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{ "paragraph": [ "A\n", "A (named , plural \"As\", \"A's\", \"a\"s, \"a's\" or \"aes\") is the first letter and the first vowel of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.\n", "In the English grammar, \"a\", and its variant \"an\", is an indefinite article.\n", "Section::::History.\n", "The earliest certain ancestor of \"A\" is aleph (also written 'aleph), the first letter of the Phoenician alphabet, which consisted entirely of consonants (for that reason, it is also called an abjad to distinguish it from a true alphabet). In turn, the ancestor of aleph may have been a pictogram of an ox head in proto-Sinaitic script influenced by Egyptian hieroglyphs, styled as a triangular head with two horns extended.\n", "By 1600 BC, the Phoenician alphabet letter had a linear form that served as the base for some later forms. Its name is thought to have corresponded closely to the Paleo-Hebrew or Arabic aleph.\n", "When the ancient Greeks adopted the alphabet, they had no use for a letter to represent the glottal stop—the consonant sound that the letter denoted in Phoenician and other Semitic languages, and that was the first phoneme of the Phoenician pronunciation of the letter—so they used their version of the sign to represent the vowel , and called it by the similar name of alpha. In the earliest Greek inscriptions after the Greek Dark Ages, dating to the 8th century BC, the letter rests upon its side, but in the Greek alphabet of later times it generally resembles the modern capital letter, although many local varieties can be distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle at which the cross line is set.\n", "The Etruscans brought the Greek alphabet to their civilization in the Italian Peninsula and left the letter unchanged. The Romans later adopted the Etruscan alphabet to write the Latin language, and the resulting letter was preserved in the Latin alphabet that would come to be used to write many languages, including English.\n", "Section::::History.:Typographic variants.\n", "During Roman times, there were many variant forms of the letter \"A\". First was the monumental or lapidary style, which was used when inscribing on stone or other \"permanent\" media. There was also a cursive style used for everyday or utilitarian writing, which was done on more perishable surfaces. Due to the \"perishable\" nature of these surfaces, there are not as many examples of this style as there are of the monumental, but there are still many surviving examples of different types of cursive, such as majuscule cursive, minuscule cursive, and semicursive minuscule. Variants also existed that were intermediate between the monumental and cursive styles. The known variants include the early semi-uncial, the uncial, and the later semi-uncial.\n", "At the end of the Roman Empire (5th century AD), several variants of the cursive minuscule developed through Western Europe. Among these were the semicursive minuscule of Italy, the Merovingian script in France, the Visigothic script in Spain, and the Insular or Anglo-Irish semi-uncial or Anglo-Saxon majuscule of Great Britain. By the 9th century, the Caroline script, which was very similar to the present-day form, was the principal form used in book-making, before the advent of the printing press. This form was derived through a combining of prior forms.\n", "15th-century Italy saw the formation of the two main variants that are known today. These variants, the \"Italic\" and \"Roman\" forms, were derived from the Caroline Script version. The Italic form, also called \"script a,\" is used in most current handwriting and consists of a circle and vertical stroke. This slowly developed from the fifth-century form resembling the Greek letter tau in the hands of medieval Irish and English writers. The Roman form is used in most printed material; it consists of a small loop with an arc over it (\"a\"). Both derive from the majuscule (capital) form. In Greek handwriting, it was common to join the left leg and horizontal stroke into a single loop, as demonstrated by the uncial version shown. Many fonts then made the right leg vertical. In some of these, the serif that began the right leg stroke developed into an arc, resulting in the printed form, while in others it was dropped, resulting in the modern handwritten form.\n", "Italic type is commonly used to mark emphasis or more generally to distinguish one part of a text from the rest (set in Roman type). There are some other cases aside from italic type where \"script a\" (\"ɑ\"), also called Latin alpha, is used in contrast with Latin \"a\" (such as in the International Phonetic Alphabet).\n", "Section::::Use in writing systems.\n", "Section::::Use in writing systems.:English.\n", "In modern English orthography, the letter represents at least seven different vowel sounds:\n", "BULLET::::- the near-open front unrounded vowel as in \"pad\";\n", "BULLET::::- the open back unrounded vowel as in \"father\", which is closer to its original Latin and Greek sound;\n", "BULLET::::- the diphthong as in \"ace\" and \"major\" (usually when is followed by one, or occasionally two, consonants and then another vowel letter) – this results from Middle English lengthening followed by the Great Vowel Shift;\n", "BULLET::::- the modified form of the above sound that occurs before, as in \"square\" and \"Mary\";\n", "BULLET::::- the rounded vowel of \"water\";\n", "BULLET::::- the shorter rounded vowel (not present in General American) in \"was\" and \"what\";\n", "BULLET::::- a schwa, in many unstressed syllables, as in \"about\", \"comma\", \"solar\".\n", "The double sequence does not occur in native English words, but is found in some words derived from foreign languages such as \"Aaron\" and \"aardvark\". However, occurs in many common digraphs, all with their own sound or sounds, particularly , , , , and .\n", "Section::::Use in writing systems.:Other languages.\n", "In most languages that use the Latin alphabet, denotes an open unrounded vowel, such as , , or . An exception is Saanich, in which (and the glyph Á) stands for a close-mid front unrounded vowel .\n", "Section::::Use in writing systems.:Other systems.\n", "In phonetic and phonemic notation:\n", "BULLET::::- in the International Phonetic Alphabet, is used for the open front unrounded vowel, is used for the open central unrounded vowel, and is used for the open back unrounded vowel.\n", "BULLET::::- in X-SAMPA, is used for the open front unrounded vowel and is used for the open back unrounded vowel.\n", "Section::::Other uses.\n", "In algebra, the letter \"a\" along with other letters at the beginning of the alphabet is used to represent known quantities, whereas the letters at the end of the alphabet (\"x\", \"y\", \"z\") are used to denote unknown quantities.\n", "In geometry, capital A, B, C etc. are used to denote segments, lines, rays, etc. A capital A is also typically used as one of the letters to represent an angle in a triangle, the lowercase a representing the side opposite angle A.\n", "\"A\" is often used to denote something or someone of a better or more prestigious quality or status: A-, A or A+, the best grade that can be assigned by teachers for students' schoolwork; \"A grade\" for clean restaurants; A-list celebrities, etc. Such associations can have a motivating effect, as exposure to the letter A has been found to improve performance, when compared with other letters.\n", "\"A\" is used as a prefix on some words, such as asymmetry, to mean \"not\" or \"without\" (from Greek).\n", "In English grammar, \"a\", and its variant \"an\", is an indefinite article.\n", "Finally, the letter A is used to denote size, as in a narrow size shoe, or a small cup size in a brassiere.\n", "Section::::Related characters.\n", "Section::::Related characters.:Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet.\n", "BULLET::::- Æ æ : Latin \"AE\" ligature\n", "BULLET::::- A with diacritics: Å å Ǻ ǻ Ḁ ḁ ẚ Ă ă Ặ ặ Ắ ắ Ằ ằ Ẳ ẳ Ẵ ẵ Ȃ ȃ Â â Ậ ậ Ấ ấ Ầ ầ Ẫ ẫ Ẩ ẩ Ả ả Ǎ ǎ Ⱥ ⱥ Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ Ạ ạ Ä ä Ǟ ǟ À à Ȁ ȁ Á á Ā ā Ā̀ ā̀ Ã ã Ą ą Ą́ ą́ Ą̃ ą̃ A̲ a̲ ᶏ\n", "BULLET::::- Phonetic alphabet symbols related to A (the International Phonetic Alphabet only uses lowercase, but uppercase forms are used in some other writing systems):\n", "BULLET::::- Ɑ ɑ : Latin letter alpha / script A, which represents an open back unrounded vowel in the IPA\n", "BULLET::::- ᶐ : Latin small letter alpha with retroflex hook\n", "BULLET::::- Ɐ ɐ : Turned A, which represents a near-open central vowel in the IPA\n", "BULLET::::- Λ ʌ : Turned V (also called a wedge, a caret, or a hat), which represents an open-mid back unrounded vowel in the IPA\n", "BULLET::::- Ɒ ɒ : Turned alpha / script A, which represents an open back rounded vowel in the IPA\n", "BULLET::::- ᶛ : Modifier letter small turned alpha\n", "BULLET::::- ᴀ : Small capital A, an obsolete or non-standard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet used to represent various sounds (mainly open vowels)\n", "BULLET::::- ᴬ ᵃ ᵄ : Modifier letters are used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA)\n", "BULLET::::- ₐ : Subscript small a is used in Indo-European studies\n", "BULLET::::- ꬱ : Small letter a reversed-schwa is used in the Teuthonista phonetic transcription system\n", "BULLET::::- Ꞻ ꞻ : Glottal A, used in the transliteration of Ugaritic\n", "Section::::Related characters.:Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations.\n", "BULLET::::- ª : an ordinal indicator\n", "BULLET::::- Å : Ångström sign\n", "BULLET::::- ∀ : a turned capital letter A, used in predicate logic to specify universal quantification (\"for all\")\n", "BULLET::::- @ : At sign\n", "BULLET::::- ₳ : Argentine austral\n", "Section::::Related characters.:Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets.\n", "BULLET::::- 𐤀 : Semitic letter Aleph, from which the following symbols originally derive\n", "BULLET::::- Α α : Greek letter Alpha, from which the following letters derive\n", "BULLET::::- А а : Cyrillic letter A\n", "BULLET::::- : Coptic letter Alpha\n", "BULLET::::- 𐌀 : Old Italic A, which is the ancestor of modern Latin A\n", "BULLET::::- : Runic letter ansuz, which probably derives from old Italic A\n", "BULLET::::- : Gothic letter aza/asks\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- History of the Alphabet\n" ] }
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letter", "alpha", "italic type", "indefinite article", "aleph", "Phoenician alphabet", "consonant", "abjad", "alphabet", "pictogram", "proto-Sinaitic script", "Egyptian hieroglyphs", "Paleo-Hebrew", "Arabic", "aleph", "ancient Greeks", "glottal stop", "Phoenician", "Semitic languages", "phoneme", "alpha", "Greek Dark Ages", "Greek alphabet", "Etruscans", "Italian Peninsula", "Etruscan alphabet", "Latin language", "Latin alphabet", "cursive", "majuscule", "minuscule", "semi-uncial", "Roman Empire", "Italy", "Merovingian script", "Visigothic script", "Insular", "Caroline script", "handwriting", "tau", "serif", "Italic type", "Latin alpha", "International Phonetic Alphabet", "English orthography", "near-open front unrounded vowel", "open back unrounded vowel", "diphthong", "Middle English lengthening", "Great Vowel Shift", "before", "General American", "schwa", "aardvark", "many common digraphs", "Saanich", "Á", "close-mid front unrounded vowel", "International Phonetic Alphabet", "open front unrounded vowel", "open central unrounded vowel", "open back unrounded vowel", "X-SAMPA", "open front unrounded vowel", "open back unrounded vowel", "algebra", "geometry", "segment", "line", "rays", "triangle", "A-list", "motivating", "asymmetry", "indefinite article", "brassiere", "Latin \"AE\"", "diacritic", "Å å", "Ǻ ǻ", "Ḁ ḁ", "ẚ", "Ă ă", "Ặ ặ", "Ắ ắ", "Ằ ằ", "Ẳ ẳ", "Ẵ ẵ", "Ȃ ȃ", "Â â", "Ậ ậ", "Ấ ấ", "Ầ ầ", "Ẫ ẫ", "Ẩ ẩ", "Ả ả", "Ǎ ǎ", "Ⱥ ⱥ", "Ȧ ȧ", "Ǡ ǡ", "Ạ ạ", "Ä ä", "Ǟ ǟ", "À à", "Ȁ ȁ", "Á á", "Ā ā", "Ã ã", "Ą ą", "ᶏ", "Phonetic alphabet", "International Phonetic Alphabet", "Latin letter alpha / script A", "open back unrounded vowel", "Turned A", "near-open central vowel", "Turned V", "open-mid back unrounded vowel", "open back rounded vowel", "obsolete or non-standard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet", "Uralic Phonetic Alphabet", "Indo-European studies", "Teuthonista", "Ugaritic", "ordinal indicator", "Ångström", "predicate logic", "universal quantification", "At sign", "Argentine austral", "Semitic", "Aleph", "Greek", "Alpha", "Cyrillic", "A", "Coptic", "Old Italic", "Runic", "ansuz", "Gothic" ], "href": [ "English%20alphabet%23Letter%20names", "Letter%20%28alphabet%29", "vowel", "English%20alphabet", "ISO%20basic%20Latin%20alphabet", "Greek_alphabet%23History", "alpha", "italic%20type", "Article%20%28grammar%29%23Indefinite%20article", "aleph", "Phoenician%20alphabet", "consonant", "abjad", "alphabet", "pictogram", "proto-Sinaitic%20script", "Egyptian%20hieroglyphs", "Paleo-Hebrew%20alphabet", "Arabic%20script", "aleph", "Ancient%20Greece", "glottal%20stop", "Phoenician%20language", "Semitic%20languages", "phoneme", "alpha", "Greek%20Dark%20Ages", "Greek%20alphabet", "Etruscan%20civilization", "Italian%20Peninsula", "Old%20Italic%20script", "Latin", "Latin%20script", "cursive", "letter%20case", "letter%20case", "Uncial%20script%23Half-uncial", "Roman%20Empire", "Italy", "Merovingian%20script", "Visigothic%20script", "Insular%20script", "Carolingian%20minuscule", "handwriting", "tau", "serif", "Italic%20type", "Latin%20alpha", "International%20Phonetic%20Alphabet", "English%20orthography", "near-open%20front%20unrounded%20vowel", "open%20back%20unrounded%20vowel", "diphthong", "Middle%20English%20lengthening", "Great%20Vowel%20Shift", "English-language%20vowel%20changes%20before%20historic%20/r/", "General%20American", "schwa", "aardvark", "List%20of%20Latin-script%20digraphs", "Saanich%20dialect", "%C3%81", "close-mid%20front%20unrounded%20vowel", "International%20Phonetic%20Alphabet", "open%20front%20unrounded%20vowel", "open%20central%20unrounded%20vowel", "open%20back%20unrounded%20vowel", "X-SAMPA", "open%20front%20unrounded%20vowel", "open%20back%20unrounded%20vowel", "algebra", "geometry", "Line%20segment", "line%20%28geometry%29", "Line%20%28geometry%29%23Ray", "triangle", "A-list", "motivation", "asymmetry", "Article%20%28grammar%29%23Indefinite%20article", "brassiere", "%C3%86", "diacritic", "%C3%85", "%C7%BA", "Ring%20%28diacritic%29", "%E1%BA%9A", "%C4%82", "%E1%BA%B6", "%E1%BA%AE", "%E1%BA%B0", "%E1%BA%B2", "%E1%BA%B4", "%C8%82", "%C3%82", "%E1%BA%AC", "%E1%BA%A4", "%E1%BA%A6", "%E1%BA%AA", "%E1%BA%A8", "%E1%BA%A2", "Caron", "Bar%20%28diacritic%29", "Dot%20%28diacritic%29", "%C7%A0", "Dot%20%28diacritic%29", "%C3%84", "%C7%9E", "%C3%80", "%C8%80", "%C3%81", "%C4%80", "%C3%83", "%C4%84", "%E1%B6%8F", "Phonetic%20transcription%23Alphabetic", "International%20Phonetic%20Alphabet", "Latin%20alpha", "open%20back%20unrounded%20vowel", "Turned%20A", "near-open%20central%20vowel", "Turned%20V", "open-mid%20back%20unrounded%20vowel", "open%20back%20rounded%20vowel", "Obsolete%20and%20nonstandard%20symbols%20in%20the%20International%20Phonetic%20Alphabet", "Uralic%20Phonetic%20Alphabet", "Indo-European%20studies", "Teuthonista", "Ugaritic", "ordinal%20indicator", "%C3%85ngstr%C3%B6m", "predicate%20logic", "universal%20quantification", "At%20sign", "Argentine%20austral", "Phoenician%20alphabet", "Aleph", "Greek%20alphabet", "Alpha", "Cyrillic", "A%20%28Cyrillic%29", "Coptic%20alphabet", "Old%20Italic%20script", "Runes", "Ansuz%20%28rune%29", "Gothic%20alphabet" ], "wikipedia_title": [ "English alphabet", "Letter (alphabet)", "Vowel", "English alphabet", "ISO basic Latin alphabet", "Greek alphabet", "Alpha", "Italic type", "Article (grammar)", "Aleph", "Phoenician alphabet", "Consonant", "Abjad", "Alphabet", "Pictogram", "Proto-Sinaitic script", "Egyptian hieroglyphs", "Paleo-Hebrew alphabet", "Arabic script", "Aleph", "Ancient Greece", "Glottal stop", "Phoenician language", "Semitic languages", "Phoneme", "Alpha", "Greek Dark Ages", "Greek alphabet", "Etruscan civilization", "Italian Peninsula", "Old Italic scripts", "Latin", "Latin script", "Cursive", "Letter case", "Letter case", "Uncial script", "Roman Empire", "Italy", "Merovingian script", "Visigothic script", "Insular script", "Carolingian minuscule", "Handwriting", "Tau", "Serif", "Italic type", "Latin alpha", "International Phonetic Alphabet", "English orthography", "Near-open front unrounded vowel", "Open back unrounded vowel", "Diphthong", "Middle English phonology", "Great Vowel Shift", "English-language vowel changes before historic /r/", "General American", "Schwa", "Aardvark", "List of Latin-script digraphs", "Saanich dialect", "Á", "Close-mid front unrounded vowel", "International Phonetic Alphabet", "Open front unrounded vowel", "Open central unrounded vowel", "Open back unrounded vowel", "X-SAMPA", "Open front unrounded vowel", "Open back unrounded vowel", "Algebra", "Geometry", "Line segment", "Line (geometry)", "Line (geometry)", "Triangle", "A-list", "Motivation", "Asymmetry", "Article (grammar)", "Bra", "Æ", "Diacritic", "Å", "Ring (diacritic)", "Ring (diacritic)", "Modifier letter right half ring", "Ă", "Ă", "Ă", "Ă", "Ă", "Ă", "Inverted breve", "Â", "Â", "Â", "Â", "Â", "Â", "Hook above", "Caron", "Bar (diacritic)", "Dot (diacritic)", "Ȧ", "Dot (diacritic)", "Ä", "Ä", "À", "Double grave accent", "Á", "Ā", "Ã", "Ą", "R-colored vowel", "Phonetic transcription", "International Phonetic Alphabet", "Latin alpha", "Open back unrounded vowel", "Turned A", "Near-open central vowel", "Turned v", "Open-mid back unrounded vowel", "Open back rounded vowel", "Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet", "Uralic Phonetic Alphabet", "Indo-European studies", "Teuthonista", "Ugaritic", "Ordinal indicator", "Angstrom", "First-order logic", "Universal quantification", "At sign", "Argentine austral", "Phoenician alphabet", "Aleph", "Greek alphabet", "Alpha", "Cyrillic script", "A (Cyrillic)", "Coptic alphabet", "Old Italic scripts", "Runes", "Ansuz (rune)", "Gothic alphabet" ], "wikipedia_id": [ "378194", "3675310", "32693", "378194", "21440570", "715909", "929", "265914", "48203", "1780316", "69874", "5641", "877", "670", "168313", "1818955", "50953", "1703597", "6685329", "1780316", "66540", "172450", "414942", "26919", "22980", 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"ISO basic Latin letters"
{ "description": "", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q9659", "wikidata_label": "", "wikipedia_title": "", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 290, "parentid": 906725792, "revid": 907008348, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-19T20:25:53Z", "url": "" }
{ "paragraph": [ "Albedo\n", "Albedo () (, meaning 'whiteness') is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth). It is dimensionless and measured on a scale from 0 (corresponding to a black body that absorbs all incident radiation) to 1 (corresponding to a body that reflects all incident radiation).\n", "Surface albedo is defined as the ratio of radiosity to the irradiance (flux per unit area) received by a surface. The proportion reflected is not only determined by properties of the surface itself, but also by the spectral and angular distribution of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. These factors vary with atmospheric composition, geographic location and time (see position of the Sun). While bi-hemispherical reflectance is calculated for a single angle of incidence (i.e., for a given position of the Sun), albedo is the directional integration of reflectance over all solar angles in a given period. The temporal resolution may range from seconds (as obtained from flux measurements) to daily, monthly, or annual averages.\n", "Unless given for a specific wavelength (spectral albedo), albedo refers to the entire spectrum of solar radiation. Due to measurement constraints, it is often given for the spectrum in which most solar energy reaches the surface (between 0.3 and 3 μm). This spectrum includes visible light (0.39–0.7 μm), which explains why surfaces with a low albedo appear dark (e.g., trees absorb most radiation), whereas surfaces with a high albedo appear bright (e.g., snow reflects most radiation).\n", "Albedo is an important concept in climatology, astronomy, and environmental management (e.g., as part of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program for sustainable rating of buildings). The average albedo of the Earth from the upper atmosphere, its \"planetary albedo\", is 30–35% because of cloud cover, but widely varies locally across the surface because of different geological and environmental features.\n", "The term albedo was introduced into optics by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1760 work \"Photometria\".\n", "Section::::Terrestrial albedo.\n", "Any albedo in visible light falls within a range of about 0.9 for fresh snow to about 0.04 for charcoal, one of the darkest substances. Deeply shadowed cavities can achieve an effective albedo approaching the zero of a black body. When seen from a distance, the ocean surface has a low albedo, as do most forests, whereas desert areas have some of the highest albedos among landforms. Most land areas are in an albedo range of 0.1 to 0.4. The average albedo of Earth is about 0.3. This is far higher than for the ocean primarily because of the contribution of clouds.\n", "Earth's surface albedo is regularly estimated via Earth observation satellite sensors such as NASA's MODIS instruments on board the Terra and Aqua satellites, and the CERES instrument on the Suomi NPP and JPSS. As the amount of reflected radiation is only measured for a single direction by satellite, not all directions, a mathematical model is used to translate a sample set of satellite reflectance measurements into estimates of directional-hemispherical reflectance and bi-hemispherical reflectance (e.g.,). These calculations are based on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), which describes how the reflectance of a given surface depends on the view angle of the observer and the solar angle. BDRF can facilitate translations of observations of reflectance into albedo.\n", "Earth's average surface temperature due to its albedo and the greenhouse effect is currently about 15 °C. If Earth were frozen entirely (and hence be more reflective), the average temperature of the planet would drop below −40 °C. If only the continental land masses became covered by glaciers, the mean temperature of the planet would drop to about 0 °C. In contrast, if the entire Earth was covered by water — a so-called ocean planet — the average temperature on the planet would rise to almost 27 °C.\n", "Section::::Terrestrial albedo.:White-sky, black-sky, and blue-sky albedo.\n", "For land surfaces, it has been shown that the albedo at a particular solar zenith angle \"θ\" can be approximated by the proportionate sum of two terms: \n", "BULLET::::- the directional-hemispherical reflectance at that solar zenith angle, formula_1, sometimes referred to as black-sky albedo, and\n", "BULLET::::- the bi-hemispherical reflectance, formula_2, sometimes referred to as white-sky albedo.\n", "with formula_3 being the proportion of direct radiation from a given solar angle, and formula_4 being the proportion of diffuse illumination, the actual albedo formula_5 (also called blue-sky albedo) can then be given as:\n", "This formula is important because it allows the albedo to be calculated for any given illumination conditions from a knowledge of the intrinsic properties of the surface.\n", "Section::::Astronomical albedo.\n", "The albedos of planets, satellites and minor planets such as asteroids can be used to infer much about their properties. The study of albedos, their dependence on wavelength, lighting angle (\"phase angle\"), and variation in time comprises a major part of the astronomical field of photometry. For small and far objects that cannot be resolved by telescopes, much of what we know comes from the study of their albedos. For example, the absolute albedo can indicate the surface ice content of outer Solar System objects, the variation of albedo with phase angle gives information about regolith properties, whereas unusually high radar albedo is indicative of high metal content in asteroids.\n", "Enceladus, a moon of Saturn, has one of the highest known albedos of any body in the Solar System, with 99% of EM radiation reflected. Another notable high-albedo body is Eris, with an albedo of 0.96. Many small objects in the outer Solar System and asteroid belt have low albedos down to about 0.05. A typical comet nucleus has an albedo of 0.04. Such a dark surface is thought to be indicative of a primitive and heavily space weathered surface containing some organic compounds.\n", "The overall albedo of the Moon is measured to be around 0.136, but it is strongly directional and non-Lambertian, displaying also a strong opposition effect. Although such reflectance properties are different from those of any terrestrial terrains, they are typical of the regolith surfaces of airless Solar System bodies.\n", "Two common albedos that are used in astronomy are the (V-band) geometric albedo (measuring brightness when illumination comes from directly behind the observer) and the Bond albedo (measuring total proportion of electromagnetic energy reflected). Their values can differ significantly, which is a common source of confusion.\n", "In detailed studies, the directional reflectance properties of astronomical bodies are often expressed in terms of the five Hapke parameters which semi-empirically describe the variation of albedo with phase angle, including a characterization of the opposition effect of regolith surfaces.\n", "The correlation between astronomical (geometric) albedo, absolute magnitude and diameter is:\n", "formula_7,\n", "where formula_8 is the astronomical albedo, formula_9 is the diameter in kilometers, and formula_10 is the absolute magnitude.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Illumination.\n", "Albedo is not directly dependent on illumination because changing the amount of incoming light proportionally changes the amount of reflected light, except in circumstances where a change in illumination induces a change in the Earth's surface at that location (e.g. through albedo-temperature feedback). That said, albedo and illumination both vary by latitude. Albedo is highest near the poles and lowest in the subtropics, with a local maximum in the tropics.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Insolation effects.\n", "The intensity of albedo temperature effects depends on the amount of albedo and the level of local insolation (solar irradiance); high albedo areas in the arctic and antarctic regions are cold due to low insolation, where areas such as the Sahara Desert, which also have a relatively high albedo, will be hotter due to high insolation. Tropical and sub-tropical rainforest areas have low albedo, and are much hotter than their temperate forest counterparts, which have lower insolation. Because insolation plays such a big role in the heating and cooling effects of albedo, high insolation areas like the tropics will tend to show a more pronounced fluctuation in local temperature when local albedo changes.\n", "Arctic regions notably release more heat back into space than what they absorb, effectively cooling the Earth. This has been a concern since arctic ice and snow has been melting at higher rates due to higher temperatures, creating regions in the arctic that are notably darker (being water or ground which is darker color) and reflects less heat back into space. This feedback loop results in a reduced albedo effect.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Climate and weather.\n", "Albedo affects climate by determining how much radiation a planet absorbs. The uneven heating of Earth from albedo variations between land, ice, or ocean surfaces can drive weather.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Albedo–temperature feedback.\n", "When an area's albedo changes due to snowfall, a snow–temperature feedback results. A layer of snowfall increases local albedo, reflecting away sunlight, leading to local cooling. In principle, if no outside temperature change affects this area (e.g., a warm air mass), the raised albedo and lower temperature would maintain the current snow and invite further snowfall, deepening the snow–temperature feedback. However, because local weather is dynamic due to the change of seasons, eventually warm air masses and a more direct angle of sunlight (higher insolation) cause melting. When the melted area reveals surfaces with lower albedo, such as grass or soil, the effect is reversed: the darkening surface lowers albedo, increasing local temperatures, which induces more melting and thus reducing the albedo further, resulting in still more heating.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Snow.\n", "Snow albedo is highly variable, ranging from as high as 0.9 for freshly fallen snow, to about 0.4 for melting snow, and as low as 0.2 for dirty snow. Over Antarctica snow albedo averages a little more than 0.8. If a marginally snow-covered area warms, snow tends to melt, lowering the albedo, and hence leading to more snowmelt because more radiation is being absorbed by the snowpack (the ice–albedo positive feedback).\n", "Just as fresh snow has a higher albedo than does dirty snow, the albedo of snow-covered sea ice is far higher than that of sea water. Sea water absorbs more solar radiation than would the same surface covered with reflective snow. When sea ice melts, either due to a rise in sea temperature or in response to increased solar radiation from above, the snow-covered surface is reduced, and more surface of sea water is exposed, so the rate of energy absorption increases. The extra absorbed energy heats the sea water, which in turn increases the rate at which sea ice melts. As with the preceding example of snowmelt, the process of melting of sea ice is thus another example of a positive feedback. Both positive feedback loops have long been recognized as important to the modern theory of Global warming.\n", "Cryoconite, powdery windblown dust containing soot, sometimes reduces albedo on glaciers and ice sheets.\n", "The dynamical nature of albedo in response to positive feedback, together with the effects of small errors in the measurement of albedo, can lead to large errors in energy estimates. Because of this, in order to reduce the error of energy estimates, it is important to measure the albedo of snow-covered areas through remote sensing techniques rather than applying a single value for albedo over broad regions.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Small-scale effects.\n", "Albedo works on a smaller scale, too. In sunlight, dark clothes absorb more heat and light-coloured clothes reflect it better, thus allowing some control over body temperature by exploiting the albedo effect of the colour of external clothing.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Solar photovoltaic effects.\n", "Albedo can affect the electrical energy output of solar photovoltaic devices. For example, the effects of a spectrally responsive albedo are illustrated by the differences between the spectrally weighted albedo of solar photovoltaic technology based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si)-based compared to traditional spectral-integrated albedo predictions. Research showed impacts of over 10%. More recently, the analysis was extended to the effects of spectral bias due to the specular reflectivity of 22 commonly occurring surface materials (both human-made and natural) and analyzes the albedo effects on the performance of seven photovoltaic materials covering three common photovoltaic system topologies: industrial (solar farms), commercial flat rooftops and residential pitched-roof applications.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Trees.\n", "Because forests generally have a low albedo, (the majority of the ultraviolet and visible spectrum is absorbed through photosynthesis), some scientists have suggested that greater heat absorption by trees could offset some of the carbon benefits of afforestation (or offset the negative climate impacts of deforestation). In the case of evergreen forests with seasonal snow cover albedo reduction may be great enough for deforestation to cause a net cooling effect. Trees also impact climate in extremely complicated ways through evapotranspiration. The water vapor causes cooling on the land surface, causes heating where it condenses, acts a strong greenhouse gas, and can increase albedo when it condenses into clouds. Scientists generally treat evapotranspiration as a net cooling impact, and the net climate impact of albedo and evapotranspiration changes from deforestation depends greatly on local climate.\n", "In seasonally snow-covered zones, winter albedos of treeless areas are 10% to 50% higher than nearby forested areas because snow does not cover the trees as readily. Deciduous trees have an albedo value of about 0.15 to 0.18 whereas coniferous trees have a value of about 0.09 to 0.15. Variation in summer albedo across both forest types is correlated with maximum rates of photosynthesis because plants with high growth capacity display a greater fraction of their foliage for direct interception of incoming radiation in the upper canopy. The result is that wavelengths of light not used in photosynthesis are more likely to be reflected back to space rather than being absorbed by other surfaces lower in the canopy.\n", "Studies by the Hadley Centre have investigated the relative (generally warming) effect of albedo change and (cooling) effect of carbon sequestration on planting forests. They found that new forests in tropical and midlatitude areas tended to cool; new forests in high latitudes (e.g., Siberia) were neutral or perhaps warming.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Water.\n", "Water reflects light very differently from typical terrestrial materials. The reflectivity of a water surface is calculated using the Fresnel equations (see graph).\n", "At the scale of the wavelength of light even wavy water is always smooth so the light is reflected in a locally specular manner (not diffusely). The glint of light off water is a commonplace effect of this. At small angles of incident light, waviness results in reduced reflectivity because of the steepness of the reflectivity-vs.-incident-angle curve and a locally increased average incident angle.\n", "Although the reflectivity of water is very low at low and medium angles of incident light, it becomes very high at high angles of incident light such as those that occur on the illuminated side of Earth near the terminator (early morning, late afternoon, and near the poles). However, as mentioned above, waviness causes an appreciable reduction. Because light specularly reflected from water does not usually reach the viewer, water is usually considered to have a very low albedo in spite of its high reflectivity at high angles of incident light.\n", "Note that white caps on waves look white (and have high albedo) because the water is foamed up, so there are many superimposed bubble surfaces which reflect, adding up their reflectivities. Fresh 'black' ice exhibits Fresnel reflection.\n", "Snow on top of this sea ice increases the albedo to 0.9.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Clouds.\n", "Cloud albedo has substantial influence over atmospheric temperatures. Different types of clouds exhibit different reflectivity, theoretically ranging in albedo from a minimum of near 0 to a maximum approaching 0.8. \"On any given day, about half of Earth is covered by clouds, which reflect more sunlight than land and water. Clouds keep Earth cool by reflecting sunlight, but they can also serve as blankets to trap warmth.\"\n", "Albedo and climate in some areas are affected by artificial clouds, such as those created by the contrails of heavy commercial airliner traffic. A study following the burning of the Kuwaiti oil fields during Iraqi occupation showed that temperatures under the burning oil fires were as much as 10 °C colder than temperatures several miles away under clear skies.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Aerosol effects.\n", "Aerosols (very fine particles/droplets in the atmosphere) have both direct and indirect effects on Earth's radiative balance. The direct (albedo) effect is generally to cool the planet; the indirect effect (the particles act as cloud condensation nuclei and thereby change cloud properties) is less certain. As per Spracklen et al. the effects are:\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aerosol direct effect.\" Aerosols directly scatter and absorb radiation. The scattering of radiation causes atmospheric cooling, whereas absorption can cause atmospheric warming.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aerosol indirect effect.\" Aerosols modify the properties of clouds through a subset of the aerosol population called cloud condensation nuclei. Increased nuclei concentrations lead to increased cloud droplet number concentrations, which in turn leads to increased cloud albedo, increased light scattering and radiative cooling (\"first indirect effect\"), but also leads to reduced precipitation efficiency and increased lifetime of the cloud (\"second indirect effect\").\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Black carbon.\n", "Another albedo-related effect on the climate is from black carbon particles. The size of this effect is difficult to quantify: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that the global mean radiative forcing for black carbon aerosols from fossil fuels is +0.2 W m, with a range +0.1 to +0.4 W m. Black carbon is a bigger cause of the melting of the polar ice cap in the Arctic than carbon dioxide due to its effect on the albedo.\n", "Section::::Examples of terrestrial albedo effects.:Human activities.\n", "Human activities (e.g., deforestation, farming, and urbanization) change the albedo of various areas around the globe. However, quantification of this effect on the global scale is difficult.\n", "Section::::Other types of albedo.\n", "Single-scattering albedo is used to define scattering of electromagnetic waves on small particles. It depends on properties of the material (refractive index); the size of the particle or particles; and the wavelength of the incoming radiation.\n", "Section::::Acquisition.\n", "Albedo can be measured by an Albedometer.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Cool roof\n", "BULLET::::- Daisyworld\n", "BULLET::::- Emissivity\n", "BULLET::::- Exitance\n", "BULLET::::- Global dimming\n", "BULLET::::- Irradiance\n", "BULLET::::- Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation\n", "BULLET::::- Opposition surge\n", "BULLET::::- Polar see-saw\n", "BULLET::::- Solar radiation management\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Albedo Project\n", "BULLET::::- Albedo – Encyclopedia of Earth\n", "BULLET::::- NASA MODIS BRDF/albedo product site\n", "BULLET::::- Surface albedo derived from Meteosat observations\n", "BULLET::::- A discussion of Lunar albedos\n", "BULLET::::- reflectivity of metals (chart)\n" ] }
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"Electromagnetic radiation,Climate forcing,Radiometry,Land surface effects on climate,Scattering, absorption and radiative transfer (optics),Climatology"
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{ "pageid": 39, "parentid": 906382973, "revid": 906500850, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-16T07:59:36Z", "url": "" }
"Academy Award for Best Production Design"
{ "paragraph": [ "Academy Award for Best Production Design\n", "The Academy Award for Best Production Design recognizes achievement for art direction in film. The category's original name was Best Art Direction, but was changed to its current name in 2012 for the 85th Academy Awards. This change resulted from the Art Director's branch of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) being renamed the Designer's branch. Since 1947, the award is shared with the set decorator(s). It is awarded to the best interior design in a film.\n", "The films below are listed with their production year (for example, the 2000 Academy Award for Best Art Direction is given to a film from 1999). In the lists below, the winner of the award for each year is shown first, followed by the other nominees in alphabetical order.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- BAFTA Award for Best Production Design\n", "BULLET::::- Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Art Direction\n" ] }
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"Academy Awards,Best Art Direction Academy Award winners"
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{ "pageid": 316, "parentid": 904077177, "revid": 908566888, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-30T14:56:37Z", "url": "" }
{ "paragraph": [ "Actrius\n", "Actresses (Catalan: Actrius) is a 1997 Catalan language Spanish drama film produced and directed by Ventura Pons and based on the award-winning stage play \"E.R.\" by Josep Maria Benet i Jornet. The film has no male actors, with all roles played by females. The film was produced in 1996.\n", "Section::::Synopsis.\n", "In order to prepare herself to play a role commemorating the life of legendary actress Empar Ribera, young actress (Mercè Pons) interviews three established actresses who had been the Ribera's pupils: the international diva Glòria Marc (Núria Espert), the television star Assumpta Roca (Rosa Maria Sardà), and dubbing director Maria Caminal (Anna Lizaran).\n", "Section::::Cast.\n", "BULLET::::- Núria Espert as Glòria Marc\n", "BULLET::::- Rosa Maria Sardà as Assumpta Roca\n", "BULLET::::- Anna Lizaran as Maria Caminal\n", "BULLET::::- Mercè Pons as Estudiant\n", "Section::::Recognition.\n", "Section::::Recognition.:Screenings.\n", "\"Actrius\" screened in 2001 at the Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in an American Cinematheque retrospective of the works of its director. The film had first screened at the same location in 1998. It was also shown at the 1997 Stockholm International Film Festival.\n", "Section::::Recognition.:Reception.\n", "In \"Movie - Film - Review\", \"Daily Mail\" staffer Christopher Tookey wrote that though the actresses were \"competent in roles that may have some reference to their own careers\", the film \"is visually unimaginative, never escapes its stage origins, and is almost totally lacking in revelation or surprising incident\". Noting that there were \"occasional, refreshing moments of intergenerational bitchiness\", they did not \"justify comparisons to \"All About Eve\"\", and were \"insufficiently different to deserve critical parallels with \"Rashomon\"\". He also wrote that \"The Guardian\" called the film a \"slow, stuffy chamber-piece\", and that \"The Evening Standard\" stated the film's \"best moments exhibit the bitchy tantrums seething beneath the threesome's composed veneers\". MRQE wrote \"This cinematic adaptation of a theatrical work is true to the original, but does not stray far from a theatrical rendering of the story.\"\n", "Section::::Recognition.:Awards and nominations.\n", "BULLET::::- 1997, won 'Best Catalan Film' at Butaca Awards for Ventura Pons\n", "BULLET::::- 1997, won 'Best Catalan Film Actress' at Butaca Awards, shared by Núria Espert, Rosa Maria Sardà, Anna Lizaran, and Mercè Pons\n", "BULLET::::- 1998, nominated for 'Best Screenplay' at Goya Awards, shared by Josep Maria Benet i Jornet and Ventura Pons\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- as archived February 17, 2009 (Spanish)\n" ] }
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"1990s drama films,Catalan-language films,1997 films,Films set in Barcelona,Spanish films"
{ "description": "1996 film by Ventura Pons", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q2823770", "wikidata_label": "Actrius", "wikipedia_title": "Actrius", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 330, "parentid": 883290952, "revid": 903407765, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-06-25T14:37:13Z", "url": "" }
"Animalia (book)"
{ "paragraph": [ "Animalia (book)\n", "Animalia is an illustrated children's book by Graeme Base. It was originally published in 1986, followed by a tenth anniversary edition in 1996, and a 25th anniversary edition in 2012. Over four million copies have been sold worldwide. A special numbered and signed anniversary edition was also published in 1996, with an embossed gold jacket.\n", "Section::::Synopsis.\n", "\"Animalia\" is an alliterative alphabet book and contains twenty-six illustrations, one for each letter of the alphabet. Each illustration features an animal from the animal kingdom (A is for alligator, B is for butterfly, etc.) along with a short poem utilizing the letter of the page for many of the words. The illustrations contain many other objects beginning with that letter that the reader can try to identify. As an additional challenge, the author has hidden a picture of himself as a child in every picture.\n", "Section::::Related products.\n", "Julia MacRae Books published an \"Animalia\" colouring book in 2008. H. N. Abrams also published a wall calendar colouring book version for children the same year.\n", "H. N. Abrams published \"The Animalia Wall Frieze\", a fold-out over 26 feet in length, in which the author created new riddles for each letter.\n", "The Great American Puzzle Factory created a 300-piece jigsaw puzzle based on the book's cover.\n", "Section::::Adaptations.\n", "A television series was also created, based on the book, which airs in the United States, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, Norway and Venezuela. It also airs on Minimax for the Czech Republic and Slovakia. And recently in Greece on the channel ET1. The Australian Children's Television Foundation released a teaching resource DVD-ROM in 2011 to accompany the TV series with teaching aids for classroom use.\n", "In 2010, The Base Factory and AppBooks released Animalia as an application for iPad and iPhone/iPod Touch.\n", "Section::::Awards.\n", "\"Animalia\" won the Young Australian's Best Book Award in 1987 for Best Picture Story Book.\n", "The Children's Book Council of Australia designated \"Animalia\" a 1987 : Honour Book.\n", "Kid's Own Australian Literature Awards named \"Animalia\" the 1988 Picture Book Winner.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Graeme Base's official website\n", "BULLET::::- A Learning Time activity guide for \"Animalia\" created by The Little Big Book Club\n" ] }
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"Alphabet books,Puzzle books,1986 children's books,Picture books by Graeme Base"
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{ "pageid": 332, "parentid": 901621714, "revid": 901731223, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-06-13T22:04:15Z", "url": "" }
"An American in Paris"
{ "paragraph": [ "An American in Paris\n", "An American in Paris is a jazz-influenced orchestral piece by American composer George Gershwin first performed in 1928. It was inspired by the time that Gershwin had spent in Paris and evokes the sights and energy of the French capital in the 1920s.\n", "Walter Damrosch had asked Gershwin to write a full concerto following the success of \"Rhapsody in Blue\" (1924). Gershwin scored the piece for the standard instruments of the symphony orchestra plus celesta, saxophones, and automobile horns. He brought back four Parisian taxi horns for the New York premiere of the composition, which took place on December 13, 1928, in Carnegie Hall, with Damrosch conducting the New York Philharmonic. He completed the orchestration on November 18, less than four weeks before the work's premiere. He collaborated on the original program notes with critic and composer Deems Taylor.\n", "Section::::Background.\n", "Although the story is likely apocryphal, Gershwin is said to have been attracted by Maurice Ravel's unusual chords, and Gershwin went on his first trip to Paris in 1926 ready to study with Ravel. After his initial student audition with Ravel turned into a sharing of musical theories, Ravel said he could not teach him, saying, \"Why be a second-rate Ravel when you can be a first-rate Gershwin?\" That 1926 trip, however, resulted in a snippet of melody entitled \"Very Parisienne\", that the initial musical motive of \"An American in Paris\", written as a 'thank you note' to Gershwin's hosts, Robert and Mabel Schirmer. Gershwin called it \"a rhapsodic ballet\"; it is written freely and in a much more modern idiom than his prior works.\n", "Gershwin strongly encouraged Ravel to come to the United States for a tour. To this end, upon his return to New York, Gershwin joined the efforts of Ravel's friend Robert Schmitz, a pianist Ravel had met during the war, to urge Ravel to tour the U.S. Schmitz was the head of Pro Musica, promoting Franco-American musical relations, and was able to offer Ravel a $10,000 fee for the tour, an enticement Gershwin knew would be important to Ravel.\n", "Gershwin greeted Ravel in New York in March 1928 during a party held for Ravel's birthday by Éva Gauthier. Ravel's tour reignited Gershwin's desire to return to Paris which he and his brother Ira did after meeting Ravel. Ravel's high praise of Gershwin in an introductory letter to Nadia Boulanger caused Gershwin to seriously consider taking much more time to study abroad in Paris. Yet after playing for her, she told him she could not teach him. Nadia Boulanger gave Gershwin basically the same advice she gave all of her accomplished master students: \"What could I give you that you haven't already got?\" This did not set Gershwin back, as his real intent abroad was to complete a new work based on Paris and perhaps a second rhapsody for piano and orchestra to follow his \"Rhapsody in Blue\". Paris at this time hosted many expatriate writers, among them Ezra Pound, W. B. Yeats, Ernest Hemingway; and artist Pablo Picasso.\n", "Section::::Composition.\n", "Gershwin based \"An American in Paris\" on a melodic fragment called \"Very Parisienne\", written in 1926 on his first visit to Paris as a gift to his hosts, Robert and Mabel Schirmer. He described the piece as a \"rhapsodic ballet\" because it was written freely and is more modern than his previous works. Gershwin explained in \"Musical America\", \"My purpose here is to portray the impressions of an American visitor in Paris as he strolls about the city, listens to the various street noises, and absorbs the French atmosphere.\"\n", "The piece is structured into five sections, which culminate in a loose ABA format. Gershwin's first A episode introduces the two main \"walking\" themes in the \"Allegretto grazioso\" and develops a third theme in the \"Subito con brio\". The style of this A section is written in the typical French style of composers Claude Debussy and Les Six. This A section featured duple meter, singsong rhythms, and diatonic melodies with the sounds of oboe, English horn, and taxi horns. The B section's \"Andante ma con ritmo deciso\" introduces the American Blues and spasms of homesickness. The \"Allegro\" that follows continues to express homesickness in a faster twelve-bar blues. In the B section, Gershwin uses common time, syncopated rhythms, and bluesy melodies with the sounds of trumpet, saxophone, and snare drum. \"Moderato con grazia\" is the last A section that returns to the themes set in A. After recapitulating the \"walking\" themes, Gershwin overlays the slow blues theme from section B in the final \"Grandioso\".\n", "Section::::Instrumentation.\n", "\"An American in Paris\" is scored for 3 flutes (3rd doubling on piccolo), 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets in B-flat, bass clarinet in B-flat, 2 bassoons, 4 horns in F, 3 trumpets in B-flat, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, triangle, wood block, ratchet, cymbals, low and high tom-toms, xylophone, glockenspiel, celesta, 4 taxi horns labeled as A, B, C and D with circles around them, alto saxophone/soprano saxophone, tenor saxophone/soprano saxophone/alto saxophone, baritone saxophone/soprano saxophone/alto saxophone, and strings. Although most modern audiences have heard the taxi horns using the notes A, B, C and D, it has recently come to light that Gershwin's intention was to have used the notes A, B, D, and A. It is likely that in labeling the taxi horns as A, B, C and D with circles, he may have been referring to the use of the four different horns and not the notes that they played.\n", "The revised edition by F. Campbell-Watson calls for three saxophones, alto, tenor and baritone. In this arrangement the soprano and alto doublings have been rewritten to avoid changing instruments. In 2000, Gershwin specialist Jack Gibbons made his own restoration of the original orchestration of An American in Paris, working directly from Gershwin's original manuscript, including the restoration of Gershwin's soprano saxophone parts removed in F. Campbell-Watson's revision; Gibbons' restored orchestration of An American in Paris was performed at London's Queen Elizabeth Hall on July 9, 2000 by the City of Oxford Orchestra conducted by Levon Parikian\n", "William Daly arranged the score for piano solo which was published by New World Music in 1929.\n", "Section::::Response.\n", "Gershwin did not particularly like Walter Damrosch's interpretation at the world premiere of \"An American in Paris\". He stated that Damrosch's sluggish, dragging tempo caused him to walk out of the hall during a matinee performance of this work. The audience, according to Edward Cushing, responded with \"a demonstration of enthusiasm impressively genuine in contrast to the conventional applause which new music, good and bad, ordinarily arouses.\" Critics believed that \"An American in Paris\" was better crafted than his lukewarm Concerto in F. Some did not think it belonged in a program with classical composers César Franck, Richard Wagner, or Guillaume Lekeu on its premiere. Gershwin responded to the critics, \"It's not a Beethoven Symphony, you know... It's a humorous piece, nothing solemn about it. It's not intended to draw tears. If it pleases symphony audiences as a light, jolly piece, a series of impressions musically expressed, it succeeds.\"\n", "Section::::Preservation status.\n", "On September 22, 2013, it was announced that a musicological critical edition of the full orchestral score will be eventually released. The Gershwin family, working in conjunction with the Library of Congress and the University of Michigan, are working to make scores available to the public that represent Gershwin's true intent. It is unknown if the critical score will include the four minutes of material Gershwin later deleted from the work (such as the restatement of the blues theme after the faster 12 bar blues section), or if the score will document changes in the orchestration during Gershwin's composition process.\n", "The score to \"An American in Paris\" is currently scheduled to be issued first in a series of scores to be released. The entire project may take 30 to 40 years to complete, but \"An American in Paris\" will be an early volume in the series.\n", "Two urtext editions of the work were published by the German publisher B-Note Music in 2015. The changes made by Campbell-Watson have been withdrawn in both editions. In the extended urtext, 120 bars of music have been re-integrated. Conductor Walter Damrosch had cut them shortly before the first performance.\n", "Section::::Recordings.\n", "\"An American in Paris\" has been frequently recorded. The first recording was made for RCA Victor in 1929 with Nathaniel Shilkret conducting the RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra, drawn from members of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Gershwin was on hand to \"supervise\" the recording; however, Shilkret was reported to be in charge and eventually asked the composer to leave the recording studio. Then, a little later, Shilkret discovered there was no one to play the brief celesta solo during the slow section, so he hastily asked Gershwin if he might play the solo; Gershwin said he could and so he briefly participated in the actual recording. This recording is believed to use the taxi horns in the way that Gershwin had intended using the notes A-flat, B-flat, a higher D and a lower A. The radio broadcast of the September 8, 1937 Hollywood Bowl George Gershwin Memorial Concert, in which \"An American in Paris,\" also conducted by Shilkret, was second on the program, was recorded and was released in 1998 in a two-CD set. Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops Orchestra recorded the work for RCA Victor, including one of the first stereo recordings of the music. In 1945, Arturo Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra recorded the piece for RCA Victor, one of the few commercial recordings Toscanini made of music by an American composer. The Seattle Symphony also recorded a version in 1990 of Gershwin's original score, before he made numerous edits resulting in the score as we hear it today. Harry James released a version of the blues section on his 1953 album \"One Night Stand,\" recorded live at the Aragon Ballroom in Chicago (Columbia GL 522 and CL 522).\n", "Section::::Use in film.\n", "In 1951, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer released the musical film \"An American in Paris\", featuring Gene Kelly and Leslie Caron. Winning the 1951 Best Picture Oscar and numerous other awards, the film was directed by Vincente Minnelli, featured many tunes of Gershwin, and concluded with an extensive, elaborate dance sequence built around the \"An American in Paris\" symphonic poem (arranged for the film by Johnny Green), costing $500,000.\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- Rimler, Walter. \"George Gershwin – An Intimate Portrait\". Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 2009. 29–33.\n", "BULLET::::- Pollack, Howard. \"George Gershwin – His Life and Work\". Berkeley, University of California Press, 2006. 431–42.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- 1944 recording by the New York Philharmonic conducted by Artur Rodziński\n", "BULLET::::- , New York Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein, 1959.\n" ] }
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Robert Schmitz", "Éva Gauthier", "Ira Gershwin", "Nadia Boulanger", "Rhapsody in Blue", "Ezra Pound", "W. B. Yeats", "Ernest Hemingway", "Pablo Picasso", "Musical America", "Ternary form", "Claude Debussy", "Les Six", "Blues", "Twelve-bar blues", "Flute", "Piccolo", "Oboe", "Cor anglais", "Clarinet", "Soprano clarinet", "Bass clarinet", "Bassoon", "French horn", "Trumpet", "Trombone", "Tuba", "Timpani", "Snare drum", "Bass drum", "Triangle (musical instrument)", "Wood block", "Ratchet (instrument)", "Cymbal", "Tom-tom drum", "Xylophone", "Glockenspiel", "Celesta", "Vehicle horn", "Alto saxophone", "Soprano saxophone", "Tenor saxophone", "Baritone saxophone", "String section", "Jack Gibbons", "William Merrigan Daly", "Concerto in F (Gershwin)", "César Franck", "Richard Wagner", "Guillaume Lekeu", "Historical editions (music)", "Library of Congress", "University of Michigan", "Urtext edition", "RCA Records", "Nathaniel Shilkret", "RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra", "Philadelphia Orchestra", "Celesta", "Arthur Fiedler", "Boston Pops Orchestra", "Arturo Toscanini", "NBC Symphony Orchestra", "RCA Records", "Seattle Symphony", "Harry James", "Aragon Ballroom (Chicago)", "Columbia Records", "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer", "An American in Paris (film)", "Gene Kelly", "Leslie Caron", "Vincente Minnelli", "Johnny Green", "New York Philharmonic", "Artur Rodziński", "Leonard Bernstein" ], "wikipedia_id": [ "13066", "2402349", "152506", "52875", "169321", "88849", "917876", "48068", "16837878", "12567981", "15489", "466207", "152506", "44203", "33684", "9428", "24176", "27689663", "104543", "6260", "144057", "3352", "30603", "10553", "82848", "22206", "87950", "6433", "975498", "399942", "4207", "11456", "30353", "29837", "30961", "140758", "27188", "42279", "159494", "306682", "546085", "5671", "23788331", "52867", "52873", "52875", "25409626", "556372", "954691", "926172", "926360", "10696096", "1558042", "38349185", "591777", "292471", "25452", "2520726", "10912741", "18944081", "31740", "324994", "177256", "1178548", "21743068", "156272", "52875", "284290", "200414", "153560", "150698", "177256", "155538", "189700", "15974459", "165108", "58819", "1587300", "12209", "17505", "414384", "3634591", "88849", "1255949", "43282" ] }
"Music commissioned by the New York Philharmonic,Grammy Hall of Fame Award recipients,Compositions by George Gershwin,Music about Paris,1928 compositions"
{ "description": "symphonic tone poem by George Gershwin", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q853997", "wikidata_label": "An American in Paris", "wikipedia_title": "An American in Paris", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 309, "parentid": 908060611, "revid": 908061778, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-27T05:16:43Z", "url": "" }
"International Atomic Time"
{ "paragraph": [ "International Atomic Time\n", "International Atomic Time (TAI, from the French name ) is a high-precision atomic coordinate time standard based on the notional passage of proper time on Earth's geoid. It is the principal realisation of Terrestrial Time (with a fixed offset of epoch). It is also the basis for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which is used for civil timekeeping all over the Earth's surface. , when another leap second was added, TAI is exactly 37 seconds ahead of UTC. The 37 seconds results from the initial difference of 10 seconds at the start of 1972, plus 27 leap seconds in UTC since 1972.\n", "TAI may be reported using traditional means of specifying days, carried over from non-uniform time standards based on the rotation of the Earth. Specifically, both Julian Dates and the Gregorian calendar are used. TAI in this form was synchronised with Universal Time at the beginning of 1958, and the two have drifted apart ever since, due to the changing motion of the Earth.\n", "Section::::Operation.\n", "TAI is a weighted average of the time kept by over 400 atomic clocks in over 50 national laboratories worldwide. The majority of the clocks involved are caesium clocks; the International System of Units (SI) definition of the second is based on caesium. The clocks are compared using GPS signals and two-way satellite time and frequency transfer. Due to the signal averaging TAI is an order of magnitude more stable than its best constituent clock.\n", "The participating institutions each broadcast, in real time, a frequency signal with timecodes, which is their estimate of TAI. Time codes are usually published in the form of UTC, which differs from TAI by a well-known integer number of seconds. These time scales are denoted in the form \"UTC(NPL)\" in the UTC form, where \"NPL\" in this case identifies the National Physical Laboratory, UK. The TAI form may be denoted \"TAI(NPL)\". The latter is not to be confused with \"TA(NPL)\", which denotes an independent atomic time scale, not synchronised to TAI or to anything else.\n", "The clocks at different institutions are regularly compared against each other. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM, France), combines these measurements to retrospectively calculate the weighted average that forms the most stable time scale possible. This combined time scale is published monthly in \"Circular T\", and is the canonical TAI. This time scale is expressed in the form of tables of differences UTC − UTC(\"k\") (equivalent to TAI − TAI(\"k\")) for each participating institution \"k\". The same circular also gives tables of TAI − TA(\"k\"), for the various unsynchronised atomic time scales.\n", "Errors in publication may be corrected by issuing a revision of the faulty Circular T or by errata in a subsequent Circular T. Aside from this, once published in Circular T, the TAI scale is not revised. In hindsight it is possible to discover errors in TAI, and to make better estimates of the true proper time scale. Since the published circulars are definitive, better estimates do not create another version of TAI; it is instead considered to be creating a better realisation of Terrestrial Time (TT).\n", "Section::::History.\n", "Early atomic time scales consisted of quartz clocks with frequencies calibrated by a single atomic clock; the atomic clocks were not operated continuously. Atomic timekeeping services started experimentally in 1955, using the first caesium atomic clock at the National Physical Laboratory, UK (NPL). It was used as a basis for calibrating the quartz clocks at the Royal Greenwich Observatory and to establish a time scale, called Greenwich Atomic (GA). The United States Naval Observatory began the A.1 scale on 13 September 1956, using an Atomichron commercial atomic clock, followed by the NBS-A scale at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado on 9 October 1957.\n", "The International Time Bureau (BIH) began a time scale, T or AM, in July 1955, using both local caesium clocks and comparisons to distant clocks using the phase of VLF radio signals. The BIH scale, A.1, and NBS-A were defined by an epoch at the beginning of 1958 The procedures used by the BIH evolved, and the name for the time scale changed: \"A3\" in 1964 and \"TA(BIH)\" in 1969.\n", "The SI second was defined in terms of the caesium atom in 1967. From 1971 to 1975 the General Conference on Weights and Measures and the International Committee for Weights and Measures made a series of decisions which designated the BIPM time scale International Atomic Time (TAI). \n", "In the 1970s, it became clear that the clocks participating in TAI were ticking at different rates due to gravitational time dilation, and the combined TAI scale therefore corresponded to an average of the altitudes of the various clocks. Starting from Julian Date 2443144.5 (1 January 1977 00:00:00), corrections were applied to the output of all participating clocks, so that TAI would correspond to proper time at mean sea level (the geoid). Because the clocks were, on average, well above sea level, this meant that TAI slowed down, by about one part in a trillion. The former uncorrected time scale continues to be published, under the name \"EAL\" (\"Echelle Atomique Libre\", meaning \"Free Atomic Scale\").\n", "The instant that the gravitational correction started to be applied serves as the epoch for Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB), Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG), and Terrestrial Time (TT), which represent three fundamental time scales in the solar system. All three of these time scales were defined to read JD 2443144.5003725 (1 January 1977 00:00:32.184) exactly at that instant. TAI was henceforth a realisation of TT, with the equation TT(TAI) = TAI + 32.184 s.\n", "The continued existence of TAI was questioned in a 2007 letter from the BIPM to the ITU-R which stated, \"In the case of a redefinition of UTC without leap seconds, the CCTF would consider discussing the possibility of suppressing TAI, as it would remain parallel to the continuous UTC.\"\n", "Section::::Relation to UTC.\n", "UTC is a discontinuous time scale. It is regularly adjusted by leap seconds. Between these adjustments it is composed from segments that are linear transformations of atomic time. From its beginning in 1961 through December 1971 the adjustments were made regularly in fractional leap seconds so that UTC approximated UT2. Afterwards these adjustments were made only in whole seconds to approximate UT1. This was a compromise arrangement in order to enable a publicly broadcast time scale; the post-1971 more linear transformation of the BIH's atomic time meant that the time scale would be more stable and easier to synchronize internationally. The fact that it continues to approximate UT1 means that tasks such as navigation which require a source of Universal Time continue to be well served by the public broadcast of UTC.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Clock synchronization\n", "BULLET::::- Network Time Protocol\n", "BULLET::::- Precision Time Protocol\n", "BULLET::::- Time and frequency transfer\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Bureau International des Poids et Mesures: TAI\n", "BULLET::::- Time and Frequency Section - National Physical Laboratory, UK\n", "BULLET::::- IERS website\n", "BULLET::::- NIST Web Clock FAQs\n", "BULLET::::- History of time scales\n", "BULLET::::- NIST-F1 Cesium Fountain Atomic Clock\n", "BULLET::::- Japan Standard Time Project, NICT, Japan\n", "BULLET::::- Standard of time definition: UTC, GPS, LORAN and TAI\n" ] }
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{ "pageid": 334, "parentid": 905687957, "revid": 905694249, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-10T19:22:48Z", "url": "" }
"Alain Connes"
{ "paragraph": [ "Alain Connes\n", "Alain Connes (; born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the Collège de France, IHÉS, Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University. He was an Invited Professor at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (2000).\n", "Section::::Work.\n", "Alain Connes studies operator algebras. In his early work on von Neumann algebras in the 1970s, he succeeded in obtaining the almost complete classification of injective factors. He also formulated the Connes embedding problem. Following this, he made contributions in operator K-theory and index theory, which culminated in the Baum–Connes conjecture. He also introduced cyclic cohomology in the early 1980s as a first step in the study of noncommutative differential geometry. He was a member of Bourbaki.\n", "Connes has applied his work in areas of mathematics and theoretical physics, including number theory, differential geometry and particle physics.\n", "Section::::Awards and honours.\n", "Connes was awarded the Fields Medal in 1982, the Crafoord Prize in 2001\n", "Section::::Books.\n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes and Matilde Marcolli, \"Noncommutative Geometry, Quantum Fields and Motives\", Colloquium Publications, American Mathematical Society, 2007, \n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes, Andre Lichnerowicz, and Marcel Paul Schutzenberger, \"Triangle of Thought\", translated by Jennifer Gage, American Mathematical Society, 2001,\n", "BULLET::::- Jean-Pierre Changeux, and Alain Connes, \"Conversations on Mind, Matter, and Mathematics\", translated by M. B. DeBevoise, Princeton University Press, 1998,\n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes, \"Noncommutative Geometry\", Academic Press, 1994,\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Bost–Connes system\n", "BULLET::::- Cyclic homology\n", "BULLET::::- Factor (functional analysis)\n", "BULLET::::- Higgs boson\n", "BULLET::::- C*-algebra\n", "BULLET::::- M-theory\n", "BULLET::::- Groupoid\n", "BULLET::::- Criticism of non-standard analysis\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes Official Web Site containing downloadable papers, and his book \"Non-commutative geometry\", .\n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes' Standard Model\n", "BULLET::::- An interview with Alain Connes and a discussion about it\n" ] }
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"Vanderbilt University faculty,Mathematical analysts,Institute for Advanced Study visiting scholars,1947 births,Foreign associates of the National Academy of Sciences,Members of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters,21st-century mathematicians,Members of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters,École Normale Supérieure alumni,Differential geometers,Collège de France faculty,Foreign Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences,Members of the French Academy of Sciences,Clay Research Award recipients,Fields Medalists,Living people,20th-century French mathematicians"
{ "description": "French mathematician", "enwikiquote_title": "Alain Connes", "wikidata_id": "Q313590", "wikidata_label": "Alain Connes", "wikipedia_title": "Alain Connes", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 340, "parentid": 902410706, "revid": 905370794, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-08T18:04:25Z", "url": "" }
"Allan Dwan"
{ "paragraph": [ "Allan Dwan\n", "Allan Dwan (3 April 1885 – 28 December 1981) was a pioneering Canadian-born American motion picture director, producer, and screenwriter.\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Born Joseph Aloysius Dwan in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dwan, was the younger son of commercial traveler of woolen clothing Joseph Michael Dwan (1857–1917) and his wife Mary Jane Dwan, née Hunt. The family moved to the United States when he was seven years old on 4 December 1892 by ferry from Windsor to Detroit, according to his naturalization petition of August 1939. His elder brother, Leo Garnet Dwan (1883–1964), became a physician.\n", "Allan Dwan studied engineering at the University of Notre Dame and then worked for a lighting company in Chicago. He had a strong interest in the fledgling motion picture industry, and when Essanay Studios offered him the opportunity to become a scriptwriter, he took the job. At that time, some of the East Coast movie makers began to spend winters in California where the climate allowed them to continue productions requiring warm weather. Soon, a number of movie companies worked there year-round, and in 1911, Dwan began working part-time in Hollywood. While still in New York, in 1917 he was the founding president of the East Coast chapter of the Motion Picture Directors Association.\n", "Section::::Career.\n", "Dwan operated Flying A Studios in La Mesa, California from August 1911 to July 1912. Flying A was one of the first motion pictures studios in California history. On 12 August 2011, a plaque was unveiled on the Wolff building at Third Avenue and La Mesa Boulevard commemorating Dwan and the Flying A Studios origins in La Mesa, California.\n", "After making a series of westerns and comedies, Dwan directed fellow Canadian-American Mary Pickford in several very successful movies as well as her husband, Douglas Fairbanks, notably in the acclaimed 1922 \"Robin Hood\". Dwan directed Gloria Swanson in eight feature films, and one short film made in the short-lived sound-on-film process Phonofilm. This short, also featuring Thomas Meighan and Henri de la Falaise, was produced as a joke, for the 26 April 1925 \"Lambs' Gambol\" for The Lambs, with the film showing Swanson crashing the all-male club.\n", "Following the introduction of the talkies, Dwan directed child-star Shirley Temple in \"Heidi\" (1937) and \"Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm\" (1938).\n", "Dwan helped launch the career of two other successful Hollywood directors, Victor Fleming, who went on to direct \"The Wizard of Oz\" and \"Gone With the Wind\", and Marshall Neilan, who became an actor, director, writer and producer. Over a long career spanning almost 50 years, Dwan directed 125 motion pictures, some of which were highly acclaimed, such as the 1949 box office hit, \"Sands of Iwo Jima\". He directed his last movie in 1961.\n", "He died in Los Angeles at the age of ninety-six, and is interred in the San Fernando Mission Cemetery, Mission Hills, California.\n", "Dwan has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6263 Hollywood Boulevard.\n", "Daniel Eagan of \"Film Journal International\" described Dwan as one of the early pioneers of cinema, stating that his style \"is so basic as to seem invisible, but he treats his characters with uncommon sympathy and compassion.\"\n", "Section::::Partial filmography as director.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Gold Lust\" (1911)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Picket Guard\" (1913)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Restless Spirit\" (1913)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Back to Life\" (1913)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Bloodhounds of the North\" (1913)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Lie\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Honor of the Mounted\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Unwelcome Mrs. Hatch\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Remember Mary Magdalen\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Discord and Harmony\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Embezzler\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Lamb, the Woman, the Wolf\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The End of the Feud\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Tragedy of Whispering Creek\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Unlawful Trade\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Forbidden Room\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Hopes of Blind Alley\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Richelieu\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Wildflower\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Small Town Girl\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"David Harum\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Girl of Yesterday\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Pretty Sister of Jose\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Jordan Is a Hard Road\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Betty of Graystone\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Habit of Happiness\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Good Bad Man\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"An Innocent Magdalene\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Half-Breed\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Manhattan Madness\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Accusing Evidence\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Panthea\" (1917)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Modern Musketeer\" (1917)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Bound in Morocco\" (1918)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Headin' South\" (1918)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Mr. Fix-It\" (1918)\n", "BULLET::::- \"He Comes Up Smiling\" (1918)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cheating Cheaters\" (1919)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Dark Star\" (1919)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Getting Mary Married\" (1919)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Soldiers of Fortune\" (1919)\n", "BULLET::::- \"In The Heart of a Fool\" (1920) also producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Forbidden Thing\" (1920) also producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Splendid Hazard\" (1920)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Perfect Crime\" (1921)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Sin of Martha Queed\" (1921)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Broken Doll\" (1921)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Robin Hood\" (1922)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Zaza\" (1923)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Big Brother\" (1923)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Manhandled\" (1924)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Argentine Love\" (1924)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Coast of Folly\" (1925)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Night Life of New York\" (1925)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Stage Struck\" (1925)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Gloria Swanson Dialogue\" (1925) short film made in Phonofilm for The Lambs annual \"Gambol\" held at Metropolitan Opera House\n", "BULLET::::- \"Padlocked\" (1926)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sea Horses\" (1926)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Summer Bachelors\" (1926)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tin Gods\" (1926)\n", "BULLET::::- \"French Dressing\" (1927)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Joy Girl\" (1927)\n", "BULLET::::- \"East Side, West Side\" (1927)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Big Noise\" (1928)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Frozen Justice\" (1929)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Iron Mask\" (1929)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tide of Empire\" (1929)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Far Call\" (1929)\n", "BULLET::::- \"What a Widow!\" (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Man to Man\" (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Chances\" (1931)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Wicked\" (1931)\n", "BULLET::::- \"While Paris Sleeps\" (1932)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Counsel's Opinion\" (1933)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Black Sheep\" (1935)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Navy Wife\" (1935)\n", "BULLET::::- \"High Tension\" (1936)\n", "BULLET::::- \"15 Maiden Lane\" (1936)\n", "BULLET::::- \"One Mile from Heaven\" (1937)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Heidi\" (1937)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm\" (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Suez\" (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Josette\" (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Three Musketeers\" (1939)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Gorilla\" (1939)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Frontier Marshal\" (1939)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sailor's Lady\" (1940)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Young People\" (1940)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Trail of the Vigilantes\" (1940)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Look Who's Laughing\" (1941) also producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rise and Shine\" (1941)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Friendly Enemies\" (1942)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Around the World\" (1943) also producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"Up in Mabel's Room\" (1944)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Abroad with Two Yanks\" (1944)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Getting Gertie's Garter\" (1945) also screenwriter\n", "BULLET::::- \"Brewster's Millions\" (1945)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rendezvous with Annie\" (1946)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Driftwood\" (1947)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Calendar Girl\" (1947)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Northwest Outpost\" (1947) also associate producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Inside Story\" (1948)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Angel in Exile\" (1948) (with Philip Ford)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sands of Iwo Jima\" (1949)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Surrender\" (1950)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Belle Le Grand\" (1951)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Wild Blue Yonder\" (1951)\n", "BULLET::::- \"I Dream of Jeanie\" (1952)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Montana Belle\" (1952)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Woman They Almost Lynched\" (1953)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sweethearts on Parade\" (1953)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Silver Lode\" (1954)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Passion\" (1954)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cattle Queen of Montana\" (1954)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tennessee's Partner\" (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Pearl of the South Pacific\" (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Escape to Burma\" (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Slightly Scarlet\" (1956)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hold Back the Night\" (1956)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Restless Breed\" (1957)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The River's Edge\" (1957)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Enchanted Island\" (1958)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Most Dangerous Man Alive\" (1961)\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- Brownlow, Kevin, \"The Parade's Gone By...\" (1968)\n", "BULLET::::- Bogdanovich, Peter, \"Allan Dwan: The Last Pioneer\" (1971)\n", "BULLET::::- Foster, Charles, \"Stardust and Shadows: Canadians in Early Hollywood\" (2000)\n", "BULLET::::- Lombardi, Frederic, \"Allan Dwan and the Rise and Decline of the Hollywood Studios\" (2013)\n", "Print E-book \n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Allan Dwan profile,; accessed 16 June 2014\n" ] }
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"1885 births,American male screenwriters,Writers from Toronto,American film directors,1981 deaths,Disease-related deaths in California,Canadian emigrants to the United States,American film producers,Film directors from Toronto,Western (genre) film directors"
{ "description": "film director, film producer, screenwriter", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q959677", "wikidata_label": "Allan Dwan", "wikipedia_title": "Allan Dwan", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 344, "parentid": 900043969, "revid": 906091463, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-13T15:29:51Z", "url": "" }
{ "paragraph": [ "Autism\n", "Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Parents usually notice signs during the first three years of their child's life. These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace before worsening.\n", "Autism is associated with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors during pregnancy include certain infections, such as rubella, toxins including valproic acid, alcohol, cocaine, pesticides and air pollution, fetal growth restriction, and autoimmune diseases. Controversies surround other proposed environmental causes; for example, the vaccine hypothesis, which has been disproven. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering connections and organization of nerve cells and their synapses. How this occurs is not well understood. In the DSM-5, autism and less severe forms of the condition, including Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), have been combined into the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).\n", "Early behavioral interventions or speech therapy can help children with autism gain self-care, social, and communication skills. Although there is no known cure, there have been cases of children who recovered. Not many children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, though some are successful. An autistic culture has developed, with some individuals seeking a cure and others believing autism should be accepted as a difference and not treated as a disorder.\n", "Globally, autism is estimated to affect 24.8 million people . In the 2000s, the number of people affected was estimated at 1–2 per 1,000 people worldwide. In the developed countries, about 1.5% of children are diagnosed with ASD , from 0.7% in 2000 in the United States. It occurs four-to-five times more often in males than females. The number of people diagnosed has increased dramatically since the 1960s, which may be partly due to changes in diagnostic practice. The question of whether actual rates have increased is unresolved.\n", "Section::::Characteristics.\n", "Autism is a highly variable, neurodevelopmental disorder whose symptoms first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. People with autism may be severely impaired in some respects but normal, or even superior, in others. Overt symptoms gradually begin after the age of six months, become established by age two or three years and tend to continue through adulthood, although often in more muted form. It is distinguished not by a single symptom but by a characteristic triad of symptoms: impairments in social interaction; impairments in communication; and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis. Individual symptoms of autism occur in the general population and appear not to associate highly, without a sharp line separating pathologically severe from common traits.\n", "Section::::Characteristics.:Social development.\n", "Social deficits distinguish autism and the related autism spectrum disorders (ASD; see Classification) from other developmental disorders. People with autism have social impairments and often lack the intuition about others that many people take for granted. Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicals, or people with normal neural development, as leaving her feeling \"like an anthropologist on Mars\".\n", "Unusual social development becomes apparent early in childhood. Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name. Autistic toddlers differ more strikingly from social norms; for example, they have less eye contact and turn-taking, and do not have the ability to use simple movements to express themselves, such as pointing at things. Three- to five-year-old children with autism are less likely to exhibit social understanding, approach others spontaneously, imitate and respond to emotions, communicate nonverbally, and take turns with others. However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers. Most children with autism display moderately less attachment security than neurotypical children, although this difference disappears in children with higher mental development or less severe ASD. Older children and adults with ASD perform worse on tests of face and emotion recognition although this may be partly due to a lower ability to define a person's own emotions.\n", "Children with high-functioning autism suffer from more intense and frequent loneliness compared to non-autistic peers, despite the common belief that children with autism prefer to be alone. Making and maintaining friendships often proves to be difficult for those with autism. For them, the quality of friendships, not the number of friends, predicts how lonely they feel. Functional friendships, such as those resulting in invitations to parties, may affect the quality of life more deeply.\n", "There are many anecdotal reports, but few systematic studies, of aggression and violence in individuals with ASD. The limited data suggest that, in children with intellectual disability, autism is associated with aggression, destruction of property, and meltdowns.\n", "Section::::Characteristics.:Communication.\n", "About a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Differences in communication may be present from the first year of life, and may include delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and vocal patterns that are not synchronized with the caregiver. In the second and third years, children with autism have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. Children with autism are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others' words (echolalia) or reverse pronouns. Joint attention seems to be necessary for functional speech, and deficits in joint attention seem to distinguish infants with ASD. For example, they may look at a pointing hand instead of the pointed-at object, and they consistently fail to point at objects in order to comment on or share an experience. Children with autism may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language.\n", "In a pair of studies, high-functioning children with autism aged 8–15 performed equally well as, and as adults better than, individually matched controls at basic language tasks involving vocabulary and spelling. Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference. As people are often sized up initially from their basic language skills, these studies suggest that people speaking to autistic individuals are more likely to overestimate what their audience comprehends.\n", "Section::::Characteristics.:Repetitive behavior.\n", "Autistic individuals can display many forms of repetitive or restricted behavior, which the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) categorizes as follows.\n", "BULLET::::- Stereotyped behaviors: Repetitive movements, such as hand flapping, head rolling, or body rocking.\n", "BULLET::::- Compulsive behaviors: Time-consuming behaviors intended to reduce anxiety that an individual feels compelled to perform repeatedly or according to rigid rules, such as placing objects in a specific order, checking things, or hand washing.\n", "BULLET::::- Sameness: Resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted.\n", "BULLET::::- Ritualistic behavior: Unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual. This is closely associated with sameness and an independent validation has suggested combining the two factors.\n", "BULLET::::- Restricted interests: Interests or fixations that are abnormal in theme or intensity of focus, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game.\n", "BULLET::::- Self-injury: Behaviors such as eye-poking, skin-picking, hand-biting and head-banging.\n", "No single repetitive or self-injurious behavior seems to be specific to autism, but autism appears to have an elevated pattern of occurrence and severity of these behaviors.\n", "Section::::Characteristics.:Other symptoms.\n", "Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis, but that can affect the individual or the family.\n", "An estimated 0.5% to 10% of individuals with ASD show unusual abilities, ranging from splinter skills such as the memorization of trivia to the extraordinarily rare talents of prodigious autistic savants. Many individuals with ASD show superior skills in perception and attention, relative to the general population. Sensory abnormalities are found in over 90% of those with autism, and are considered core features by some, although there is no good evidence that sensory symptoms differentiate autism from other developmental disorders. Differences are greater for under-responsivity (for example, walking into things) than for over-responsivity (for example, distress from loud noises) or for sensation seeking (for example, rhythmic movements). An estimated 60–80% of autistic people have motor signs that include poor muscle tone, poor motor planning, and toe walking; deficits in motor coordination are pervasive across ASD and are greater in autism proper. Unusual eating behavior occurs in about three-quarters of children with ASD, to the extent that it was formerly a diagnostic indicator. Selectivity is the most common problem, although eating rituals and food refusal also occur.\n", "Parents of children with ASD have higher levels of stress. Siblings of children with ASD report greater admiration of and less conflict with the affected sibling than siblings of unaffected children and were similar to siblings of children with Down syndrome in these aspects of the sibling relationship. However, they reported lower levels of closeness and intimacy than siblings of children with Down syndrome; siblings of individuals with ASD have greater risk of negative well-being and poorer sibling relationships as adults. There is tentative evidence that autism occurs more frequently in people with gender dysphoria.\n", "Gastrointestinal problems are one of the most commonly associated medical disorders in people with autism. These are linked to greater social impairment, irritability, behavior and sleep problems, language impairments and mood changes.\n", "Section::::Causes.\n", "It has long been presumed that there is a common cause at the genetic, cognitive, and neural levels for autism's characteristic triad of symptoms. However, there is increasing suspicion that autism is instead a complex disorder whose core aspects have distinct causes that often co-occur.\n", "Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations with major effects, or by rare multigene interactions of common genetic variants. Complexity arises due to interactions among multiple genes, the environment, and epigenetic factors which do not change DNA sequencing but are heritable and influence gene expression. Many genes have been associated with autism through sequencing the genomes of affected individuals and their parents. Studies of twins suggest that heritability is 0.7 for autism and as high as 0.9 for ASD, and siblings of those with autism are about 25 times more likely to be autistic than the general population. However, most of the mutations that increase autism risk have not been identified. Typically, autism cannot be traced to a Mendelian (single-gene) mutation or to a single chromosome abnormality, and none of the genetic syndromes associated with ASDs have been shown to selectively cause ASD. Numerous candidate genes have been located, with only small effects attributable to any particular gene. Most loci individually explain less than 1% of cases of autism. The large number of autistic individuals with unaffected family members may result from spontaneous structural variation — such as deletions, duplications or inversions in genetic material during meiosis. Hence, a substantial fraction of autism cases may be traceable to genetic causes that are highly heritable but not inherited: that is, the mutation that causes the autism is not present in the parental genome. Autism may be underdiagnosed in women and girls due to an assumption that it is primarily a male condition.\n", "Maternal nutrition and inflammation during preconception and pregnancy influences fetal neurodevelopment. Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with ASD, in both term and preterm infants. Maternal inflammatory and autoimmune diseases may damage fetal tissues, aggravating a genetic problem or damaging the nervous system.\n", "Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy, especially heavy metals and particulates, may increase the risk of autism. Environmental factors that have been claimed without evidence to contribute to or exacerbate autism include certain foods, infectious diseases, solvents, PCBs, phthalates and phenols used in plastic products, pesticides, brominated flame retardants, alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs, vaccines, and prenatal stress. Some, such as the MMR vaccine, have been completely disproven.\n", "Parents may first become aware of autistic symptoms in their child around the time of a routine vaccination. This has led to unsupported theories blaming vaccine \"overload\", a vaccine preservative, or the MMR vaccine for causing autism. The latter theory was supported by a litigation-funded study that has since been shown to have been \"an elaborate fraud\". Although these theories lack convincing scientific evidence and are biologically implausible, parental concern about a potential vaccine link with autism has led to lower rates of childhood immunizations, outbreaks of previously controlled childhood diseases in some countries, and the preventable deaths of several children.\n", "Section::::Mechanism.\n", "Autism's symptoms result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain. How autism occurs is not well understood. Its mechanism can be divided into two areas: the pathophysiology of brain structures and processes associated with autism, and the neuropsychological linkages between brain structures and behaviors. The behaviors appear to have multiple pathophysiologies.\n", "There is evidence that gut–brain axis abnormalities may be involved. A 2015 review proposed that immune dysregulation, gastrointestinal inflammation, malfunction of the autonomic nervous system, gut flora alterations, and food metabolites may cause brain neuroinflammation and dysfunction. A 2016 review concludes that enteric nervous system abnormalities might play a role in neurological disorders such as autism. Neural connections and the immune system are a pathway that may allow diseases originated in the intestine to spread to the brain.\n", "Several lines of evidence point to synaptic dysfunction as a cause of autism. Some rare mutations may lead to autism by disrupting some synaptic pathways, such as those involved with cell adhesion. Gene replacement studies in mice suggest that autistic symptoms are closely related to later developmental steps that depend on activity in synapses and on activity-dependent changes. All known teratogens (agents that cause birth defects) related to the risk of autism appear to act during the first eight weeks from conception, and though this does not exclude the possibility that autism can be initiated or affected later, there is strong evidence that autism arises very early in development.\n", "Section::::Diagnosis.\n", "Diagnosis is based on behavior, not cause or mechanism. Under the DSM-5, autism is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These deficits are present in early childhood, typically before age three, and lead to clinically significant functional impairment. Sample symptoms include lack of social or emotional reciprocity, stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language, and persistent preoccupation with unusual objects. The disturbance must not be better accounted for by Rett syndrome, intellectual disability or global developmental delay. ICD-10 uses essentially the same definition.\n", "Several diagnostic instruments are available. Two are commonly used in autism research: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is a semistructured parent interview, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) uses observation and interaction with the child. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is used widely in clinical environments to assess severity of autism based on observation of children. The Diagnostic interview for social and communication disorders (DISCO) may also be used.\n", "A pediatrician commonly performs a preliminary investigation by taking developmental history and physically examining the child. If warranted, diagnosis and evaluations are conducted with help from ASD specialists, observing and assessing cognitive, communication, family, and other factors using standardized tools, and taking into account any associated medical conditions. A pediatric neuropsychologist is often asked to assess behavior and cognitive skills, both to aid diagnosis and to help recommend educational interventions. A differential diagnosis for ASD at this stage might also consider intellectual disability, hearing impairment, and a specific language impairment such as Landau–Kleffner syndrome. The presence of autism can make it harder to diagnose coexisting psychiatric disorders such as depression.\n", "Clinical genetics evaluations are often done once ASD is diagnosed, particularly when other symptoms already suggest a genetic cause. Although genetic technology allows clinical geneticists to link an estimated 40% of cases to genetic causes, consensus guidelines in the US and UK are limited to high-resolution chromosome and fragile X testing. A genotype-first model of diagnosis has been proposed, which would routinely assess the genome's copy number variations. As new genetic tests are developed several ethical, legal, and social issues will emerge. Commercial availability of tests may precede adequate understanding of how to use test results, given the complexity of autism's genetics. Metabolic and neuroimaging tests are sometimes helpful, but are not routine.\n", "ASD can sometimes be diagnosed by age 14 months, although diagnosis becomes increasingly stable over the first three years of life: for example, a one-year-old who meets diagnostic criteria for ASD is less likely than a three-year-old to continue to do so a few years later. In the UK the National Autism Plan for Children recommends at most 30 weeks from first concern to completed diagnosis and assessment, though few cases are handled that quickly in practice. Although the symptoms of autism and ASD begin early in childhood, they are sometimes missed; years later, adults may seek diagnoses to help them or their friends and family understand themselves, to help their employers make adjustments, or in some locations to claim disability living allowances or other benefits. Girls are often diagnosed later than boys.\n", "Underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis are problems in marginal cases, and much of the recent increase in the number of reported ASD cases is likely due to changes in diagnostic practices. The increasing popularity of drug treatment options and the expansion of benefits has given providers incentives to diagnose ASD, resulting in some overdiagnosis of children with uncertain symptoms. Conversely, the cost of screening and diagnosis and the challenge of obtaining payment can inhibit or delay diagnosis. It is particularly hard to diagnose autism among the visually impaired, partly because some of its diagnostic criteria depend on vision, and partly because autistic symptoms overlap with those of common blindness syndromes or blindisms.\n", "Section::::Diagnosis.:Classification.\n", "Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. These symptoms do not imply sickness, fragility, or emotional disturbance.\n", "Of the five PDD forms, Asperger syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes; Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder share several signs with autism, but may have unrelated causes; PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; also called \"atypical autism\") is diagnosed when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder. Unlike with autism, people with Asperger syndrome have no substantial delay in language development. The terminology of autism can be bewildering, with autism, Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS often called the \"autism spectrum disorders\" (ASD) or sometimes the \"autistic disorders\", whereas autism itself is often called \"autistic disorder\", \"childhood autism\", or \"infantile autism\". In this article, \"autism\" refers to the classic autistic disorder; in clinical practice, though, \"autism\", \"ASD\", and \"PDD\" are often used interchangeably. ASD, in turn, is a subset of the broader autism phenotype, which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact.\n", "The manifestations of autism cover a wide spectrum, ranging from individuals with severe impairments—who may be silent, developmentally disabled, and locked into hand flapping and rocking—to high functioning individuals who may have active but distinctly odd social approaches, narrowly focused interests, and verbose, pedantic communication. Because the behavior spectrum is continuous, boundaries between diagnostic categories are necessarily somewhat arbitrary. Sometimes the syndrome is divided into low-, medium- or high-functioning autism (LFA, MFA, and HFA), based on IQ thresholds, or on how much support the individual requires in daily life; these subdivisions are not standardized and are controversial. Autism can also be divided into syndromal and non-syndromal autism; the syndromal autism is associated with severe or profound intellectual disability or a congenital syndrome with physical symptoms, such as tuberous sclerosis. Although individuals with Asperger syndrome tend to perform better cognitively than those with autism, the extent of the overlap between Asperger syndrome, HFA, and non-syndromal autism is unclear.\n", "Some studies have reported diagnoses of autism in children due to a loss of language or social skills, as opposed to a failure to make progress, typically from 15 to 30 months of age. The validity of this distinction remains controversial; it is possible that regressive autism is a specific subtype, or that there is a continuum of behaviors between autism with and without regression.\n", "Research into causes has been hampered by the inability to identify biologically meaningful subgroups within the autistic population and by the traditional boundaries between the disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, neurology and pediatrics. Newer technologies such as fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging can help identify biologically relevant phenotypes (observable traits) that can be viewed on brain scans, to help further neurogenetic studies of autism; one example is lowered activity in the fusiform face area of the brain, which is associated with impaired perception of people versus objects. It has been proposed to classify autism using genetics as well as behavior.\n", "Section::::Screening.\n", "About half of parents of children with ASD notice their child's unusual behaviors by age 18 months, and about four-fifths notice by age 24 months. According to an article, failure to meet any of the following milestones \"is an absolute indication to proceed with further evaluations. Delay in referral for such testing may delay early diagnosis and treatment and affect the long-term outcome\".\n", "BULLET::::- No babbling by 12 months.\n", "BULLET::::- No gesturing (pointing, waving, etc.) by 12 months.\n", "BULLET::::- No single words by 16 months.\n", "BULLET::::- No two-word (spontaneous, not just echolalic) phrases by 24 months.\n", "BULLET::::- Loss of any language or social skills, at any age.\n", "The United States Preventive Services Task Force in 2016 found it was unclear if screening was beneficial or harmful among children in whom there is no concerns. The Japanese practice is to screen all children for ASD at 18 and 24 months, using autism-specific formal screening tests. In contrast, in the UK, children whose families or doctors recognize possible signs of autism are screened. It is not known which approach is more effective. Screening tools include the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire, and the First Year Inventory; initial data on M-CHAT and its predecessor, the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), on children aged 18–30 months suggests that it is best used in a clinical setting and that it has low sensitivity (many false-negatives) but good specificity (few false-positives). It may be more accurate to precede these tests with a broadband screener that does not distinguish ASD from other developmental disorders. Screening tools designed for one culture's norms for behaviors like eye contact may be inappropriate for a different culture. Although genetic screening for autism is generally still impractical, it can be considered in some cases, such as children with neurological symptoms and dysmorphic features.\n", "Section::::Prevention.\n", "While infection with rubella during pregnancy causes fewer than 1% of cases of autism, vaccination against rubella can prevent many of those cases.\n", "Section::::Management.\n", "The main goals when treating children with autism are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, and to increase quality of life and functional independence. In general, higher IQs are correlated with greater responsiveness to treatment and improved treatment outcomes. No single treatment is best and treatment is typically tailored to the child's needs. Families and the educational system are the main resources for treatment. Services should be carried out by behavior analysts, special education teachers, speech pathologists, and licensed psychologists. Studies of interventions have methodological problems that prevent definitive conclusions about efficacy. However, the development of evidence-based interventions has advanced in recent years. Although many psychosocial interventions have some positive evidence, suggesting that some form of treatment is preferable to no treatment, the methodological quality of systematic reviews of these studies has generally been poor, their clinical results are mostly tentative, and there is little evidence for the relative effectiveness of treatment options. Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy early in life can help children acquire self-care, communication, and job skills, and often improve functioning and decrease symptom severity and maladaptive behaviors; claims that intervention by around age three years is crucial are not substantiated. While medications have not been found to help with core symptoms, they may be used for associated symptoms, such as irritability, inattention, or repetitive behavior patterns.\n", "Section::::Management.:Education.\n", "Educational interventions often used include applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy, social skills therapy, and occupational therapy. Among these approaches, interventions either treat autistic features comprehensively, or focalize treatment on a specific area of deficit. The quality of research for early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI)—a treatment procedure carried out with very young children that incorporates over thirty hours per week of the structured type of ABA—is currently low, and more vigorous research designs with larger sample sizes are needed. Two theoretical frameworks outlined for early childhood intervention include structured and naturalistic ABA interventions, and developmental social pragmatic models (DSP). One interventional strategy utilizes a parent training model, which teaches parents how to implement various ABA and DSP techniques, allowing for parents to disseminate interventions themselves. Various DSP programs have been developed to explicitly deliver intervention systems through at-home parent implementation. Despite the recent development of parent training models, these interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in numerous studies, being evaluated as a probable efficacious mode of treatment.\n", "Early, intensive ABA therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing communication, as well as adaptive and global functioning in preschool children; it is well-established for improving the intellectual performance of that age group. Similarly, a teacher-implemented intervention that utilizes a more naturalistic form of ABA combined with a developmental social pragmatic approach has been found to be beneficial in improving social-communication skills in young children, although there is less evidence in its treatment of global symptoms. Neuropsychological reports are often poorly communicated to educators, resulting in a gap between what a report recommends and what education is provided. It is not known whether treatment programs for children lead to significant improvements after the children grow up, and the limited research on the effectiveness of adult residential programs shows mixed results. The appropriateness of including children with varying severity of autism spectrum disorders in the general education population is a subject of current debate among educators and researchers.\n", "Section::::Management.:Medication.\n", "Medications may be used to treat ASD symptoms that interfere with integrating a child into home or school when behavioral treatment fails. They may also be used for associated health problems, such as ADHD or anxiety. More than half of US children diagnosed with ASD are prescribed psychoactive drugs or anticonvulsants, with the most common drug classes being antidepressants, stimulants, and antipsychotics. The atypical antipsychotic drugs risperidone and aripiprazole are FDA-approved for treating associated aggressive and self-injurious behaviors. However, their side effects must be weighed against their potential benefits, and people with autism may respond atypically. Side effects, for example, may include weight gain, tiredness, drooling, and aggression. SSRI antidepressants, such as fluoxetine and fluvoxamine, have been shown to be effective in reducing repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, while the stimulant medication methylphenidate is beneficial for some children with co-morbid inattentiveness or hyperactivity. There is scant reliable research about the effectiveness or safety of drug treatments for adolescents and adults with ASD. No known medication relieves autism's core symptoms of social and communication impairments. Experiments in mice have reversed or reduced some symptoms related to autism by replacing or modulating gene function, suggesting the possibility of targeting therapies to specific rare mutations known to cause autism.\n", "Section::::Management.:Alternative medicine.\n", "Although many alternative therapies and interventions are available, few are supported by scientific studies. Treatment approaches have little empirical support in quality-of-life contexts, and many programs focus on success measures that lack predictive validity and real-world relevance. Some alternative treatments may place the child at risk. The preference that children with autism have for unconventional foods can lead to reduction in bone cortical thickness with this being greater in those on casein-free diets, as a consequence of the low intake of calcium and vitamin D; however, suboptimal bone development in ASD has also been associated with lack of exercise and gastrointestinal disorders. In 2005, botched chelation therapy killed a five-year-old child with autism. Chelation is not recommended for people with ASD since the associated risks outweigh any potential benefits. Another alternative medicine practice with no evidence is CEASE therapy, a mixture of homeopathy, supplements, and 'vaccine detoxing'.\n", "Although popularly used as an alternative treatment for people with autism, as of 2018 there is no good evidence to recommend a gluten- and casein-free diet as a standard treatment. A 2018 review concluded that it may be a therapeutic option for specific groups of children with autism, such as those with known food intolerances or allergies, or with food intolerance markers. The authors analyzed the prospective trials conducted to date that studied the efficacy of the gluten- and casein-free diet in children with ASD (4 in total). All of them compared gluten- and casein-free diet versus normal diet with a control group (2 double blind randomized controlled trials, 1 double blind crossover trial, 1 single blind trial). In two of the studies, whose duration was 12 and 24 months, a significant improvement in ASD symptoms (efficacy rate 50%) was identified. In the other two studies, whose duration was 3 months, no significant effect was observed. The authors concluded that a longer duration of the diet may be necessary to achieve the improvement of the ASD symptoms. Other problems documented in the trials carried out include transgressions of the diet, small sample size, the heterogeneity of the participants and the possibility of a placebo effect.\n", "In the subset of people who have gluten sensitivity there is limited evidence that suggests that a gluten-free diet may improve some autistic behaviors.\n", "There is tentative evidence that music therapy may improve social interactions, verbal communication, and non-verbal communication skills. There has been early research looking at hyperbaric treatments in children with autism.\n", "Section::::Prognosis.\n", "There is no known cure. Children recover occasionally, so that they lose their diagnosis of ASD; this occurs sometimes after intensive treatment and sometimes not. It is not known how often recovery happens; reported rates in unselected samples have ranged from 3% to 25%. Most children with autism acquire language by age five or younger, though a few have developed communication skills in later years. Most children with autism lack social support, meaningful relationships, future employment opportunities or self-determination. Although core difficulties tend to persist, symptoms often become less severe with age.\n", "Few high-quality studies address long-term prognosis. Some adults show modest improvement in communication skills, but a few decline; no study has focused on autism after midlife. Acquiring language before age six, having an IQ above 50, and having a marketable skill all predict better outcomes; independent living is unlikely with severe autism.\n", "Many individuals with autism face significant obstacles in transitioning to adulthood. Compared to the general population individuals with autism are more likely to be unemployed and to have never had a job. People in their 20s with autism have an employment rate of 58%.\n", "Section::::Epidemiology.\n", "Most recent reviews tend to estimate a prevalence of 1–2 per 1,000 for autism and close to 6 per 1,000 for ASD, and 11 per 1,000 children in the United States for ASD as of 2008; because of inadequate data, these numbers may underestimate ASD's true rate. Globally, autism affects an estimated 24.8 million people , while Asperger syndrome affects a further 37.2 million. In 2012, the NHS estimated that the overall prevalence of autism among adults aged 18 years and over in the UK was 1.1%. Rates of PDD-NOS's has been estimated at 3.7 per 1,000, Asperger syndrome at roughly 0.6 per 1,000, and childhood disintegrative disorder at 0.02 per 1,000. CDC estimates about 1 out of 59 (1.7%) for 2014, an increase from 1 out of every 68 children (1.5%) for 2010.\n", "The number of reported cases of autism increased dramatically in the 1990s and early 2000s. This increase is largely attributable to changes in diagnostic practices, referral patterns, availability of services, age at diagnosis, and public awareness, though unidentified environmental risk factors cannot be ruled out. The available evidence does not rule out the possibility that autism's true prevalence has increased; a real increase would suggest directing more attention and funding toward changing environmental factors instead of continuing to focus on genetics.\n", "Boys are at higher risk for ASD than girls. The sex ratio averages 4.3:1 and is greatly modified by cognitive impairment: it may be close to 2:1 with intellectual disability and more than 5.5:1 without. Several theories about the higher prevalence in males have been investigated, but the cause of the difference is unconfirmed; one theory is that females are underdiagnosed.\n", "Although the evidence does not implicate any single pregnancy-related risk factor as a cause of autism, the risk of autism is associated with advanced age in either parent, and with diabetes, bleeding, and use of psychiatric drugs in the mother during pregnancy. The risk is greater with older fathers than with older mothers; two potential explanations are the known increase in mutation burden in older sperm, and the hypothesis that men marry later if they carry genetic liability and show some signs of autism. Most professionals believe that race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background do not affect the occurrence of autism.\n", "Several other conditions are common in children with autism. They include:\n", "BULLET::::- Genetic disorders. About 10–15% of autism cases have an identifiable Mendelian (single-gene) condition, chromosome abnormality, or other genetic syndrome, and ASD is associated with several genetic disorders.\n", "BULLET::::- Intellectual disability. The percentage of autistic individuals who also meet criteria for intellectual disability has been reported as anywhere from 25% to 70%, a wide variation illustrating the difficulty of assessing intelligence of individuals on the autism spectrum. In comparison, for PDD-NOS the association with intellectual disability is much weaker, and by definition, the diagnosis of Asperger's excludes intellectual disability.\n", "BULLET::::- Anxiety disorders are common among children with ASD; there are no firm data, but studies have reported prevalences ranging from 11% to 84%. Many anxiety disorders have symptoms that are better explained by ASD itself, or are hard to distinguish from ASD's symptoms.\n", "BULLET::::- Epilepsy, with variations in risk of epilepsy due to age, cognitive level, and type of language disorder.\n", "BULLET::::- Several metabolic defects, such as phenylketonuria, are associated with autistic symptoms.\n", "BULLET::::- Minor physical anomalies are significantly increased in the autistic population.\n", "BULLET::::- Preempted diagnoses. Although the DSM-IV rules out concurrent diagnosis of many other conditions along with autism, the full criteria for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome, and other of these conditions are often present and these comorbid diagnoses are increasingly accepted.\n", "BULLET::::- Sleep problems affect about two-thirds of individuals with ASD at some point in childhood. These most commonly include symptoms of insomnia such as difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Sleep problems are associated with difficult behaviors and family stress, and are often a focus of clinical attention over and above the primary ASD diagnosis.\n", "Section::::History.\n", "A few examples of autistic symptoms and treatments were described long before autism was named. The \"Table Talk\" of Martin Luther, compiled by his notetaker, Mathesius, contains the story of a 12-year-old boy who may have been severely autistic. Luther reportedly thought the boy was a soulless mass of flesh possessed by the devil, and suggested that he be suffocated, although a later critic has cast doubt on the veracity of this report. The earliest well-documented case of autism is that of Hugh Blair of Borgue, as detailed in a 1747 court case in which his brother successfully petitioned to annul Blair's marriage to gain Blair's inheritance. The Wild Boy of Aveyron, a feral child caught in 1798, showed several signs of autism; the medical student Jean Itard treated him with a behavioral program designed to help him form social attachments and to induce speech via imitation.\n", "The New Latin word \"autismus\" (English translation \"autism\") was coined by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1910 as he was defining symptoms of schizophrenia. He derived it from the Greek word \"autós\" (αὐτός, meaning \"self\"), and used it to mean morbid self-admiration, referring to \"autistic withdrawal of the patient to his fantasies, against which any influence from outside becomes an intolerable disturbance\". A Soviet child psychiatrist, Grunya Sukhareva, described a similar syndrome that was published in Russian in 1925, and in German in 1926.\n", "Section::::History.:Clinical development and diagnoses.\n", "The word \"autism\" first took its modern sense in 1938 when Hans Asperger of the Vienna University Hospital adopted Bleuler's terminology \"autistic psychopaths\" in a lecture in German about child psychology. Asperger was investigating an ASD now known as Asperger syndrome, though for various reasons it was not widely recognized as a separate diagnosis until 1981. Leo Kanner of the Johns Hopkins Hospital first used \"autism\" in its modern sense in English when he introduced the label \"early infantile autism\" in a 1943 report of 11 children with striking behavioral similarities. Almost all the characteristics described in Kanner's first paper on the subject, notably \"autistic aloneness\" and \"insistence on sameness\", are still regarded as typical of the autistic spectrum of disorders. It is not known whether Kanner derived the term independently of Asperger.\n", "Donald Triplett was the first person diagnosed with autism. He was diagnosed by Kanner after being first examined in 1938, and was labeled as \"case 1\". Triplett was noted for his savant abilities, particularly being able to name musical notes played on a piano and to mentally multiply numbers. His father, Oliver, described him as socially withdrawn but interested in number patterns, music notes, letters of the alphabet, and U.S. president pictures. By the age of 2, he had the ability to recite the 23rd Psalm and memorized 25 questions and answers from the Presbyterian catechism. He was also interested in creating musical chords.\n", "Kanner's reuse of \"autism\" led to decades of confused terminology like \"infantile schizophrenia\", and child psychiatry's focus on maternal deprivation led to misconceptions of autism as an infant's response to \"refrigerator mothers\". Starting in the late 1960s autism was established as a separate syndrome.\n", "Section::::History.:Terminology and distinction from schizophrenia.\n", "As late as the mid-1970s there was little evidence of a genetic role in autism; while in 2007 it was believed to be one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions. Although the rise of parent organizations and the destigmatization of childhood ASD have affected how ASD is viewed, parents continue to feel social stigma in situations where their child's autistic behavior is perceived negatively, and many primary care physicians and medical specialists express some beliefs consistent with outdated autism research.\n", "It took until 1980 for the DSM-III to differentiate autism from childhood schizophrenia. In 1987, the DSM-III-R provided a checklist for diagnosing autism. In May 2013, the DSM-5 was released, updating the classification for pervasive developmental disorders. The grouping of disorders, including PDD-NOS, autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and CDD, has been removed and replaced with the general term of Autism Spectrum Disorders. The two categories that exist are impaired social communication and/or interaction, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors.\n", "The Internet has helped autistic individuals bypass nonverbal cues and emotional sharing that they find difficult to deal with, and has given them a way to form online communities and work remotely. Societal and cultural aspects of autism have developed: some in the community seek a cure, while others believe that autism is simply another way of being.\n", "Section::::Society and culture.\n", "An autistic culture has emerged, accompanied by the autistic rights and neurodiversity movements. Events include World Autism Awareness Day, Autism Sunday, Autistic Pride Day, Autreat, and others. Organizations dedicated to promoting awareness of autism include Autism Speaks, Autism National Committee, and Autism Society of America. Social-science scholars study those with autism in hopes to learn more about \"autism as a culture, transcultural comparisons... and research on social movements.\" While most autistic individuals do not have savant skills, many have been successful in their fields.\n", "Section::::Society and culture.:Autism rights movement.\n", "The autism rights movement is a social movement within the context of disability rights that emphasizes the concept of neurodiversity, viewing the autism spectrum as a result of natural variations in the human brain rather than a disorder to be cured. The autism rights movement advocates for including greater acceptance of autistic behaviors; therapies that focus on coping skills rather than imitating the behaviors those without autism; and the recognition of the autistic community as a minority group. Autism rights or neurodiversity advocates believe that the autism spectrum is genetic and should be accepted as a natural expression of the human genome. This perspective is distinct from two other likewise distinct views: the medical perspective, that autism is caused by a genetic defect and should be addressed by targeting the autism gene(s), and fringe theories that autism is caused by environmental factors such as vaccines. A common criticism against autistic activists is that the majority of them are \"high-functioning\" or have Asperger syndrome and do not represent the views of \"low-functioning\" autistic people.\n", "Section::::Society and culture.:Employment.\n", "About half of autistics are unemployed, and one third of those with graduate degrees may be unemployed. Among autistics who find work, most are employed in sheltered settings working for wages below the national minimum. While employers state hiring concerns about productivity and supervision, experienced employers of autistics give positive reports of above average memory and detail orientation as well as a high regard for rules and procedure in autistic employees. A majority of the economic burden of autism if caused by decreased earnings in the job market. Some studies also find decreased earning among parents who care for autistic children.\n" ] }
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"Neurological disorders in children,Autism,Articles containing video clips,Neurological disorders,Communication disorders,Pervasive developmental disorders,Psychiatric diagnosis,Mental and behavioural disorders"
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"List of Atlas Shrugged characters"
{ "paragraph": [ "List of Atlas Shrugged characters\n", "This is a list of characters in Ayn Rand's novel \"Atlas Shrugged.\"\n", "Section::::Major characters.\n", "The following are major characters from the novel.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Protagonists.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Protagonists.:Dagny Taggart.\n", "Dagny Taggart is the protagonist of the novel. She is Vice-President in Charge of Operations for Taggart Transcontinental, under her brother, James Taggart. Given James' incompetence, Dagny is responsible for all the workings of the railroad.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Protagonists.:Francisco d'Anconia.\n", "Francisco d'Anconia is one of the central characters in \"Atlas Shrugged\", an owner by inheritance of the world's largest copper mining operation. He is a childhood friend, and the first love, of Dagny Taggart. A child prodigy of exceptional talents, Francisco was dubbed the \"climax\" of the d'Anconia line, an already prestigious family of skilled industrialists. He was a classmate of John Galt and Ragnar Danneskjöld and student of both Hugh Akston and Robert Stadler. He began working while still in school, proving that he could have made a fortune without the aid of his family's wealth and power. Later, Francisco bankrupts the d'Anconia business to put it out of others' reach. His full name is given as \"Francisco Domingo Carlos Andres Sebastián d'Anconia\".\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Protagonists.:John Galt.\n", "John Galt is the primary male hero of \"Atlas Shrugged\". He initially appears as an unnamed menial worker for Taggart Transcontinental, who often dines with Eddie Willers in the employees' cafeteria, and leads Eddie to reveal important information about Dagny Taggart and Taggart Transcontinental. Only Eddie's side of their conversations is given in the novel. Later in the novel, the reader discovers this worker's true identity.\n", "Before working for Taggart Transcontinental, Galt worked as an engineer for the Twentieth Century Motor Company, where he secretly invented a generator of usable electric energy from ambient static electricity, but abandoned his prototype, and his employment, when dissatisfied by an easily corrupted novel system of payment. This prototype was found by Dagny Taggart and Hank Rearden. Galt himself remains concealed throughout much of the novel, working a job and living by himself, where he unites the most skillful inventors and business leaders under his leadership. Much of the book's third division is given to his broadcast speech, which presents the author's philosophy of Objectivism.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Protagonists.:Henry \"Hank\" Rearden.\n", "Henry (known as \"Hank\") Rearden is one of the central characters in \"Atlas Shrugged\". He owns the most important steel company in the United States, and invents Rearden Metal, an alloy stronger than steel (with similar properties to stainless steel). He lives in Philadelphia with his wife Lillian, his brother Philip, and his elderly mother. Rearden represents a type of self-made man or prototypical hero, and illustrates Rand's theory of sex in so far as he accepts the traditional view of sexual congress as a subhuman instinct, but responds sexually to Dagny Taggart. Rearden eventually divorces Lillian, abandons his steel mills following a bloody assault by government-planted workers, and joins John Galt's strike.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Protagonists.:Eddie Willers.\n", "Edwin \"Eddie\" Willers is the Special Assistant to the Vice-President in Charge of Operations at Taggart Transcontinental. His father and grandfather worked for the Taggarts, and himself likewise. He is completely loyal to Dagny and to Taggart Transcontinental. Willers does not possess the creative ability of Galt's associates, but matches them in moral courage and is capable of appreciating and making use of their creations. After Dagny shifts her attention and loyalty to saving the captive Galt, Willers maintains the railroad until its collapse.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Protagonists.:Ragnar Danneskjöld.\n", "One of Galt's first followers, and world-famous as a pirate, who seizes relief ships sent from the United States to the People's States of Europe. He works to ensure that once those espousing Galt's philosophy are restored to their rightful place in society, they have enough capital to rebuild the world. Kept in the background for much of the book, Danneskjöld makes a personal appearance to encourage Rearden to persevere in his increasingly difficult situation, and gives him a bar of gold as compensation for the income taxes he has paid over the last several years. Danneskjöld is married to the actress Kay Ludlow; their relationship is kept hidden from the outside world, which only knows of Ludlow as a retired film star. Considered a misfit by Galt's other adherents, he views his actions as a means to speed the world along in understanding Galt's perspective.\n", "According to Barbara Branden, who was closely associated with Rand at the time the book was written, there were sections written describing Danneskjöld's adventures at sea, cut from the final published text. In a 1974 comment at a lecture, Ayn Rand admitted that Danneskjöld's name was a tribute to Victor Hugo's novel, , wherein the hero becomes the first of the Counts of Danneskjöld. In the published book, Danneskjöld is always seen through the eyes of others (Dagny Taggart or Hank Rearden), except for a brief paragraph in the very last chapter.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Antagonists.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Antagonists.:James Taggart.\n", "The President of Taggart Transcontinental and the book's most important antagonist. Taggart is an expert influence peddler but incapable of making operational decisions on his own. He relies on his sister, Dagny Taggart, to actually run the railroad, but nonetheless opposes her in almost every endeavor because of his various anti-capitalist moral and political beliefs. In a sense, he is the antithesis of Dagny. This contradiction leads to the recurring absurdity of his life: the desire to overcome those on whom his life depends, and the horror that he will succeed at this. In the final chapters of the novel, he suffers a complete mental breakdown upon realizing that he can no longer deceive himself in this respect.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Antagonists.:Lillian Rearden.\n", "The unsupportive wife of Hank Rearden, who dislikes his habits and (secretly at first) seeks to ruin Rearden to prove her own value. Lillian achieves this, when she passes information to James Taggart about her husband's affair with his sister. This information is used to persuade Rearden to sign a Gift Certificate which delivers all the property rights of Rearden Metal to others. Lillian thereafter uses James Taggart for sexual satisfaction, until Hank abandons her.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Antagonists.:Dr. Floyd Ferris.\n", "Ferris is a biologist who works as \"co-ordinator\" at the State Science Institute. He uses his position there to deride reason and productive achievement, and publishes a book entitled \"Why Do You Think You Think?\" He clashes on several occasions with Hank Rearden, and twice attempts to blackmail Rearden into giving up Rearden Metal. He is also one of the group of looters who tries to get Rearden to agree to the Steel Unification Plan. Ferris hosts the demonstration of the Project X weapon, and is the creator of the Ferris Persuader, a torture machine. When John Galt is captured by the looters, Ferris uses the device on Galt, but it breaks down before extracting the information Ferris wants from Galt. Ferris represents the group which uses brute force on the heroes to achieve the ends of the looters.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Antagonists.:Dr. Robert Stadler.\n", "A former professor at Patrick Henry University, and along with colleague Hugh Akston, mentor to Francisco d'Anconia, John Galt and Ragnar Danneskjöld. He has since become a sell-out, one who had great promise but squandered it for social approval, to the detriment of the free. He works at the State Science Institute where all his inventions are perverted for use by the military, including a sound-based weapon known as Project X (Xylophone). He is killed when Cuffy Meigs (see below) drunkenly overloads the circuits of Project X, causing it to destroy itself and every structure and living thing in a 100-mile radius. The character was, in part, modeled on J. Robert Oppenheimer, whom Rand had interviewed for an earlier project, and his part in the creation of nuclear weapons. To his former student Galt, Stadler represents the epitome of human evil, as the \"man who knew better\" but chose not to act for the good.\n", "Section::::Major characters.:Antagonists.:Wesley Mouch.\n", "The incompetent and treacherous lobbyist whom Hank Rearden reluctantly employs in Washington, who rises to prominence and authority throughout the novel through trading favours and disloyalty. In return for betraying Hank by helping broker the Equalization of Opportunity Bill (which, by restricting the number of businesses each person may own to one, forces Hank to divest most of his companies), he is given a senior position at the Bureau of Economic Planning and National Resources. Later in the novel he becomes its Top Co-ordinator, a position that eventually becomes Economic Dictator of the country.\n", "Section::::Secondary characters.\n", "The following secondary characters also appear in the novel.\n", "BULLET::::- Hugh Akston is identified as \"One of the last great advocates of reason.\" He was a renowned philosopher and the head of the Department of Philosophy at Patrick Henry University, where he taught Francisco d'Anconia, John Galt, and Ragnar Danneskjöld. He was, along with Robert Stadler, a father figure to these three. Akston's name is so hallowed that a young lady, on hearing that Francisco had studied under him, is shocked. She thought he must have been one of those great names from an earlier century. He now works as a cook in a roadside diner, and proves extremely skillful at the job. When Dagny tracks him down, and before she discovers his true identity, he rejects her enthusiastic offer to manage the dining car services for Taggart Transcontinental. He is based on Aristotle.\n", "BULLET::::- Jeff Allen is a tramp who stows away on a Taggart train during one of Dagny's cross-country trips. Instead of throwing him out, she allows him to ride as her guest. It is from Allen that she learns the full story behind the collapse of the Twentieth Century Motor Company (Rand's extensive metaphor for the inherent flaws of communism), as well as a hint of John Galt's true background.\n", "BULLET::::- Calvin Atwood is owner of Atwood Light and Power Company and joins Galt's strike.\n", "BULLET::::- Mayor Bascom is the mayor of Rome, Wisconsin, who reveals part of the history of the Twentieth Century Motor Company.\n", "BULLET::::- Dr. Blodgett is the scientist who pulls the lever to demonstrate Project X.\n", "BULLET::::- Orren Boyle is the head of Associated Steel, antithesis of Hank Rearden and a friend of James Taggart. He is an investor in the San Sebastián Mines. He disappears from the story after having a nervous breakdown following the failed 'unification' of the steel industry.\n", "BULLET::::- Laura Bradford is an actress and Kip Chalmers' mistress. She is one of the passengers on his train, and dies in the Taggart Tunnel disaster.\n", "BULLET::::- Bill Brent is the chief dispatcher for the Colorado Division of Taggart Transcontinental, who tries to prevent the Taggart Tunnel disaster.\n", "BULLET::::- Cherryl Brooks is a dime store shopgirl who marries James Taggart after a chance encounter in her store the night the John Galt Line was falsely deemed his greatest success. She marries him thinking he is the heroic person behind Taggart Transcontinental. Cherryl is at first harsh towards Dagny, having believed Jim Taggart's descriptions of his sister, until she questions employees of the railroad. Upon learning that her scorn had been misdirected, Cherryl puts off apologizing to Dagny out of shame, but eventually admits to Dagny that when she married Jim, she thought he had the heroic qualities that she had looked up to - she thought she was marrying someone like Dagny. Shortly after making this admission, she commits suicide by jumping over a street guardrail to her death, unable to live with her worthless husband and seeing no way to escape him.\n", "BULLET::::- Millie Bush was \"a mean, ugly little eight-year-old\" girl voted to receive gold braces to straighten her teeth by the Marxist \"family\" committee who determined how pay was allocated at The Twentieth Century Motor Company. Her teeth are later knocked out by a man denied an allowance by the committee to purchase the things he valued.\n", "BULLET::::- Emma Chalmers, Kip Chalmers' mother, gains some influence after his death. Known as \"Kip's Ma,\" she starts a soybean-growing project in Louisiana and commandeers thousands of railroad freight cars to move the harvest. As a result, the year's wheat crop from Minnesota never reaches the rest of the country, but instead rots in storage; also, the soybean crop is lost, having been reaped too early.\n", "BULLET::::- Kip Chalmers is a Washington man who has decided to run for election as Legislator from California. On the way to a campaign rally, the Taggart Transcontinental train that is carrying him encounters a split rail, resulting in the destruction of its diesel engine. His demands lead to a coal-burning steam engine being attached to his train in its stead and used to pull it through an eight-mile tunnel. The result is the suffocation of all passengers and the destruction of the Taggart Tunnel.\n", "BULLET::::- Dan Conway is the middle-aged president of the Phoenix-Durango railroad. Running a railroad is just about the only thing he knows. When the Anti-dog-eat-dog Rule is used to drive his business out of Colorado, he loses the will to fight, and resigns himself to a quiet life of books and fishing.\n", "BULLET::::- Ken Danagger owns Danagger Coal in Pennsylvania. He helps Hank Rearden illegally make Rearden Metal, then later decides to quit and join Galt's strike moments before Dagny arrives to try to persuade him otherwise.\n", "BULLET::::- Quentin Daniels is an enterprising engineer hired by Dagny Taggart to reconstruct John Galt's motor. Partway through this process, Quentin withdraws his effort for the same reasons John Galt himself had. Dagny's pursuit of Quentin leads her to Galt's Gulch.\n", "BULLET::::- Sebastian d'Anconia was the 16th (or 17th) Century founder of the d'Anconia dynasty. Escaped from Spain because of expressing his opinions too freely and coming in conflict with the Inquisition, leaving behind a palace and his beloved. Started a small mine in South America, which became the beginning of a mining empire and a new fortune (and a new palace). Eventually sent for his beloved who had waited for him many years. He is the role model which Francisco d'Anconia looks to, as Dagny Taggart looks to Nathaniel Taggart. Francisco remarks that their respective ancestors would have liked each other.\n", "BULLET::::- Balph Eubank is called \"the literary leader of the age\", despite the fact that no book he has written has sold more than 3,000 copies. He complains that it is disgraceful that artists are treated as peddlers, and that there should be a law limiting the sales of books to 10,000 copies. He is a misogynist who thinks it disgusting that Dagny Taggart is a railroad vice-president.\n", "BULLET::::- The Fishwife is one of the strikers, who earns her living by providing the fish for Hammond's grocery market; she is described as having \"dark, disheveled hair and large eyes\", and is a writer. Galt says she \"wouldn't be published outside. She believes that when one deals with words, one deals with the mind.\" According to Barbara Branden in her book \"The Passion of Ayn Rand\", \"The Fishwife is Ayn's Hitchcock-like appearance in \"Atlas Shrugged\".\" So says too Leonard Peikoff.\n", "BULLET::::- Lawrence Hammond runs Hammond Cars in Colorado, one of the few companies in existence that still produces top-quality vehicles. He eventually quits and joins the strike.\n", "BULLET::::- Richard Halley is Dagny Taggart's favorite composer, who mysteriously disappeared after the evening of his greatest triumph. Halley spent years as a struggling and unappreciated composer. At age 24, his opera \"Phaethon\" was performed for the first time, to an audience who booed and heckled it. After 19 years, \"Phaethon\" was performed again, but this time it was received to the greatest ovation the opera house had ever heard. The following day, Halley retired, sold the rights to his music, and disappeared. It is later revealed that he has joined the strike and settled in Galt's Gulch.