn monoclonal antibody , and a phone call to genentech yielded recombinant ifn. in a seminal paper published in the journal of experimental medicine in 1983 , nathan was thus able to show that depleting ifn from unpurified t cell supernatants decreased the respiratory burst activity and the killing of intracellular protozoa in human macrophages . adding back recombinant ifn into this mix restored macrophage activation ( 6 ) . i had an assay , a hunch , a history of purifying proteins that did this , and the serendipity of meeting with people nearby who had the antibody . nathan next showed that ifn worked in people . injecting recombinant ifn directly into cutaneous lesions of lepromatous leprosy patients induced macrophage infiltration , hydrogen peroxide production , and killing of the causative pathogen , mycobacterium leprae ( 7 ) . in the 1990s , the macrophages of children with ifn receptor deficiencies were shown to be defective in killing mycobacteria ( 8) . tracing the pathway from t cells to macrophages to bacteria started , for nathan , in 1967 , and he says we still haven't finished making the molecular links .
t cells tell macrophages when to start making the toxic soup of lysosomal enzymes , reactive oxygen species , and nitric oxide that destroys intracellular pathogens . in 1983 , carl nathan proved that this start signal comes in the form of the secreted cytokine ifn.
The elusive eluate Back on track
objective : to determine the prevalence of premenstrual cyclic symptoms in perimenopausal age.subjects and methods : women attending bhavan 's sparc maitreyi 's health care programme ( hcp ) for women around 40 years of age were included in the study . last 200 women who attended from april 2002 to october 2004 are included for analysis . out of these 107 qualified for final analysis as others were post hysterectomy or post menopausal . thirty five symptoms listed under premenstrual tension syndrome were analysed.results:forty one women ( 38.3% ) had 3 or more symptoms whilst 15 ( 14.0% ) had 5 or more cyclic symptoms . five women ( 4.7% ) reported that the symptoms were severe . eleven women had seeked treatment for premenstrual tension syndrome ( pmts ) . the commonest symptom was mastalgia or heaviness of breasts . next was whilst also was reported by several women . women reported anger attacks and reported depression.conclusion:pmts was common between 36 and 55 years . about half of them have experienced 3 more symptoms and 1 in 20 may require treatment .
INTRODUCTION Objective METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION Management Strategies Effect on Work and QOL CONCLUSION

# Dataset Card for "scientific_papers"

### Dataset Summary

Scientific papers datasets contains two sets of long and structured documents. The datasets are obtained from ArXiv and PubMed OpenAccess repositories.

Both "arxiv" and "pubmed" have two features:

• article: the body of the document, pagragraphs seperated by "/n".
• abstract: the abstract of the document, pagragraphs seperated by "/n".
• section_names: titles of sections, seperated by "/n".

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

#### arxiv

This example was too long and was cropped: