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id (string)background (string)situation (string)question (string)answers (sequence)
"1971664873"
"Passive transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane without needing any energy to pass through. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is more concentrated to an area where it is less concentrated. Concentration is the number of particles of a substance in a given volume. Let's say you dissolve a teaspoon of salt in a cup of water. Then you dissolve two teaspoons of salt in another cup of water. The second solution will have a higher concentration of salt."
"A man put two cups, cup A and cup B, filled with equal amounts of water on to a table and walked away to go check his mail. His son came along and saw the two cups and decided to put some sugar in them to make a tasty drink. The child poured two spoonfuls of sugar into cup A and three spoonfuls of sugar into cup B."
"Which cup has a higher concentration of sugar?"
{ "text": [ "cup B" ] }
"1069299611"
"Passive transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane without needing any energy to pass through. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is more concentrated to an area where it is less concentrated. Concentration is the number of particles of a substance in a given volume. Let's say you dissolve a teaspoon of salt in a cup of water. Then you dissolve two teaspoons of salt in another cup of water. The second solution will have a higher concentration of salt."
"A man put two cups, cup A and cup B, filled with equal amounts of water on to a table and walked away to go check his mail. His son came along and saw the two cups and decided to put some sugar in them to make a tasty drink. The child poured two spoonfuls of sugar into cup A and three spoonfuls of sugar into cup B."
"Which cup has a lower concentration of sugar?"
{ "text": [ "cup A" ] }
"3034816634"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"There are two cells inside a Petri dish in a laboratory, cell X and cell Z. These cells are from the same organism, but are not the same age. Cell X was created two weeks ago, and cell Z was created one month ago. Therefore, cell Z has had two extra weeks of growth compared to cell X."
"Which cell has a larger volume?"
{ "text": [ "cell Z" ] }
"1454547181"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"There are two cells inside a Petri dish in a laboratory, cell X and cell Z. These cells are from the same organism, but are not the same age. Cell X was created two weeks ago, and cell Z was created one month ago. Therefore, cell Z has had two extra weeks of growth compared to cell X."
"Which cell has a smaller volume?"
{ "text": [ "Cell X" ] }
"1270459073"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"There are two cells inside a Petri dish in a laboratory, cell X and cell Z. These cells are from the same organism, but have different characteristics. For example, cell Z is smaller than cell X. Furthermore, scientists studying the two cells have recorded that cell X is more metabolically active than cell Z."
"Which cell has more nuclei?"
{ "text": [ "cell X" ] }
"4144081703"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"There are two cells inside a Petri dish in a laboratory, cell X and cell Z. These cells are from the same organism, but have different characteristics. For example, cell Z is smaller than cell X. Furthermore, scientists studying the two cells have recorded that cell X is more metabolically active than cell Z."
"Which cell has fewer nuclei?"
{ "text": [ "cell Z" ] }
"1299494362"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"There are two cells inside a Petri dish in a laboratory, cell X and cell Z. These cells are from the same organism, but have different characteristics. For example, cell Z is smaller than cell X. Furthermore, scientists studying the two cells have recorded that cell X is more metabolically active than cell Z."
"Which cell will have more folds throughout the membrane?"
{ "text": [ "cell X" ] }
"70628928"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"There are two cells inside a Petri dish in a laboratory, cell X and cell Z. These cells are from the same organism, but have different characteristics. For example, cell Z is smaller than cell X. Furthermore, scientists studying the two cells have recorded that cell X is more metabolically active than cell Z."
"Which cell will have fewer folds throughout the membrane?"
{ "text": [ "cell Z" ] }
"1970715576"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"There are two cells inside a Petri dish in a laboratory, cell X and cell Z. These cells are from the same organism, but have different characteristics. For example, cell Z is smaller than cell X. Furthermore, scientists studying the two cells have recorded that cell X is more metabolically active than cell Z."
"Will cell Z have a larger or smaller surface area to transport materials?"
{ "text": [ "smaller" ] }
"1962458038"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"There are two cells inside a Petri dish in a laboratory, cell X and cell Z. These cells are from the same organism, but have different characteristics. For example, cell Z is smaller than cell X. Furthermore, scientists studying the two cells have recorded that cell X is more metabolically active than cell Z."
"Will cell X have a larger or smaller surface area to transport materials?"
{ "text": [ "larger" ] }
"1696724202"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Which cell has more volume?"
{ "text": [ "Cell A" ] }
"1697641710"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Which cell has less volume?"
{ "text": [ "cell B" ] }
"3008035768"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Does Cell A have more or less nuclei than Cell B?"
{ "text": [ "more" ] }
"3010460600"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Does Cell B have more or less nuclei than Cell A?"
{ "text": [ "less" ] }
"905246506"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Which cell has more protrusions?"
{ "text": [ "Cell A" ] }
"907474734"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Which cell has less protrusions?"
{ "text": [ "cell B" ] }
"2399534881"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Does Cell A or Cell B have more folds across the membrane?"
{ "text": [ "Cell A" ] }
"2405433125"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Does Cell A or Cell B have less folds across the membrane?"
{ "text": [ "Cell B" ] }
"4040165060"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Will Cell B have an easier or harder time transporting materials than cell A?"
{ "text": [ "harder" ] }
"4035905220"
"As a cell grows, its volume increases more quickly than its surface area. If a cell was to get very large, the small surface area would not allow enough nutrients to enter the cell quickly enough for the cell’s needs. This idea is explained in Figure below . However, large cells have a way of dealing with some size challenges. Big cells, such as some white blood cells, often grow more nuclei so that they can supply enough proteins and RNA for the cell’s requirements. Large, metabolically active cells often have lots of cell protrusions, resulting in many folds throughout the membrane. These folds increase the surface area available for transport of materials into or out of the cell. Such cell types are found lining your small intestine, where they absorb nutrients from your food through protrusions called microvilli ."
"Gary, a high school student, is supposed to be studying two different cells under a microscope during his biology class. Gary doesn't like biology class at all though and can't find the motivation to look at the cells in detail. In his homework where students are supposed to write what they observed, Gary simply wrote down the first thing he saw under the microscope which was that Cell A is larger than cell B. It won't get him a great grade, but Gary is hoping it will at least get him a pass on the assignment."
"Will Cell A have an easier or harder time transporting materials than cell B?"
{ "text": [ "easier" ] }
"2305066000"
"Communication is any way that animals share information. Many animals live in social groups. For these animals, being able to communicate is essential. Communicating increases the ability of group members to cooperate and avoid conflict. Communication may help animals work together to find food and defend themselves from predators. It also helps them find mates and care for their offspring. In addition, communication helps adult animals teach the next generation learned behaviors. Therefore, communication generally improves the chances of animals surviving and reproducing."
"There are two species of animals, the Moops and the Flavins, living in the Jarmal forest in Montana. These two species have both been living inside the Jarmal for the entirety of their existence. The Moops have recently begun to develop an effective method of communication that they use to pass important information to one another. The Flavins, however, are more primitive and currently have no method of communication."
"Which species will have a higher chance of surviving?"
{ "text": [ "Moops" ] }
"118784962"
"Communication is any way that animals share information. Many animals live in social groups. For these animals, being able to communicate is essential. Communicating increases the ability of group members to cooperate and avoid conflict. Communication may help animals work together to find food and defend themselves from predators. It also helps them find mates and care for their offspring. In addition, communication helps adult animals teach the next generation learned behaviors. Therefore, communication generally improves the chances of animals surviving and reproducing."
"There are two species of animals, the Moops and the Flavins, living in the Jarmal forest in Montana. These two species have both been living inside the Jarmal for the entirety of their existence. The Moops have recently begun to develop an effective method of communication that they use to pass important information to one another. The Flavins, however, are more primitive and currently have no method of communication."
"Which species will have a lower chance of surviving?"
{ "text": [ "Flavins" ] }
"3984424929"
"Communication is any way that animals share information. Many animals live in social groups. For these animals, being able to communicate is essential. Communicating increases the ability of group members to cooperate and avoid conflict. Communication may help animals work together to find food and defend themselves from predators. It also helps them find mates and care for their offspring. In addition, communication helps adult animals teach the next generation learned behaviors. Therefore, communication generally improves the chances of animals surviving and reproducing."
"There are two species of animals, the Moops and the Flavins, living in the Jarmal forest in Montana. These two species have both been living inside the Jarmal for the entirety of their existence. The Moops have recently begun to develop an effective method of communication that they use to pass important information to one another. The Flavins, however, are more primitive and currently have no method of communication."
"Will the Moops have more or less conflict?"
{ "text": [ "less" ] }
"4015685798"
"Communication is any way that animals share information. Many animals live in social groups. For these animals, being able to communicate is essential. Communicating increases the ability of group members to cooperate and avoid conflict. Communication may help animals work together to find food and defend themselves from predators. It also helps them find mates and care for their offspring. In addition, communication helps adult animals teach the next generation learned behaviors. Therefore, communication generally improves the chances of animals surviving and reproducing."
"There are two species of animals, the Moops and the Flavins, living in the Jarmal forest in Montana. These two species have both been living inside the Jarmal for the entirety of their existence. The Moops have recently begun to develop an effective method of communication that they use to pass important information to one another. The Flavins, however, are more primitive and currently have no method of communication."
"Will the Flavins have more or less conflict?"
{ "text": [ "more" ] }
"1990885828"
"Communication is any way that animals share information. Many animals live in social groups. For these animals, being able to communicate is essential. Communicating increases the ability of group members to cooperate and avoid conflict. Communication may help animals work together to find food and defend themselves from predators. It also helps them find mates and care for their offspring. In addition, communication helps adult animals teach the next generation learned behaviors. Therefore, communication generally improves the chances of animals surviving and reproducing."
"There are two species of animals, the Moops and the Flavins, living in the Jarmal forest in Montana. These two species have both been living inside the Jarmal for the entirety of their existence. The Moops have recently begun to develop an effective method of communication that they use to pass important information to one another. The Flavins, however, are more primitive and currently have no method of communication."
"Which species has an easier time finding mates?"
{ "text": [ "Moops" ] }
"4074799443"
"Communication is any way that animals share information. Many animals live in social groups. For these animals, being able to communicate is essential. Communicating increases the ability of group members to cooperate and avoid conflict. Communication may help animals work together to find food and defend themselves from predators. It also helps them find mates and care for their offspring. In addition, communication helps adult animals teach the next generation learned behaviors. Therefore, communication generally improves the chances of animals surviving and reproducing."
"There are two species of animals, the Moops and the Flavins, living in the Jarmal forest in Montana. These two species have both been living inside the Jarmal for the entirety of their existence. The Moops have recently begun to develop an effective method of communication that they use to pass important information to one another. The Flavins, however, are more primitive and currently have no method of communication."
"Which species has a harder time finding mates?"
{ "text": [ "Flavins" ] }
"2549377724"
"Communication is any way that animals share information. Many animals live in social groups. For these animals, being able to communicate is essential. Communicating increases the ability of group members to cooperate and avoid conflict. Communication may help animals work together to find food and defend themselves from predators. It also helps them find mates and care for their offspring. In addition, communication helps adult animals teach the next generation learned behaviors. Therefore, communication generally improves the chances of animals surviving and reproducing."
"There are two species of animals, the Lips and the Bops, living in the Scallop forest in Montana. These two species have both been living inside the Scallop forest for the entirety of their existence. The Bops have always managed to easily fend off attackers, but the Lips are easily preyed upon and struggle to defend their own from predators."
"Which species most likely has a better method of communication?"
{ "text": [ "Bops" ] }
"784755302"
"Communication is any way that animals share information. Many animals live in social groups. For these animals, being able to communicate is essential. Communicating increases the ability of group members to cooperate and avoid conflict. Communication may help animals work together to find food and defend themselves from predators. It also helps them find mates and care for their offspring. In addition, communication helps adult animals teach the next generation learned behaviors. Therefore, communication generally improves the chances of animals surviving and reproducing."
"There are two species of animals, the Lips and the Bops, living in the Scallop forest in Montana. These two species have both been living inside the Scallop forest for the entirety of their existence. The Bops have always managed to easily fend off attackers, but the Lips are easily preyed upon and struggle to defend their own from predators."
"Which species most likely has a worse method of communication?"
{ "text": [ "Lips" ] }
"2910378622"
"Look at the police car in Figure below . The sound waves from its siren travel outward in all directions. Because the car is racing forward (toward the right), the sound waves get bunched up in front of the car and spread out behind it. As the car approaches the person on the right (position B), the sound waves get closer and closer together. In other words, they have a higher frequency. This makes the siren sound higher in pitch. After the car speeds by the person on the left (position A), the sound waves get more and more spread out, so they have a lower frequency. This makes the siren sound lower in pitch. A change in the frequency of sound waves, relative to a stationary listener, when the source of the sound waves is moving is called the Doppler effect . You’ve probably experienced the Doppler effect yourself. The next time a vehicle with a siren races by, listen for the change in pitch. For an online animation of the Doppler effect, go to the URL below."
"A scientist is analyzing two different sounds, one from a deer and one from a zebra, with a device that allows her to see the sound waves of each noise. While looking at the results, she sees that the sound waves for the deer are more closely packed together, but the zebra's sound has very spread out waves."
"Which animal's sound has a higher pitch?"
{ "text": [ "deer" ] }
"3550730800"
"Look at the police car in Figure below . The sound waves from its siren travel outward in all directions. Because the car is racing forward (toward the right), the sound waves get bunched up in front of the car and spread out behind it. As the car approaches the person on the right (position B), the sound waves get closer and closer together. In other words, they have a higher frequency. This makes the siren sound higher in pitch. After the car speeds by the person on the left (position A), the sound waves get more and more spread out, so they have a lower frequency. This makes the siren sound lower in pitch. A change in the frequency of sound waves, relative to a stationary listener, when the source of the sound waves is moving is called the Doppler effect . You’ve probably experienced the Doppler effect yourself. The next time a vehicle with a siren races by, listen for the change in pitch. For an online animation of the Doppler effect, go to the URL below."
"A scientist is analyzing two different sounds, one from a deer and one from a zebra, with a device that allows her to see the sound waves of each noise. While looking at the results, she sees that the sound waves for the deer are more closely packed together, but the zebra's sound has very spread out waves."
"Which animal's sound has a lower pitch?"
{ "text": [ "zebra" ] }
"367545335"
"Most chemical reactions within organisms would be impossible under the conditions in cells. For example, the body temperature of most organisms is too low for reactions to occur quickly enough to carry out life processes. Reactants may also be present in such low concentrations that it is unlikely they will meet and collide. Therefore, the rate of most biochemical reactions must be increased by a catalyst. A catalyst is a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions. In organisms, catalysts are called enzymes . Essentially, enzymes are biological catalysts."
"Scientists have recently discovered two organisms deep in a cave in the hills of Paris. One organism, Boncho, has many enzymes. The other organism, Hojo, has very few enzymes. Currently, scientists are in the process of analyzing these new organisms to learn more about them."
"Which organism will have a harder time creating chemical reactions?"
{ "text": [ "Hojo" ] }
"1694714984"
"Most chemical reactions within organisms would be impossible under the conditions in cells. For example, the body temperature of most organisms is too low for reactions to occur quickly enough to carry out life processes. Reactants may also be present in such low concentrations that it is unlikely they will meet and collide. Therefore, the rate of most biochemical reactions must be increased by a catalyst. A catalyst is a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions. In organisms, catalysts are called enzymes . Essentially, enzymes are biological catalysts."
"Scientists have recently discovered two organisms deep in a cave in the hills of Paris. One organism, Boncho, has many enzymes. The other organism, Hojo, has very few enzymes. Currently, scientists are in the process of analyzing these new organisms to learn more about them."
"Which organism will have an easier time creating chemical reactions?"
{ "text": [ "Boncho" ] }
"2726978669"
"When the temperature of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is faster. At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force. For example, when you fry an egg, turning up the heat causes the egg to cook faster. The same principle explains why storing food in a cold refrigerator reduces the rate at which food spoils (see Figure below ). Both food frying and food spoiling are chemical reactions that happen faster at higher temperatures."
"A chef was recently taking inventory of his food when he noticed that identical potatoes were looking different. The chef had purchased them at the same time and they were the same type of potato, but had been stored differently and one of them had spoiled already. Potato A had spots of mold on it, but potato B seemed fresh and ready to cook. The chef was confused."
"Which potato was most likely stored in a cold environment?"
{ "text": [ "potato B" ] }
"2748736642"
"When the temperature of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is faster. At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force. For example, when you fry an egg, turning up the heat causes the egg to cook faster. The same principle explains why storing food in a cold refrigerator reduces the rate at which food spoils (see Figure below ). Both food frying and food spoiling are chemical reactions that happen faster at higher temperatures."
"A chef was recently taking inventory of his food when he noticed that identical potatoes were looking different. The chef had purchased them at the same time and they were the same type of potato, but had been stored differently and one of them had spoiled already. Potato A had spots of mold on it, but potato B seemed fresh and ready to cook. The chef was confused."
"Which potato was most likely stored in a warm environment?"
{ "text": [ "Potato A" ] }
"808813948"
"When the temperature of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is faster. At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force. For example, when you fry an egg, turning up the heat causes the egg to cook faster. The same principle explains why storing food in a cold refrigerator reduces the rate at which food spoils (see Figure below ). Both food frying and food spoiling are chemical reactions that happen faster at higher temperatures."
"A chef is currently cooking two sausages on different skillets on different burners. These burners are affectionately referred to as Burno and Bako by the staff of the restaurant. These burners do not have temperature readouts though, and instead the chefs rely on chemical analysis to determine things such as heat levels. The chef notices that the sausage cooking on Burno currently has particles moving very quickly, but the one on Bako has particles that are barely moving at all."
"Which burner is hotter?"
{ "text": [ "Burno" ] }
"799704415"
"When the temperature of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is faster. At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force. For example, when you fry an egg, turning up the heat causes the egg to cook faster. The same principle explains why storing food in a cold refrigerator reduces the rate at which food spoils (see Figure below ). Both food frying and food spoiling are chemical reactions that happen faster at higher temperatures."
"A chef is currently cooking two sausages on different skillets on different burners. These burners are affectionately referred to as Burno and Bako by the staff of the restaurant. These burners do not have temperature readouts though, and instead the chefs rely on chemical analysis to determine things such as heat levels. The chef notices that the sausage cooking on Burno currently has particles moving very quickly, but the one on Bako has particles that are barely moving at all."
"Which burner is colder?"
{ "text": [ "Bako" ] }
"3865088715"
"When the temperature of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is faster. At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force. For example, when you fry an egg, turning up the heat causes the egg to cook faster. The same principle explains why storing food in a cold refrigerator reduces the rate at which food spoils (see Figure below ). Both food frying and food spoiling are chemical reactions that happen faster at higher temperatures."
"A chef is currently cooking two sausages on different skillets on different burners. These burners are affectionately referred to as Burno and Bako by the staff of the restaurant. These burners do not have temperature readouts though, and instead the chefs rely on chemical analysis to determine things such as heat levels. The chef notices that the sausage cooking on Burno currently has particles moving very quickly, but the one on Bako has particles that are barely moving at all."
"The sausage on which burner has reactants with more energy?"
{ "text": [ "Burno" ] }
"3866006223"
"When the temperature of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is faster. At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force. For example, when you fry an egg, turning up the heat causes the egg to cook faster. The same principle explains why storing food in a cold refrigerator reduces the rate at which food spoils (see Figure below ). Both food frying and food spoiling are chemical reactions that happen faster at higher temperatures."
"A chef is currently cooking two sausages on different skillets on different burners. These burners are affectionately referred to as Burno and Bako by the staff of the restaurant. These burners do not have temperature readouts though, and instead the chefs rely on chemical analysis to determine things such as heat levels. The chef notices that the sausage cooking on Burno currently has particles moving very quickly, but the one on Bako has particles that are barely moving at all."
"The sausage on which burner has reactants with less energy?"
{ "text": [ "Bako" ] }
"1268527616"
"When the temperature of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is faster. At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force. For example, when you fry an egg, turning up the heat causes the egg to cook faster. The same principle explains why storing food in a cold refrigerator reduces the rate at which food spoils (see Figure below ). Both food frying and food spoiling are chemical reactions that happen faster at higher temperatures."
"Jennifer stores her bread in the cupboard when she gets home from the grocery store since she thinks it tastes better that way. Martha grew up in a household that always kept their bread in the freezer so that's what she does with her bread."
"Which woman's bread will grow mold faster?"
{ "text": [ "Jennifer" ] }
"1278292503"
"When the temperature of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is faster. At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force. For example, when you fry an egg, turning up the heat causes the egg to cook faster. The same principle explains why storing food in a cold refrigerator reduces the rate at which food spoils (see Figure below ). Both food frying and food spoiling are chemical reactions that happen faster at higher temperatures."
"Jennifer stores her bread in the cupboard when she gets home from the grocery store since she thinks it tastes better that way. Martha grew up in a household that always kept their bread in the freezer so that's what she does with her bread."
"Which woman's bread will grow mold slower?"
{ "text": [ "Martha" ] }
"72184894"
"The particles of soup have greater average kinetic energy than the particles of water in the tub, explaining why the soup has a higher temperature. However, the mass of the water in the tub is much greater than the mass of the soup in the pot. This means that there are many more particles of water than soup. All those moving particles give the water in the tub greater total kinetic energy, even though their average kinetic energy is less. Therefore, the water in the tub has greater thermal energy than the soup. To compare the thermal energy of some other materials, go to the following URL and click on the interactive animation “Temperature and Thermal Energy.”"
"Tim is trying to boil two pots of water, pot A and pot B. Tim has a device which lets him see what the average kinetic energy is of the particles in each pot is. After examining each pot, Tim discovers that pot A has particles with a very high average kinetic energy, and pot B's particles have a low average kinetic energy."
"Which pot is closer to boiling?"
{ "text": [ "pot A" ] }
"1712223623"
"The particles of soup have greater average kinetic energy than the particles of water in the tub, explaining why the soup has a higher temperature. However, the mass of the water in the tub is much greater than the mass of the soup in the pot. This means that there are many more particles of water than soup. All those moving particles give the water in the tub greater total kinetic energy, even though their average kinetic energy is less. Therefore, the water in the tub has greater thermal energy than the soup. To compare the thermal energy of some other materials, go to the following URL and click on the interactive animation “Temperature and Thermal Energy.”"
"Tim is trying to boil two pots of water, pot A and pot B. Tim has a device which lets him see what the average kinetic energy is of the particles in each pot is. After examining each pot, Tim discovers that pot A has particles with a very high average kinetic energy, and pot B's particles have a low average kinetic energy."
"Which pot is further from boiling?"
{ "text": [ "pot B" ] }
"2283513792"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"A brother and sister are going to the doctor to get their physical done before the start of the school year. Jessica, the sister, and Mike, the brother, are both in the same grade in high school. Neither person is having any issues, but are simply going as a precautionary measure in case there is something the doctor can find out. Also, it's a requirement to get regular physicals in order to attend schools so that's another major reason both are going."
"Who needs more iron on a daily basis?"
{ "text": [ "Jessica" ] }
"2288363460"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"A brother and sister are going to the doctor to get their physical done before the start of the school year. Jessica, the sister, and Mike, the brother, are both in the same grade in high school. Neither person is having any issues, but are simply going as a precautionary measure in case there is something the doctor can find out. Also, it's a requirement to get regular physicals in order to attend schools so that's another major reason both are going."
"Who needs less iron on a daily basis?"
{ "text": [ "Mike" ] }
"1458154950"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"A brother and sister are going to the doctor to get their physical done before the start of the school year. Jessica, the sister, and Mike, the brother, are both in the same grade in high school. Neither are having any issues, but are simply going as a precautionary measure in case there is something the doctor can find out. Also, it's a requirement to get regular physicals in order to attend schools so that's another major reason both are going."
"Who is more likely to be told they need to eat more red meat?"
{ "text": [ "Jessica" ] }
"1846259650"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"A brother and sister are going to the doctor to get their physical done before the start of the school year. Jessica, the sister, and Mike, the brother, are both in the same grade in high school. Neither are having any issues, but are simply going as a precautionary measure in case there is something the doctor can find out. Also, it's a requirement to get regular physicals in order to attend schools so that's another major reason both are going."
"Who is more likely to be told they don't need to eat more red meat?"
{ "text": [ "Mike" ] }
"3132859934"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"A brother and sister are going to the doctor to get their physical done before the start of the school year. Jessica, the sister, and Mike, the brother, are both in the same grade in high school. Neither are having any issues, but are simply going as a precautionary measure in case there is something the doctor can find out. Also, it's a requirement to get regular physicals in order to attend schools so that's another major reason both are going."
"Who needs more vitamin C in their diet?"
{ "text": [ "Jessica" ] }
"3138233890"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"A brother and sister are going to the doctor to get their physical done before the start of the school year. Jessica, the sister, and Mike, the brother, are both in the same grade in high school. Neither are having any issues, but are simply going as a precautionary measure in case there is something the doctor can find out. Also, it's a requirement to get regular physicals in order to attend schools so that's another major reason both are going."
"Who needs less vitamin C in their diet?"
{ "text": [ "Mike" ] }
"366707649"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"Phyllis and Meredith have the exact same diet and are both going to see a dietician for suggestions about what they should eat. Phyllis is currently five months pregnant and wants to see if she should do anything differently in regards to her food consumption. Meredith is not pregnant, but still wants to go to see if her diet is acceptable."
"Which woman requires more iron in their diet?"
{ "text": [ "Phyllis" ] }
"370770885"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"Phyllis and Meredith have the exact same diet and are both going to see a dietician for suggestions about what they should eat. Phyllis is currently five months pregnant and wants to see if she should do anything differently in regards to her food consumption. Meredith is not pregnant, but still wants to go to see if her diet is acceptable."
"Which woman requires less iron in their diet?"
{ "text": [ "Meredith" ] }
"3716122699"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"Phyllis and Meredith have the exact same diet and are both going to see a dietician for suggestions about what they should eat. Phyllis is currently five months pregnant and wants to see if she should do anything differently in regards to her food consumption. Meredith is not pregnant, but still wants to go to see if her diet is acceptable."
"Which woman's diet will most likely include more red meat?"
{ "text": [ "Phyllis" ] }
"3717564495"
"Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13 should get 9 mg of iron every day. Girls between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 15 mg of iron every day. Boys between the ages of 14 and 18 should get 11 mg of iron every day. Pregnant women need the most iron—27 mg daily. Good sources of iron include shellfish, such as clams and oysters. Red meats, such as beef, are also a good source of iron. Non-animal sources of iron include seeds, nuts, and legumes. Breakfast cereals often have iron added to them in a process called fortification. Some good sources of iron are listed below ( Table below ). Eating vitamin C along with iron-containing food increases the amount of iron that the body can absorb."
"Phyllis and Meredith have the exact same diet and are both going to see a dietician for suggestions about what they should eat. Phyllis is currently five months pregnant and wants to see if she should do anything differently in regards to her food consumption. Meredith is not pregnant, but still wants to go to see if her diet is acceptable."
"Which woman's diet will most likely include less red meat?"
{ "text": [ "Meredith" ] }
"154880538"
"In exercises such as weight lifting, skeletal muscle contracts against a resisting force (see Figure below ). Using skeletal muscle in this way increases its size and strength. In exercises such as running, the cardiac muscle contracts faster and the heart pumps more blood. Using cardiac muscle in this way increases its strength and efficiency. Continued exercise is necessary to maintain bigger, stronger muscles. If you don’t use a muscle, it will get smaller and weaker—so use it or lose it."
"Phillip just came home to his apartment after taking a long, vigorous bike ride. He enters the front door to find his roommate, Brandon, sitting on the couch playing videogames and eating potato chips. Phillip tells Brandon that if he keeps being so lazy and snacking so much he's going to start looking chubby. Brandon just waves Phillip off and goes back to his game."
"Whose heart is pumping more blood?"
{ "text": [ "Phillip" ] }
"155535902"
"In exercises such as weight lifting, skeletal muscle contracts against a resisting force (see Figure below ). Using skeletal muscle in this way increases its size and strength. In exercises such as running, the cardiac muscle contracts faster and the heart pumps more blood. Using cardiac muscle in this way increases its strength and efficiency. Continued exercise is necessary to maintain bigger, stronger muscles. If you don’t use a muscle, it will get smaller and weaker—so use it or lose it."
"Phillip just came home to his apartment after taking a long, vigorous bike ride. He enters the front door to find his roommate, Brandon, sitting on the couch playing videogames and eating potato chips. Phillip tells Brandon that if he keeps being so lazy and snacking so much he's going to start looking chubby. Brandon just waves Phillip off and goes back to his game."
"Whose heart is pumping less blood?"
{ "text": [ "Brandon" ] }
"1551193703"
"In exercises such as weight lifting, skeletal muscle contracts against a resisting force (see Figure below ). Using skeletal muscle in this way increases its size and strength. In exercises such as running, the cardiac muscle contracts faster and the heart pumps more blood. Using cardiac muscle in this way increases its strength and efficiency. Continued exercise is necessary to maintain bigger, stronger muscles. If you don’t use a muscle, it will get smaller and weaker—so use it or lose it."
"Phillip just came home to his apartment after taking a long, vigorous bike ride. He enters the front door to find his roommate, Brandon, sitting on the couch playing videogames and eating potato chips. Phillip tells Brandon that if he keeps being so lazy and snacking so much he's going to start looking chubby. Brandon just waves Phillip off and goes back to his game."
"Are Phillip's cardiac muscles increasing or decreasing in strength?"
{ "text": [ "increasing" ] }
"1494308441"
"In exercises such as weight lifting, skeletal muscle contracts against a resisting force (see Figure below ). Using skeletal muscle in this way increases its size and strength. In exercises such as running, the cardiac muscle contracts faster and the heart pumps more blood. Using cardiac muscle in this way increases its strength and efficiency. Continued exercise is necessary to maintain bigger, stronger muscles. If you don’t use a muscle, it will get smaller and weaker—so use it or lose it."
"Phillip just came home to his apartment after taking a long, vigorous bike ride. He enters the front door to find his roommate, Brandon, sitting on the couch playing videogames and eating potato chips. Phillip tells Brandon that if he keeps being so lazy and snacking so much he's going to start looking chubby. Brandon just waves Phillip off and goes back to his game."
"Are Brandon's cardiac muscles increasing or decreasing in strength?"
{ "text": [ "decreasing" ] }
"2840167264"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Who stores more fat in their body?"
{ "text": [ "George" ] }
"2843968356"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Who stores less fat in their body?"
{ "text": [ "Jerry" ] }
"674399142"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Who is more likely to become obese?"
{ "text": [ "George" ] }
"679510954"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Who is less likely to become obese?"
{ "text": [ "Jerry" ] }
"1223460476"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Is George's BMI higher or lower than Jerry's?"
{ "text": [ "higher" ] }
"1248429692"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Is Jerry's BMI higher or lower than George's?"
{ "text": [ "lower" ] }
"1021609309"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Who is more likely to develop diabetes?"
{ "text": [ "George" ] }
"1027769697"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Who is less likely to develop diabetes?"
{ "text": [ "Jerry" ] }
"2979759355"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Who has a higher risk of hypertension?"
{ "text": [ "George" ] }
"782533805"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Jerry and George are two roommates who have lived together since college. They have always gotten along well, have similar hobbies and even are the same height. They both enjoy watching sports and playing videogames, but Jerry also rides his bike several miles each week. George can't stand exercising. Instead, he prefers to lay around relaxing and driving his car if he needs to go somewhere."
"Who has a lower risk of hypertension?"
{ "text": [ "Jerry" ] }
"4149296492"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Two men go into the doctor's office for a checkup. Stepping on the scale, the doctor weighs each of them. Tom has an average and healthy weight. However, Joe has a weight that indicates he is obese."
"Who is more likely to have type 2 diabetes?"
{ "text": [ "Joe" ] }
"4156505456"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Two men go into the doctor's office for a checkup. Stepping on the scale, the doctor weighs each of them. Tom has an average and healthy weight. However, Joe has a weight that indicates he is obese."
"Who is less likely to have type 2 diabetes?"
{ "text": [ "Tom" ] }
"4246156547"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Two men go into the doctor's office for a checkup. Stepping on the scale, the doctor weighs each of them. Tom has an average and healthy weight. However, Joe has a weight that indicates he is obese."
"Who has a higher BMI?"
{ "text": [ "Joe" ] }
"3358078133"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Two men go into the doctor's office for a checkup. Stepping on the scale, the doctor weighs each of them. Tom has an average and healthy weight. However, Joe has a weight that indicates he is obese."
"Who has a lower BMI?"
{ "text": [ "Tom" ] }
"2665367680"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Two men go into the doctor's office for a checkup. Stepping on the scale, the doctor weighs each of them. Tom has an average and healthy weight. However, Joe has a weight that indicates he is obese."
"Will Joe's risk of hypertension increase or decrease if he loses weight?"
{ "text": [ "decrease" ] }
"2648787052"
"Any unused energy in food, whether it comes from carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids, is stored in the body as fat. An extra 3,500 Calories of energy results in the storage of almost half a kilogram (1 pound) of stored body fat. People who consistently consume more food energy then they need may become obese. Obesity occurs when the body mass index is 30.0 kg/m 2 or greater. Body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of the fat content of the body. It is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by the square of the person’s height (in meters). Obesity increases the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension."
"Two men go into the doctor's office for a checkup. Stepping on the scale, the doctor weighs each of them. Tom has an average and healthy weight. However, Joe has a weight that indicates he is obese."
"Will Joe's risk of hypertension increase or decrease if he gains weight?"
{ "text": [ "increase" ] }
"1484483102"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Which cell is utilizing diffusion?"
{ "text": [ "Cell X" ] }
"1235774688"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Which cell is utilizing active transport?"
{ "text": [ "Cell Y" ] }
"2157144315"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Which cell is using more energy?"
{ "text": [ "Cell Y" ] }
"2158061823"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Which cell is using less energy?"
{ "text": [ "Cell X" ] }
"3758779511"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Is cell Y using more or less ATP than cell X?"
{ "text": [ "more" ] }
"3756485751"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Is cell X using more or less ATP than cell Y?"
{ "text": [ "less" ] }
"3189008854"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Pumps are being used in which cell?"
{ "text": [ "Cell Y" ] }
"4248726239"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Pumps aren't being used in which cell?"
{ "text": [ "Cell X" ] }
"1182495089"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Is cell X moving up or down the concentration gradient?"
{ "text": [ "down" ] }
"1185575282"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Gary is a high school student examining two cells under a microscope for his biology class. In a petri dish, marked Cell X, Gary sees that substances inside the cell are spreading apart from each other making it less concentrated. In the dish marked Cell Y, Gary sees substances coming together and moving into close proximity to one another."
"Is cell Y moving up or down the concentration gradient?"
{ "text": [ "up" ] }
"250051722"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Two cells, Cell B and Cell C, are being examined under microscopes by students in a science class. While looking at the cells, one student, Kim, notices that there is a noticeable trend in Cell B for a particular substance to try to group up in a more concentrated area. In Cell C though, she notices that the same substance is spreading apart and finding less concentrated areas to move to."
"Which cell is exhibiting active transport?"
{ "text": [ "Cell B" ] }
"21659131"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Two cells, Cell B and Cell C, are being examined under microscopes by students in a science class. While looking at the cells, one student, Kim, notices that there is a noticeable trend in Cell B for a particular substance to try to group up in a more concentrated area. In Cell C though, she notices that the same substance is spreading apart and finding less concentrated areas to move to."
"Which cell is not exhibiting active transport?"
{ "text": [ "Cell C" ] }
"2953148872"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Two cells, Cell B and Cell C, are being examined under microscopes by students in a science class. While looking at the cells, one student, Kim, notices that there is a noticeable trend in Cell B for a particular substance to try to group up in a more concentrated area. In Cell C though, she notices that the same substance is spreading apart and finding less concentrated areas to move to."
"Which cell is exhibiting diffusion?"
{ "text": [ "Cell C" ] }
"2555476793"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Two cells, Cell B and Cell C, are being examined under microscopes by students in a science class. While looking at the cells, one student, Kim, notices that there is a noticeable trend in Cell B for a particular substance to try to group up in a more concentrated area. In Cell C though, she notices that the same substance is spreading apart and finding less concentrated areas to move to."
"Which cell is not exhibiting diffusion?"
{ "text": [ "Cell B" ] }
"1068859438"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Two cells, Cell B and Cell C, are being examined under microscopes by students in a science class. While looking at the cells, one student, Kim, notices that there is a noticeable trend in Cell B for a particular substance to try to group up in a more concentrated area. In Cell C though, she notices that the same substance is spreading apart and finding less concentrated areas to move to."
"Is Cell C or Cell B using more energy from ATP molecules?"
{ "text": [ "Cell B" ] }
"1074757682"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Two cells, Cell B and Cell C, are being examined under microscopes by students in a science class. While looking at the cells, one student, Kim, notices that there is a noticeable trend in Cell B for a particular substance to try to group up in a more concentrated area. In Cell C though, she notices that the same substance is spreading apart and finding less concentrated areas to move to."
"Is Cell C or Cell B using less energy from ATP molecules?"
{ "text": [ "Cell C" ] }
"148405440"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Two cells, Cell B and Cell C, are being examined under microscopes by students in a science class. While looking at the cells, one student, Kim, notices that there is a noticeable trend in Cell B for a particular substance to try to group up in a more concentrated area. In Cell C though, she notices that the same substance is spreading apart and finding less concentrated areas to move to."
"Pumps are being utilized more in which cell?"
{ "text": [ "Cell B" ] }
"151157956"
"Active transport occurs when a substance passes through the cell membrane with the help of extra energy. This happens when a substance moves from an area where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more concentrated. This is the opposite of diffusion. The substance moves up, instead of down, the concentration gradient. Like rolling a ball uphill, this requires an input of energy. The energy comes from the molecule named ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The energy allows special transport proteins called pumps to move substances to areas of higher concentration. An example is the sodium-potassium pump."
"Two cells, Cell B and Cell C, are being examined under microscopes by students in a science class. While looking at the cells, one student, Kim, notices that there is a noticeable trend in Cell B for a particular substance to try to group up in a more concentrated area. In Cell C though, she notices that the same substance is spreading apart and finding less concentrated areas to move to."
"Pumps are being utilized less in which cell?"
{ "text": [ "Cell C" ] }
"3289682958"
"An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen . Any antigen that causes an allergy is called an allergen. Allergens may be inhaled or ingested, or they may come into contact with the skin. Two common causes of allergies are shown in Figure below . Inhaling ragweed pollen may cause coughing and sneezing. Skin contact with oils in poison ivy may cause an itchy rash. Other common causes of allergies include dust mites, mold, animal dander, insect stings, latex, and certain food and medications. Symptoms of a common allergy such as pollen can include sneezing, a runny nose, nasal congestion and itchy, watery eyes."
"Two roommates, Karen and Kelly, have decided to adopt a pet for their apartment. They are debating between getting a dog or a cat when they decide to flip a coin since they can't agree. The coin comes up tails so they are getting a cat. Unbeknownst to Karen, she is allergic to cats. Kelly has no allergies to animals, but Karen has never lived with cats before so she isn't aware that she is allergic to them."
"Who will have a stuffy nose more often?"
{ "text": [ "Karen" ] }
"3290338322"
"An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen . Any antigen that causes an allergy is called an allergen. Allergens may be inhaled or ingested, or they may come into contact with the skin. Two common causes of allergies are shown in Figure below . Inhaling ragweed pollen may cause coughing and sneezing. Skin contact with oils in poison ivy may cause an itchy rash. Other common causes of allergies include dust mites, mold, animal dander, insect stings, latex, and certain food and medications. Symptoms of a common allergy such as pollen can include sneezing, a runny nose, nasal congestion and itchy, watery eyes."
"Two roommates, Karen and Kelly, have decided to adopt a pet for their apartment. They are debating between getting a dog or a cat when they decide to flip a coin since they can't agree. The coin comes up tails so they are getting a cat. Unbeknownst to Karen, she is allergic to cats. Kelly has no allergies to animals, but Karen has never lived with cats before so she isn't aware that she is allergic to them."
"Who will have a stuffy nose less often?"
{ "text": [ "Kelly" ] }
"4152728166"
"An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen . Any antigen that causes an allergy is called an allergen. Allergens may be inhaled or ingested, or they may come into contact with the skin. Two common causes of allergies are shown in Figure below . Inhaling ragweed pollen may cause coughing and sneezing. Skin contact with oils in poison ivy may cause an itchy rash. Other common causes of allergies include dust mites, mold, animal dander, insect stings, latex, and certain food and medications. Symptoms of a common allergy such as pollen can include sneezing, a runny nose, nasal congestion and itchy, watery eyes."
"Two roommates, Karen and Kelly, have decided to adopt a pet for their apartment. They are debating between getting a dog or a cat when they decide to flip a coin since they can't agree. The coin comes up tails so they are getting a cat. Unbeknownst to Karen, she is allergic to cats. Kelly has no allergies to animals, but Karen has never lived with cats before so she isn't aware that she is allergic to them."
"Will Kelly's eyes be more or less itchy than Karen's eyes?"
{ "text": [ "less" ] }
"4110785126"
"An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen . Any antigen that causes an allergy is called an allergen. Allergens may be inhaled or ingested, or they may come into contact with the skin. Two common causes of allergies are shown in Figure below . Inhaling ragweed pollen may cause coughing and sneezing. Skin contact with oils in poison ivy may cause an itchy rash. Other common causes of allergies include dust mites, mold, animal dander, insect stings, latex, and certain food and medications. Symptoms of a common allergy such as pollen can include sneezing, a runny nose, nasal congestion and itchy, watery eyes."
"Two roommates, Karen and Kelly, have decided to adopt a pet for their apartment. They are debating between getting a dog or a cat when they decide to flip a coin since they can't agree. The coin comes up tails so they are getting a cat. Unbeknownst to Karen, she is allergic to cats. Kelly has no allergies to animals, but Karen has never lived with cats before so she isn't aware that she is allergic to them."
"Will Karen's eyes be more or less itchy than Kelly's eyes?"
{ "text": [ "more" ] }
"366843781"
"An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen . Any antigen that causes an allergy is called an allergen. Allergens may be inhaled or ingested, or they may come into contact with the skin. Two common causes of allergies are shown in Figure below . Inhaling ragweed pollen may cause coughing and sneezing. Skin contact with oils in poison ivy may cause an itchy rash. Other common causes of allergies include dust mites, mold, animal dander, insect stings, latex, and certain food and medications. Symptoms of a common allergy such as pollen can include sneezing, a runny nose, nasal congestion and itchy, watery eyes."
"Two roommates, Karen and Kelly, have decided to adopt a pet for their apartment. They are debating between getting a dog or a cat when they decide to flip a coin since they can't agree. The coin comes up tails so they are getting a cat. Unbeknownst to Karen, she is allergic to cats. Kelly has no allergies to animals, but Karen has never lived with cats before so she isn't aware that she is allergic to them."
"Who will struggle the most when holding the cat?"
{ "text": [ "Karen" ] }
"2902890459"
"An allergy is a disease in which the immune system makes an inflammatory response to a harmless antigen . Any antigen that causes an allergy is called an allergen. Allergens may be inhaled or ingested, or they may come into contact with the skin. Two common causes of allergies are shown in Figure below . Inhaling ragweed pollen may cause coughing and sneezing. Skin contact with oils in poison ivy may cause an itchy rash. Other common causes of allergies include dust mites, mold, animal dander, insect stings, latex, and certain food and medications. Symptoms of a common allergy such as pollen can include sneezing, a runny nose, nasal congestion and itchy, watery eyes."
"Two roommates, Karen and Kelly, have decided to adopt a pet for their apartment. They are debating between getting a dog or a cat when they decide to flip a coin since they can't agree. The coin comes up tails so they are getting a cat. Unbeknownst to Karen, she is allergic to cats. Kelly has no allergies to animals, but Karen has never lived with cats before so she isn't aware that she is allergic to them."
"Who will struggle the least when holding the cat?"
{ "text": [ "Kelly" ] }
"960588878"
"The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin. Melanin is the brownish pigment that gives skin much of its color. Everyone has about the same number of melanocytes, but the melanocytes of people with darker skin produce more melanin. The amount of melanin produced is determined by heredity and exposure to UV light, which increases melanin output. Exposure to UV light also stimulates the skin to produce vitamin D. Because melanin blocks UV light from penetrating the skin, people with darker skin may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency."
"Jacob has lived in a city in Sweden for most of his life. His favorite hobbies are reading and playing videogames so he rarely goes outside. Even as a kid, he almost never played outside and instead was in his house most of the time. Martin lives in the middle of the Sahara desert in a small town. The sun almost never stops beating down on Martin during the day and it's hard to find shade where he lives."
"Who has darker skin?"
{ "text": [ "Martin" ] }
"2800315588"
"The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin. Melanin is the brownish pigment that gives skin much of its color. Everyone has about the same number of melanocytes, but the melanocytes of people with darker skin produce more melanin. The amount of melanin produced is determined by heredity and exposure to UV light, which increases melanin output. Exposure to UV light also stimulates the skin to produce vitamin D. Because melanin blocks UV light from penetrating the skin, people with darker skin may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency."
"Jacob has lived in a city in Sweden for most of his life. His favorite hobbies are reading and playing videogames so he rarely goes outside. Even as a kid, he almost never played outside and instead was in his house most of the time. Martin lives in the middle of the Sahara desert in a small town. The sun almost never stops beating down on Martin during the day and it's hard to find shade where he lives."
"Who has lighter skin?"
{ "text": [ "Jacob" ] }
"385908403"
"The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin. Melanin is the brownish pigment that gives skin much of its color. Everyone has about the same number of melanocytes, but the melanocytes of people with darker skin produce more melanin. The amount of melanin produced is determined by heredity and exposure to UV light, which increases melanin output. Exposure to UV light also stimulates the skin to produce vitamin D. Because melanin blocks UV light from penetrating the skin, people with darker skin may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency."
"Jacob has lived in a city in Sweden for most of his life. His favorite hobbies are reading and playing videogames so he rarely goes outside. Even as a kid, he almost never played outside and instead was in his house most of the time. Martin lives in the middle of the Sahara desert in a small town. The sun almost never stops beating down on Martin during the day and it's hard to find shade where he lives."
"Is Jacob more or less likely than Martin to have a vitamin D deficiency?"
{ "text": [ "less" ] }
"483753651"
"The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin. Melanin is the brownish pigment that gives skin much of its color. Everyone has about the same number of melanocytes, but the melanocytes of people with darker skin produce more melanin. The amount of melanin produced is determined by heredity and exposure to UV light, which increases melanin output. Exposure to UV light also stimulates the skin to produce vitamin D. Because melanin blocks UV light from penetrating the skin, people with darker skin may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency."
"Jacob has lived in a city in Sweden for most of his life. His favorite hobbies are reading and playing videogames so he rarely goes outside. Even as a kid, he almost never played outside and instead was in his house most of the time. Martin lives in the middle of the Sahara desert in a small town. The sun almost never stops beating down on Martin during the day and it's hard to find shade where he lives."
"Is Martin more or less likely than Jacob to have a vitamin D deficiency?"
{ "text": [ "more" ] }
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for ROPES

Dataset Summary

ROPES (Reasoning Over Paragraph Effects in Situations) is a QA dataset which tests a system's ability to apply knowledge from a passage of text to a new situation. A system is presented a background passage containing a causal or qualitative relation(s) (e.g., "animal pollinators increase efficiency of fertilization in flowers"), a novel situation that uses this background, and questions that require reasoning about effects of the relationships in the background passage in the context of the situation.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

The reading comprehension task is framed as an extractive question answering problem.

Models are evaluated by computing word-level F1 and exact match (EM) metrics, following common practice for recent reading comprehension datasets (e.g., SQuAD).

Languages

The text in the dataset is in English. The associated BCP-47 code is en.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Data closely follow the SQuAD v1.1 format. An example looks like this:

{
  "id": "2058517998",
  "background": "Cancer is a disease that causes cells to divide out of control. Normally, the body has systems that prevent cells from dividing out of control. But in the case of cancer, these systems fail. Cancer is usually caused by mutations. Mutations are random errors in genes. Mutations that lead to cancer usually happen to genes that control the cell cycle. Because of the mutations, abnormal cells divide uncontrollably. This often leads to the development of a tumor. A tumor is a mass of abnormal tissue. As a tumor grows, it may harm normal tissues around it. Anything that can cause cancer is called a carcinogen . Carcinogens may be pathogens, chemicals, or radiation.",
  "situation": "Jason recently learned that he has cancer. After hearing this news, he convinced his wife, Charlotte, to get checked out. After running several tests, the doctors determined Charlotte has no cancer, but she does have high blood pressure. Relieved at this news, Jason was now focused on battling his cancer and fighting as hard as he could to survive.",
  "question": "Whose cells are dividing more rapidly?",
  "answers": {
    "text": ["Jason"]
  },
}

Data Fields

  • id: identification
  • background: background passage
  • situation: the grounding situation
  • question: the question to answer
  • answers: the answer text which is a span from either the situation or the question. The text list always contain a single element.

Note that the answers for the test set are hidden (and thus represented as an empty list). Predictions for the test set should be submitted to the leaderboard.

Data Splits

The dataset contains 14k QA pairs over 1.7K paragraphs, split between train (10k QAs), development (1.6k QAs) and a hidden test partition (1.7k QAs).

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

From the original paper:

ROPES challenges reading comprehension models to handle more difficult phenomena: understanding the implications of a passage of text. ROPES is also particularly related to datasets focusing on "multi-hop reasoning", as by construction answering questions in ROPES requires connecting information from multiple parts of a given passage.

We constructed ROPES by first collecting background passages from science textbooks and Wikipedia articles that describe causal relationships. We showed the collected paragraphs to crowd workers and asked them to write situations that involve the relationships found in the background passage, and questions that connect the situation and the background using the causal relationships. The answers are spans from either the situation or the question. The dataset consists of 14,322 questions from various domains, mostly in science and economics.

Source Data

From the original paper:

We automatically scraped passages from science textbooks and Wikipedia that contained causal connectives eg. ”causes,” ”leads to,” and keywords that signal qualitative relations, e.g. ”increases,” ”decreases.”. We then manually filtered out the passages that do not have at least one relation. The passages can be categorized into physical science (49%), life science (45%), economics (5%) and other (1%). In total, we collected over 1,000 background passages.

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

From the original paper:

We used Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) to generate the situations, questions, and answers. The AMT workers were given background passages and asked to write situations that involved the relation(s) in the background passage. The AMT workers then authored questions about the situation that required both the background and the situation to answer. In each human intelligence task (HIT), AMT workers are given 5 background passages to select from and are asked to create a total of 10 questions. To mitigate the potential for easy lexical shortcuts in the dataset, the workers were encouraged via instructions to write questions in minimal pairs, where a very small change in the question results in a different answer.

Most questions are designed to have two sensible answer choices (eg. “more” vs. “less”).

To reduce annotator bias, training and evaluation sets are writter by different annotators.

Who are the source language producers?

[More Information Needed]

Annotations

[More Information Needed]

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

The data is distributed under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Citation Information

@inproceedings{Lin2019ReasoningOP,
  title={Reasoning Over Paragraph Effects in Situations},
  author={Kevin Lin and Oyvind Tafjord and Peter Clark and Matt Gardner},
  booktitle={MRQA@EMNLP},
  year={2019}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @VictorSanh for adding this dataset.

Spaces using ropes