\n", "BULLET::::- Mrs. William Hastings is the widow of the chief engineer at the Twentieth Century Motor Company. Her husband quit shortly after Galt did and joined the strike some years later. Her lead allows Dagny to find Hugh Akston.\n", "BULLET::::- Dr. Thomas Hendricks is a famous brain surgeon who developed a new method of preventing strokes. He joined Galt's strike when the American medical system was put under government control.\n", "BULLET::::- Tinky Holloway is one of the \"looters\" and is frequently referred to and quoted by other characters in the story, but he has only one major appearance: during the Washington meeting with Hank Rearden.\n", "BULLET::::- Lee Hunsacker is in charge of a company called Amalgamated Service when takes over the Twentieth Century Motor Company. He files a lawsuit that eventually leads to Midas Mulligan and Judge Narragansett joining the strike. A failed businessman, he laments constantly that no-one ever gave him a chance.\n", "BULLET::::- Gwen Ives is Hank Rearden's secretary, described as being in her late twenties and remaining calm and professional despite the chaos that threatens his business. When Rearden abandons his mills and joins Galt's strike, she and many other employees do the same.\n", "BULLET::::- Gilbert Keith-Worthing is a British novelist of erstwhile fame, now neglected but still considered a \"walking classic,\" and a proponent of the idea that freedom is an illusion. Kip Chalmers brings him along on the train to California, \"for no reason that either of them could discover\"; he dies in the Taggart Tunnel disaster.\n", "BULLET::::- Owen Kellogg is Assistant to the Manager of the Taggart Terminal in New York. He catches Dagny Taggart's eye as one of the few competent men on staff. After seeing the sorry state of the Ohio Division, she decides to make him its new Superintendent. However, as soon as she returns to New York, Kellogg informs her that he is quitting his job. Owen Kellogg eventually reaches, and settles in, Galt's Gulch.\n", "BULLET::::- Fred Kinnan is a labor leader and member of the looter cabal. Unlike the others, however, Kinnan is straightforward and honest about his purpose. Kinnan is the only one to openly state the true motivations of himself and his fellow conspirators. At the end of Galt's three-hour speech, he expresses admiration for the man, as he says what he means. Despite this, Kinnan admits that he is one of the people Galt is out to destroy.\n", "BULLET::::- Paul Larkin is an unsuccessful, middle-aged businessman, a friend of the Rearden family. He meets with the other Looters to work out a plan to bring Rearden down. James Taggart knows he is friends with Hank Rearden and challenges his loyalty, and Larkin assures Taggart that he will go along with them.\n", "BULLET::::- Eugene Lawson heads the Community Bank of Madison, then gets a job with the government when it his bank goes bankrupt. One of the looter's cabal, he is a collectivist who abhors production and money-making.\n", "BULLET::::- Mort Liddy is a hack composer who writes trite scores for movies and modern symphonies to which no one listens. He believes melody is a primitive vulgarity. He is one of Lillian Rearden's friends and a member of the cultural elite.\n", "BULLET::::- Clifton Locey is a friend of Jim Taggart who takes the position of vice-president of operation when Dagny Taggart quits.\n", "BULLET::::- Pat Logan is the engineer on the first run of the John Galt Line. He later strikes.\n", "BULLET::::- Kay Ludlow is a beautiful actress and the wife of Ragnar Danneskjöld.\n", "BULLET::::- Dick McNamara is a contractor who finished the San Sebastian Line. Dagny Taggart plans to hire him to lay the new Rearden Metal track for the Rio Norte Line, but before she does so, he mysteriously disappears. She later discovers that he has joined the strike and settled in Galt's Gulch.\n", "BULLET::::- Cuffy Meigs is the Director of Unification for the railroad business. He carries a pistol and a lucky rabbit's foot, and he dresses in a military uniform, and has been described as \"impervious to thought\". Meigs seizes control of Project X and accidentally destroys it, demolishing the country's last railroad bridge across the Mississippi River and killing himself, his men, and Dr. Stadler.\n", "BULLET::::- Dave Mitchum is a state-hired superintendent of the Colorado Division of Taggart Transcontinental. He is partially responsible for the Taggart Tunnel disaster.\n", "BULLET::::- Chick Morrison holds the position of \"Morale Conditioner\" in the government. He quits when society begins to collapse and flees to a stronghold in Tennessee. His fellow looters consider it unlikely that he will survive.\n", "BULLET::::- Horace Bussby Mowen is the president of the Amalgamated Switch and Signal Company, Inc. of Connecticut. He is a businessman who sees nothing wrong with the moral code that is destroying society and would never dream of saying he is in business for any reason other than the good of society. Dagny Taggart hires Mowen to produce switches made of Rearden Metal. He is reluctant to build anything with this unproven technology, and has to be cajoled into accepting the contract. When pressured by public opinion, he discontinues production of the switches, forcing Dagny to find an alternative source.\n", "BULLET::::- Midas Mulligan is a wealthy banker who mysteriously disappeared in protest after he was given a court order to lend money to an incompetent applicant. When the order came down, he liquidated his entire business, paid off his depositors, and joined Galt's strike. He is the legal owner of the land where Galt's Gulch is located. Mulligan's birth name was Michael, but he had it legally changed after a news article called him \"Midas\" in a derogatory fashion, which Mulligan took as a compliment.\n", "BULLET::::- Judge Narragansett is an American jurist who ruled in favor of Midas Mulligan during the case brought against him by the incompetent loan applicant. When Narragansett's ruling was reversed on appeal, he retired and joined the strike. At the end of the novel, he is seen editing the United States Constitution, crossing out the contradicting amendments of it and adding an amendment to prohibit Congress from passing laws that restrain freedom of trade.\n", "BULLET::::- Ben Nealy is a railroad contractor whom Dagny Taggart hires to replace the track on the Rio Norte Line with Rearden Metal. Nealy is incompetent, but Dagny can find no one better in all the country. Nealy believes that anything can get done with enough muscle power. He sees no role for intelligence in human achievement. He relies on Dagny and Ellis Wyatt to run things, and resents them for doing it, because it appears to him like they are just bossing people around.\n", "BULLET::::- Ted Nielsen is the head of Nielsen Motors. He eventually goes on strike, along with most of the other industrialist \"producer\" types, by closing his motor factory. Dagny later finds him when she visits Galt's Gulch for the first time.\n", "BULLET::::- Betty Pope is a wealthy socialite who is having a meaningless sexual affair with James Taggart. She is deliberately crude in a way that casts ridicule on her high social position.\n", "BULLET::::- Dr. Potter holds some undefined position with the State Science Institute. He is sent to try to obtain the rights to Rearden Metal.\n", "BULLET::::- Dr. Simon Pritchett is the prestigious head of the Department of Philosophy at Patrick Henry University and is considered the leading philosopher of the age. He believes that man is nothing but a collection of chemicals, reason is a superstition, it is futile to seek meaning in life, and the duty of a philosopher is to show that nothing can be understood.\n", "BULLET::::- Rearden's mother, whose name is not mentioned, lives with Rearden at his home in Philadelphia. She is involved in charity work, and berates Rearden whenever she can. She dotes on her weak son Philip Rearden.\n", "BULLET::::- Philip Rearden is the younger brother of Hank Rearden. He lives in his brother's home in Philadelphia and is completely dependent on him. He is resentful of his brother's charity.\n", "BULLET::::- Dwight Sanders owns Sanders Aircraft, a producer of high-quality airplanes, and joins the strike.\n", "BULLET::::- Bertram Scudder is an editorial writer for the magazine \"The Future\". He typically bashes business and businessmen, but he never says anything specific in his articles, relying on innuendo, sneers, and denunciation. He wrote a hatchet job on Hank Rearden called \"The Octopus\". He is also vocal in support of the Equalization of Opportunity Bill. Scudder claims that the most important thing in life is \"brother love\" but seems to have nothing but hatred for those around him. He loses his job after Dagny Taggart reveals her affair with Hank Rearden over air on his radio show.\n", "BULLET::::- Claude Slagenhop is president of political organization Friends of Global Progress and one of Lillian Rearden's friends. He believes that ideas are just air, that this is no time for talk, but for action. Global Progress is a sponsor of the Equalization of Opportunity Bill.\n", "BULLET::::- Gerald and Ivy Starnes are the two surviving children of Jed Starnes, the founder of the Twentieth Century Motor Company. Together with their since-deceased brother Eric, they instituted a communistic payment-and-benefits program that drove the company into bankruptcy. Gerald, a dying alcoholic, and Ivy, a pseudo-Buddhist ascetic, continue to insist that the plan was perfect and that the failure of their father's company was entirely due to the workers. Eric was a weak, attention-seeking man with a pathological desire to be loved. He committed suicide after the woman he loved married another man. Gerald claims that he always acted for the good of the employees, but he was vain and incompetent and often threw lavish parties using company funds. Ivy, on the other hand, is described as a sadist who relishes seeing others in poverty, but who has no desire for wealth of her own.\n", "BULLET::::- Andrew Stockton runs the Stockton Foundry in Stockton, Colorado. When he joins the strike, he opens a foundry in Galt's Gulch.\n", "BULLET::::- Nathaniel \"Nat\" Taggart was the founder of Taggart Transcontinental. He built his railroad without any government handouts, and ran the business for no other reason than to turn a profit. He began as a penniless adventurer and ended up as one of the wealthiest men in the country. He never earned money by force or fraud (except for bribing government officials and throwing an opponent down a flight of stairs), and never apologized for becoming wealthy and successful. He was one of the most hated men of his time. Dagny is often inspired by looking at a statue of Nat Taggart at the railroad headquarters, and draws a dollar sign on its base as a signal to Francisco when she is ready to join Galt's strike. It is suspected that he is modeled after James Jerome Hill, builder of the Great Northern Railroad.\n", "BULLET::::- Mr. Thompson is the \"Head of the State\" for the United States. He is not particularly intelligent and has a very undistinguished look. He knows politics, however, and is a master of public relations and back-room deals. Rand's notes indicate that she modeled him on President Harry S. Truman, and that she deliberately decided not to call him \"President of the United States\" as this title has \"honorable connotations\" which the character does not deserve.\n", "BULLET::::- Lester Tuck is the campaign manager for Kip Chalmers and one of his guests on the train trip to California. He dies in the Taggart Tunnel disaster.\n", "BULLET::::- Clem Weatherby is a government representative on the board of directors of Taggart Transcontinental. Dagny considers him the least bad of the government representatives, since he does have some real knowledge on the running of trains. She notices, however, that he is the least appreciated by his own bosses.\n", "BULLET::::- The Wet Nurse (Tony) is a young bureaucrat sent by the government to watch over Rearden's mills. Though he starts out as a cynical follower of the looters' code, his experience at the mills transforms him, and he comes to respect and admire the producers. He is shot attempting to inform Hank Rearden about a government plot, but does succeed in warning Rearden just before he dies.\n", "BULLET::::- Ellis Wyatt is the head of Wyatt Oil. He has almost single-handedly revived the economy of Colorado by discovering a new process for extracting more oil from what were thought to be exhausted oil wells. When first introduced, he is aggressive towards Dagny, whom he does not yet know and whom he blames for what are, in fact, her brother's policies which directly threaten his business. When the government passes laws and decrees which make it impossible for him to continue, he sets all his oil wells on fire, leaving a jeering note: \"I am leaving it as I found it. Take over. It's yours.\" One particular burning well that resists all efforts to extinguish it becomes known as \"Wyatt's Torch\". Later Dagny meets him in Galt's Gulch.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Website with comprehensive list of individuals mentioned in Atlas Shrugged\n" ] }
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"Lists of literary characters,Fictional socialites,Atlas Shrugged characters"
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{ "pageid": 359, "parentid": 900173505, "revid": 900215169, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-06-04T05:25:35Z", "url": "" }
{ "paragraph": [ "Alien\n", "Alien primarily refers to:\n", "BULLET::::- Extraterrestrial life, life which does not originate from Earth\n", "BULLET::::- Specifically, intelligent extraterrestrial beings; see List of alleged extraterrestrial beings\n", "BULLET::::- Alien (law), a person in a country who is not a national of that country\n", "Alien(s), or The Alien(s) may also refer to:\n", "Section::::Science and technology.\n", "BULLET::::- Introduced species, a species not native to its environment\n", "BULLET::::- Alien (file converter), a Linux program\n", "BULLET::::- AliEn (ALICE Environment), a grid framework\n", "BULLET::::- Alien Technology, a manufacturer of RFID technology\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (franchise), a media franchise\n", "BULLET::::- Alien (creature in \"Alien\" franchise)\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.:Films.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (film), a 1979 film by Ridley Scott\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aliens\" (film), the 1986 sequel by James Cameron\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien 3\", third film in the series from 1992 by David Fincher\n", "BULLET::::- \"\", a 1980 unofficial sequel of the 1979 \"Alien\" film\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Alien\" (unproduced film), an incomplete 1960s IndianAmerican film\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Alien\" (2016 film), a 2016 Mexican film\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.:Literature.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aliens\" (Tappan Wright novel), a 1902 novel by Mary Tappan Wright\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Aliens\" (play), a 2010 play by Annie Baker\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Alien\" (Animorphs), the eighth book in the \"Animorphs\" series\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" novels, an extension of the \"Alien\" franchise\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.:Music.\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.:Music.:Performers.\n", "BULLET::::- Alien (band), a 1980s Swedish rock group\n", "BULLET::::- The Aliens (Australian band), a 1970s new wave group\n", "BULLET::::- The Aliens (Scottish band), a 2005–2008 rock group\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.:Music.:Albums.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Northlane album)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Strapping Young Lad album)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Tankard album)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (soundtrack)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aliens\" (soundtrack)\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.:Music.:Songs.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Britney Spears song)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Jonas Blue and Sabrina Carpenter song)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Pennywise song)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Third Day song)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aliens\" (Coldplay song)\n", "BULLET::::- \"My Alien\", a song by Simple Plan on the album \"No Pads, No Helmets... Just Balls\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a song by Bush on the album \"Sixteen Stone\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a song by Erasure on the album \"Loveboat\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a song by Japan on the album \"Quiet Life\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a song by Lamb on the album \"Fear of Fours\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a song by Nerina Pallot on the album \"Dear Frustrated Superstar\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a song by P-Model on the album \"Landsale\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a song by Thriving Ivory on their self-titled album\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a song by Tokio Hotel on the album \"Humanoid\". Also, fans of the band call themselves Aliens\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Aliens\", a song by Warlord\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.:Video games.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aliens\" (1982 video game), a text-only clone of \"Space Invaders\" written for the CP/M operating system on the Kaypro computer\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Atari 2600), a 1982 maze game based on the 1979 film\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (1984 video game), based on the film\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aliens\" (1990 video game), a game by Konami, based on the sequel of the film\n", "BULLET::::- \"\", a 2014 video game based on the \"Alien\" science fiction horror film series\n", "Section::::Arts and entertainment.:Other media.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (Armenian TV series), a 2017 melodrama series\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Aliens\" (TV series), 2016 British sci-fi television series\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\" (sculpture), a 2012 work by David Breuer-Weil, in Mottisfont, Hampshire, England\n", "BULLET::::- \"Aliens\" (Dark Horse Comics line)\n", "Section::::Other uses.\n", "BULLET::::- Alien (shipping company), a Russian company\n", "BULLET::::- Alien Sun (born 1974), Singaporean actress\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alien\", a perfume by Thierry Mugler\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Astrobiology, the study of hypothetical alien life\n", "BULLET::::- Alien vs. Predator (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- Alians, an Islamic order\n", "BULLET::::- \"ATLiens\", a 1996 album by OutKast\n", "BULLET::::- Unidentified flying object (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- UFO (disambiguation)\n" ] }
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Just Balls", "Sixteen Stone", "Loveboat", "Quiet Life", "Fear of Fours", "Dear Frustrated Superstar", "Landsale", "their self-titled album", "Humanoid", "Warlord", "\"Aliens\" (1982 video game)", "\"Alien\" (Atari 2600)", "\"Alien\" (1984 video game)", "\"Aliens\" (1990 video game)", "\"Alien\" (Armenian TV series)", "\"The Aliens\" (TV series)", "\"Alien\" (sculpture)", "\"Aliens\" (Dark Horse Comics line)", "Alien (shipping company)", "Alien Sun", "Thierry Mugler", "Astrobiology", "Alien vs. Predator (disambiguation)", "Alians", "ATLiens", "Unidentified flying object (disambiguation)", "UFO (disambiguation)" ], "href": [ "Extraterrestrial%20life", "List%20of%20alleged%20extraterrestrial%20beings", "Alien%20%28law%29", "Introduced%20species", "Alien%20%28file%20converter%29", "AliEn%20%28ALICE%20Environment%29", "Alien%20Technology", "Alien%20%28franchise%29", "Alien%20%28creature%20in%20Alien%20franchise%29", "Alien%20%28film%29", "Aliens%20%28film%29", "Alien%203", "The%20Alien%20%28unproduced%20film%29", "The%20Alien%20%282016%20film%29", "Aliens%20%28Tappan%20Wright%20novel%29", "The%20Aliens%20%28play%29", "The%20Alien%20%28Animorphs%29", "Alien%20novels", "Alien%20%28band%29", "The%20Aliens%20%28Australian%20band%29", "The%20Aliens%20%28Scottish%20band%29", "Alien%20%28Northlane%20album%29", "Alien%20%28Strapping%20Young%20Lad%20album%29", "Alien%20%28Tankard%20album%29", "Alien%20%28soundtrack%29", "Aliens%20%28soundtrack%29", "Alien%20%28Britney%20Spears%20song%29", "Alien%20%28Jonas%20Blue%20and%20Sabrina%20Carpenter%20song%29", "Alien%20%28Pennywise%20song%29", "Alien%20%28Third%20Day%20song%29", "Aliens%20%28Coldplay%20song%29", "No%20Pads%2C%20No%20Helmets...%20Just%20Balls", "Sixteen%20Stone", "Loveboat%20%28album%29", "Quiet%20Life", "Fear%20of%20Fours", "Dear%20Frustrated%20Superstar", "Landsale%20%28P-Model%20album%29", "Thriving%20Ivory%20%28album%29", "Humanoid%20%28album%29", "Warlord%20%28band%29", "Aliens%20%281982%20video%20game%29", "Alien%20%28Atari%202600%29", "Alien%20%281984%20video%20game%29", "Aliens%20%281990%20video%20game%29", "Alien%20%28Armenian%20TV%20series%29", "The%20Aliens%20%28TV%20series%29", "Alien%20%28sculpture%29", "Aliens%20%28Dark%20Horse%20Comics%20line%29", "Alien%20%28shipping%20company%29", "Alien%20Sun", "Thierry%20Mugler%23Fragrances", "Astrobiology", "Alien%20vs.%20Predator%20%28disambiguation%29", "Alians", "ATLiens", "Unidentified%20flying%20object%20%28disambiguation%29", "UFO%20%28disambiguation%29" ], "wikipedia_title": [ "Extraterrestrial life", "List of alleged extraterrestrial beings", "Alien (law)", "Introduced species", "Alien (file converter)", "ALICE experiment", "Alien Technology", "Alien (franchise)", "Alien (creature in Alien franchise)", "Alien (film)", "Aliens (film)", "Alien 3", "The Alien (unproduced film)", "The Alien (2016 film)", "Aliens (Tappan Wright novel)", "The Aliens (play)", "The Alien (novel)", "List of Alien (franchise) novels", "Alien (band)", "The Aliens (Australian band)", "The Aliens (Scottish band)", "Alien (Northlane album)", "Alien (Strapping Young Lad album)", "Tankard (band)", "Alien (soundtrack)", "Aliens (soundtrack)", "Alien (Britney Spears song)", "Alien (Jonas Blue and Sabrina Carpenter song)", "Alien (Pennywise song)", "Conspiracy No. 5", "Aliens (Coldplay song)", "No Pads, No Helmets...Just Balls", "Sixteen Stone", "Loveboat (album)", "Quiet Life", "Fear of Fours", "Dear Frustrated Superstar", "Landsale (album)", "Thriving Ivory (album)", "Humanoid (album)", "Warlord (band)", "Aliens (1982 video game)", "Alien (Atari 2600)", "Alien (1984 video game)", "Aliens (1990 video game)", "Alien (Armenian TV series)", "The Aliens (TV series)", "Alien (sculpture)", "Aliens (Dark Horse Comics line)", "Alien (shipping company)", "Alien Sun", "Thierry Mugler", "Astrobiology", "Alien vs. Predator (disambiguation)", "Alians", "ATLiens", "Unidentified flying object (disambiguation)", "UFO (disambiguation)" ], "wikipedia_id": [ "9588", "10422207", "1703155", "394815", "1703204", "2575969", "274674", "6245494", "612467", "23487440", "213472", "213251", "7742919", "51564711", "14503636", "42537653", "7041356", "7555215", "18619893", "23225321", "1556258", "60749471", "1762915", "1038861", "16267084", "16265867", "41111017", "56850678", "6834574", "3617024", "53364979", "806242", "206838", "2062581", "1903189", "3205353", "5250724", "2520482", "19108395", "24230412", "11499828", "36800750", "2345102", "47262419", "17006490", "56309144", "49640989", "45711232", "3503918", "24282341", "8471756", "2685005", "2787", "1130320", "5771288", "1715433", "56254618", "703863" ] }
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"Agricultural science"
{ "paragraph": [ "Agricultural science\n", "Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. (Veterinary science, but not animal science, is often excluded from the definition.)\n", "Section::::Agriculture, agricultural science, and agronomy.\n", "The three terms are often confused. However, they cover different concepts:\n", "BULLET::::- Agriculture is the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use. Agriculture concerns techniques, including the application of agronomic research.\n", "BULLET::::- Agronomy is research and development related to studying and improving plant-based crops.\n", "Agricultural sciences include research and development on:\n", "BULLET::::- Plant Breeding and Genetics\n", "BULLET::::- Plant Pathology\n", "BULLET::::- Horticulture\n", "BULLET::::- Soil Science\n", "BULLET::::- Entomology\n", "BULLET::::- Production techniques (e.g., irrigation management, recommended nitrogen inputs)\n", "BULLET::::- Improving agricultural productivity in terms of quantity and quality (e.g., selection of drought-resistant crops and animals, development of new pesticides, yield-sensing technologies, simulation models of crop growth, in-vitro cell culture techniques)\n", "BULLET::::- Minimizing the effects of pests (weeds, insects, pathogens, nematodes) on crop or animal production systems.\n", "BULLET::::- Transformation of primary products into end-consumer products (e.g., production, preservation, and packaging of dairy products)\n", "BULLET::::- Prevention and correction of adverse environmental effects (e.g., soil degradation, waste management, bioremediation)\n", "BULLET::::- Theoretical production ecology, relating to crop production modeling\n", "BULLET::::- Traditional agricultural systems, sometimes termed subsistence agriculture, which feed most of the poorest people in the world. These systems are of interest as they sometimes retain a level of integration with natural ecological systems greater than that of industrial agriculture, which may be more sustainable than some modern agricultural systems.\n", "BULLET::::- Food production and demand on a global basis, with special attention paid to the major producers, such as China, India, Brazil, the US and the EU.\n", "BULLET::::- Various sciences relating to agricultural resources and the environment (e.g. soil science, agroclimatology); biology of agricultural crops and animals (e.g. crop science, animal science and their included sciences, e.g. ruminant nutrition, farm animal welfare); such fields as agricultural economics and rural sociology; various disciplines encompassed in agricultural engineering.\n", "Section::::Agriculture, agricultural science, and agronomy.:Agricultural biotechnology.\n", "Agricultural biotechnology is a specific area of agricultural science involving the use of scientific tools and techniques, including genetic engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and tissue culture, to modify living organisms: plants, animals, and microorganisms.\n", "Section::::Fertilizer.\n", "One of the most common yield reducers is because of fertilizer not being applied in slightly higher quantities during transition period, the time it takes the soil to rebuild its aggregates and organic matter. Yields will decrease temporarily because of nitrogen being immobilized in the crop residue, which can take a few months to several years to decompose, depending on the crop's C to N ratio and the local environment.\n", "Section::::History.\n", "In the 18th century, Johann Friedrich Mayer conducted experiments on the use of gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate) as a fertilizer.\n", "In 1843, John Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert began a set of long-term field experiments at Rothamsted Research Station in England; some of them are still running.\n", "In the United States, a scientific revolution in agriculture began with the Hatch Act of 1887, which used the term \"agricultural science\". The Hatch Act was driven by farmers' interest in knowing the constituents of early artificial fertilizer. The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 shifted agricultural education back to its vocational roots, but the scientific foundation had been built. After 1906, public expenditures on agricultural research in the US exceeded private expenditures for the next 44 years.\n", "Section::::Prominent agricultural scientists.\n", "BULLET::::- Robert Bakewell\n", "BULLET::::- Norman Borlaug\n", "BULLET::::- Luther Burbank\n", "BULLET::::- George Washington Carver\n", "BULLET::::- Carl Henry Clerk\n", "BULLET::::- George C. Clerk\n", "BULLET::::- René Dumont\n", "BULLET::::- Sir Albert Howard\n", "BULLET::::- Kailas Nath Kaul\n", "BULLET::::- Justus von Liebig\n", "BULLET::::- Jay Lush\n", "BULLET::::- Gregor Mendel\n", "BULLET::::- Louis Pasteur\n", "BULLET::::- M. S. Swaminathan\n", "BULLET::::- Jethro Tull\n", "BULLET::::- Artturi Ilmari Virtanen\n", "BULLET::::- Eli Whitney\n", "BULLET::::- Sewall Wright\n", "BULLET::::- Wilbur Olin Atwater\n", "Section::::Fields or related disciplines.\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural biotechnology\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural chemistry\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural diversification\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural education\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural economics\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural engineering\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural geography\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural philosophy\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural marketing\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural soil science\n", "BULLET::::- Agroecology\n", "BULLET::::- Agrophysics\n", "BULLET::::- Animal science\n", "BULLET::::- Animal breeding\n", "BULLET::::- Animal husbandry\n", "BULLET::::- Animal nutrition\n", "BULLET::::- Farm management\n", "BULLET::::- Agronomy\n", "BULLET::::- Botany\n", "BULLET::::- Theoretical production ecology\n", "BULLET::::- Horticulture\n", "BULLET::::- Plant breeding\n", "BULLET::::- Plant fertilization\n", "BULLET::::- Aquaculture\n", "BULLET::::- Biological engineering\n", "BULLET::::- Genetic engineering\n", "BULLET::::- Nematology\n", "BULLET::::- Microbiology\n", "BULLET::::- Plant pathology\n", "BULLET::::- Range management\n", "BULLET::::- Environmental science\n", "BULLET::::- Entomology\n", "BULLET::::- Food science\n", "BULLET::::- Human nutrition\n", "BULLET::::- Irrigation and water management\n", "BULLET::::- Soil science\n", "BULLET::::- Agrology\n", "BULLET::::- Waste management\n", "BULLET::::- Weed science\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural Research Council\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural sciences basic topics\n", "BULLET::::- Agriculture ministry\n", "BULLET::::- Agroecology\n", "BULLET::::- American Society of Agronomy\n", "BULLET::::- Genomics of domestication\n", "BULLET::::- History of agricultural science\n", "BULLET::::- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences\n", "BULLET::::- International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development\n", "BULLET::::- International Food Policy Research Institute, IFPRI\n", "BULLET::::- List of agriculture topics\n", "BULLET::::- National FFA Organization\n", "BULLET::::- Research Institute of Crop Production (RICP) (in the Czech Republic)\n", "BULLET::::- University of Agricultural Sciences\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural Research, Livelihoods, and Poverty: Studies of Economic and Social Impacts in Six Countries Edited by Michelle Adato and Ruth Meinzen-Dick (2007), Johns Hopkins University Press Food Policy Report\n", "BULLET::::- Claude Bourguignon, \"Regenerating the Soil: From Agronomy to Agrology\", Other India Press, 2005\n", "BULLET::::- Pimentel David, Pimentel Marcia, \"Computer les kilocalories\", Cérès, n. 59, sept-oct. 1977\n", "BULLET::::- Russell E. Walter, \"Soil conditions and plant growth\", Longman group, London, New York 1973\n", "BULLET::::- Salamini Francesco, Oezkan Hakan, Brandolini Andrea, Schaefer-Pregl Ralf, Martin William, \"Genetics and geography of wild cereal domestication in the Near East\", in Nature, vol. 3, ju. 2002\n", "BULLET::::- Saltini Antonio, \"Storia delle scienze agrarie\", 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89, , , ,\n", "BULLET::::- Vavilov Nicolai I. (Starr Chester K. editor), \"The Origin, Variation, Immunity and Breeding of Cultivated Plants. Selected Writings\", in Chronica botanica, 13: 1-6, Waltham, Mass., 1949–50\n", "BULLET::::- Vavilov Nicolai I., \"World Resources of Cereals, Leguminous Seed Crops and Flax,\" Academy of Sciences of Urss, National Science Foundation, Washington, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem 1960\n", "BULLET::::- Winogradsky Serge, \"Microbiologie du sol. Problèmes et methodes. Cinquante ans de recherches,\" Masson &, Paris 1949\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural Research Service\n", "BULLET::::- Indian Council of Agricultural Research\n", "BULLET::::- International Institute of Tropical Agriculture\n", "BULLET::::- International Livestock Research Institute\n", "BULLET::::- The National Agricultural Library (NAL) - The most comprehensive agricultural library in the world.\n", "BULLET::::- Crop Science Society of America\n", "BULLET::::- American Society of Agronomy\n", "BULLET::::- Soil Science Society of America\n", "BULLET::::- Agricultural Science Researchers, Jobs and Discussions\n", "BULLET::::- Information System for Agriculture and Food Research\n", "BULLET::::- South Dakota Agricultural Laboratories\n", "BULLET::::- NMSU Department of Entomology Plant Pathology and Weed Science\n" ] }
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"Austin (disambiguation)"
{ "paragraph": [ "Austin (disambiguation)\n", "Austin is the capital of Texas in the United States.\n", "Austin may also refer to:\n", "Section::::People names.\n", "BULLET::::- Austin (name) - a short form of Augustin, or Augustine\n", "BULLET::::- Augustin (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- Augustine (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- August (disambiguation)\n", "Section::::Geographical locations.\n", "Section::::Geographical locations.:Australia.\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Western Australia\n", "Section::::Geographical locations.:Canada.\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Manitoba\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Ontario\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Quebec\n", "BULLET::::- Austin Island, Nunavut\n", "Section::::Geographical locations.:France.\n", "BULLET::::- Saint-Austin, hamlet at la Neuville-Chant-d'Oisel, Normandy\n", "Section::::Geographical locations.:United States of America.\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Arkansas\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Colorado\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Illinois:\n", "BULLET::::- Austin Township, Macon County, Illinois\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Indiana\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Kentucky\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Minnesota\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Missouri\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Nevada\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Ohio\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Oregon\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, Texas\n", "BULLET::::- Austin County, Texas (note that the city of Austin, Texas is located in Travis County)\n", "Section::::Schools.\n", "BULLET::::- Austin College, Sherman, Texas\n", "BULLET::::- University of Texas at Austin, flagship institution of the University of Texas System\n", "BULLET::::- Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee\n", "Section::::Religion.\n", "BULLET::::- Augustine of Hippo or Augustine of Canterbury\n", "BULLET::::- An adjective for the Augustinians\n", "Section::::Business.\n", "BULLET::::- Austin Automobile Company, short-lived American automobile company\n", "BULLET::::- Austin (brand), a brand owned by the Kellogg Company\n", "BULLET::::- Austin Motor Company, British car manufacturer\n", "BULLET::::- American Austin Car Company, short-lived American automobile maker\n", "Section::::Entertainment.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Austin\" (song), a single by Blake Shelton\n", "BULLET::::- Austin, a kangaroo Beanie Baby produced by Ty, Inc.\n", "BULLET::::- Austin the kangaroo from the children's television series \"The Backyardigans\"\n", "BULLET::::- Austin Moon, titular character in the television show \"Austin & Ally\"\n", "Section::::Other uses.\n", "BULLET::::- USS \"Austin\", three ships\n", "BULLET::::- Austin station (disambiguation), various public transportation stations\n", "BULLET::::- \"Austin\" (building), a building designed by artist Ellsworth Kelly under construction in Austin, Texas\n", "BULLET::::- Austin Allegro, a small family car that was manufactured by the Austin-Morris division of British Leyland from 1973 until 1982\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Austen (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- Augustine (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- Justice Austin (disambiguation)\n" ] }
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{ "paragraph": [ "Altruism\n", "Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings and/or animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of \"others\" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. In an extreme case, altruism may become a synonym of selflessness which is the opposite of selfishness.\n", "The word \"altruism\" was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as \"altruisme\", for an antonym of egoism. He derived it from the Italian \"altrui\", which in turn was derived from Latin \"alteri\", meaning \"other people\" or \"somebody else\".\n", "Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms is an individual performing an action which is at a cost to themselves (e.g., pleasure and quality of life, time, probability of survival or reproduction), but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. Steinberg suggests a definition for altruism in the clinical setting, that is \"intentional and voluntary actions that aim to enhance the welfare of another person in the absence of any quid pro quo external rewards\". In one sense, the opposite of altruism is spite; a spiteful action harms another with no self-benefit.\n", "Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty, in that whilst the latter is predicated upon social relationships, altruism does not consider relationships. Much debate exists as to whether \"\"true\"\" altruism is possible in human psychology. The theory of psychological egoism suggests that no act of sharing, helping or sacrificing can be described as truly altruistic, as the actor may receive an intrinsic reward in the form of personal gratification. The validity of this argument depends on whether intrinsic rewards qualify as \"benefits\".\n", "The term \"altruism\" may also refer to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit others. Used in this sense, it is usually contrasted with egoism, which claims individuals are morally obligated to serve themselves first.\n", "Section::::The notion of altruism.\n", "The concept has a long history in philosophical and ethical thought. The term was originally coined in the 19th century by the founding sociologist and philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, and has become a major topic for psychologists (especially evolutionary psychology researchers), evolutionary biologists, and ethologists. Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. In simple terms, altruism is caring about the welfare of other people and acting to help them.\n", "Section::::Scientific viewpoints.\n", "Section::::Scientific viewpoints.:Anthropology.\n", "Marcel Mauss's book \"The Gift\" contains a passage called \"Note on alms\". This note describes the evolution of the notion of alms (and by extension of altruism) from the notion of sacrifice. In it, he writes:\n", "Alms are the fruits of a moral notion of the gift and of fortune on the one hand, and of a notion of sacrifice, on the other. Generosity is an obligation, because Nemesis avenges the poor and the gods for the superabundance of happiness and wealth of certain people who should rid themselves of it. This is the ancient morality of the gift, which has become a principle of justice. The gods and the spirits accept that the share of wealth and happiness that has been offered to them and had been hitherto destroyed in useless sacrifices should serve the poor and children.\n", "BULLET::::- Compare Altruism (ethics) – perception of altruism as self-sacrifice.\n", "BULLET::::- Compare explanation of alms in various scriptures.\n", "Section::::Scientific viewpoints.:Evolutionary explanations.\n", "In the science of ethology (the study of animal behaviour), and more generally in the study of social evolution, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. In evolutionary psychology this may be applied to a wide range of human behaviors such as charity, emergency aid, help to coalition partners, tipping, courtship gifts, production of public goods, and environmentalism.\n", "Theories of apparently altruistic behavior were accelerated by the need to produce theories compatible with evolutionary origins. Two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies.\n", "Some of the proposed mechanisms are:\n", "BULLET::::- Kin selection. That animals and humans are more altruistic towards close kin than to distant kin and non-kin has been confirmed in numerous studies across many different cultures. Even subtle cues indicating kinship may unconsciously increase altruistic behavior. One kinship cue is facial resemblance. One study found that slightly altering photographs so that they more closely resembled the faces of study participants increased the trust the participants expressed regarding depicted persons. Another cue is having the same family name, especially if rare, and this has been found to increase helpful behavior. Another study found more cooperative behavior the greater the number of perceived kin in a group. Using kinship terms in political speeches increased audience agreement with the speaker in one study. This effect was especially strong for firstborns, who are typically close to their families.\n", "BULLET::::- Vested interests. People are likely to suffer if their friends, allies, and similar social ingroups suffer or even disappear. Helping such group members may therefore eventually benefit the altruist. Making ingroup membership more noticeable increases cooperativeness. Extreme self-sacrifice towards the ingroup may be adaptive if a hostile outgroup threatens to kill the entire ingroup.\n", "BULLET::::- Reciprocal altruism. See also Reciprocity (evolution).\n", "BULLET::::- Direct reciprocity. Research shows that it can be beneficial to help others if there is a chance that they can and will reciprocate the help. The effective tit for tat strategy is one game theoretic example. Many people seem to be following a similar strategy by cooperating if and only if others cooperate in return.\n", "BULLET::::- One consequence is that people are more cooperative if it is more likely that individuals will interact again in the future. People tend to be less cooperative if they perceive that the frequency of helpers in the population is lower. They tend to help less if they see non-cooperativeness by others and this effect tend to be stronger than the opposite effect of seeing cooperative behaviors. Simply changing the cooperative framing of a proposal may increase cooperativeness such as calling it a \"Community Game\" instead of a \"Wall Street Game.\"\n", "BULLET::::- A tendency towards reciprocity implies that people will feel obligated to respond if someone helps them. This has been used by charities that give small gifts to potential donors hoping thereby to induce reciprocity. Another method is to announce publicly that someone has given a large donation. The tendency to reciprocate can even generalize so people become more helpful toward others in general after being helped. On the other hand, people will avoid or even retaliate against those perceived not to be cooperating. People sometimes mistakenly fail to help when they intended to, or their helping may not be noticed, which may cause unintended conflicts. As such, it may be an optimal strategy to be slightly forgiving of and have a slightly generous interpretation of non-cooperation.\n", "BULLET::::- People are more likely to cooperate on a task if they can communicate with one another first. This may be due to better assessments of cooperativeness or due to exchange of promises. They are more cooperative if they can gradually build trust, instead of being asked to give extensive help immediately. Direct reciprocity and cooperation in a group can be increased by changing the focus and incentives from intra-group competition to larger scale competitions such as between groups or against the general population. Thus, giving grades and promotions based only on an individual's performance relative to a small local group, as is common, may reduce cooperative behaviors in the group.\n", "BULLET::::- Indirect reciprocity. The avoidance of poor reciprocators and cheaters causes a person's reputation to become very important. A person with a good reputation for reciprocity have a higher chance of receiving help even from persons they have had no direct interactions with previously.\n", "BULLET::::- Strong reciprocity. A form of reciprocity where some individuals seem to spend more resources on cooperating and punishing than would be most beneficial as predicted by several established theories of altruism. A number of theories have been proposed as explanations as well as criticisms regarding its existence.\n", "BULLET::::- Pseudo-reciprocity. An organism behaves altruistically and the recipient does not reciprocate but has an increased chance of acting in a way that is selfish but also as a byproduct benefits the altruist.\n", "BULLET::::- Costly signaling and the handicap principle. Since altruism takes away resources from the altruist it can be an \"honest signal\" of resource availability and the abilities needed to gather resources. This may signal to others that the altruist is a valuable potential partner. It may also be a signal of interactive and cooperative intentions since those not interacting further in the future gain nothing from the costly signaling. It is unclear if costly signaling can indicate a long-term cooperative personality but people have increased trust for those who help. Costly signaling is pointless if everyone has the same traits, resources, and cooperative intentions but become a potentially more important signal if the population increasingly varies on these characteristics.\n", "BULLET::::- Group selection. It has controversially been argued by some evolutionary scientists such as David Sloan Wilson that natural selection can act at the level of non-kin groups to produce adaptations that benefit a non-kin group even if these adaptions are detrimental at the individual level. Thus, while altruistic persons may under some circumstances be outcompeted by less altruistic persons at the individual level, according to group selection theory the opposite may occur at the group level where groups consisting of the more altruistic persons may outcompete groups consisting of the less altruistic persons. Such altruism may only extend to ingroup members while there may instead prejudice and antagonism against outgroup members (See also in-group favoritism). Group selection theory has been criticized by many other evolutionary scientists.\n", "Such explanations do not imply that humans are always consciously calculating how to increase their inclusive fitness when they are doing altruistic acts. Instead, evolution has shaped psychological mechanisms, such as emotions, that promote altruistic behaviors.\n", "Every single instance of altruistic behavior need not always increase inclusive fitness; altruistic behaviors would have been selected for if such behaviors on average increased inclusive fitness in the ancestral environment. This need not imply that on average 50% or more of altruistic acts were beneficial for the altruist in the ancestral environment; if the benefits from helping the right person were very high it would be beneficial to err on the side of caution and usually be altruistic even if in most cases there were no benefits.\n", "The benefits for the altruist may be increased and the costs reduced by being more altruistic towards certain groups. Research has found that people are more altruistic to kin than to no-kin, to friends than to strangers, to those attractive than to those unattractive, to non-competitors than to competitors, and to members ingroups than to members of outgroup.\n", "The study of altruism was the initial impetus behind George R. Price's development of the Price equation, which is a mathematical equation used to study genetic evolution. An interesting example of altruism is found in the cellular slime moulds, such as \"Dictyostelium mucoroides.\" These protists live as individual amoebae until starved, at which point they aggregate and form a multicellular fruiting body in which some cells sacrifice themselves to promote the survival of other cells in the fruiting body.\n", "Selective investment theory proposes that close social bonds, and associated emotional, cognitive, and neurohormonal mechanisms, evolved in order to facilitate long-term, high-cost altruism between those closely depending on one another for survival and reproductive success.\n", "Such cooperative behaviors have sometimes been seen as arguments for left-wing politics such by the Russian zoologist and anarchist Peter Kropotkin in his 1902 book \"\" and Peter Singer in his book \"A Darwinian Left.\"\n", "Section::::Scientific viewpoints.:Neurobiology.\n", "Jorge Moll and Jordan Grafman, neuroscientists at the National Institutes of Health and LABS-D'Or Hospital Network (J.M.) provided the first evidence for the neural bases of altruistic giving in normal healthy volunteers, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In their research, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA in October 2006, they showed that both pure monetary rewards and charitable donations activated the mesolimbic reward pathway, a primitive part of the brain that usually responds to food and sex. However, when volunteers generously placed the interests of others before their own by making charitable donations, another brain circuit was selectively activated: the subgenual cortex/septal region. These structures are intimately related to social attachment and bonding in other species. Altruism, the experiment suggested, was not a superior moral faculty that suppresses basic selfish urges but rather was basic to the brain, hard-wired and pleasurable. One brain region, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex/basal forebrain, contributes to learning altruistic behavior, especially in those with trait empathy. The same study has shown a connection between giving to charity and the promotion of social bonding.\n", "In fact, in an experiment published in March 2007 at the University of Southern California neuroscientist Antonio R. Damasio and his colleagues showed that subjects with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex lack the ability to empathically feel their way to moral answers, and that when confronted with moral dilemmas, these brain-damaged patients coldly came up with \"end-justifies-the-means\" answers, leading Damasio to conclude that the point was not that they reached immoral conclusions, but that when they were confronted by a difficult issue — in this case as whether to shoot down a passenger plane hijacked by terrorists before it hits a major city — these patients appear to reach decisions without the anguish that afflicts those with normally functioning brains. According to Adrian Raine, a clinical neuroscientist also at the University of Southern California, one of this study's implications is that society may have to rethink how it judges immoral people: \"Psychopaths often feel no empathy or remorse. Without that awareness, people relying exclusively on reasoning seem to find it harder to sort their way through moral thickets. Does that mean they should be held to different standards of accountability?\"\n", "In another study, in the 1990s, Dr. Bill Harbaugh, a University of Oregon economist, concluded people are motivated to give for reasons of personal prestige and in a similar fMRI scanner test in 2007 with his psychologist colleague Dr. Ulrich Mayr, reached the same conclusions of Jorge Moll and Jordan Grafman about giving to charity, although they were able to divide the study group into two groups: \"egoists\" and \"altruists\". One of their discoveries was that, though rarely, even some of the considered \"egoists\" sometimes gave more than expected because that would help others, leading to the conclusion that there are other factors in cause in charity, such as a person's environment and values.\n", "Section::::Scientific viewpoints.:Psychology.\n", "The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences defines \"psychological altruism\" as \"a motivational state with the goal of increasing another’s welfare.\" Psychological altruism is contrasted with \"psychological egoism,\" which refers to the motivation to increase one's own welfare.\n", "There has been some debate on whether or not humans are truly capable of psychological altruism. Some definitions specify a self-sacrificial nature to altruism and a lack of external rewards for altruistic behaviors. However, because altruism ultimately benefits the self in many cases, the selflessness of altruistic acts is brought to question. The social exchange theory postulates that altruism only exists when benefits to the self outweigh costs to the self. Daniel Batson is a psychologist who examined this question and argues against the social exchange theory. He identified four major motives for altruism: altruism to ultimately benefit the self (egoism), to ultimately benefit the other person (altruism), to benefit a group (collectivism), or to uphold a moral principle (principlism). Altruism that ultimately serves selfish gains is thus differentiated from selfless altruism, but the general conclusion has been that empathy-induced altruism can be genuinely selfless. The \"empathy-altruism hypothesis\" basically states that psychological altruism does exist and is evoked by the empathic desire to help someone who is suffering. Feelings of empathic concern are contrasted with feelings of personal distress, which compel people to reduce their own unpleasant emotions. People with empathic concern help others in distress even when exposure to the situation could be easily avoided, whereas those lacking in empathic concern avoid helping unless it is difficult or impossible to avoid exposure to another's suffering. Helping behavior is seen in humans at about two years old, when a toddler is capable of understanding subtle emotional cues.\n", "In psychological research on altruism, studies often observe altruism as demonstrated through prosocial behaviors such as helping, comforting, sharing, cooperation, philanthropy, and community service. Research has found that people are most likely to help if they recognize that a person is in need and feel personal responsibility for reducing the person's distress. Research also suggests that the number of bystanders witnessing distress or suffering affects the likelihood of helping (the \"Bystander effect\"). Greater numbers of bystanders decrease individual feelings of responsibility. However, a witness with a high level of empathic concern is likely to assume personal responsibility entirely regardless of the number of bystanders.\n", "Many studies have observed the effects of volunteerism (as a form of altruism) on happiness and health and have consistently found a strong connection between volunteerism and current and future health and well-being. In a study of older adults, those who volunteered were higher on life satisfaction and will to live, and lower in depression, anxiety, and somatization. Volunteerism and helping behavior have not only been shown to improve mental health, but physical health and longevity as well, attributable to the activity and social integration it encourages. One study examined the physical health of mothers who volunteered over a 30-year period and found that 52% of those who did not belong to a volunteer organization experienced a major illness while only 36% of those who did volunteer experienced one. A study on adults ages 55+ found that during the four-year study period, people who volunteered for two or more organizations had a 63% lower likelihood of dying. After controlling for prior health status, it was determined that volunteerism accounted for a 44% reduction in mortality. Merely being aware of kindness in oneself and others is also associated with greater well-being. A study that asked participants to count each act of kindness they performed for one week significantly enhanced their subjective happiness. It is important to note that, while research supports the idea that altruistic acts bring about happiness, it has also been found to work in the opposite direction—that happier people are also kinder. The relationship between altruistic behavior and happiness is bidirectional. Studies have found that generosity increases linearly from sad to happy affective states.\n", "Studies have also been careful to note that feeling over-taxed by the needs of others has conversely negative effects on health and happiness. For example, one study on volunteerism found that feeling overwhelmed by others' demands had an even stronger negative effect on mental health than helping had a positive one (although positive effects were still significant). Additionally, while generous acts make people feel good about themselves, it is also important for people to appreciate the kindness they receive from others. Studies suggest that gratitude goes hand-in-hand with kindness and is also very important for our well-being. A study on the relationship happiness to various character strengths showed that \"a conscious focus on gratitude led to reductions in negative affect and increases in optimistic appraisals, positive affect, offering emotional support, sleep quality, and well-being.\".\n", "Section::::Scientific viewpoints.:Sociology.\n", "\"Sociologists have long been concerned with how to build the good society\" (\"Altruism, Morality, and Social Solidarity\". American Sociological Association.). The structure of our societies and how individuals come to exhibit charitable, philanthropic, and other pro-social, altruistic actions for the common good is a largely researched topic within the field. The American Sociology Association (ASA) acknowledges public sociology saying, \"The intrinsic scientific, policy, and public relevance of this field of investigation in helping to construct 'good societies' is unquestionable\" (\"Altruism, Morality, and Social Solidarity\" ASA). This type of sociology seeks contributions that aid grassroots and theoretical understandings of what motivates altruism and how it is organized, and promotes an altruistic focus in order to benefit the world and people it studies. How altruism is framed, organized, carried out, and what motivates it at the group level is an area of focus that sociologists seek to investigate in order to contribute back to the groups it studies and \"build the good society\". The motivation of altruism is also the focus of study; some publications link the occurrence of moral outrage to the punishment of perpetrators and compensation of victims.\n", "Section::::Scientific viewpoints.:Pathological altruism.\n", "Pathological altruism is when altruism is taken to an unhealthy extreme, and either harms the altruistic person, or well-intentioned actions cause more harm than good.\n", "The term \"pathological altruism\" was popularised by the book \"Pathological Altruism\".\n", "Examples include depression and burnout seen in healthcare professionals, an unhealthy focus on others to the detriment of one's own needs, hoarding of animals, and ineffective philanthropic and social programs that ultimately worsen the situations they are meant to aid.\n", "Section::::Religious viewpoints.\n", "Most, if not all, of the world's religions promote altruism as a very important moral value. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, and Sikhism, etc., place particular emphasis on altruistic morality.\n", "Section::::Religious viewpoints.:Buddhism.\n", "Altruism figures prominently in Buddhism. Love and compassion are components of all forms of Buddhism, and are focused on all beings equally: love is the wish that all beings be happy, and compassion is the wish that all beings be free from suffering. \"Many illnesses can be cured by the one medicine of love and compassion. These qualities are the ultimate source of human happiness, and the need for them lies at the very core of our being\" (Dalai Lama).\n", "Still, the notion of altruism is modified in such a world-view, since the belief is that such a practice promotes our own happiness: \"The more we care for the happiness of others, the greater our own sense of well-being becomes\" (Dalai Lama).\n", "In the context of larger ethical discussions on moral action and judgment, Buddhism is characterized by the belief that negative (unhappy) consequences of our actions derive not from punishment or correction based on moral judgment, but from the law of karma, which functions like a natural law of cause and effect. A simple illustration of such cause and effect is the case of experiencing the effects of what one causes: if one causes suffering, then as a natural consequence one would experience suffering; if one causes happiness, then as a natural consequence one would experience happiness.\n", "Section::::Religious viewpoints.:Jainism.\n", "The fundamental principles of Jainism revolve around the concept of altruism, not only for humans but for all sentient beings. Jainism preaches the view of \"Ahimsa\" – to live and let live, thereby not harming sentient beings, i.e. uncompromising reverence for all life. It also considers all living things to be equal. The first Tirthankara, Rishabhdev, introduced the concept of altruism for all living beings, from extending knowledge and experience to others to donation, giving oneself up for others, non-violence and compassion for all living things.\n", "Jainism prescribes a path of non-violence to progress the soul to this ultimate goal. A major characteristic of Jain belief is the emphasis on the consequences of not only physical but also mental behaviors. One's unconquered mind with anger, pride (ego), deceit, greed and uncontrolled sense organs are the powerful enemies of humans. Anger spoils good relations, pride destroys humility, deceit destroys peace and greed destroys everything. Jainism recommends conquering anger by forgiveness, pride by humility, deceit by straightforwardness and greed by contentment.\n", "Jains believe that to attain enlightenment and ultimately liberation, one must practice the following ethical principles (major vows) in thought, speech and action. The degree to which these principles are practiced is different for householders and monks. They are:\n", "BULLET::::1. Non-violence (Ahimsa);\n", "BULLET::::2. Truthfulness (Satya);\n", "BULLET::::3. Non-stealing (Asteya);\n", "BULLET::::4. Celibacy (Brahmacharya);\n", "BULLET::::5. Non-possession or non-materialism (Aparigraha);\n", "The \"great vows\" (Mahavrata) are prescribed for monks and \"limited vows\" (Anuvrata) are prescribed for householders. The house-holders are encouraged to practice the above-mentioned five vows. The monks have to observe them very strictly. With consistent practice, it will be possible to overcome the limitations gradually, accelerating the spiritual progress.\n", "The principle of non-violence seeks to minimize karmas which limit the capabilities of the soul. Jainism views every soul as worthy of respect because it has the potential to become \"Siddha\" (God in Jainism). Because all living beings possess a soul, great care and awareness is essential in one's actions. Jainism emphasizes the equality of all life, advocating harmlessness towards all, whether the creatures are great or small. This policy extends even to microscopic organisms. Jainism acknowledges that every person has different capabilities and capacities to practice and therefore accepts different levels of compliance for ascetics and householders.\n", "Section::::Religious viewpoints.:Christianity.\n", "Altruism is central to the teachings of Jesus found in the Gospel, especially in the Sermon on the Mount and the Sermon on the Plain. From biblical to medieval Christian traditions, tensions between self-affirmation and other-regard were sometimes discussed under the heading of \"disinterested love\", as in the Pauline phrase \"love seeks not its own interests.\" In his book \"Indoctrination and Self-deception,\" Roderick Hindery tries to shed light on these tensions by contrasting them with impostors of authentic self-affirmation and altruism, by analysis of other-regard within creative individuation of the self, and by contrasting love for the few with love for the many. Love confirms others in their freedom, shuns propaganda and masks, assures others of its presence, and is ultimately confirmed not by mere declarations from others, but by each person's experience and practice from within. As in practical arts, the presence and meaning of love becomes validated and grasped not by words and reflections alone, but in the making of the connection.\n", "St Thomas Aquinas interprets 'You should love your neighbour as yourself' as meaning that love for ourselves is the exemplar of love for others. Considering that \"the love with which a man loves himself is the form and root of friendship\" and quotes Aristotle that \"the origin of friendly relations with others lies in our relations to ourselves,\" he concluded that though we are not bound to love others more than ourselves, we naturally seek the common good, the good of the whole, more than any private good, the good of a part. However, he thinks we should love God more than ourselves and our neighbours, and more than our bodily life—since the ultimate purpose of loving our neighbour is to share in eternal beatitude: a more desirable thing than bodily well being. In coining the word Altruism, as stated above, Comte was probably opposing this Thomistic doctrine, which is present in some theological schools within Catholicism.\n", "Many biblical authors draw a strong connection between love of others and love of God. 1 John 4 states that for one to love God one must love his fellowman, and that hatred of one's fellowman is the same as hatred of God. Thomas Jay Oord has argued in several books that altruism is but one possible form of love. An altruistic action is not always a loving action. Oord defines altruism as acting for the other's good, and he agrees with feminists who note that sometimes love requires acting for one's own good when the other's demands undermine overall well-being.\n", "German philosopher Max Scheler distinguishes two ways in which the strong can help the weak. One way is a sincere expression of Christian love, \"motivated by a powerful feeling of security, strength, and inner salvation, of the invincible fullness of one’s own life and existence\". Another way is merely \"one of the many modern substitutes for love, ... nothing but the urge to turn away from oneself and to lose oneself in other people’s business.\" At its worst, Scheler says, \"love for the small, the poor, the weak, and the oppressed is really disguised hatred, repressed envy, an impulse to detract, etc., directed against the opposite phenomena: wealth, strength, power, largesse.\"\n", "Section::::Religious viewpoints.:Islam.\n", "In Islam, the concept 'ithaar' (إيثار) (altruism) is the notion of 'preferring others to oneself'. For Sufis, this means devotion to others through complete forgetfulness of one's own concerns, where concern for others is rooted to be a demand made by ALLAH on the human body, considered to be property of ALLAH alone. The importance lies in sacrifice for the sake of the greater good; Islam considers those practicing Eyaar as abiding by the highest degree of nobility.\n", "This is similar to the notion of chivalry, but unlike that European concept, in i'thar attention is focused on everything in existence. A constant concern for ALLAH (i.e. God) results in a careful attitude towards people, animals, and other things in this world.\n", "This concept was emphasized by Sufis of Islam like Rabia al-Adawiyya who paid attention to the difference between dedication to ALLAH (i.e. God) and dedication to people. Thirteenth-century Turkish Sufi poet Yunus Emre explained this philosophy as \"Yaratılanı severiz, Yaratandan ötürü\" or \"We love the creature, because of The Creator.\" For many Muslims, i'thar must be practiced as a religious obligation during specific Islamic holidays. However, i'thar is also still an Islamic ideal to which all Muslims should strive to adhere at all times.\n", "Section::::Religious viewpoints.:Judaism.\n", "Judaism defines altruism as the desired goal of creation. The famous Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook stated that love is the most important attribute in humanity. This is defined as bestowal, or giving, which is the intention of altruism. This can be altruism towards humanity that leads to altruism towards the creator or God. Kabbalah defines God as the force of giving in existence. Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto in particular focused on the 'purpose of creation' and how the will of God was to bring creation into perfection and adhesion with this upper force.\n", "Modern Kabbalah developed by Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag, in his writings about the future generation, focuses on how society could achieve an altruistic social framework. Ashlag proposed that such a framework is the purpose of creation, and everything that happens is to raise humanity to the level of altruism, love for one another. Ashlag focused on society and its relation to divinity.\n", "Section::::Religious viewpoints.:Sikhism.\n", "Altruism is essential to the Sikh religion. The central faith in Sikhism is that the greatest deed any one can do is to imbibe and live the godly qualities like love, affection, sacrifice, patience, harmony, truthfulness. The concept of \"seva,\" or selfless service to the community for its own sake is an important concept in Sikhism.\n", "The fifth Nanak, Guru Arjun Dev, sacrificed his life to uphold 22 carats of pure truth, the greatest gift to humanity, the Guru Granth. The ninth Guru, Tegh Bahadur, sacrificed his head to protect weak and defenseless people against atrocity. In the late seventeenth century, Guru Gobind Singh Ji (the tenth guru in Sikhism), was in war with the Mughal rulers to protect the people of different faiths when a fellow Sikh, Bhai Kanhaiya, attended the troops of the enemy. He gave water to both friends and foes who were wounded on the battlefield. Some of the enemy began to fight again and some Sikh warriors were annoyed by Bhai Kanhaiya as he was helping their enemy. Sikh soldiers brought Bhai Kanhaiya before Guru Gobind Singh Ji, and complained of his action that they considered counter-productive to their struggle on the battlefield.\"What were you doing, and why?\" asked the Guru. \"I was giving water to the wounded because I saw your face in all of them,\" replied Bhai Kanhaiya. The Guru responded, \"Then you should also give them ointment to heal their wounds. You were practicing what you were coached in the house of the Guru.\"\n", "It was under the tutelage of the Guru that Bhai Kanhaiya subsequently founded a volunteer corps for altruism. This volunteer corps still to date is engaged in doing good to others and trains new volunteering recruits for doing the same.\n", "Section::::Religious viewpoints.:Hinduism.\n", "In Hinduism Selflessness (Atmatyag), Love (Prema), Kindness (Daya) and Forgiveness (Kshama) are considered as the highest acts of humanity or \"Manushyattva\". Giving alms to the beggers or poor people is considered as a divine act or \"Punya\" and Hindus believe it will free their souls from guilt or \"Paapa\" and will led them to heaven or \"Swarga\" in afterlife. Altruism is also the central act of various Hindu mythology and religious poems and songs.\n", "Swami Vivekananda, the legendary Hindu monk, has said -\"Jive prem kare jeijon, Seijon sebiche Iswar\" (Whoever loves any living being, is serving god.). Mass donation of clothes to poor people (Vastraseva), or blood donation camp or mass food donation (Annaseva) for poor people is common in various Hindu religious ceremonies.\n", "Swami Sivananda, an Advaita scholar, reiterates the views in his commentary synthesising Vedanta views on the Brahma Sutras, a Vedantic text. In his commentary on Chapter 3 of the Brahma Sutras, Sivananda notes that karma is insentient and short-lived, and ceases to exist as soon as a deed is executed. Hence, karma cannot bestow the fruits of actions at a future date according to one's merit. Furthermore, one cannot argue that karma generates apurva or punya, which gives fruit. Since apurva is non-sentient, it cannot act unless moved by an intelligent being such as a god. It cannot independently bestow reward or punishment.\n", "However the very well known and popular text, the Bhagavad Gita supports the doctrine of karma yoga (achieving oneness with God through action) & \"nishkaama karma\" or action without expectation / desire for personal gain which can be said to encompass altruism. Altruistic acts are generally celebrated and very well received in Hindu literature and is central to Hindu morality.\n", "Section::::Philosophy.\n", "There exists a wide range of philosophical views on humans' obligations or motivations to act altruistically. Proponents of ethical altruism maintain that individuals are morally obligated to act altruistically. The opposing view is ethical egoism, which maintains that moral agents should always act in their own self-interest. Both ethical altruism and ethical egoism contrast with utilitarianism, which maintains that each agent should act in order to maximise the efficacy of their function and the benefit to both themselves and their co-inhabitants.\n", "A related concept in descriptive ethics is psychological egoism, the thesis that humans always act in their own self-interest and that true altruism is impossible. Rational egoism is the view that rationality consists in acting in one's self-interest (without specifying how this affects one's moral obligations).\n", "Section::::Genetics.\n", "The genes OXTR, CD38, COMT, DRD4, DRD5, IGF2, GABRB2 have been found to be candidate genes for altruism.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Altruria\n", "BULLET::::- Charity (practice)\n", "BULLET::::- Charitable organization\n", "BULLET::::- Comedy of the commons\n", "BULLET::::- Consideration\n", "BULLET::::- Earning to give\n", "BULLET::::- Effective altruism\n", "BULLET::::- Egotism\n", "BULLET::::- Empathy\n", "BULLET::::- Empathy-altruism\n", "BULLET::::- Family economics\n", "BULLET::::- Gene-centered view of evolution\n", "BULLET::::- Giving Pledge, pledge by Gates, Buffett and others to donate to charity at least half of their wealth\n", "BULLET::::- Inclusive fitness\n", "BULLET::::- Group selection\n", "BULLET::::- Humanity (virtue)\n", "BULLET::::- Kin selection\n", "BULLET::::- Misanthropy\n", "BULLET::::- Mutual aid\n", "BULLET::::- Non nobis solum\n", "BULLET::::- Philanthropy\n", "BULLET::::- Prisoner's dilemma\n", "BULLET::::- Prosocial behavior\n", "BULLET::::- Random act of kindness\n", "BULLET::::- Reciprocal altruism\n", "BULLET::::- Selfishness\n", "BULLET::::- Social psychology\n", "BULLET::::- Solidarity (sociology)\n", "BULLET::::- Spite\n", "BULLET::::- Tit for tat\n", "Section::::References.\n", "BULLET::::- Comte, Auguste, \"Catechisme positiviste\" (1852) or \"Catechism of Positivism\", tr. R. Congreve, (London: Kegan Paul, 1891)\n", "BULLET::::- Kropotkin, Peter, \"\" (1902)\n", "BULLET::::- Nietzsche, Friedrich, \"Beyond Good and Evil\"\n", "BULLET::::- Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, \"The Philosophy of Poverty\" (1847)\n", "BULLET::::- Lysander Spooner, \"Natural Law\"\n", "BULLET::::- Matt Ridley, \"The Origins of Virtue\"\n", "BULLET::::- Oliner, Samuel P. and Pearl M. Towards a Caring Society: Ideas into Action. West Port, CT: Praeger, 1995.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Richard Kraut (2016) Altruism Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy\n" ] }
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"Social philosophy,Morality,Altruism,Philanthropy,Evolutionary psychology,Defence mechanisms,Moral psychology,Interpersonal relationships,Auguste Comte"
{ "description": "principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others", "enwikiquote_title": "Altruism", "wikidata_id": "Q167323", "wikidata_label": "altruism", "wikipedia_title": "Altruism", "aliases": { "alias": [ "selflessness", "Ministration" ] } }
{ "pageid": 336, "parentid": 908595067, "revid": 908595251, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-30T18:31:14Z", "url": "" }
{ "paragraph": [ "Astronomer\n", "An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, planets, moons, comets, and galaxies – in either observational (by analyzing the data) or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology, which studies the Universe as a whole.\n", "Astronomers usually fall under either of two main types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers make direct observations of celestial objects and analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed. Because it takes millions to billions of years for a system of stars or a galaxy to complete a life cycle, astronomers must observe snapshots of different systems at unique points in their evolution to determine how they form, evolve, and die. They use these data to create models or simulations to theorize how different celestial objects work.\n", "Further subcategories under these two main branches of astronomy include planetary astronomy, galactic astronomy, or physical cosmology.\n", "Section::::Academic.\n", "Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using physical laws. Today, that distinction has mostly disappeared and the terms \"astronomer\" and \"astrophysicist\" are interchangeable. Professional astronomers are highly educated individuals who typically have a Ph.D. in physics or astronomy and are employed by research institutions or universities. They spend the majority of their time working on research, although they quite often have other duties such as teaching, building instruments, or aiding in the operation of an observatory.\n", "The number of professional astronomers in the United States is actually quite small. The American Astronomical Society, which is the major organization of professional astronomers in North America, has approximately 7,000 members. This number includes scientists from other fields such as physics, geology, and engineering, whose research interests are closely related to astronomy. The International Astronomical Union comprises almost 10,145 members from 70 different countries who are involved in astronomical research at the Ph.D. level and beyond.\n", "Contrary to the classical image of an old astronomer peering through a telescope through the dark hours of the night, it is far more common to use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to record a long, deep exposure, allowing a more sensitive image to be created because the light is added over time. Before CCDs, photographic plates were a common method of observation. Modern astronomers spend relatively little time at telescopes usually just a few weeks per year. Analysis of observed phenomena, along with making predictions as to the causes of what they observe, takes the majority of observational astronomers' time.\n", "Astronomers who serve as faculty spend much of their time teaching undergraduate and graduate classes. Most universities also have outreach programs including public telescope time and sometimes planetariums as a public service to encourage interest in the field.\n", "Those who become astronomers usually have a broad background in maths, sciences and computing in high school. Taking courses that teach how to research, write and present papers are also invaluable. In college/university most astronomers get a Ph.D. in astronomy or physics.\n", "Section::::Amateur astronomers.\n", "While there is a relatively low number of professional astronomers, the field is popular among amateurs. Most cities have amateur astronomy clubs that meet on a regular basis and often host star parties. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific is the largest general astronomical society in the world, comprising both professional and amateur astronomers as well as educators from 70 different nations. Like any hobby, most people who think of themselves as amateur astronomers may devote a few hours a month to stargazing and reading the latest developments in research. However, amateurs span the range from so-called \"armchair astronomers\" to the very ambitious, who own science-grade telescopes and instruments with which they are able to make their own discoveries and assist professional astronomers in research.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- List of astronomers\n", "BULLET::::- List of women astronomers\n", "BULLET::::- List of Muslim astronomers\n", "BULLET::::- List of French astronomers\n", "BULLET::::- List of Hungarian astronomers\n", "BULLET::::- List of Russian astronomers and astrophysicists\n", "BULLET::::- List of Slovenian astronomers\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- American Astronomical Society\n", "BULLET::::- European Astronomical Society\n", "BULLET::::- International Astronomical Union\n", "BULLET::::- Astronomical Society of the Pacific\n", "BULLET::::- Space's astronomy news\n" ] }
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{ "description": "scientist who studies celestial bodies", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q11063", "wikidata_label": "astronomer", "wikipedia_title": "Astronomer", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 580, "parentid": 902573937, "revid": 902574615, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-06-19T19:14:21Z", "url": "" }
"Academy Awards"
{ "paragraph": [ "Academy Awards\n", "The Academy Awards, also officially and popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the \"Academy Award of Merit\", although more commonly referred to by its nickname \"Oscar\". The statuette depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style.\n", "The award was originally sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. The Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and is now seen live worldwide. Its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards.\n", "The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California. The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,096 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 91st ceremony. It was the first ceremony since 1989 without a host.\n", "Section::::History.\n", "The first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16, 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.\n", "The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5 ($ in dollars). Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes.\n", "Winners were announced to media three months earlier. That was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards. This method was used until an occasion when the \"Los Angeles Times\" announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result, the Academy has, since 1941, used a sealed envelope to reveal the name of the winners.\n", "Section::::History.:Institutions.\n", "The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in \"The Last Command\" and \"The Way of All Flesh\". He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier; this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period; for example, Jannings received the award for two movies in which he starred during that period, and Janet Gaynor later won a single Oscar for performances in three films. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, and professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years.\n", "At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27, 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced. Until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award.\n", "The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.\n", "Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture.\n", "Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.\n", "Section::::Oscar statuette.\n", "Section::::Oscar statuette.:Academy Award of Merit (Oscar statuette).\n", "The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34.3 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.856 kg), and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.\n", "The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio \"El Indio\" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl) sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design. The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years, the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones. The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015, approximately 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company. It would take between three and four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are then electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology. The time required to produce 50 such statuettes is roughly three months. R.S. Owens is expected to continue producing other awards for the Academy and service existing Oscars that need replating.\n", "Section::::Oscar statuette.:Naming.\n", "The origin of the name \"Oscar\" is disputed. The Academy officially adopted the name \"Oscar\" for the trophies in 1939.\n", "One biography of Bette Davis, who was a president of the Academy in 1941, claims she named the award after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson. A frequently-mentioned originator is Margaret Herrick, the Academy executive secretary, who, when she first saw the award in 1931, said the statuette reminded her of \"Uncle Oscar\", a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce.\n", "Columnist Sidney Skolsky, who was present during Herrick's naming in 1931, wrote that \"Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette 'Oscar.'\" The Academy credits Skolsky with \"the first confirmed newspaper reference\" to \"Oscar\" in his column on March 16, 1934, which was about that year's 6th Academy Awards. The 1934 awards appeared again in another early media mention of \"Oscar\": a \"Time\" magazine story. In the ceremonies that year, Walter Elias Disney thanked the Academy for his \"Oscar\".\n", "Section::::Oscar statuette.:Engraving.\n", "To prevent information identifying the Oscar winners from leaking ahead of the ceremony, Oscar statuettes presented at the ceremony have blank baseplates. Until 2010, winners returned their statuettes to the Academy, and had to wait several weeks to have their names inscribed on their respective Oscars. Since 2010, winners have had the option of having engraved nameplates applied to their statuettes at an inscription-processing station at the Governor's Ball, a party held immediately after the Oscar ceremony. The R.S. Owens company has engraved nameplates made before the ceremony, bearing the name of every potential winner. The nameplates for the non-winning nominees are later recycled.\n", "Section::::Oscar statuette.:Ownership of Oscar statuettes.\n", "Since 1950, the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that neither winners nor their heirs may sell the statuettes without first offering to sell them back to the Academy for US$1. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards not protected by this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums. In December 2011, Orson Welles' 1941 Oscar for \"Citizen Kane\" (Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay) was put up for auction, after his heirs won a 2004 court decision contending that Welles did not sign any agreement to return the statue to the Academy. On December 20, 2011, it sold in an online auction for US$861,542.\n", "In 1992, Harold Russell needed money for his wife's medical expenses. In a controversial decision, he consigned his 1946 Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for \"The Best Years of Our Lives\" to Herman Darvick Autograph Auctions, and on August 6, 1992, in New York City, the Oscar sold to a private collector for $60,500. Since he won the award before 1950, he was not required to offer it to the Academy first. Russell defended his decision, saying, \"I don't know why anybody would be critical. My wife's health is much more important than sentimental reasons. The movie will be here, even if Oscar isn't.\" Harold Russell is the only Academy Award-winning actor to ever sell an Oscar.\n", "While the Oscar is owned by the recipient, it is essentially not on the open market. Michael Todd's grandson tried to sell Todd's Oscar statuette to a movie prop collector in 1989, but the Academy won the legal battle by getting a permanent injunction. Although some Oscar sales transactions have been successful, some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury.\n", "Section::::Oscar statuette.:Other awards presented by the Academy.\n", "In addition to the Academy Award of Merit (Oscar award), there are nine honorary (non-competitive) awards presented by the Academy from time to time (except for the Academy Honorary Award, the Technical Achievement Award, and the Student Academy Awards, which are presented annually):\n", "BULLET::::- Governors Awards:\n", "BULLET::::- The Academy Honorary Award (annual) (which may or may not be in the form of an Oscar statuette);\n", "BULLET::::- The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award (since 1938) (in the form of a bust of Thalberg);\n", "BULLET::::- The Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award (since 1957) (in the form of an Oscar statuette);\n", "BULLET::::- The Academy Scientific and Technical Awards:\n", "BULLET::::- Academy Award of Merit (non-competitive) (in the form of an Oscar statuette);\n", "BULLET::::- Scientific and Engineering Award (in the form of a bronze tablet);\n", "BULLET::::- Technical Achievement Award (annual) (in the form of a certificate);\n", "BULLET::::- The John A. Bonner Medal of Commendation (since 1978) (in the form of a medal);\n", "BULLET::::- The Gordon E. Sawyer Award (since 1982); and\n", "BULLET::::- The Academy Student Academy Awards (annual).\n", "The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting.\n", "Section::::Nomination.\n", "Since 2004, Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in mid-January. Prior to that, the results were announced in early February.\n", "Section::::Nomination.:Voters.\n", "The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of over 8,000 .\n", "Academy membership is divided into different branches, with each representing a different discipline in film production. Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) for the past 83 annual awards ceremonies. The firm mails the ballots of eligible nominees to members of the Academy in December to reflect the previous eligible year with a due date sometime in January of the next year, then tabulates the votes in a process that takes thousands of hours.\n", "All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures.\n", "New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.\n", "In 2012, the results of a study conducted by the \"Los Angeles Times\" were published describing the demographic breakdown of approximately 88% of AMPAS' voting membership. Of the 5,100+ active voters confirmed, 94% were Caucasian, 77% were male, and 54% were found to be over the age of 60. 33% of voting members are former nominees (14%) and winners (19%).\n", "In May 2011, the Academy sent a letter advising its 6,000 or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting would be implemented in 2013.\n", "Section::::Nomination.:Rules.\n", "According to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of January 1 to midnight at the end of December 31, in Los Angeles County, California, and play for seven consecutive days, to qualify (except for the Best Foreign Language Film, Best Documentary Feature, and Best Documentary Short Subject).\n", "The Best Foreign Language Film award does not require a U.S. release. It requires the film to be submitted as its country's official selection.\n", "The Best Documentary Feature award requires either week-long releases in both Los Angeles County and New York City during the previous calendar year, or a qualifying award at a competitive film festival from the Documentary Feature Qualifying Festival list (regardless of any public exhibition or distribution), or a submission in the Foreign Language Film category as its country's official selection.\n", "The Best Documentary Short Subject award has noticeably different eligibility rules from most other competitive awards. First, the qualifying period for release does not coincide with a calendar year, instead covering a one-year period starting on September 1 and ending on August 31 of the calendar year before the ceremony. Second, there are multiple methods of qualification. The main method is a week-long theatrical release in \"either\" Los Angeles County \"or\" New York City during the eligibility period. Films also can qualify by winning specified awards at one of a number of competitive film festivals designated by the Academy. Finally, a film that is selected as a gold, silver, or bronze medal winner in the Documentary category of the immediately previous Student Academy Awards is also eligible.\n", "For example, the 2009 Best Picture winner, \"The Hurt Locker\", was actually first released in 2008, but did not qualify for the 2008 awards, as it did not play its Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid-2009, thus qualifying for the 2009 awards. Foreign films must include English subtitles, and each country can submit only one film per year.\n", "Rule 2 states that a film must be feature-length, defined as a minimum of 40 minutes, except for short-subject awards, and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with a minimum projector resolution of 2048 by 1080 pixels. Effective with the 90th Academy Awards, presented in 2018, multi-part and limited series will be ineligible for the Best Documentary Feature award. This followed the win of \"\", an eight-hour presentation that was screened in a limited release before being broadcast in five parts on ABC and ESPN, in that category in 2017. The Academy's announcement of the new rule made no direct mention of that film.\n", "Producers must submit an Official Screen Credits online form before the deadline; in case it is not submitted by the defined deadline, the film will be ineligible for Academy Awards in any year. The form includes the production credits for all related categories. Then, each form is checked and put in a Reminder List of Eligible Releases.\n", "In late December, ballots and copies of the Reminder List of Eligible Releases are mailed to around 6,000 active members. For most categories, members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories (i.e. only directors vote for directors, writers for writers, actors for actors, etc.). In the special case of Best Picture, all voting members are eligible to select the nominees. In all major categories, a variant of the single transferable vote is used, with each member casting a ballot with up to five nominees (ten for Best Picture) ranked preferentially. In certain categories, including Foreign Film, Documentary and Animated Feature, nominees are selected by special screening committees made up of members from all branches.\n", "In most categories, the winner is selected from among the nominees by plurality voting of all members. Since 2009, the Best Picture winner has been chosen by instant runoff voting. Since 2013, re-weighted range voting has been used to select the nominees for the Best Visual Effects.\n", "Film companies will spend as much as several million dollars on marketing to awards voters for a movie in the running for Best Picture, in attempts to improve chances of receiving Oscars and other movie awards conferred in Oscar season. The Academy enforces rules to limit overt campaigning by its members so as to try to eliminate excesses and prevent the process from becoming undignified. It has an awards czar on staff who advises members on allowed practices and levies penalties on offenders. For example, a producer of the 2009 Best Picture nominee \"The Hurt Locker\" was disqualified as a producer in the category when he contacted associates urging them to vote for his film and not another that was seen as the front-runner (\"The Hurt Locker\" eventually won).\n", "Section::::Awards ceremonies.\n", "Section::::Awards ceremonies.:Telecast.\n", "The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, commonly in late February or early March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie, and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. (The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.)\n", "The Academy Awards is the world's longest running awards show televised live in all U.S. time zones (excluding territories outside mainland North America), Canada, and the United Kingdom, and gathers billions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world. The Oscars were first televised in 1953 by NBC, which continued to broadcast the event until 1960, when ABC took over, televising the festivities (including the first color broadcast of the event in 1966) through 1970. NBC regained the rights for five years then ABC resumed broadcast duties in 1976 and its current contract with the Academy runs through 2028. The Academy has also produced condensed versions of the ceremony for broadcast in international markets (especially those outside of the Americas) in more desirable local timeslots. The ceremony was broadcast live internationally for the first time via satellite since 1970, but only two South American countries, Chile and Brazil, purchased the rights to air the broadcast. By that time, the television rights to the Academy Awards had been sold in 50 countries. A decade later, the rights were already being sold to 60 countries, and by 1984, the TV rights to the Awards were licensed in 76 countries.\n", "The ceremonies were moved up from late March/early April to late February, since 2004, to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success coinciding with the NCAA Basketball Tournament, which would cut into the Academy Awards audience. (In 1976 and 1977, ABC's regained Oscars were moved from Tuesday to Monday and went directly opposite NBC's NCAA title game.) The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period. Some years, the ceremony is moved into first Sunday of March in order to avoid clash with the Winter Olympic Games. Another reason for the move to late February and early March is also to avoid the awards ceremony occurring so close to the religious holidays of Passover and Easter, which for decades had been a grievance from members and the general public. Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. The production of the Academy Awards telecast currently holds the distinction of winning the most Emmys in history, with 47 wins and 195 nominations overall since that award's own launch in 1949.\n", "After many years of being held on Mondays at 9:00 pm Eastern/6:00 p.m Pacific, since the 1999 ceremonies, it was moved to Sundays at 8:30 pm ET/5:30 pm PT. The reasons given for the move were that more viewers would tune in on Sundays, that Los Angeles rush-hour traffic jams could be avoided, and an earlier start time would allow viewers on the East Coast to go to bed earlier. For many years the film industry opposed a Sunday broadcast because it would cut into the weekend box office. In 2010, the Academy contemplated moving the ceremony even further back into January, citing TV viewers' fatigue with the film industry's long awards season. However, such an accelerated schedule would dramatically decrease the voting period for its members, to the point where some voters would only have time to view the contending films streamed on their computers (as opposed to traditionally receiving the films and ballots in the mail). Furthermore, a January ceremony on Sunday would clash with National Football League playoff games. In 2018, the Academy announced that the ceremony would be moved from late February to mid February beginning with the 92nd Academy Awards in 2020.\n", "Originally scheduled for April 8, 1968, the 40th Academy Awards ceremony was postponed for two days, because of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. On March 30, 1981, the 53rd Academy Awards was postponed for one day, after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington, D.C.\n", "In 1993, an \"In Memoriam\" segment was introduced, honoring those who had made a significant contribution to cinema who had died in the preceding 12 months, a selection compiled by a small committee of Academy members. This segment has drawn criticism over the years for the omission of some names. Criticism was also levied for many years regarding another aspect, with the segment having a \"popularity contest\" feel as the audience varied their applause to those who had died by the subject's cultural impact; the applause has since been muted during the telecast, and the audience is discouraged from clapping during the segment and giving silent reflection instead.\n", "In terms of broadcast length, the ceremony generally averages three and a half hours. The first Oscars, in 1929, lasted 15 minutes. At the other end of the spectrum, the 2002 ceremony lasted four hours and twenty-three minutes. In 2010, the organizers of the Academy Awards announced winners' acceptance speeches must not run past 45 seconds. This, according to organizer Bill Mechanic, was to ensure the elimination of what he termed \"the single most hated thing on the show\" – overly long and embarrassing displays of emotion. In 2016, in a further effort to streamline speeches, winners' dedications were displayed on an on-screen ticker. During the 2018 ceremony, host Jimmy Kimmel acknowledged how long the ceremony had become, by announcing that he would give a brand-new jet ski to whoever gave the shortest speech of the night (a reward won by Mark Bridges when accepting his Best Costume Design award for \"Phantom Thread\"). The \"Wall Street Journal\" analyzed the average minutes spent across the 2014–2018 telecasts as follows: 14 on song performances; 25 on the hosts' speeches; 38 on prerecorded clips; and 78 on the awards themselves, broken into 24 on the introduction and announcement, 24 on winners walking to the stage, and 30 on their acceptance speeches.\n", "Although still dominant in ratings, the viewership of the Academy Awards have steadily dropped; the 88th Academy Awards were the lowest-rated in the past eight years (although with increases in male and 18–49 viewership), while the show itself also faced mixed reception. Following the show, \"Variety\" reported that ABC was, in negotiating an extension to its contract to broadcast the Oscars, seeking to have more creative control over the broadcast itself. Currently and nominally, AMPAS is responsible for most aspects of the telecast, including the choice of production staff and hosting, although ABC is allowed to have some input on their decisions. In August 2016, AMPAS extended its contract with ABC through 2028: the contract neither contains any notable changes, nor gives ABC any further creative control over the telecast.\n", "Section::::Awards ceremonies.:TV ratings.\n", "Historically, the \"Oscarcast\" has pulled in a bigger haul when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture trophy. More than 57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast for the 70th Academy Awards in 1998, the year of \"Titanic\", which generated close to US$500 million at the North American box office and 1.2 billion dollars worldwide pre-Oscars, with the final box office haul during its initial 1997–98 run being 600.8 million US$ in the US and 1.84 billion US$ worldwide, both sky-high box office records back then (they were only supassed 12 years later in 2010). The 76th Academy Awards ceremony, in which \"\" (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture, drew 43.56 million viewers. The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date, however, was the 42nd Academy Awards (Best Picture \"Midnight Cowboy\") which drew a 43.4% household rating on April 7, 1970.\n", "By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budgeted, independent film \"Crash\" (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.64 million with a household rating of 22.91%. In 2008, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with an 18.66% household rating, the lowest rated and least watched ceremony at the time, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards. The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another independently financed film (\"No Country for Old Men\").\n", "Section::::Venues.\n", "In 1929, the first Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. From 1930 to 1943, the ceremony alternated between two venues: the Ambassador Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard and the Biltmore Hotel in downtown Los Angeles.\n", "Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946, followed by the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1948. The 21st Academy Awards in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theatre at what was the Academy's headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood.\n", "From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages Theatre. With the advent of television, the awards from 1953 to 1957 took place simultaneously in Hollywood and New York, first at the NBC International Theatre (1953) and then at the NBC Century Theatre, after which the ceremony took place solely in Los Angeles. The Oscars moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California in 1961. By 1969, the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Los Angeles, this time to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion at the Los Angeles County Music Center. Some years, the ceremony were at Shriners auditorium by USC.\n", "In 2002, the Dolby Theatre (previously known as the Kodak Theatre) became the presentation's current venue.\n", "Section::::Awards of Merit categories.\n", "Section::::Awards of Merit categories.:Current categories.\n", "In the first year of the awards, the Best Directing award was split into two categories (Drama and Comedy). At times, the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Art Direction (now Production Design), Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two categories (black-and-white films and color films). Prior to 2012, the Production Design award was called Art Direction, while the Makeup and Hairstyling award was called Makeup.\n", "In August 2018, the Academy announced that several categories would not be televised live, but rather be recorded during commercial breaks and aired later in the ceremony.\n", "Following dissent from Academy members, they announced that they would indeed air all 24 categories live. This followed a number of proposals (including introducing a Popular Film category) that the Academy had announced but did not implement.\n", "Section::::Awards of Merit categories.:Proposed categories.\n", "The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new award categories. To date, the following categories have been proposed:\n", "BULLET::::- Best Casting: rejected in 1999\n", "BULLET::::- Best Popular Film: proposed in 2018 for presentation at the 2019 ceremony; postponed until the 2020 ceremony at the earliest\n", "BULLET::::- Best Stunt Coordination: rejected every year from 1991 to 2012\n", "BULLET::::- Best Title Design: rejected in 1999\n", "Section::::Special categories.\n", "The Special Academy Awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole. They are not always presented on a consistent annual basis.\n", "Section::::Special categories.:Current special categories.\n", "BULLET::::- Academy Honorary Award: since 1929\n", "BULLET::::- Academy Scientific and Technical Award (three different awards): since 1931\n", "BULLET::::- Gordon E. Sawyer Award: since 1981\n", "BULLET::::- Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award: since 1957\n", "BULLET::::- Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award: since 1938\n", "BULLET::::- Academy Special Achievement Award: from 1972 to 1995, and again for 2017\n", "Section::::Special categories.:Discontinued special categories.\n", "BULLET::::- Academy Juvenile Award: 1934 to 1960\n", "Section::::Criticism.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Accusations of commercialism.\n", "Due to the positive exposure and prestige of the Academy Awards, many studios spend millions of dollars and hire publicists specifically to promote their films during what is typically called the \"Oscar season\". This has generated accusations of the Academy Awards being influenced more by marketing than quality. William Friedkin, an Academy Award-winning film director and former producer of the ceremony, expressed this sentiment at a conference in New York in 2009, describing it as \"the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself\".\n", "Tim Dirks, editor of AMC's, has written of the Academy Awards,\n", "A recent technique that has been claimed to be used during the Oscar season is the Whisper campaign. These campaigns are intended to spread negative perceptions of other movies nominated and are believed to be perpetrated by those that were involved in creating the movie. Examples of whisper campaigns include the allegations against \"Zero Dark Thirty\" suggesting that it justifies torture and the claim that \"Lincoln\" distorts history.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Accusations of bias.\n", "Typical criticism of the Academy Awards for Best Picture is that among the winners and nominees there is an over-representation of romantic historical epics, biographical dramas, romantic dramedies and family melodramas, most of which are released in the U.S. the last three months of the calendar year. The Oscars have been infamously known for selecting specific genres of movies to be awarded. This has led to the coining of the term 'Oscar bait', describing such movies. This has led at times to more specific criticisms that the Academy is disconnected from the audience, e.g., by favoring 'Oscar bait' over audience favorites, or favoring historical melodramas over critically-acclaimed movies that depict current life issues.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Allegations of a lack of diversity.\n", "The Academy Awards have long received criticism over its lack of diversity among the nominees. This criticism is based on the statistics from every Academy Awards since 1929, which shows us that only 6.4% of academy award nominees have been non-white and since 1991, 11.2% of nominees have been non-white, with the rate of winners being even more polarizing. More white actresses have won Oscars for yellowface portrayals of Asian characters than actual Asian actresses. The 88th awards ceremony became the target of a boycott, popularized on social media by the #OscarsSoWhite, based on critics' perception that its all-white acting nominee list reflected bias. In response, the Academy initiated \"historic\" changes in membership by the year 2020.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Symbolism or sentimentalization.\n", "Acting prizes in certain years have been criticized for not recognizing superior performances so much as being awarded for personal popularity, to make up for a \"snub\" for a performance/work that proved in time to be more popular and/or renowned than the one actually awarded, or presented as a \"career honor\" to recognize a distinguished nominee's entire body of work.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Recognition of streaming media film.\n", "Following the 91st Academy Awards in February 2019 in which the Netflix-broadcast film \"Roma\" had been nominated for ten awards including the Best Picture category, Steven Spielberg and other members of the Academy discussed changing the requirements through the Board of Governors for films as to exclude those from Netflix and other media streaming services. Spielberg had been concerned that Netflix as a movie production and distribution studio could spend much more than typical Oscar-winning films and have much wider and earlier distribution than other Best Picture-nominated films, while still being able to meet the minimal theatrical-run status to qualify for an Oscar. The United States Department of Justice, having heard of this potential rule change, wrote a letter to the Academy in March 2019, cautioning them that placing additional restrictions on films that originate from streaming media services without proper justification could raise anti-trust concerns against the Academy. Following its April 2019 board meeting, the Academy Board of Governors agreed to retain the current rules that allow for streaming media films to be eligible for Oscars as long as they enjoy limited theatrical runs.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Refusing the award.\n", "Some winners critical of the Academy Awards have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars. The first to do so was screenwriter Dudley Nichols (Best Writing in 1935 for \"The Informer\"). Nichols boycotted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony because of conflicts between the Academy and the Writers' Guild. Nichols eventually accepted the 1935 award three years later, at the 1938 ceremony. Nichols was nominated for three further Academy Awards during his career.\n", "George C. Scott became the second person to refuse his award (Best Actor in 1970 for \"Patton\") at the 43rd Academy Awards ceremony. Scott described it as a \"meat parade\", saying, \"I don't want any part of it.\"\n", "The third person to refuse the award was Marlon Brando, who refused his award (Best Actor for 1972's \"The Godfather\"), citing the film industry's discrimination and mistreatment of Native Americans. At the 45th Academy Awards ceremony, Brando sent actress and civil rights activist Sacheen Littlefeather to read a 15-page speech, detailing his criticisms, which was booed by the audience.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Incidents.\n", "At the 89th Academy Awards ceremony, Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway mistakenly announced \"La La Land\" as the recipient of the Best Picture award, instead of \"Moonlight\", the actual winner. Beatty had been given the wrong envelope and after hesitating during the announcement, handed the envelope to Dunaway, which listed Emma Stone as Best Actress for \"La La Land\" and led to the confusion. The proper winner was announced after the acceptance speeches by \"La La Land\" producers Fred Berger, Jordan Horowitz and Marc Platt.\n", "The following year, Beatty and Dunaway were invited back as presenters of the Best Picture award, which they accomplished without error.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Plagiarism controversies.\n", "BULLET::::- Up to now, no movies have been disqualified for plagiarism.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Zootopia\": On March 21, 2017, a copyright infringement lawsuit was filed against Disney by Esplanade Productions, a company owned by Gary L. Goldman, the co-screenwriter of \"Total Recall\". The lawsuit claims that Goldman (in 2000 and 2009) pitched a concept to Disney for a live-action film titled \"Looney\", which was about a socially awkward animator who creates a self-inspired TV cartoon called \"Zootopia\". Disney twice rejected the pitch, but Goldman accused the company of copying the name, themes, settings and character tropes. Filed with the lawsuit was a graphic of early concept artwork of characters that are claimed to appear similar to major characters from the film, including Nick Wilde, Judy Hopps, Flash and Chief Bogo. A Disney spokesperson described the lawsuit as being \"ridden with patently false allegations.\" U.S. District Judge Michael W. Fitzgerald dismissed the infringement claims on November 8, 2017.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Shape of Water\": In February 2018, the estate of Paul Zindel initiated a lawsuit in United States District Court for the Central District of California against director Guillermo del Toro and associate producer Daniel Kraus, alleging that \"The Shape of Water\" \"brazenly copies the story, elements, characters, and themes\" of Zindel's 1969 work \"Let Me Hear You Whisper\", which depicts a cleaning lady bonding with a dolphin and attempting to rescue it from a secret research laboratory's nefarious uses. In July 2018, Judge Percy Anderson dismissed the suit.\n", "Section::::Criticism.:Disqualification.\n", "Seven films have been disqualified before an official award ceremony because they violated the regulations.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Circus\" (1928) – The film was removed by the Academy from competitive categories, in order to award Charlie Chaplin a special award.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hondo\" (1953)\n", "BULLET::::- \"High Society\" (1955) – Withdrawn from screenwriting ballot after being mistaken for the 1956 movie of the same title.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Godfather\" (1972) – Initially nominated for eleven awards, its nomination for Best Original Score was revoked after it was discovered that its main theme was very similar to music that the score's composer had written for an earlier film. None of its other nominations were revoked, and it received three Oscars, including Best Picture.\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Place in the World\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tuba Atlantic\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Alone yet Not Alone\"\n", "One film was disqualified after winning the award, and had the winner return the Oscar.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Young Americans\" (1969)\n", "Section::::Associated events.\n", "The following events are closely associated with the annual Academy Awards:\n", "BULLET::::- César Awards\n", "BULLET::::- Nominees luncheon\n", "BULLET::::- Governors Awards\n", "BULLET::::- The 25th Independent Spirit Awards (2010), usually held in Santa Monica, California the Saturday before the Oscars, marked the first time it was moved to a Friday and a change of venue to L.A. Live\n", "BULLET::::- The annual \"Night Before\", traditionally held at the Beverly Hills Hotel, begun in 2002 and generally known as \"the \"party of the season, benefits the Motion Picture & Television Fund, which operates a retirement home for SAG actors in the San Fernando Valley\n", "BULLET::::- Elton John AIDS Foundation Academy Award Party airs the awards live at the nearby Pacific Design Center\n", "BULLET::::- The Governors Ball is the Academy's official after-party, including dinner (until 2011), and is adjacent to the awards-presentation venue\n", "BULLET::::- The \"Vanity Fair\" after-party, historically at the former Morton's restaurant, has been at the Sunset Tower since 2009\n", "Section::::Presenter and performer gifts.\n", "It has become a tradition to give out gift bags to the presenters and performers at the Oscars. In recent years, these gifts have also been extended to award nominees and winners. The value of each of these gift bags can reach into the tens of thousands of dollars. In 2014, the value was reported to be as high as US$80,000. The value has risen to the point where the U.S. Internal Revenue Service issued a statement regarding the gifts and their taxable status.\n", "Oscar gift bags have included vacation packages to Hawaii and Mexico and Japan, a private dinner party for the recipient and friends at a restaurant, videophones, a four-night stay at a hotel, watches, bracelets, spa treatments, bottles of vodka, maple salad dressing and weight-loss gummie candy. Some of the gifts have even had a \"risque\" element to them; in 2014, the adult products retailer Adam & Eve had a \"Secret Room Gifting Suite\". Celebrities visiting the gifting suite included Judith Hoag, Carolyn Hennesy, Kate Linder, Chris Mulkey, Jim O'Heir, and NBA player John Salley.\n", "Section::::Television ratings and advertisement prices.\n", "From 2006 onwards, results are Live+SD; all previous years are live viewing.\n", "Section::::Trademark.\n", "The term \"Oscar\" is a registered trademark of the AMPAS; however, in the Italian language, it is used generically to refer to any award or award ceremony, regardless of which field.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- List of film awards\n", "BULLET::::- List of Academy Award records\n", "BULLET::::- List of superlative Academy Award winners and nominees\n", "BULLET::::- List of actors with Academy Award nominations\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- Brokaw, Lauren (2010). \"Wanna see an Academy Awards invite? We got it along with all the major annual events surrounding the Oscars\". Los Angeles: The Daily Truffle.\n", "BULLET::::- Wright, Jon (2007). \"The Lunacy of Oscar: The Problems with Hollywood's Biggest Night\". Thomas Publishing, Inc.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences\n", "BULLET::::- Official Academy Awards Database (searchable)\n" ] }
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"Performing arts trophies,American film awards,American annual television specials,Cinema of Southern California,Academy Awards,1929 establishments in California,Events in Los Angeles,Annual events in Los Angeles County, California,Awards established in 1929,Hollywood history and culture"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Anarchism\n", "Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political philosophy that rejects hierarchies deemed unjust and advocates their replacement with self-managed, self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions. These institutions are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations. Anarchism's central disagreement with other ideologies is that it holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful.\n", "Anarchism is usually placed on the far-left of the political spectrum, and much of its economics and legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, mutualism, or participatory economics. As anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular worldview, many anarchist types and traditions exist and varieties of anarchy diverge widely. Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism, or similar dual classifications.\n", "Section::::Etymology, terminology and definition.\n", "The etymological origin of the word \"anarchism\" is from the ancient Greek word \"anarkhia\", meaning \"without a ruler\", comprised of the prefix \"a-\" (i.e. \"without\") and the word \"arkhos\" (i.e. leader or ruler). The suffix -ism denotes the ideological current that favours anarchy. The word \"anarchism\" appears in English from 1642 as \"Anarchisme\" the word \"anarchy\" from 1539. Various factions within the French Revolution labelled their opponents as \"anarchists\" - few such accused shared many views with later anarchists. Many revolutionaries of the 19th century, such as William Godwin (1756-1836) and Wilhelm Weitling (1808-1871), would contribute to the anarchist doctrines of the next generation, but they did not use the word \"anarchist\" or \"anarchism\" in describing themselves or their beliefs.\n", "The first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist () was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), marking the formal birth of anarchism in the mid-19th century. Since the 1890s and beginning in France, the term \"libertarianism\" has often been used as a synonym for anarchism and its use as a synonym is still common outside the United States. On the other hand, some use \"libertarianism\" to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as \"libertarian anarchism\".\n", "While opposition to the state is central to anarchist thought, defining anarchism is not an easy task as there is a lot of talk among scholars and anarchists on the matter and various currents perceive anarchism slightly differently. Hence it might be true to say that anarchism is a cluster of political philosophies opposing authority and hierarchical organization (including the state, capitalism, nationalism and all associated institutions) in the conduct of all human relations in favour of a society based on voluntary association, on freedom and on decentralisation - but this definition has the same shortcomings as the definition based on etymology (which is simply a negation of a ruler), or based on anti-statism (anarchism is much more than that) or even the anti-authoritarian (which is an \"a posteriori\" conclusion). Major elements of the definition of anarchism include:\n", "BULLET::::1. the will for a non-coercive society\n", "BULLET::::2. the rejection of the state apparatus\n", "BULLET::::3. belief that human nature allows humans to exist in or progress toward such a non-coercive society; and\n", "BULLET::::4. a suggestion on how to act to pursue the ideal of anarchy\n", "Section::::History.\n", "Section::::History.:Prehistoric and ancient world.\n", "During the prehistoric era of mankind, an established authority did not exist. It was after the creation of towns and cities that hierarchy was invented and anarchistic ideas espoused as a reaction. Most notable examples of anarchism in the ancient world were in China and Greece. In China, philosophical anarchism, meaning peaceful delegitimizing of the state, was delineated by Taoist philosophers (i.e. Zhuangzi and Lao Tzu). Likewise in Greece, anarchist attitudes were articulated by tragedians and philosophers. Aeschylus and Sophocles used the myth of Antigone to illustrate the conflict between rules set by the state and personal autonomy. Socrates questioned Athenian authorities constantly and insisted to the right of individual freedom of consciousness. Cynics dismissed human law (\"Nomos\") and associated authorities while trying to live according to nature (\"physis\"). Stoics were supportive of a society based on unofficial and friendly relations among its citizens without the presence of a state.\n", "During the Middle Ages, there was no anarchistic activity except some ascetic religious movements in the Islamic world or in Christian Europe. This kind of tradition later gave birth to religious anarchism. In Persia, a Zoroastrian Prophet known as Mazdak was calling for an egalitarian society and the abolition of monarchy, but he soon found himself executed by the king. In Basra, religious sects preached against the state. In Europe, various sects developed anti-state and libertarian tendencies. Those currents were the precursor of religious anarchism in the centuries to come. It was in the Renaissance and with the spread of reasoning and humanism through Europe that libertarian ideas emerged. Writers were outlining in their novels ideal societies that were based not on coercion but voluntarism. The Enlightenment further pushed towards anarchism with the optimism for social progress.\n", "Section::::History.:Classical anarchism.\n", "The turning point towards anarchism was the French Revolution in which the anti-state and federalist sentiments began to take a form, mostly by Enragés and \"sans-culottes\". Some prominent figures of anarchism begun developing the first anarchist currents. That is the era of classical anarchism that lasted until the end of the Spanish Civil War of 1936 and was the golden age of anarchism. William Godwin espoused philosophical anarchism in England morally delegitimizing the state, Max Stirner's thinking paved the way to individualism and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's theory of mutualism found fertile soil in France.\n", "Michael Bakunin took mutualism and extended it to collectivist anarchism. Bakunin's current (Jura Federation) entered the class worker union called the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), later known as the First International, formed in 1864 to unite diverse revolutionary currents. Due to its links to active workers' movements, the International became a significant organisation. Karl Marx became a leading figure in the International and a member of its General Council. Proudhon's followers, the mutualists, opposed Marx's state socialism, advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings. Bakunin's followers entered a bitter dispute with Karl Marx which ended with the split of the workers movement that officially took place in the Fifth Congress of the IWA in the Hague, 1872. The major reason lay in fundamentally different approaches on how the workers would emancipate themselves. Marx was advocating for the creation of a political party to take part in electoral struggles whereas Bakunin thought that the whole set of Marx's thinking was very authoritarian. Bakunin is famous for predicting that if such a party would gain power by Marxist's terms, it would end up to be the new tyrant of workers. After being expelled from the IWA, anarchists formed the St. Imier International. Under the influence of Peter Kropotkin, a Russian philosopher and scientist, anarcho-communism overlapped collectivism. Anarcho-communists, who drew inspiration from the 1871 Paris Commune, advocated for free federation and distribution of goods according to one needs. The major argument of anarcho-communism was that Bakunian perspective would lead to antagonism among collectives.\n", "At the turning of the century, anarchism had spread all over the world. In China, small groups of students imported the humanistic pro-science version of anarcho-communism. Tokyo was a hotspot for rebellious youth from countries of the far east, pouring into Japanese capital to study. In Latin America, São Paulo was a stronghold, and anarchosyndicalism was the most prominent left-wing ideology. During that time, a minority of anarchists embarked into utilizing of violence in order to achieve their political ends. This kind of strategy is named as propaganda of the deed. The dismemberment of the French socialist movement into many groups and the execution and exile of many Communards to penal colonies following the suppression of the Paris Commune favoured individualist political expression and acts. Even though many anarchists distanced themselves from those terrorist acts, anarchists were persecuted and were given bad fame. Illegalism, stealing the possessions of the rich because capitalists were not their rightful owners, was another strategy some anarchist adopted during the same years.\n", "Anarchists took part enthusiastically in the Russian Revolution. During the revolution, anarchists had concerns, but they opted for the revolution rather than supporting the Whites. However, they met harsh suppression after the Bolshevik government was stabilized. Anarchists in central Russia were either imprisoned, driven underground or joined the victorious Bolsheviks. Anarchists from Petrograd and Moscow instead fled to Ukraine. The Kronstadt rebellion and Nestor Makhno's struggle in the Free Territory were the most notable examples. With the anarchists being crashed in Russia, two new antithetical currents emerged, namely platformism and synthesis anarchism. Platformists sought to create a coherent group that would push for the revolution while the latter were against anything that would resemble a political party. The victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting Russian Civil War did serious damage to anarchist movements internationally. Many workers and activists saw the Bolshevik success as setting an example and communist parties grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements. In France and the United States, members of the major syndicalist movements of the General Confederation of Labour and Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) left the organisations and joined the Communist International.\n", "In the Spanish Civil War, anarchists and syndicalists (CNT and FAI) once again allied themselves with various currents of leftists. Spain had a long anarchist tradition and anarchists played an important role in the Civil War. In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land. The Soviet Union provided some limited assistance at the beginning of the Civil War, but as Joseph Stalin tried to seize control of the Republicans the result was a bitter fight among communists and anarchists (i.e. at a series of events named May Days).\n", "Section::::History.:Post-World War II anarchism.\n", "In the first years after World War II, the anarchist movement was severely damaged. However, the 1960s witnessed a revival of anarchism. The main causes of such a revival may have been the perceived failure of Marxism–Leninism and the tension build by the Cold War. During this era, anarchism was mostly part of other movements critical to both the state and capitalism such as the anti-nuclear, environmental and pacifist movements, the New Left, or the counterculture of the 1960s. Anarchism was also associated with the punk rock movement as exemplified by bands such as Crass and the Sex Pistols. Although feminist tendencies have always been a part of the anarchist movement in the form of anarcha-feminism, they returned with vigour during the second wave of feminism in the 1960s.\n", "Around the turn of the 21st century, anarchism grew in popularity and influence as part of the anti-war, anti-capitalist and anti-globalisation movements. Anarchists became known for their involvement in protests against the meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO), Group of Eight (G8) and the World Economic Forum (WEF). Some anarchist factions at these protests engaged in rioting, property destruction and violent confrontations with the police. These actions were precipitated by \"ad hoc\", leaderless, anonymous cadres known as black blocs—other organisational tactics pioneered in this time include security culture, affinity groups and the use of decentralised technologies such as the internet. A significant event of this period was the confrontations at the WTO conference in Seattle in 1999. Anarchist ideas have been influential in the development of the Zapatistas in Chiapas, Mexico, and the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, more commonly known as Rojava, a \"de facto\" autonomous region in northern Syria.\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.\n", "Anarchist schools of thought had been generally grouped in two main historical traditions (individualist anarchism and social anarchism) which have some different origins, values and evolution. The individualist wing of anarchism emphasises negative liberty (opposition to state or social control over the individual) while those in the social wing emphasise positive liberty to achieve one's potential and argue that humans have needs that society ought to fulfil, \"recognising equality of entitlement\". In a chronological and theoretical sense, there are classical—those created throughout the 19th century—and post-classical anarchist schools—those created since the mid-20th century and after.\n", "Beyond the specific factions of anarchist thought is philosophical anarchism which the theoretical stance that the state lacks moral legitimacy without accepting the imperative of revolution to eliminate it. A component especially of individualist anarchism, philosophical anarchism may accept the existence of a minimal state as unfortunate and usually temporary, necessary evil, but argue that citizens do not have a moral obligation to obey the state when its laws conflict with individual autonomy. One reaction against sectarianism within the anarchist milieu was anarchism without adjectives, a call for toleration first adopted by Fernando Tarrida del Mármol in 1889 in response to the bitter debates of anarchist theory at the time. In abandoning the hyphenated anarchisms (i.e. collectivist-, communist-, mutualist- and individualist-anarchism), it sought to emphasise the anti-authoritarian beliefs common to all anarchist schools of thought. The various anarchist schools of thought or currents are not distinct entities, but intermingle with each other.\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.:Classical.\n", "Collectivist and communist anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism are all considered to be forms of social anarchism. Mutualism and individualism were the other notable anarchist currents through the 19th and early 20th century. Social anarchism rejects private property, seeing it as a source of social inequality (while retaining respect for personal property) and emphasises cooperation and mutual aid.\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.:Classical.:Mutualism.\n", "Mutualism began in 18th-century English and French labour movements before taking an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France and others in the United States. Proudhon proposed spontaneous order, whereby organisation emerges without central authority, a \"positive anarchy\" where order arises when everybody does \"what he wishes and only what he wishes\" and where \"business transactions alone produce the social order\".\n", "Proudhon distinguished between ideal political possibilities and practical governance. For this reason, much in contrast to some of his theoretical statements concerning ultimate spontaneous self-governance, Proudhon was heavily involved in French parliamentary politics and allied himself with the socialist factions of the workers movement. During his life of public service, he began advocating state-protected charters for worker-owned cooperatives and promoting certain nationalisation schemes.\n", "Mutualist anarchism is concerned with reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract, federation and credit and currency reform. According to the American mutualist William Batchelder Greene, each worker in the mutualist system would receive \"just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount\". Mutualism has been retrospectively characterised as ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms of anarchism. Proudhon first characterised his goal as a \"third form of society, the synthesis of communism and property [which] we call LIBERTY\".\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.:Classical.:Collectivist anarchism.\n", "Collectivist anarchism, also referred to as revolutionary socialism or a form of such, is a revolutionary form of anarchism, commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin and Johann Most.\n", "At the epicentre of collectivist anarchism lies the belief in the potential of humankind for goodness and solidarity which will flourish when oppressive governments are abolished. Collectivist anarchists oppose all private ownership of the means of production, instead advocating that ownership be collectivised. This was to be achieved through violent revolution, first starting with a small cohesive group through acts of violence, or propaganda by the deed, to inspire the workers as a whole to revolt and forcibly collectivise the means of production. However, collectivisation was not to be extended to the distribution of income as workers would be paid according to time worked, rather than receiving goods being distributed according to need as in anarcho-communism. This position was criticised by anarcho-communists as effectively \"uphold[ing] the wages system\". Collectivist anarchism arose contemporaneously with Marxism, but it opposed the Marxist dictatorship of the proletariat despite the stated Marxist goal of a collectivist stateless society.\n", "Anarchist, communist and collectivist ideas are not mutually exclusive—although the collectivist anarchists advocated compensation for labour, some held out the possibility of a post-revolutionary transition to a communist system of distribution according to need.\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.:Classical.:Anarcho-communism.\n", "Anarcho-communism, also known as anarchist-communism, communist anarchism and libertarian communism, is a theory of anarchism that advocates abolition of the state, markets, money, private property (while retaining respect for personal property) and capitalism in favour of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of voluntary associations and workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: \"From each according to his ability, to each according to his need\".\n", "Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French Revolution, but it was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International. The theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin took importance later as it expanded and developed pro-organisationalist and insurrectionary anti-organisationalist sections.\n", "To date, the best known examples of an anarcho-communist society (i.e. established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution. Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War starting in 1936, anarcho-communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia as well as in the stronghold of Catalonia. Along with the Republicans, it was crushed by the combined forces of the Francisco Franco's Nationalists, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini as well as repression by the Communist Party of Spain (backed by the Soviet Union) and economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself.\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.:Classical.:Anarcho-syndicalism.\n", "Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism that focuses on the labour movement.\n", "Anarcho-syndicalists view labour unions as a potential force for revolutionary social change, replacing capitalism and the state with a new society democratically self-managed by workers. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are workers' solidarity, direct action and workers' self-management. Anarcho-syndicalists believe that only direct action—that is, action concentrated on directly attaining a goal as opposed to indirect action such as electing a representative to a government position—will allow workers to liberate themselves.\n", "Moreover, anarcho-syndicalists believe that workers' organisations (the organisations that struggle against the wage system which in anarcho-syndicalist theory will eventually form the basis of a new society) should be self-managing. They should not have bosses or business agents—rather, the workers should be able to make all the decisions that affect them themselves. Rudolf Rocker was one of the most popular voices in the anarcho-syndicalist movement. He outlined a view of the origins of the movement, what it sought and why it was important to the future of labour in his 1938 pamphlet \"Anarcho-Syndicalism\". The International Workers Association is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions from different countries. The Spanish CNT played and still plays a major role in the Spanish labour movement. It was also an important force in the Spanish Civil War.\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.:Classical.:Individualist anarchism.\n", "Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasise the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems. Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy, but it instead refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict.\n", "In 1793, William Godwin, who has often been cited as the first anarchist, wrote \"Political Justice\", which some consider the first expression of anarchism. Godwin was a philosophical anarchist and from a rationalist and utilitarian basis opposed revolutionary action and saw a minimal state as a present \"necessary evil\" that would become increasingly irrelevant and powerless by the gradual spread of knowledge. Godwin advocated individualism, proposing that all cooperation in labour be eliminated on the premise that this would be most conducive with the general good.\n", "An influential form of individualist anarchism called egoism, or egoist anarchism, was expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the German Max Stirner. Stirner's \"The Ego and Its Own\", published in 1844, is a founding text of the philosophy. According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of individuals is their power to obtain what they desire without regard for God, state, or morality. To Stirner, rights were \"spooks\" in the mind and he held that society does not exist, but \"the individuals are its reality\". Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw unions of egoists, non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will, which Stirner proposed as a form of organisation in place of the state. Egoist anarchists argue that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals. \"Egoism\" has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy. It was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist and homosexual activist John Henry Mackay.\n", "Josiah Warren was a pioneer American anarcho-individualist, who drew inspiration from Proudhon. Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862) was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe. Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his books \"Walden\", a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, as well as his essay, \"Civil Disobedience\", an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. Benjamin Tucker later fused Stirner's egoism with the economics of Warren and Proudhon in his eclectic influential publication \"Liberty\".\n", "From these early influences, individualist anarchism in different countries attracted a small yet diverse following of Bohemian artists and intellectuals, free love and birth control advocates (see anarchism and issues related to love and sex), individualist naturists and nudists (see anarcho-naturism), freethought and anti-clerical activists as well as young anarchist outlaws in what became known as illegalism and individual reclamation (see European individualist anarchism and individualist anarchism in France). These authors and activists included Oscar Wilde, Emile Armand, Han Ryner, Henri Zisly, Renzo Novatore, Miguel Gimenez Igualada, Adolf Brand and Lev Chernyi, among others.\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.:Post-classical and contemporary.\n", "Anarchist principles undergird contemporary radical social movements of the left. Interest in the anarchist movement developed alongside momentum in the anti-globalization movement, whose leading activist networks were anarchist in orientation. As the movement shaped 21st century radicalism, wider embrace of anarchist principles signaled a revival of interest. Contemporary news coverage which emphasizes black bloc demonstrations has reinforced anarchism's historical association with chaos and violence, though its publicity has also led more scholars to engage with the anarchist movement. Anarchism continues to generate many philosophies and movements, at times eclectic, drawing upon various sources and syncretic, combining disparate concepts to create new philosophical approaches.\n", "Anticapitalism stays prominent within contemporary anarchism, continuing the tradition of classical anarchism.\n", "Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory, practice and tendency within the anarchist movement which emphasises insurrection within anarchist practice. Critical of formal organisations such as labour unions and federations that are based on a political programme and periodic congresses, insurrectionary anarchists instead advocate informal organisation and small affinity group based organisation as well as putting value in attack, permanent class conflict and a refusal to negotiate or compromise with class enemies.\n", "Green anarchism, or eco-anarchism, is a school of thought within anarchism that emphasises environmental issues, with an important precedent in anarcho-naturism and whose main contemporary currents are anarcho-primitivism and social ecology. Writing from a green anarchist perspective, John Zerzan attributes the ills of today's social degradation to technology and the birth of agricultural civilization. While Layla AbdelRahim argues that \"the shift in human consciousness was also a shift in human subsistence strategies, whereby some human animals reinvented their narrative to center murder and predation and thereby institutionalize violence\". According to AbdelRahim, civilization was the result of the human development of technologies and grammar for predatory economics. Language and literacy, she claims, are some of these technologies.\n", "Anarcho-pacifism is a tendency that rejects violence in the struggle for social change (see non-violence). It developed mostly in the Netherlands, Britain and the United States before and during the Second World War. Christian anarchism is a movement in political theology that combines anarchism and Christianity. Its main proponents included Leo Tolstoy, Dorothy Day, Ammon Hennacy and Jacques Ellul.\n", "Religious anarchism refers to a set of related anarchist ideologies that are inspired by the teachings of religions. While many anarchists have traditionally been sceptical of and opposed to organized religion, many different religions have served as inspiration for religious forms of anarchism, most notably Christianity as Christian anarchists believe that biblical teachings give credence to anarchist philosophy. Other examples include Buddhist anarchism, Jewish anarchism and most recently Neopaganism.\n", "Synthesis anarchism is a form of anarchism that tries to join anarchists of different tendencies under the principles of anarchism without adjectives. In the 1920s, this form found as its main proponents the anarcho-communists Voline and Sébastien Faure. It is the main principle behind the anarchist federations grouped around the contemporary global International of Anarchist Federations.\n", "Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement based on the organisational theories in the tradition of Dielo Truda's \"Organisational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft)\". The document was based on the experiences of Russian anarchists in the 1917 October Revolution which led eventually to the victory of the Bolsheviks over the anarchists and other groups. The \"Platform\" attempted to address and explain the anarchist movement's failures during the Russian Revolution.\n", "Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchism's relationship to traditional left-wing politics. Some post-leftists seek to escape the confines of ideology in general also presenting a critique of organisations and morality. Influenced by the work of Max Stirner and by the Marxist Situationist International, post-left anarchy is marked by a focus on social insurrection and a rejection of leftist social organisation.\n", "Post-anarchism is a theoretical move towards a synthesis of classical anarchist theory and poststructuralist thought, drawing from diverse ideas including post-left anarchy, postmodernism, autonomism, postcolonialism and the Situationist International.\n", "Queer anarchism is a form of socialism which suggests anarchism as a solution to the issues faced by the LGBT community, mainly heteronormativity, homophobia, transphobia and biphobia. It arose during the late 20th century based on the work of Michel Foucault's \"The History of Sexuality\" (1976).\n", "Left-wing market anarchism strongly affirm the classical liberal ideas of self-ownership and free markets while maintaining that taken to their logical conclusions these ideas support strongly anti-capitalist, anti-corporatist, anti-hierarchical and pro-labour positions in economics; anti-imperialism in foreign policy; and thoroughly radical views regarding such cultural issues as gender, sexuality and race.\n", "Anarcho-capitalism advocates the elimination of the state in favour of self-ownership in a free market. Anarcho-capitalism developed from radical American anti-state libertarianism and individualist anarchism, drawing from Austrian School economics, study of law and economics and public choice theory. There is a strong current within anarchism which believes that anarcho-capitalism cannot be considered a part of the anarchist movement due to the fact that anarchism has historically been an anti-capitalist movement and for definitional reasons which see anarchism as incompatible with capitalist forms.\n", "Anarcho-transhumanism is a recently new branch of anarchism that takes traditional and modern anarchism, typically drawing from anarcho-syndicalism, left-libertarianism, or libertarian socialism, and combines it with transhumanism and post-humanism. It can be described as a \"liberal democratic revolution, at its core the idea that people are happiest when they have rational control over their lives. Reason, science, and technology provide one kind of control, slowly freeing us from ignorance, toil, pain, disease and limited lifespans (aging)\". Some anarcho-transhumanists might also follow technogaianism.\n", "Section::::Anarchist schools of thought.:Post-classical and contemporary.:Anarcha-feminism.\n", "Anarcha-feminism, also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism, combines anarchism with feminism. It generally views patriarchy as a manifestation of involuntary coercive hierarchy that should be replaced by decentralised free association. Anarcha-feminists believe that the struggle against patriarchy is an essential part of class struggle and the anarchist struggle against the state. In essence, the philosophy sees anarchist struggle as a necessary component of feminist struggle and vice versa. Anarcha-feminists espoused to a detailed analysis of patriarchy and claim that oppression has its roots to social norms.\n", "Anarcha-feminism began with the late 19th-century writings of early feminist anarchists such as Emma Goldman and Voltairine de Cleyre. Mujeres Libres was an anarchist women's organisation in Spain that aimed to empower working class women, based on the idea of a double struggle for women's liberation and social revolution and argued that the two objectives were equally important and should be pursued in parallel. In order to gain mutual support, they created networks of women anarchists. The second wave of anarcha-feminism arose in the 1960s.\n", "Section::::Internal issues and debates.\n", "As anarchism is a philosophy that embodies many diverse attitudes, tendencies and schools of thought and as such disagreement over questions of values, ideology and tactics is common, its diversity has led to widely different use of identical terms among different anarchist traditions which has led to many definitional concerns in anarchist theory. For instance, the compatibility of capitalism, nationalism and religion with anarchism is widely disputed. Similarly, anarchism enjoys complex relationships with ideologies such as Marxism, communism, collectivism and trade unionism. Anarchists may be motivated by humanism, divine authority, enlightened self-interest, veganism, or any number of alternative ethical doctrines. Phenomena such as civilisation, technology (e.g. within anarcho-primitivism) and the democratic process may be sharply criticised within some anarchist tendencies and simultaneously lauded in others. On a tactical level, propaganda of the deed was a tactic used by anarchists in the 19th century (e.g. the nihilist movement), with some contemporary anarchists espousing alternative direct action methods such as nonviolence, counter-economics and anti-state cryptography to bring about an anarchist society. About the scope of an anarchist society, some anarchists advocate a global one while others do so by local ones.\n", "Section::::Topics of interest.\n", "Intersecting and overlapping between various schools of thought, certain topics of interest and internal disputes have proven perennial within anarchist theory.\n", "Section::::Topics of interest.:Anarchism and free love.\n", "An important current within anarchism is free love. In Europe, the main propagandist of free love within individualist anarchism was Emile Armand. He proposed the concept of \"la camaraderie amoureuse\" to speak of free love as the possibility of voluntary sexual encounter between consenting adults. He was also a consistent proponent of polyamory. In Germany, the Stirnerists Adolf Brand and John Henry Mackay were pioneering campaigners for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality. More recently, the British anarcho-pacifist Alex Comfort gained notoriety during the sexual revolution for writing the bestseller sex manual \"The Joy of Sex\". The issue of free love has a dedicated treatment in the work of French anarcho-hedonist philosopher Michel Onfray in such works as \"Théorie du corps amoureux. Pour une érotique solaire\" (2000) and \"L'invention du plaisir. Fragments cyréaniques\" (2002).\n", "Section::::Topics of interest.:Anarchism and education.\n", "English anarchist William Godwin considered education an important aspect. He was against state education as he considered those schools as a way of the state to replicate privileges of the ruling class. Godwin thought that education was the way to change the world. In his \"Political Justice\", he criticises state sponsored schooling and advocates for child's protection from coercion. Max Stirner wrote in 1842 a long essay on education called \"The False Principle of our Education\" in which Stirner was advocating for child's autonomy.\n", "In 1901, Catalan anarchist and free thinker Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia established modern or progressive schools in Barcelona in defiance of an educational system controlled by the Catholic Church. Ferrer's approach was secular, rejecting both the state and church involvement in the educational process and gave pupils plenty of autonomy (i.e. on setting the curriculum). Ferrer was aiming to educate the working class. The school closed after constant harassment by the state and Ferrer was later on arrested. Ferrer's ideas generally formed the inspiration for a series of modern schools in the United States,\n", "Russian Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy established a school for peasant children on his estate. Tolstoy's educational experiments were short-lived due to harassment by the Tsarist secret police. Tolstoy established a conceptual difference between education and culture. He thought that \"[e]ducation is the tendency of one man to make another just like himself. [...] Education is culture under restraint, culture is free. [Education is] when the teaching is forced upon the pupil, and when then instruction is exclusive, that is when only those subjects are taught which the educator regards as necessary\". For him, \"without compulsion, education was transformed into culture\".\n", "A more recent libertarian tradition on education is that of unschooling and the free school in which child-led activity replaces pedagogic approaches. Experiments in Germany led to A. S. Neill founding what became Summerhill School in 1921. Summerhill is often cited as an example of anarchism in practice. However, although Summerhill and other free schools are radically libertarian, they differ in principle from those of Ferrer by not advocating an overtly political class struggle-approach. In addition to organising schools according to libertarian principles, anarchists have also questioned the concept of schooling per se. The term deschooling was popularised by Ivan Illich, who argued that the school as an institution is dysfunctional for self-determined learning and serves the creation of a consumer society instead.\n", "Section::::Topics of interest.:Anarchism and the state.\n", "Objection to the state and its institutions is \"sine qua non\" of anarchism. Anarchists consider the government as a tool of domination and it is illegitimate regardless of political tendencies. Instead of people being able to control the aspects of their life, major decisions are taken by a small elite. Authority ultimately rests solely on power regardless if it is open or transparent as it still has the ability to coerce people. Another anarchist argument against states is that some people constituting a government, even the most altruistic among officials, will unavoidably seek to gain more power, leading to corruption. Anarchists consider the argument that the state is the collective will of people as a fairy tale since the ruling class is distinct from the rest of the society.\n", "Section::::Topics of interest.:Anarchism and violence.\n", "Anarchist perspectives towards violence have always been perplexed and controversial. On one hand, anarcho-pacifists point out the unity of means and ends. On the other hand, other groups of anarchist are for direct action that can include sabotage or even terrorism. Emma Goldman and Errico Malatesta, who were proponents of limited use of violence, were arguing that violence is merely a reaction to state violence as a necessary evil. Peace activist and anarchist April Carter argues that violence is incompatible with anarchism because it is mostly associated with the state and authority as violence is immanent to the state. As the state's capability to exercise violence is colossal nowadays, a rebellion or civil war would probably end in another authoritarian institute.\n", "Section::::Anarchist strategies and tactics.\n", "Anarchist tactics vary considerably. A broad categorization would be the preference of revolutionary tactics to destroy oppressive States and institutions or aiming to change society through evolutionary means. Revolutionary methods can take violent form as they did in past insurgencies (i.e., in Spain, Mexico, Russia) or during violent protests by militant protestors such as the black bloc, who are generally much less violent than revolutionary movements a century ago. Anarchists also commonly employ direct action, which can take the form of disrupting and protesting against unjust hierarchies, or the form of self-managing their lives through the creation of counterinstitutions such as communes and non-hierarchical collectives. Often decision-making is handled in an anti-authoritarian way, with everyone having equal say in each decision, an approach known as horizontalism. Another aspect of anarchist tactics is their aim to strengthen social bonds through common actions.\n", "Reclaiming public space by anarchists is another method of creating social spaces and creating squats in order to organise themselves. During important events such as protests, when spaces are being occupied, they are often called \n", "\"Temporary Autonomous Zones\" (TAZ).\n", "Section::::Criticisms.\n", "Moral and pragmatic criticism of anarchism includes allegations of utopianism, tacit authoritarianism and vandalism towards feats of civilization.\n", "Section::::Criticisms.:Allegation of utopianism.\n", "Anarchism is evaluated as unfeasible or utopian by its critics, often in general and formal debate. European history professor Carl Landauer argued that social anarchism is unrealistic and that government is a \"lesser evil\" than a society without \"repressive force\". He also argued that \"ill intentions will cease if repressive force disappears\" is an \"absurdity\". However, \"An Anarchist FAQ\" states the following: \"Anarchy is not a utopia, [and] anarchists make no such claims about human perfection. [...] Remaining disputes would be solved by reasonable methods, for example, the use of juries, mutual third parties, or community and workplace assemblies\". It also states that \"some sort of 'court' system would still be necessary to deal with the remaining crimes and to adjudicate disputes between citizens\".\n", "Section::::Criticisms.:Tacit authoritarianism.\n", "The anarchist tendency known as platformism has been criticized by Situationists, insurrectionaries, synthesis anarchists and others of preserving tacitly statist, authoritarian or bureaucratic tendencies.\n", "Section::::Criticisms.:Anarchism and civilization.\n", "In his essay \"On Authority\", Friedrich Engels claimed that radical decentralization promoted by anarchists would destroy modern industrial civilization, citing an example of railways: \n", "In the end, it is argued that authority in any form is a natural occurrence which should not be abolished.\n", "Section::::List of anarchist societies.\n", "BULLET::::- Federation of Neighborhood Councils-El Alto (Fejuve; 1979–present)\n", "BULLET::::- Popular Indigenous Council of Oaxaca \"Ricardo Flores Magón\" (CIPO-RFM; 1980s–present)\n", "BULLET::::- Barbacha (2001–present)\n", "BULLET::::- Villa de Zaachila (2006–present)\n", "BULLET::::- Cheran (2011–present)\n", "BULLET::::- Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (Rojava; 2013–present)\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Governance without government\n", "BULLET::::- Libertarian socialism\n", "BULLET::::- List of anarchist political ideologies\n", "Section::::See also.:Foundational texts of anarchism.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Enquiry Concerning Political Justice\" (1793)\n", "BULLET::::- \"What is Property? (1840)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Ego and Its Own\" (1844)\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- An utopian science fiction novel\n", "BULLET::::- Scott, James C., (2012) \"\", Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press .\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Anarchy Archives. Anarchy Archives is an online research center on the history and theory of anarchism\n" ] }
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"Anti-fascism,Libertarian socialism,Far-left politics,Political culture,Anarchism,Anti-capitalism,Political ideologies"
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{ "pageid": 12, "parentid": 910667622, "revid": 910746395, "pre_dump": false, "timestamp": "2019-08-14T04:59:39Z", "url": "" }
{ "paragraph": [ "Swing\n", "Swing or swinging may refer to:\n", "Section::::Apparatus.\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (seat), a hanging seat that swings back and forth\n", "BULLET::::- Russian swing, a swing-like circus apparatus\n", "BULLET::::- Sex swing, a type of harness for sexual intercourse\n", "BULLET::::- Swing ride, an amusement park ride consisting of suspended seats that rotate like a merry-go-round\n", "Section::::Arts, entertainment, and media.\n", "Section::::Arts, entertainment, and media.:Films.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (1938 film), an American film directed by Oscar Micheaux\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (1999 film), an American film by Nick Mead\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (2002 film), a French film by Tony Gatlif\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (2003 film), an American film by Martin Guigui\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (2010 film), a Hindi short film\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (2011 film), a Kuwaiti short film\n", "Section::::Arts, entertainment, and media.:Music.\n", "Section::::Arts, entertainment, and media.:Music.:Groups and labels.\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (Canadian band), a Canadian néo-trad band\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (Hong Kong band), a Hong Kong pop music group\n", "BULLET::::- Swing Time Records, a record label\n", "Section::::Arts, entertainment, and media.:Music.:Albums.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Swing\" (INXS album), a 1984 album by Australian rock band INXS\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (The Manhattan Transfer album), 1997 album by The Manhattan Transfer\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (Renée Geyer album), 2013 album by Renée Geyer\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (EP), a 2014 album by South Korean-Chinese group, \"Super Junior-M\"\n", "Section::::Arts, entertainment, and media.:Songs.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (Trace Adkins song), 2006, by Trace Adkins\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (AMO song), a 2012 song by Slovak hip hop band AMO\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (Savage song), 2005, by New Zealand performer Savage, released again in 2008 featuring Soulja Boy\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Swing\" (song), 1997, by American country music artist James Bonamy\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing, Swing\", 2003, by the All-American Rejects\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\", 1980, by Japan from the album \"Gentlemen Take Polaroids\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\", 2015, by Knuckle Puck from the album \"Copacetic\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\", 2012, by Parkway Drive from the album \"Atlas\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\", 2014, by Super Junior-M from the album \"Swing\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\", 1983, by Yello\n", "Section::::Arts, entertainment, and media.:Songs.:Styles.\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (jazz performance style), the sense of propulsive rhythmic \"feel\" or \"groove\" in jazz\n", "BULLET::::- Swing music, a style of jazz popular during the 1930s–1950s\n", "Section::::Arts, entertainment, and media.:Other uses in arts, entertainment, and media.\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (dance), a group of dances that correspond to swing style of jazz music\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (musical), a 1999 Broadway musical\n", "BULLET::::- \"Swing\" (video game), a 1997 video game for the PC and PlayStation\n", "BULLET::::- Swing, an understudy in the musical theatre who prepares several roles\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Swing\" (painting), a 1767 rococo painting by Jean-Honoré Fragonard\n", "Section::::Politics.\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (politics), the extent of change in voter support\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (Australian politics), refers to the extent of change in voter support, typically from one election or opinion poll to another\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (United Kingdom), an indication of the scale of voter change between two political parties\n", "BULLET::::- Captain Swing, a name appended to several threatening letters during the rural English Swing Riots of 1830\n", "Section::::Sports.\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (boxing), a type of punch\n", "BULLET::::- Baseball swing, the process of hitting a ball with a bat in the game of baseball\n", "BULLET::::- Golf swing or golf stroke mechanics, the means by which golfers analyze the execute their shots in the sport of golf\n", "BULLET::::- Swing bowling, a subtype of fast bowling in cricket\n", "Section::::Transportation.\n", "BULLET::::- Aquilair Swing, a French ultralight trike aircraft design\n", "BULLET::::- S-Wing Swing, light sport aircraft designed and built in the Czech Republic\n", "BULLET::::- Swing Bike, a bicycle where both front and rear wheels are steerable\n", "BULLET::::- Swing Flugsportgeräte, German aircraft manufacturer\n", "Section::::Other uses.\n", "BULLET::::- Swing (Java), a GUI widget toolkit for the Java programming language\n", "BULLET::::- Swing rifle, type of firearm\n", "BULLET::::- Swing trading, when a tradable asset is held for one or more days to profit from price changes\n", "BULLET::::- Swinging (sexual practice), when partners in a committed relationship engage in sexual activities with others\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Swinger (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- Swingin' (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- Swings (disambiguation)\n", "BULLET::::- The Swing (disambiguation)\n" ] }
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(INXS album)", "\"Swing\" (The Manhattan Transfer album)", "\"Swing\" (Renée Geyer album)", "\"Swing\" (EP)", "\"Swing\" (Trace Adkins song)", "\"Swing\" (AMO song)", "\"Swing\" (Savage song)", "\"The Swing\" (song)", "Swing, Swing", "Gentlemen Take Polaroids", "Copacetic", "Atlas", "Swing", "Yello", "Swing (jazz performance style)", "Swing music", "Swing (dance)", "\"Swing\" (musical)", "\"Swing\" (video game)", "understudy", "\"The Swing\" (painting)", "Swing (politics)", "Swing (Australian politics)", "Swing (United Kingdom)", "Captain Swing", "Swing (boxing)", "hitting a ball", "golf stroke mechanics", "Swing bowling", "Aquilair Swing", "S-Wing Swing", "Swing Bike", "Swing Flugsportgeräte", "Swing (Java)", "Swing rifle", "Swing trading", "Swinging (sexual practice)", "Swinger (disambiguation)", "Swingin' (disambiguation)", "Swings (disambiguation)", "The Swing (disambiguation)" ], "href": [ "Swing%20%28seat%29", "Russian%20swing", "Sex%20swing", "Swing%20ride", 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{ "paragraph": [ "Achilles\n", "In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus ( ; , \"Achilleus\" ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the greatest of all the Greek warriors, and is the central character of Homer's \"Iliad\". He was the son of the Nereid Thetis and Peleus, king of Phthia. \n", "Achilles' most notable feat during the Trojan War was the slaying of the Trojan prince Hector outside the gates of Troy. Although the death of Achilles is not presented in the \"Iliad\", other sources concur that he was killed near the end of the Trojan War by Paris, who shot him in the heel with an arrow. Later legends (beginning with Statius' unfinished epic \"Achilleid\", written in the 1st century AD) state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel because, when his mother Thetis dipped him in the river Styx as an infant, she held him by one of his heels. Alluding to these legends, the term \"Achilles' heel\" has come to mean a point of weakness, especially in someone or something with an otherwise strong constitution. The Achilles tendon is also named after him due to these legends. \n", "Section::::Etymology.\n", "Linear B tablets attest to the personal name \"Achilleus\" in the forms \"a-ki-re-u\" and \"a-ki-re-we\", the latter being the dative of the former. The name grew more popular, even becoming common soon after the seventh century BC and was also turned into the female form Ἀχιλλεία (\"Achilleía\"), attested in Attica in the fourth century BC (IG II² 1617) and, in the form \"Achillia\", on a stele in Halicarnassus as the name of a female gladiator fighting an \"Amazon\".\n", "Achilles' name can be analyzed as a combination of (') \"distress, pain, sorrow, grief\" and (') \"people, soldiers, nation\", resulting in a proto-form \"*Akhí-lāu̯os\" \"he who has the people distressed\" or \"he whose people have distress\". The grief or distress of the people is a theme raised numerous times in the \"Iliad\" (and frequently by Achilles himself). Achilles' role as the hero of grief or distress forms an ironic juxtaposition with the conventional view of him as the hero of \"\" (\"glory\", usually in war). Furthermore, \"laós\" has been construed by Gregory Nagy, following Leonard Palmer, to mean \"a corps of soldiers\", a muster. With this derivation, the name obtains a double meaning in the poem: when the hero is functioning rightly, his men bring distress to the enemy, but when wrongly, his men get the grief of war. The poem is in part about the misdirection of anger on the part of leadership.\n", "Another etymology relates the name to a Proto-Indo-European compound \"*h₂eḱ-pṓds\" \"sharp foot\" which first gave an Illyrian \"*āk̂pediós\", evolving through time into \"*ākhpdeós\" and then \"*akhiddeús\". The shift from \"-dd-\" to \"-ll-\" is then ascribed to the passing of the name into Greek via a Pre-Greek source. The first root part \"*h₂eḱ-\" \"sharp, pointed\" also gave Greek ἀκή (\"akḗ\" \"point, silence, healing\"), ἀκμή (\"akmḗ\" \"point, edge, zenith\") and ὀξύς (\"oxús\" \"sharp, pointed, keen, quick, clever\"), whereas ἄχος stems from the root \"*h₂egʰ-\" \"to be upset, afraid\". The whole expression would be comparable to the Latin \"acupedius\" \"swift of foot\". Compare also the Latin word family of \"aciēs\" \"sharp edge or point, battle line, battle, engagement\", \"acus\" \"needle, pin, bodkin\", and \"acuō\" \"to make pointed, sharpen, whet; to exercise; to arouse\" (whence \"acute\"). Some topical epitheta of Achilles in the \"Iliad\" point to this \"swift-footedness\", namely ποδάρκης δῖος Ἀχιλλεὺς (\"podárkēs dĩos Achilleús\" \"swift-footed divine Achilles\") or, even more frequently, πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς (\"pódas ōkús Achilleús\" \"quick-footed Achilles\").\n", "Some researchers deem the name a loan word, possibly from a Pre-Greek language. Achilles' descent from the Nereid Thetis and a similarity of his name with those of river deities such as Acheron and Achelous have led to speculations about him being an old water divinity (see below Worship). Robert S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name, based among other things on the coexistence of \"-λλ-\" and \"-λ-\" in epic language, which may account for a palatalized phoneme /l/ in the original language.\n", "Section::::Birth and early years.\n", "Achilles was the son of the Nereid Thetis and of Peleus, the king of the Myrmidons. Zeus and Poseidon had been rivals for the hand of Thetis until Prometheus, the fore-thinker, warned Zeus of a prophecy (originally uttered by Themis, goddess of divine law) that Thetis would bear a son greater than his father. For this reason, the two gods withdrew their pursuit, and had her wed Peleus.\n", "There is a tale which offers an alternative version of these events: In the \"Argonautica\" (4.760) Zeus' sister and wife Hera alludes to Thetis' chaste resistance to the advances of Zeus, pointing out that Thetis was so loyal to Hera's marriage bond that she coolly rejected the father of gods. Thetis, although a daughter of the sea-god Nereus, was also brought up by Hera, further explaining her resistance to the advances of Zeus. Zeus was furious and decreed that she would never marry an immortal.\n", "According to the \"Achilleid\", written by Statius in the 1st century AD, and to non-surviving previous sources, when Achilles was born Thetis tried to make him immortal by dipping him in the river Styx. However, he was left vulnerable at the part of the body by which she held him: his left heel (see Achilles' heel, Achilles' tendon). It is not clear if this version of events was known earlier. In another version of this story, Thetis anointed the boy in ambrosia and put him on top of a fire in order to burn away the mortal parts of his body. She was interrupted by Peleus and abandoned both father and son in a rage.\n", "However, none of the sources before Statius make any reference to this general invulnerability. To the contrary, in the \"Iliad\" Homer mentions Achilles being wounded: in Book 21 the Paeonian hero Asteropaeus, son of Pelagon, challenged Achilles by the river Scamander. He cast two spears at once, one grazed Achilles' elbow, \"drawing a spurt of blood\".\n", "Also, in the fragmentary poems of the Epic Cycle in which one can find description of the hero's death (i.e. the \"Cypria\", the \"Little Iliad\" by Lesches of Pyrrha, the \"Aithiopis\" and \"Iliou persis\" by Arctinus of Miletus), there is no trace of any reference to his general invulnerability or his famous weakness at the heel; in the later vase paintings presenting the death of Achilles, the arrow (or in many cases, arrows) hit his torso.\n", "Peleus entrusted Achilles to Chiron the Centaur, on Mount Pelion, to be reared. Thetis foretold that her son's fate was either to gain glory and die young, or to live a long but uneventful life in obscurity. Achilles chose the former, and decided to take part in the Trojan war. According to Homer, Achilles grew up in Phthia together with his companion Patroclus.\n", "According to Photius, the sixth book of the \"New History\" by Ptolemy Hephaestion reported that Thetis burned in a secret place the children she had by Peleus; but when she had Achilles, Peleus noticed, tore him from the flames with only a burnt foot, and confided him to the centaur Chiron. Later Chiron exhumed the body of the Damysus, who was the fastest of all the giants, removed the ankle, and incorporated it into Achilles' burnt foot.\n", "Section::::Birth and early years.:Other names.\n", "Among the appellations under which Achilles is generally known are the following:\n", "BULLET::::- Pyrisous, \"saved from the fire\", his first name, which seems to favour the tradition in which his mortal parts were burned by his mother Thetis\n", "BULLET::::- Aeacides, from his grandfather Aeacus\n", "BULLET::::- Aemonius, from Aemonia, a country which afterwards acquired the name of Thessaly\n", "BULLET::::- Aspetos, \"inimitable\" or \"vast\", his name at Epirus\n", "BULLET::::- Larissaeus, from Larissa (also called Cremaste), a town of Thessaly, which still bears the same name\n", "BULLET::::- Ligyron, his original name\n", "BULLET::::- Nereius, from his mother Thetis, one of the Nereids\n", "BULLET::::- Pelides, from his father, Peleus\n", "BULLET::::- Phthius, from his birthplace, Phthia\n", "Section::::Birth and early years.:Hidden on Skyros.\n", "Some post-Homeric sources claim that in order to keep Achilles safe from the war, Thetis (or, in some versions, Peleus) hid the young man at the court of Lycomedes, king of Skyros. There, Achilles is disguised as a girl and lives among Lycomedes' daughters, perhaps under the name \"Pyrrha\" (the red-haired girl). With Lycomedes' daughter Deidamia, whom in the account of Statius he rapes, Achilles there fathers a son, Neoptolemus (also called Pyrrhus, after his father's possible alias). According to this story, Odysseus learns from the prophet Calchas that the Achaeans would be unable to capture Troy without Achilles' aid. Odysseus goes to Skyros in the guise of a peddler selling women's clothes and jewellery and places a shield and spear among his goods. When Achilles instantly takes up the spear, Odysseus sees through his disguise and convinces him to join the Greek campaign. In another version of the story, Odysseus arranges for a trumpet alarm to be sounded while he was with Lycomedes' women; while the women flee in panic, Achilles prepares to defend the court, thus giving his identity away.\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.\n", "According to the \"Iliad\", Achilles arrived at Troy with 50 ships, each carrying 50 Myrmidons. He appointed five leaders (each leader commanding 500 Myrmidons): Menesthius, Eudorus, Peisander, Phoenix and Alcimedon.\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.:Telephus.\n", "When the Greeks left for the Trojan War, they accidentally stopped in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus. In the resulting battle, Achilles gave Telephus a wound that would not heal; Telephus consulted an oracle, who stated that \"he that wounded shall heal\". Guided by the oracle, he arrived at Argos, where Achilles healed him in order that he might become their guide for the voyage to Troy.\n", "According to other reports in Euripides' lost play about Telephus, he went to Aulis pretending to be a beggar and asked Achilles to heal his wound. Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Alternatively, Telephus held Orestes for ransom, the ransom being Achilles' aid in healing the wound. Odysseus reasoned that the spear had inflicted the wound; therefore, the spear must be able to heal it. Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound and Telephus was healed.\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.:Troilus.\n", "According to the \"Cypria\" (the part of the Epic Cycle that tells the events of the Trojan War before Achilles' wrath), when the Achaeans desired to return home, they were restrained by Achilles, who afterwards attacked the cattle of Aeneas, sacked neighbouring cities (like Pedasus and Lyrnessus, where the Greeks capture the queen Briseis) and killed Tenes, a son of Apollo, as well as Priam's son Troilus in the sanctuary of Apollo Thymbraios. However, the romance between Troilus and Chryseis described in Geoffrey Chaucer's \"Troilus and Criseyde\" and in William Shakespeare's \"Troilus and Cressida\" is a medieval invention.\n", "In Dares Phrygius' \"Account of the Destruction of Troy\", the Latin summary through which the story of Achilles was transmitted to medieval Europe, as well as in older accounts, Troilus was a young Trojan prince, the youngest of King Priam's and Hecuba's five legitimate sons (or according other sources, another son of Apollo). Despite his youth, he was one of the main Trojan war leaders, a \"horse fighter\" or \"chariot fighter\" according to Homer. Prophecies linked Troilus' fate to that of Troy and so he was ambushed in an attempt to capture him. Yet Achilles, struck by the beauty of both Troilus and his sister Polyxena, and overcome with lust, directed his sexual attentions on the youth – who, refusing to yield, instead found himself decapitated upon an altar-omphalos of Apollo Thymbraios. Later versions of the story suggested Troilus was accidentally killed by Achilles in an over-ardent lovers' embrace. In this version of the myth, Achilles' death therefore came in retribution for this sacrilege. Ancient writers treated Troilus as the epitome of a dead child mourned by his parents. Had Troilus lived to adulthood, the First Vatican Mythographer claimed, Troy would have been invincible.\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.:In the \"Iliad\".\n", "Homer's \"Iliad\" is the most famous narrative of Achilles' deeds in the Trojan War. Achilles' wrath (μῆνις Ἀχιλλέως, \"mênis Achilléōs\") is the central theme of the poem. The first two lines of the \"Iliad\" read:\n", "The Homeric epic only covers a few weeks of the decade-long war, and does not narrate Achilles' death. It begins with Achilles' withdrawal from battle after being dishonoured by Agamemnon, the commander of the Achaean forces. Agamemnon has taken a woman named Chryseis as his slave. Her father Chryses, a priest of Apollo, begs Agamemnon to return her to him. Agamemnon refuses, and Apollo sends a plague amongst the Greeks. The prophet Calchas correctly determines the source of the troubles but will not speak unless Achilles vows to protect him. Achilles does so, and Calchas declares that Chryseis must be returned to her father. Agamemnon consents, but then commands that Achilles' battle prize Briseis, the daughter of Briseus, be brought to him to replace Chryseis. Angry at the dishonour of having his plunder and glory taken away (and, as he says later, because he loves Briseis), with the urging of his mother Thetis, Achilles refuses to fight or lead his troops alongside the other Greek forces. At the same time, burning with rage over Agamemnon's theft, Achilles prays to Thetis to convince Zeus to help the Trojans gain ground in the war, so that he may regain his honour.\n", "As the battle turns against the Greeks, thanks to the influence of Zeus, Nestor declares that the Trojans are winning because Agamemnon has angered Achilles, and urges the king to appease the warrior. Agamemnon agrees and sends Odysseus and two other chieftains, Ajax and Phoenix, to Achilles with the offer of the return of Briseis and other gifts. Achilles rejects all Agamemnon offers him and simply urges the Greeks to sail home as he was planning to do.\n", "The Trojans, led by Hector, subsequently push the Greek army back toward the beaches and assault the Greek ships. With the Greek forces on the verge of absolute destruction, Patroclus leads the Myrmidons into battle, wearing Achilles' armour, though Achilles remains at his camp. Patroclus succeeds in pushing the Trojans back from the beaches, but is killed by Hector before he can lead a proper assault on the city of Troy.\n", "After receiving the news of the death of Patroclus from Antilochus, the son of Nestor, Achilles grieves over his beloved companion's death. His mother Thetis comes to comfort the distraught Achilles. She persuades Hephaestus to make new armour for him, in place of the armour that Patroclus had been wearing, which was taken by Hector. The new armour includes the Shield of Achilles, described in great detail in the poem.\n", "Enraged over the death of Patroclus, Achilles ends his refusal to fight and takes the field, killing many men in his rage but always seeking out Hector. Achilles even engages in battle with the river god Scamander, who has become angry that Achilles is choking his waters with all the men he has killed. The god tries to drown Achilles but is stopped by Hera and Hephaestus. Zeus himself takes note of Achilles' rage and sends the gods to restrain him so that he will not go on to sack Troy itself before the time allotted for its destruction, seeming to show that the unhindered rage of Achilles can defy fate itself. Finally, Achilles finds his prey. Achilles chases Hector around the wall of Troy three times before Athena, in the form of Hector's favorite and dearest brother, Deiphobus, persuades Hector to stop running and fight Achilles face to face. After Hector realizes the trick, he knows the battle is inevitable. Wanting to go down fighting, he charges at Achilles with his only weapon, his sword, but misses. Accepting his fate, Hector begs Achilles, not to spare his life, but to treat his body with respect after killing him. Achilles tells Hector it is hopeless to expect that of him, declaring that \"my rage, my fury would drive me now to hack your flesh away and eat you raw – such agonies you have caused me\". Achilles then kills Hector and drags his corpse by its heels behind his chariot. After having a dream where Patroclus begs Achilles to hold his funeral, Achilles hosts a series of funeral games in his honour.\n", "At the onset of his duel with Hector, Achilles is referred to as the brightest star in the sky, which comes on in the autumn, Orion's dog (Sirius); a sign of evil. During the cremation of Patroclus, he is compared to Hesperus, the evening/western star (Venus), while the burning of the funeral pyre lasts until Phosphorus, the morning/eastern star (also Venus) has set (descended).\n", "With the assistance of the god Hermes (Argeiphontes), Hector's father Priam goes to Achilles' tent to plead with Achilles for the return of Hector's body so that he can be buried. Achilles relents and promises a truce for the duration of the funeral, lasting 9 days with a burial on the 10th (in the tradition of Niobe's offspring). The poem ends with a description of Hector's funeral, with the doom of Troy and Achilles himself still to come.\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.:Later epic accounts: fighting Penthesilea and Memnon.\n", "The \"Aethiopis\" (7th century BC) and a work named \"Posthomerica\", composed by Quintus of Smyrna in the fourth century AD, relate further events from the Trojan War. When Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons and daughter of Ares, arrives in Troy, Priam hopes that she will defeat Achilles. After his temporary truce with Priam, Achilles fights and kills the warrior queen, only to grieve over her death later. At first, he was so distracted by her beauty, he did not fight as intensely as usual. Once he realized that his distraction was endangering his life, he refocused and killed her.\n", "Following the death of Patroclus, Nestor's son Antilochus becomes Achilles' closest companion. When Memnon, son of the Dawn Goddess Eos and king of Ethiopia, slays Antilochus, Achilles once more obtains revenge on the battlefield, killing Memnon. Consequently, Eos will not let the sun rise, until Zeus persuades her. The fight between Achilles and Memnon over Antilochus echoes that of Achilles and Hector over Patroclus, except that Memnon (unlike Hector) was also the son of a goddess.\n", "Many Homeric scholars argued that episode inspired many details in the \"Iliad\"s description of the death of Patroclus and Achilles' reaction to it. The episode then formed the basis of the cyclic epic \"Aethiopis\", which was composed after the \"Iliad\", possibly in the 7th century BC. The \"Aethiopis\" is now lost, except for scattered fragments quoted by later authors.\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.:Achilles and Patroclus.\n", "The exact nature of Achilles' relationship with Patroclus has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times. In the \"Iliad\", it appears to be the model of a deep and loyal friendship. Homer does not suggest that Achilles and his close friend Patroclus were lovers. Despite there being no direct evidence in the text of the \"Iliad\" that Achilles and Patroclus were lovers, this theory was expressed by some later authors. Commentators from classical antiquity to the present have often interpreted the relationship through the lens of their own cultures. In 5th-century BC Athens, the intense bond was often viewed in light of the Greek custom of \"paiderasteia\". In Plato's \"Symposium\", the participants in a dialogue about love assume that Achilles and Patroclus were a couple; Phaedrus argues that Achilles was the younger and more beautiful one so he was the beloved and Patroclus was the lover. But ancient Greek had no words to distinguish heterosexual and homosexual, and it was assumed that a man could both desire handsome young men and have sex with women. Many pairs of men throughout history have been compared to Achilles and Patroclus to imply a homosexual relationship.\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.:Death.\n", "The death of Achilles, even if considered solely as it occurred in the oldest sources, is a complex one, with many different versions. In the oldest one, the Iliad, and as predicted by Hector with his dying breath, the hero's death was brought about by Paris with an arrow (to the heel according to Statius). In some versions, the god Apollo guided Paris' arrow. Some retellings also state that Achilles was scaling the gates of Troy and was hit with a poisoned arrow. All of these versions deny Paris any sort of valour, owing to the common conception that Paris was a coward and not the man his brother Hector was, and Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held. He was represented in the \"Aethiopis\" as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the river Danube.\n", "Another version of Achilles' death is that he fell deeply in love with one of the Trojan princesses, Polyxena. Achilles asks Priam for Polyxena's hand in marriage. Priam is willing because it would mean the end of the war and an alliance with the world's greatest warrior. But while Priam is overseeing the private marriage of Polyxena and Achilles, Paris, who would have to give up Helen if Achilles married his sister, hides in the bushes and shoots Achilles with a divine arrow, killing him.\n", "In the \"Odyssey\", Agamemnon informs Achilles of his pompous burial and the erection of his mound at the Hellespont while they are receiving the dead suitors in Hades. He claims they built a massive burial mound on the beach of Ilion that could be seen by anyone approaching from the Ocean. Achilles was cremated and his ashes buried in the same urn as those of Patroclus. Paris was later killed by Philoctetes using the enormous bow of Heracles.\n", "In Book 11 of Homer's \"Odyssey\", Odysseus sails to the underworld and converses with the shades. One of these is Achilles, who when greeted as \"blessed in life, blessed in death\", responds that he would rather be a slave to the worst of masters than be king of all the dead. But Achilles then asks Odysseus of his son's exploits in the Trojan war, and when Odysseus tells of Neoptolemus' heroic actions, Achilles is filled with satisfaction. This leaves the reader with an ambiguous understanding of how Achilles felt about the heroic life.\n", "According to some accounts, he had married Medea in life, so that after both their deaths they were united in the Elysian Fields of Hades – as Hera promised Thetis in Apollonius' \"Argonautica\" (3rd century BC).\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.:Fate of Achilles' armour.\n", "Achilles' armour was the object of a feud between Odysseus and Telamonian Ajax (Ajax the greater). They competed for it by giving speeches on why they were the bravest after Achilles to their Trojan prisoners, who after considering both men, decided Odysseus was more deserving of the armour. Furious, Ajax cursed Odysseus, which earned him the ire of Athena. Athena temporarily made Ajax so mad with grief and anguish that he began killing sheep, thinking them his comrades. After a while, when Athena lifted his madness and Ajax realized that he had actually been killing sheep, Ajax was left so ashamed that he committed suicide. Odysseus eventually gave the armour to Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles.\n", "A relic claimed to be Achilles' bronze-headed spear was for centuries preserved in the temple of Athena on the acropolis of Phaselis, Lycia, a port on the Pamphylian Gulf. The city was visited in 333 BC by Alexander the Great, who envisioned himself as the new Achilles and carried the \"Iliad\" with him, but his court biographers do not mention the spear. However, it was shown in the time of Pausanias in the 2nd century AD.\n", "Section::::In the Trojan War.:Achilles, Ajax and a game of \"petteia\".\n", "Numerous paintings on pottery have suggested a tale not mentioned in the literary traditions. At some point in the war, Achilles and Ajax were playing a board game (\"petteia\"). They were absorbed in the game and oblivious to the surrounding battle. The Trojans attacked and reached the heroes, who were saved only by an intervention of Athena.\n", "Section::::Worship and heroic cult.\n", "The tomb of Achilles, extant throughout antiquity in Troad, was venerated by Thessalians, but also by Persian expeditionary forces, as well as by Alexander the Great and the Roman emperor Caracalla. Achilles' cult was also to be found at other places, e. g. on the island of Astypalaea in the Sporades, in Sparta which had a sanctuary, in Elis and in Achilles' homeland Thessaly, as well as in the Magna Graecia cities of Tarentum, Locri and Croton, accounting for an almost Panhellenic cult to the hero.\n", "The cult of Achilles is illustrated in the 500 BC Polyxena sarcophagus, where the sacrifice of Polixena near the tumulus of Achilles is depicted. Strabo (13.1.32) also suggested that such a cult of Achilles existed in Troad:\n", "The spread and intensity of the hero's veneration among the Greeks that had settled on the northern coast of the Pontus Euxinus, today's Black Sea, appears to have been remarkable. An archaic cult is attested for the Milesian colony of Olbia as well as for an island in the middle of the Black Sea, today identified with Snake Island (Ukrainian Зміїний, \"Zmiinyi\", near Kiliya, Ukraine). Early dedicatory inscriptions from the Greek colonies on the Black Sea (graffiti and inscribed clay disks, these possibly being votive offerings, from Olbia, the area of Berezan Island and the Tauric Chersonese) attest the existence of a heroic cult of Achilles from the sixth century BC onwards. The cult was still thriving in the third century AD, when dedicatory stelae from Olbia refer to an \"Achilles Pontárchēs\" (Ποντάρχης, roughly \"lord of the Sea,\" or \"of the Pontus Euxinus\"), who was invoked as a protector of the city of Olbia, venerated on par with Olympian gods such as the local Apollo Prostates, Hermes Agoraeus, or Poseidon.\n", "Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD) in his \"Natural History\" mentions a \"port of the Achæi\" and an \"island of Achilles\", famous for the tomb of that \"man\" (portus Achaeorum, insula Achillis, tumulo eius viri clara), situated somewhat nearby Olbia and the Dnieper-Bug Estuary; furthermore, at 125 Roman miles from this island, he places a peninsula \"which stretches forth in the shape of a sword\" obliquely, called \"Dromos Achilleos\" (Ἀχιλλέως δρόμος, \"Achilléōs drómos\" \"the Race-course of Achilles\") and considered the place of the hero's exercise or of games instituted by him. This last feature of Pliny's account is considered to be the iconic spit, called today \"Tendra\" (or \"Kosa Tendra\" and \"Kosa Djarilgatch\"), situated between the mouth of the Dnieper and Karkinit Bay, but which is hardly 125 Roman miles (c. 185 km) away from the Dnieper-Bug estuary, as Pliny states. (To the \"Race-course\" he gives a length of 80 miles, c. 120 km, whereas the spit measures c. 70 km today.)\n", "In the following chapter of his book, Pliny refers to the same island as \"Achillea\" and introduces two further names for it: \"Leuce\" or \"Macaron\" (from Greek [νῆσος] μακαρῶν \"island of the blest\"). The \"present day\" measures, he gives at this point, seem to account for an identification of \"Achillea\" or \"Leuce\" with today's Snake Island. Pliny's contemporary Pomponius Mela (c. 43 AD) tells that Achilles was buried on an island named \"Achillea\", situated between the Borysthenes and the Ister, adding to the geographical confusion. Ruins of a square temple, measuring 30 meters to a side, possibly that dedicated to Achilles, were discovered by Captain Kritzikly in 1823 on Snake Island. A second exploration in 1840 showed that the construction of a lighthouse had destroyed all traces of this temple. A fifth century BC black-glazed lekythos inscription, found on the island in 1840, reads: \"Glaukos, son of Poseidon, dedicated me to Achilles, lord of Leuke.\" In another inscription from the fifth or fourth century BC, a statue is dedicated to Achilles, lord of Leuke, by a citizen of Olbia, while in a further dedication, the city of Olbia confirms its continuous maintenance of the island's cult, again suggesting its quality as a place of a supra-regional hero veneration.\n", "The heroic cult dedicated to Achilles on \"Leuce\" seems to go back to an account from the lost epic \"Aethiopis\" according to which, after his untimely death, Thetis had snatched her son from the funeral pyre and removed him to a mythical Λεύκη Νῆσος (\"Leúkē Nêsos\" \"White Island\"). Already in the fifth century BC, Pindar had mentioned a cult of Achilles on a \"bright island\" (φαεννά νᾶσος, \"phaenná nâsos\") of the Black Sea, while in another of his works, Pindar would retell the story of the immortalized Achilles living on a geographically indefinite Island of the Blest together with other heroes such as his father Peleus and Cadmus. Well known is the connection of these mythological Fortunate Isles (μακαρῶν νῆσοι, \"makárôn nêsoi\") or the Homeric Elysium with the stream Oceanus which according to Greek mythology surrounds the inhabited world, which should have accounted for the identification of the northern strands of the Euxine with it. Guy Hedreen has found further evidence for this connection of Achilles with the northern margin of the inhabited world in a poem by Alcaeus, speaking of \"Achilles lord of Scythia\" and the opposition of North and South, as evoked by Achilles' fight against the Aethiopian prince Memnon, who in his turn would be removed to his homeland by his mother Eos after his death.\n", "The \"Periplus of the Euxine Sea\" (c. 130 AD) gives the following details:\n", "The Greek geographer Dionysius Periegetes, who lived probably during the first century AD, wrote that the island was called \"Leuce\" \"because the wild animals which live there are white. It is said that there, in Leuce island, reside the souls of Achilles and other heroes, and that they wander through the uninhabited valleys of this island; this is how Jove rewarded the men who had distinguished themselves through their virtues, because through virtue they had acquired everlasting honour\". Similarly, others relate the island's name to its white cliffs, snakes or birds dwelling there. Pausanias has been told that the island is \"covered with forests and full of animals, some wild, some tame. In this island there is also Achilles' temple and his statue\". Leuce had also a reputation as a place of healing. Pausanias reports that the Delphic Pythia sent a lord of Croton to be cured of a chest wound. Ammianus Marcellinus attributes the healing to waters (\"aquae\") on the island.\n", "A number of important commercial port cities of the Greek waters were dedicated to Achilles. Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo reported on the existence of a town \"Achílleion\" (Ἀχίλλειον), built by settlers from Mytilene in the sixth century BC, close to the hero's presumed burial mound in the Troad. Later attestations point to an \"Achílleion\" in Messenia (according to Stephanus Byzantinus) and an \"Achílleios\" (Ἀχίλλειος) in Laconia. Nicolae Densuşianu recognized a connection to Achilles in the names of Aquileia and of the northern arm of the Danube delta, called Chilia (presumably from an older \"Achileii\"), though his conclusion, that Leuce had sovereign rights over the Black Sea, evokes modern rather than archaic sea-law.\n", "The kings of Epirus claimed to be descended from Achilles through his son, Neoptolemus. Alexander the Great, son of the Epirote princess Olympias, could therefore also claim this descent, and in many ways strove to be like his great ancestor. He is said to have visited the tomb of Achilles at Achilleion while passing Troy. In AD 216 the Roman Emperor Caracalla, while on his way to war against Parthia, emulated Alexander by holding games around Achilles' tumulus.\n", "Section::::Reception during antiquity.\n", "Section::::Reception during antiquity.:In Greek tragedy.\n", "The Greek tragedian Aeschylus wrote a trilogy of plays about Achilles, given the title \"Achilleis\" by modern scholars. The tragedies relate the deeds of Achilles during the Trojan War, including his defeat of Hector and eventual death when an arrow shot by Paris and guided by Apollo punctures his heel. Extant fragments of the \"Achilleis\" and other Aeschylean fragments have been assembled to produce a workable modern play. The first part of the \"Achilleis\" trilogy, \"The Myrmidons\", focused on the relationship between Achilles and chorus, who represent the Achaean army and try to convince Achilles to give up his quarrel with Agamemnon; only a few lines survive today. In Plato's \"Symposium\", Phaedrus points out that Aeschylus portrayed Achilles as the lover and Patroclus as the beloved; Phaedrus argues that this is incorrect because Achilles, being the younger and more beautiful of the two, was the beloved, who loved his lover so much that he chose to die to revenge him.\n", "The tragedian Sophocles also wrote \"The Lovers of Achilles\", a play with Achilles as the main character. Only a few fragments survive.\n", "Towards the end of the 5th century BC, a more negative view of Achilles emerges in Greek drama; Euripides refers to Achilles in a bitter or ironic tone in \"Hecuba\", \"Electra\", and \"Iphigenia in Aulis\".\n", "Section::::Reception during antiquity.:In Greek philosophy.\n", "The philosopher Zeno of Elea centred one of his paradoxes on an imaginary footrace between \"swift-footed\" Achilles and a tortoise, by which he attempted to show that Achilles could not catch up to a tortoise with a head start, and therefore that motion and change were impossible. As a student of the monist Parmenides and a member of the Eleatic school, Zeno believed time and motion to be illusions.\n", "Section::::Reception during antiquity.:Achilles in Roman and medieval literature.\n", "The Romans, who traditionally traced their lineage to Troy, took a highly negative view of Achilles. Virgil refers to Achilles as a savage and a merciless butcher of men, while Horace portrays Achilles ruthlessly slaying women and children. Other writers, such as Catullus, Propertius, and Ovid, represent a second strand of disparagement, with an emphasis on Achilles' erotic career. This strand continues in Latin accounts of the Trojan War by writers such as Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius and in Benoît de Sainte-Maure's \"Roman de Troie\" and Guido delle Colonne's \"Historia destructionis Troiae\", which remained the most widely read and retold versions of the Matter of Troy until the 17th century.\n", "Achilles was described by the Byzantine chronicler Leo the Deacon, not as Hellene, but as Scythian, while according to the Byzantine author John Malalas, his army was made up of a tribe previously known as Myrmidons and later as Bulgars.\n", "Section::::In modern literature and arts.\n", "Section::::In modern literature and arts.:Literature.\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles appears in Dante's \"Inferno\" (composed 1308–1320). He is seen in Hell's second circle, that of lust.\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is portrayed as a former hero who has become lazy and devoted to the love of Patroclus, in William Shakespeare's \"Troilus and Cressida\" (1602).\n", "BULLET::::- The French dramatist Thomas Corneille wrote a tragedy \"La Mort d'Achille\" (1673).\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is the subject of the poem \"Achilleis\" (1799), a fragment by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is mentioned in Tennyson's poem \"Ulysses\" (published in 1842): \"[...] we shall touch the happy isles and meet there the great Achilles whom we knew.\"\n", "BULLET::::- In 1899, the Polish playwright, painter and poet Stanisław Wyspiański published a national drama, based on Polish history, named \"Achilles\".\n", "BULLET::::- In 1921, Edward Shanks published \"The Island of Youth and Other Poems\", concerned among others with Achilles.\n", "BULLET::::- The 1983 novel \"Kassandra\" by Christa Wolf also treats the death of Achilles.\n", "BULLET::::- Akhilles is killed by a poisoned Kentaur arrow shot by Kassandra in Marion Zimmer Bradley's novel \"The Firebrand\" (1987).\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is one of various 'narrators' in Colleen McCullough's novel \"The Song of Troy\" (1998).\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Death of Achilles\" (\"Смерть Ахиллеса\", 1998) is an historical detective novel by Russian writer Boris Akunin that alludes to various figures and motifs from the \"Iliad\".\n", "BULLET::::- The character Achilles in \"Ender's Shadow\" (1999), by Orson Scott Card, shares his namesake's cunning mind and ruthless attitude.\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is one of the main characters in Dan Simmons's novels \"Ilium\" (2003) and \"Olympos\" (2005).\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is a major supporting character in David Gemmell's \"Troy\" series of books (2005-2007).\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is the main character in David Malouf's novel \"Ransom\" (2009).\n", "BULLET::::- The ghost of Achilles appears in Rick Riordan's \"The Last Olympian\" (2009). He warns Percy Jackson about the Curse of Achilles and its side effects.\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is a main character in Terence Hawkins' 2009 novel \"The Rage of Achilles\".\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is a major character in Madeline Miller's debut novel, \"The Song of Achilles\" (2011), which won the 2012 Orange Prize for Fiction. The novel explores the relationship between Patroclus and Achilles from boyhood to the fateful events of the \"Iliad\".\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles appears in the light novel series \"Fate/Apocrypha\" (2012–2014) as the Rider of Red.\n", "BULLET::::- Achilles is a main character in Pat Barker’s 2018 novel \"The Silence of the Girls\", much of which is narrated by his slave Briseis.\n", "Section::::In modern literature and arts.:Visual arts.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilles with the Daughters of Lycomedes\" is a subject treated in paintings by Anthony van Dyck (before 1618; Museo del Prado, Madrid) and Nicolas Poussin (c. 1652; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) among others.\n", "BULLET::::- Peter Paul Rubens has authored a series of works on the life of Achilles, comprising the titles: \"Thetis dipping the infant Achilles into the river Styx\", \"Achilles educated by the centaur Chiron\", \"Achilles recognized among the daughters of Lycomedes\", \"The wrath of Achilles\", \"The death of Hector\", \"Thetis receiving the arms of Achilles from Vulcanus\", \"The death of Achilles\" (Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam), and \"Briseis restored to Achilles\" (Detroit Institute of Arts; all c. 1630–1635)\n", "BULLET::::- Pieter van Lint, \"Achilles Discovered among the Daughters of Lycomedes\", 1645, at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem\n", "BULLET::::- \"Dying Achilles\" is a sculpture created by Christophe Veyrier (c. 1683; Victoria and Albert Museum, London).\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Rage of Achilles\" is a fresco by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1757, Villa Valmarana ai Nani, Vicenza).\n", "BULLET::::- Eugène Delacroix painted a version of \"The Education of Achilles\" for the ceiling of the Paris Palais Bourbon (1833–1847), one of the seats of the French Parliament.\n", "BULLET::::- created a statue group \"Achilles and Penthesilea\" (1895; Vienna).\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilleus\" (1908) is a lithography by Max Slevogt.\n", "Section::::In modern literature and arts.:Music.\n", "Achilles has been frequently the subject of operas, ballets and related genres.\n", "BULLET::::- Operas titled \"Deidamia\" were composed by Francesco Cavalli (1644) and George Frideric Handel (1739).\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achille et Polyxène\" (Paris 1687) is an opera begun by Jean-Baptiste Lully and finished by Pascal Collasse.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achille e Deidamia\" (Naples 1698) is an opera, composed by Alessandro Scarlatti.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilles\" (London 1733) is a ballad opera, written by John Gay, parodied by Thomas Arne as \"Achilles in petticoats\" in 1773.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achille in Sciro\" is a libretto by Metastasio, composed by Domenico Sarro for the inauguration of the Teatro di San Carlo (Naples, 4 November 1737). An even earlier composition is from Antonio Caldara (Vienna 1736). Later operas on the same libretto were composed by Leonardo Leo (Turin 1739), Niccolò Jommelli (Vienna 1749 and Rome 1772), Giuseppe Sarti (Copenhagen 1759 and Florence 1779), Johann Adolph Hasse (Naples 1759), Giovanni Paisiello (St. Petersburg 1772), Giuseppe Gazzaniga (Palermo 1781) and many others. It has also been set to music as \"Il Trionfo della gloria\".\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achille\" (Vienna 1801) is an opera by Ferdinando Paër on a libretto by Giovanni de Gamerra.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achille à Scyros\" (Paris 1804) is a ballet by Pierre Gardel, composed by Luigi Cherubini.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilles, oder Das zerstörte Troja\" (\"Achilles, or Troy Destroyed\", Bonn 1885) is an oratorio by the German composer Max Bruch.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilles auf Skyros\" (Stuttgart 1926) is a ballet by the Austrian-British composer and musicologist Egon Wellesz.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilles' Wrath\" is a concert piece by Sean O'Loughlin.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilles Last Stand\" a track on the 1976 Led Zeppelin album \"Presence\".\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilles, Agony and Ecstasy in Eight Parts\" is the first song on the 1992 Manowar album \"The Triumph of Steel\".\n", "BULLET::::- \"Achilles Come Down\" is a song on the 2017 Gang of Youths album \"Go Farther in Lightness\".\n", "Section::::In modern literature and arts.:Film and television.\n", "In films Achilles has been portrayed in the following films and television series:\n", "BULLET::::- The 1924 film \"Helena\" by Carlo Aldini\n", "BULLET::::- The 1954 film \"Ulysses\" by Piero Lulli\n", "BULLET::::- The 1956 film \"Helen of Troy\" by Stanley Baker\n", "BULLET::::- The 1961 film \"The Trojan Horse\" by Arturo Dominici\n", "BULLET::::- The 1962 film \"The Fury of Achilles\" by Gordon Mitchell\n", "BULLET::::- The 1997 television miniseries \"The Odyssey\" by Richard Trewett\n", "BULLET::::- The 2003 television miniseries \"Helen of Troy\" by Joe Montana\n", "BULLET::::- The 2004 film \"Troy\" by Brad Pitt\n", "BULLET::::- The 2018 TV series \"\" by David Gyasi\n", "Section::::In modern literature and arts.:Architecture.\n", "In 1890, Elisabeth of Bavaria, Empress of Austria, had a summer palace built in Corfu. The building is named the \"Achilleion\", after Achilles. Its paintings and statuary depict scenes from the Trojan War, with particular focus on Achilles.\n", "Section::::Namesakes.\n", "BULLET::::- The name of Achilles has been used for at least nine Royal Navy warships since 1744 – both as HMS \"Achilles\" and with the French spelling HMS \"Achille\". A 60-gun ship of that name served at the Battle of Belleisle in 1761 while a 74-gun ship served at the Battle of Trafalgar. Other battle honours include Walcheren 1809. An armored cruiser of that name served in the Royal Navy during the First World War.\n", "BULLET::::- HMNZS \"Achilles\" was a \"Leander\"-class cruiser which served with the Royal New Zealand Navy in World War II. It became famous for its part in the Battle of the River Plate, alongside and . In addition to earning the battle honour 'River Plate', HMNZS Achilles also served at Guadalcanal 1942–43 and Okinawa in 1945. After returning to the Royal Navy, the ship was sold to the Indian Navy in 1948 but when she was scrapped parts of the ship were saved and preserved in New Zealand.\n", "BULLET::::- A species of lizard, \"Anolis achilles\", which has widened heel plates, is named for Achilles.\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- Ileana Chirassi Colombo (1977), \"Heroes Achilleus – Theos Apollon.\" In \"Il Mito Greco\", edd. Bruno Gentili and Giuseppe Paione. Rome: Edizione dell'Ateneo e Bizzarri.\n", "BULLET::::- Anthony Edwards (1985a), \"Achilles in the Underworld: Iliad, Odyssey, and Æthiopis\". \"Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies\". 26: pp. 215–227.\n", "BULLET::::- Anthony Edwards (1985b), \"Achilles in the Odyssey: Ideologies of Heroism in the Homeric Epic\". \"Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie\". 171.\n", "BULLET::::- Anthony Edwards (1988), \"Kleos Aphthiton and Oral Theory,\" \"Classical Quarterly\". 38: pp. 25–30.\n", "BULLET::::- Hélène Monsacré (1984), \"Les larmes d'Achille. Le héros, la femme et la souffrance dans la poésie d'Homère\", Paris: Albin Michel.\n", "BULLET::::- Gregory Nagy (1984), \"The Name of Achilles: Questions of Etymology and 'Folk Etymology\", \"Illinois Classical Studies\". 19.\n", "BULLET::::- Gregory Nagy (1999), \"The Best of The Acheans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry\". Johns Hopkins University Press (revised edition, online).\n", "BULLET::::- Dale S. Sinos (1991), \"The Entry of Achilles into Greek Epic\", Ph. D. thesis, Johns Hopkins University. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International.\n", "BULLET::::- Jonathan S. Burgess (2009), \"The Death and Afterlife of Achilles\". Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Abrantes, M.C. (2016), \"Themes of the Trojan Cycle: Contribution to the study of the greek mythological tradition\" (Coimbra).\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Trojan War Resources\n", "BULLET::::- Gallery of the Ancient Art: Achilles\n", "BULLET::::- Poem by Florence Earle Coates\n" ] }
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"Characters in Greek mythology,People of the Trojan War,Kings of the Myrmidons,Achaean Leaders,Greek mythological heroes,Characters in the Iliad,Demigods of Classical mythology,Thessalians in the Trojan War,LGBT themes in Greek mythology"
{ "description": "Greek mythological hero", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q41746", "wikidata_label": "Achilles", "wikipedia_title": "Achilles", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 305, "parentid": 907126140, "revid": 907135234, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-20T19:03:03Z", "url": "" }
"Albert of Aix"
{ "paragraph": [ "Albert of Aix\n", "Albert of Aix(-la-Chapelle) or Albert of Aachen (\"floruit\" circa AD 1100), historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon (priest) and \"custos\" (guardian) of the church of Aachen.\n", "Nothing else is known of his life except that he was the author of a \"Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis\" (“History of the Expedition to Jerusalem”), or \"Chronicon Hierosolymitanum de bello sacro\", a work in Latin in twelve books, written between 1125 and 1150. This history begins at the time of the Council of Clermont, deals with the fortunes of the First Crusade and the earlier history of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, and ends somewhat abruptly in 1121.\n", "The \"Historia\" was well known during the Middle Ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his \"Belli sacri historia\". In modern times, it was accepted unreservedly for many years by most historians, including Edward Gibbon. In more recent times, its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the First Crusade, although containing some legendary matter.\n", "Albert never visited the Holy Land, but he appears to have had a considerable amount of discourse with returned crusaders, and to have had access to valuable correspondence. Unlike many other chronicles of the First Crusade, Albert did not rely on the Gesta Francorum, but used his own independent interviews; he may also have had access to the Chanson d'Antioche, as his work shares textual similarities with that poem. The first edition of the history was published at Helmstedt in 1584, and a good edition is in the \"Recueil des historiens des croisades\", tome iv (Paris, 1841–1887). A modern edition in Latin and English translation by Susan B. Edgington is available in the Oxford Medieval Texts series.\n", "Section::::References.\n", "BULLET::::- Susan B. Edgington, \"Albert of Aachen and the Chansons de Geste\" in \"The Crusades and their sources: essays presented to Bernard Hamilton\" ed. John France, William G. Zajac (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998) pp. 23–37.\n", "BULLET::::- Albert of Aachen, \"Historia Ierosolimitana\", ed. and trans. S. Edgington (Oxford: Oxford Medieval Texts, 2007).\n", "Section::::Bibliography.\n", "BULLET::::- Albert of Aachen, \"Albert of Aachen's History of the Journey to Jerusalem, vol.1: Books 1-6. The First Crusade 1095-1099\", trans. S.B. Edgington (Farnham, 2013).\n", "BULLET::::- Albert of Aachen, \"Albert of Aachen's History of the Journey to Jerusalem, vol. 2: Books 7-12. The Early History of the Latin States 1099-1119\", trans. S.B. Edgington (Farnham, 2013).\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Albert of Aix at The Latin Library (from the Patrologia Latina edition).\n" ] }
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"12th-century Latin writers,Crusade literature,11th-century births,12th-century deaths,12th-century historians"
{ "description": "historian of the First Crusade", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q4323", "wikidata_label": "Albert of Aix", "wikipedia_title": "Albert of Aix", "aliases": { "alias": [ "Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle", "Albert of Aachen" ] } }
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"Godfrey of Bouillon"
{ "paragraph": [ "Godfrey of Bouillon\n", "Godfrey of Bouillon (, , , ; 18 September 1060 – 18 July 1100) was a Frankish knight and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Jesus Christ, preferring the title of Advocate (i.e., protector or defender) of the Holy Sepulchre (Latin: \"Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri\"). He is also known as the \"Baron of the Holy Sepulchre\" and the \"Crusader King\".\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Godfrey of Bouillon was born around 1060 as the second son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, and Ida, daughter of the Lotharingian duke Godfrey the Bearded by his first wife, Doda.\n", "His birthplace was probably Boulogne-sur-Mer, although one 13th-century chronicler cites Baisy, a town in what is now Walloon Brabant, Belgium.\n", "As second son, he had fewer opportunities than his older brother and seemed destined to become just one more minor knight in service to a rich landed nobleman. However his maternal uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, died childless and named his nephew, Godfrey of Bouillon, as his heir and next in line to his Duchy of Lower Lorraine. This duchy was an important one at the time, serving as a buffer between the kingdom of France and the German lands.\n", "In fact, Lower Lorraine was so important to the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire that Henry IV, the German king and future emperor (reigned 1084–1105), decided in 1076 that he would place it in the hands of his own son and give Godfrey only Bouillon and the Margraviate of Antwerp as a test of Godfrey's abilities and loyalty. Godfrey served Henry IV loyally, supporting him even when Pope Gregory VII was battling the German king in the Investiture Controversy. Godfrey fought alongside Henry and his forces against the rival forces of Rudolf of Swabia and also took part in battles in Italy when Henry IV actually took Rome away from the pope.\n", "A major test of Godfrey’s leadership skills was shown in his battles to defend his inheritance against a significant array of enemies. In 1076 he had succeeded as designated heir to the Lotharingian lands of his uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, and Godfrey was struggling to maintain control over the lands that Henry IV had not taken away from him. Claims were raised by his aunt Margravine Matilda of Tuscany, cousin Count Albert III of Namur, and Count Theoderic of Veluwe. This coalition was joined by Bishop Theoderic of Verdun, and two minor counts attempting to share in the spoils, Waleran I of Limburg and Arnold I of Chiny.\n", "As these enemies tried to take away portions of his land, Godfrey's brothers, Eustace and Baldwin, both came to his aid. Following these long struggles and proving that he was a loyal subject to Henry IV, Godfrey finally won back his duchy of Lower Lorraine in 1087. Still, Godfrey's influence in the German kingdom would have been minimal if it had not been for his major role in the First Crusade.\n", "Section::::First Crusade.\n", "In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim forces and also to aid the Byzantine Empire which was under Muslim attack. Godfrey took out loans on most of his lands, or sold them, to the bishop of Liège and the bishop of Verdun. With this money he gathered thousands of knights to fight in the Holy Land as the Army of Godfrey of Bouillon. In this he was joined by his older brother, Eustace, and his younger brother, Baldwin, who had no lands in Europe. He was not the only major nobleman to gather such an army. Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, also known as Raymond of Saint-Gilles, created the largest army. At age 55, Raymond was also the oldest and perhaps the best known of the Crusader nobles. Because of his age and fame, Raymond expected to be the leader of the entire First Crusade. Adhemar, the papal legate and bishop of Le Puy, travelled with him. There was also the fiery Bohemond, a Norman knight from southern Italy, and a fourth group under Robert II, Count of Flanders.\n", "Each of these armies travelled separately: some went southeast across Europe through Hungary and others sailed across the Adriatic Sea from southern Italy. Pope Urban II's call for the crusade had aroused the Catholic populace and spurred antisemitism. In the People's Crusade, beginning in the spring and early summer of 1096, bands of peasants and low-ranking knights set off early for Jerusalem on their own, and persecuted Jews during the Rhineland massacres. Godfrey, along with his two brothers, started in August 1096 at the head of an army from Lorraine (some say 40,000 strong) along \"Charlemagne's road\", as Urban II seems to have called it (according to the chronicler Robert the Monk)—the road to Jerusalem. A Hebrew text known to modern scholars as the Solomon bar Simson Chronicle, which seems to have been written more than 50 years after the events, says apparently of the Duke: \n" ] }
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"Roman Catholic monarchs,Deaths by arrow wounds,Dukes of Lower Lorraine,French Roman Catholics,Christians of the First Crusade,Margraves of Antwerp,1100 deaths,Lords of Bouillon,1060s births,11th-century French people,Medieval French nobility,House of Boulogne"
{ "description": "Medieval Frankish knight", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q76721", "wikidata_label": "Godfrey of Bouillon", "wikipedia_title": "Godfrey of Bouillon", "aliases": { "alias": [ "Godefroy de Bouillon" ] } }
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{ "paragraph": [ "Clausthal-Zellerfeld\n", "Clausthal-Zellerfeld is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located in the southwestern part of the Harz mountains. Its population is approximately 15,000. The City is the location of the Clausthal University of Technology. The health resort is located in the Upper Harz at an altitude between 390 and 821 m above sea level.\n", "Section::::Geography.\n", "Clausthal-Zellerfeld is located on the Upper Harz Plateau. The environment is less mountainous compared to most of the Harz, but only hilly. As a result, the immediate surrounding area is less wooded and there are more meadow areas. Scattered in and around Clausthal-Zellerfeld are numerous dams and streams of the Upper Harz Water Regale.\n", "The depression between Clausthal and Zellerfeld marks a natural \"borderline\".\n", "Southwest extends the \"Small Clausthal valley\".\n", "Section::::Geography.:City districts.\n", "BULLET::::- Altenau-Schulenberg im Oberharz (since 2015)\n", "BULLET::::- Buntenbock (since 1972)\n", "BULLET::::- Clausthal-Zellerfeld\n", "BULLET::::- Wildemann (since 2015)\n", "Section::::History.\n", "Clausthal-Zellerfeld originally consisted of two towns which were merged in 1924 to form an administrative unit. Clausthal is well known for the old Clausthal University of Technology and its magnificent buildings, while Zellerfeld is a typical tourist resort for hikers and winter sportsmen. Clausthal-Zellerfeld is the largest town in the area that is situated in the mountains rather than on the edge.\n", "Mining in the area began in the 16th century. Modern wire rope was invented to service the iron mines in the 1830s by the German mining engineer Wilhelm Albert in the years between 1831 and 1834 for use in mining in the Harz Mountains in Clausthal. It was quickly accepted because it proved superior to ropes made of hemp or to metal chains, such as had been used before and soon found its way into diverse applications, including most notably, suspension bridges. The Innerste Valley Railway was inaugurated in 1877 and extended to Altenau in 1914. The large station building and 70 other buildings in the town were destroyed in an air raid on 7 October 1944. 92 people lost their lives.\n", "Mining activity halted in 1930 because the ore deposits were exhausted. Today, there are large remains of mines in the surrounding Harz region, some of which are now museums. The railway line was closed in 1976. The former railway station, which was rebuilt from 1961-1963 after being destroyed in 1944, houses the tourist information and the municipal library today.\n", "The Clausthal University of Technology was established in 1775 for the education of mining engineers. Today, it is a technical university for teaching engineering, natural science (especially chemistry, materials science and physics) and business studies.\n", "Section::::Politics.\n", "Section::::Politics.:Town council.\n", "2006 local elections:\n", "BULLET::::- SPD: 19 seats\n", "BULLET::::- CDU: 9 seats\n", "BULLET::::- FDP: 3 seats\n", "BULLET::::- UWG: 2 seats (independent electors community)\n", "Section::::Culture and sights.\n", "BULLET::::- Oberharzer Wasserwirschaft (Upper Harz Water Management)\n", "Section::::Culture and sights.:Museums.\n", "BULLET::::- Upper Harz Mining Museum\n", "BULLET::::- GeoMuseum of Clausthal University of Technology\n", "Section::::Culture and sights.:Buildings.\n", "BULLET::::- Plants of Upper Harz Water Regale\n", "BULLET::::- Market Church in Clausthal, the largest wooden church in Germany with 2,200 seats, built 1639-42. Tower dating from 1637.\n", "BULLET::::- Old pharmacy \"Bergapotheke\" in Zellerfeld, built in 1674, with wood carvings\n", "BULLET::::- Protestant Salvator Church in Zellerfeld, built 1674-83\n", "BULLET::::- Clausthal mint (1617–1849)\n", "BULLET::::- Oberbergamt building in Clausthal, built 1726-30\n", "BULLET::::- Dietzel House in Zellerfeld, dating from 1674\n", "BULLET::::- Former railway station, destroyed 1944 and rebuilt 1961-63\n", "BULLET::::- House where Robert Koch was born\n", "Section::::Persons.\n", "Section::::Persons.:People from Clausthal-Zellerfeld.\n", "BULLET::::- Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf (1695-1777), printer and publisher\n", "BULLET::::- Heinrich Halfeld (1797-1873), engineer\n", "BULLET::::- Carl Adolf Riebeck (1821-1883), industrialist and mining entrepreneur\n", "BULLET::::- Robert Koch (1843–1910), microbiologist\n", "BULLET::::- Otto Erich Hartleben (1864–1905), poet and dramatist\n", "BULLET::::- Robert Förster (1913-1984), diplomat\n", "BULLET::::- Helmut Sander (1920-1988), mayor of Goslar\n", "BULLET::::- Reinhard Roder (born 1941), football player, coache and -functionary\n", "BULLET::::- Dietrich Grönemeyer (born 1952), physician\n", "BULLET::::- Daniel Böhm (born 1986), biathlete\n", "Section::::Persons.:Notable people associated with Clausthal-Zellerfeld.\n", "BULLET::::- Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767), composer\n", "BULLET::::- Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann (1782–1859), mineralogist\n", "BULLET::::- Wilhelm Albert (1787–1846), mining administrator and inventor\n", "BULLET::::- Friedrich Adolph Roemer (1809–1869), geologist\n", "BULLET::::- Arnold Sommerfeld (1868–1951), theoretical physicist\n", "BULLET::::- Helmut Kleinicke (1907-1979), engineer at Auschwitz concentration camp who saved Jews during the Holocaust\n", "Section::::International relations.\n", "Section::::International relations.:Twin towns – Sister cities.\n", "Clausthal-Zellerfeld is twinned with:\n", "BULLET::::- L'Aigle, France\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::-\n" ] }
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"Goslar (district),Towns in the Harz,Clausthal-Zellerfeld,Towns in Lower Saxony,Province of Hanover"
{ "description": "city in Lower Saxony, Germany", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q504590", "wikidata_label": "Clausthal-Zellerfeld", "wikipedia_title": "Clausthal-Zellerfeld", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 157636, "parentid": 884692799, "revid": 892030218, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-04-11T18:36:26Z", "url": "" }
"Subhuman Race"
{ "paragraph": [ "Subhuman Race\n", "Subhuman Race (stylized sUBHUMAN rACE) is the third studio album by American heavy metal band Skid Row, released on March 28, 1995, by Atlantic Records. This is the last Skid Row album with singer Sebastian Bach and drummer Rob Affuso, and the last one to be released on Atlantic. It is regarded as the band's heaviest record, and despite receiving positive reviews, \"Subhuman Race\" was not as successful as the band's first two albums. Certain tracks from the album were remixed for the band's compilation \"\", given more tender, slightly cleaner mixes to fit better with the other tracks. To promote \"Subhuman Race\", Skid Row supported Van Halen in North America on their \"Balance\" tour.\n", "Following the album, Skid Row released a live EP titled \"Subhuman Beings on Tour\", featuring live performances from the \"Subhuman Race\" tour. It is also the band's only album to be produced by Bob Rock, also known for his work with bands like Metallica, Aerosmith, Mötley Crüe, Bon Jovi and The Offspring.\n", "Skid Row has not played any songs from \"Subhuman Race\" since the album's tour in 1995–1996, though Bach has occasionally played them on his solo tours, including \"Beat Yourself Blind\", \"Frozen\", and the singles \"My Enemy\", \"Into Another\" and \"Breakin' Down\". \"Beat Yourself Blind\" was the only song from this album to be performed live since Bach's departure, until ZP Theart performed \"Medicine Jar\" in 2018, while \"Remains to Be Seen\" has never been played live once.\n", "Section::::Critical reception.\n", "\"Subhuman Race\" received mixed to mostly positive reviews from music critics. AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine wrote that it saw the band \"strip back their music to the basics\" and was their \"strongest and most vicious record to date.\" \"Rolling Stone\" reviewer called it \"the freshest riffage since last year's Soundgarden record\" and also noted the \"tight, hot guitar lines and radio hooks that burn themselves into your brain\". \"Q\" praised both the guitars that \"grumble and mutter more menacingly than ever\" and Bach's \"awesome vocal pyrotechnics\", summarizing that \"Skid Row has come up with an outright winner.\" Canadian journalist Martin Popoff found the album quite complex, with Skid Row \"absorbing the best elements of grunge into their over-the-top love of all things metal.\" He praised Bach's performance and the band's \"street-savvy\" attitude and \"prog ethic\" shown in the record. Conversely, Jim Farber of \"Entertainment Weekly\" considered \"Subhuman Race\" made of \"the same squealing, yowling, third-rate metal that made Skid Row pariahs in the first place\", calling them an \"unrepentant hair band of the ’80s\" which had mangled their melodies \"to get over their old 'power ballad' stigma.\" Also Dean Golemis of the \"Chicago Tribune\" criticised Skid Row's \"campy, formulaic arrangements that still cater to commercial appeal and offer nothing new to a genre plagued by cliches and copycats\", but remarked as \"Bach's vocal bravura stands as the album's saving grace.\" Thomas Kupfer in his review for the German \"Rock Hard\" magazine wrote that \"Skid Row will offend a lot of old fans with this disc\", where \"mediocrity dominates, the songs seem uninspired, and only the compact sound and the solid craftsmanship of the band members\" save the album.\n", "The band members also do not reflect positively on their work on \"Subhuman Race\". In an interview in November 2006, bassist Rachel Bolan expressed his negative feelings about the album: \"That record was a nightmare. Internally the band had fallen apart but we were forced to go in and do another record and it was a nightmare with the recording, writing and producing. We worked with someone we had not worked with before after being so successful with Michael and we were used to the way he did things. I am not slighting Bob at all, he is a genius producer but it was bad timing. I did not have the greatest time, it was nobody's fault, it was just the way things were. Also the record absolutely sucks.\" In a June 2018 interview on the \"Rock Talk With Mitch Lafon\" podcast, vocalist Sebastian Bach indicated that, despite featuring \"some good tunes\", the \"very dated production sound\" of \"Subhuman Race\" has made it an unlistenable album: \"In the same way, probably, Lars Ulrich might think \"St. Anger\" is dated to that time, I think \"Subhuman Race\" might be our \"St. Anger\".\"\n", "Section::::Personnel.\n", "Section::::Personnel.:Skid Row.\n", "BULLET::::- Sebastian Bach – vocals\n", "BULLET::::- Scotti Hill – guitar, backing vocals\n", "BULLET::::- Dave Sabo – guitar, backing vocals\n", "BULLET::::- Rachel Bolan – bass guitar, backing vocals\n", "BULLET::::- Rob Affuso – drums, percussion\n", "Section::::Personnel.:Production.\n", "BULLET::::- Bob Rock – producer\n", "BULLET::::- Randy Staub – engineer, mixing at The Warehouse Studio, Vancouver, Canada\n", "BULLET::::- Brian Dobbs, Darrin Grahn – assistant engineers\n", "BULLET::::- George Marino – mastering at Sterling Sound, New York\n" ] }
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"1995 albums,Atlantic Records albums,Skid Row (American band) albums"
{ "description": "1995 studio album by Skid Row", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q2296042", "wikidata_label": "Subhuman Race", "wikipedia_title": "Subhuman Race", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 157652, "parentid": 903643258, "revid": 908214280, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-28T07:19:50Z", "url": "" }
"Thomas John Barnardo"
{ "paragraph": [ "Thomas John Barnardo\n", "Thomas John Barnardo (4 July 184519 September 1905) was an Irish philanthropist and founder and director of homes for poor children. From the foundation of the first Barnardo's home in 1867 to the date of Barnardo's death, nearly 60,000 children had been taken in.\n", "Although Barnardo never finished his studies at the London Hospital, he used the title of ‘doctor’ and later secured a licentiate.\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Barnardo was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1845. He was the fourth of five children (one died in childbirth) of John Michaelis Barnardo, a furrier who was of Sephardic Jewish descent, and his second wife, Abigail, an Englishwoman and member of the Plymouth Brethren.\n", "In the early 1840s, John emigrated from Hamburg to Dublin, where he established a business; he married twice and fathered seven children. The Barnardo family \"traced its origin to Venice, followed by conversion to the Lutheran Church in the sixteenth century\".\n", "As a young child, Barnardo thought that everything that was not his should belong to him. However, as he grew older, he abandoned this mindset in favour of helping the poor.\n", "Barnardo moved to London in 1866. At that time he was interested in becoming a missionary.\n", "Section::::Philanthropy.\n", "In the 1860s, Barnardo opened a school in the East End of London to care for and educate children of the area left orphaned and destitute by a recent cholera outbreak. In 1870 he founded a boys' orphanage at 18 Stepney Causeway and later opened a girls' home. By the time of his death in 1905, Barnardo's institutions cared for over 8,500 children in 96 locations.\n", "Barnardo's work was carried on by his many supporters under the name \"Dr Barnardo's Homes\". Following societal changes in the mid-20th century, the charity changed its focus from the direct care of children to fostering and adoption, renaming itself \"Dr Barnardo's\". Following the closure of its last traditional orphanage in 1989, it took the still simpler name of \"Barnardo's\".\n", "Section::::Philanthropy.:Controversies.\n", "There was controversy early on with Barnardo's work. Specifically, he was accused of kidnapping children without parents' permission and of falsifying photographs of children to make the distinction between the period before they were rescued by Barnardo's and afterwards seem more dramatic. He openly confessed to the former of these charges, describing it as 'philanthropic abduction' and basing his defence on the idea that the end justified the means. In all, he was taken to court on 88 occasions, largely on the charge of kidnapping. However, being a charismatic speaker and popular figure, he rode through these scandals unscathed. Other charges brought against him included presenting staged images of children for Barnardo's 'before and after' cards and neglecting basic hygiene for the children under his care.\n", "Barnardo's was implicated in the scandal of forced child migration], in which children from poor social backgrounds were taken to the former colonies (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa) by churches and charities, without their parents' consent and even under false claims of death. Although this was a legal scheme, favoured by Government and society, in many cases the children suffered harsh life conditions and many also suffered abuse. This practice went on until the 70's. This merited an apology by PM Gordon Brown in 2010.\n", "Section::::Philanthropy.:The charity today.\n", "The official mascot of Barnardo's is a bear called Barney. H.M. Queen Elizabeth II is the current patron of Barnardo's. Its chief executive is Javed Khan.\n", "Section::::Personal life.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Marriage and family.\n", "In June 1873, Barnardo married Sara Louise Elmslie (1842–1944), known as Syrie, the daughter of an underwriter for Lloyd's of London. Syrie shared her husband's interests in evangelism and social work. The couple settled at Mossford Lodge, Essex, where they had seven children, three of whom died in early childhood. Another child, Marjorie, had Down syndrome.\n", "Another daughter, Gwendolyn Maud Syrie (1879–1955), known as Syrie like her mother, was married to wealthy businessman Henry Wellcome, and later to the writer Somerset Maugham, and became a socially prominent London interior designer.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Death.\n", "Barnardo died of angina pectoris in London on 19 September 1905, and was buried in front of Cairns House, Barkingside, Essex. The house is now the head office of the children's charity he founded, Barnardo's. A memorial stands outside Cairn's House.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Legacy.\n", "After Barnardo's death, a national memorial was instituted to form a fund of £250,000 to relieve the various institutions of all financial liability and to place the entire work on a permanent basis. William Baker, formerly the chairman of the council, was selected to succeed the founder of the homes as Honorary Director.Thomas Barnardo was the author of 192 books dealing with the charitable work to which he devoted his life.\n", "From the foundation of the homes in 1867 to the date of Barnardo's death, nearly 60,000 children had been taken-in, most being trained and placed out in life. At the time of his death, his charity was caring for over 8,500 children in 96 homes.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Not a Jack the Ripper suspect.\n", "At the time of the Whitechapel murders, due to the supposed medical expertise of the Ripper, various doctors in the area were suspected. Barnardo was named a possible suspect long after his death. Ripperologist Gary Rowlands theorized that due to Barnardo's lonely childhood he had anger which led him to murder prostitutes. However, there is no evidence that he committed the murders. Critics have also pointed out that his age and appearance did not match any of the descriptions of the Ripper.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Likes of Us\"\n", "BULLET::::- Charitable organization\n", "BULLET::::- Orphanage\n", "BULLET::::- Ragged School Museum\n", "BULLET::::- List of Freemasons\n", "Section::::References.\n", "BULLET::::- Attribution\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- British Home Child Group International - research site\n", "BULLET::::- – photographs of a Barnardo orphanage in 1893\n" ] }
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"1845 births,Founders of orphanages,Adoption, fostering, orphan care and displacement,Child welfare in the United Kingdom,19th-century Irish people,Freemasons of the United Grand Lodge of England,Irish people of Italian descent,Irish people of German descent,Irish evangelicals,Irish Freemasons,1905 deaths,Irish people of English descent,Irish philanthropists,Irish Protestants,People from Dublin (city)"
{ "description": "Philanthropist, founder and director of homes for poor children", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q692235", "wikidata_label": "Thomas John Barnardo", "wikipedia_title": "Thomas John Barnardo", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 157641, "parentid": 903264355, "revid": 903264618, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-06-24T16:59:32Z", "url": "" }
"Battle of Magenta"
{ "paragraph": [ "Battle of Magenta\n", "The Battle of Magenta was fought on 4 June 1859 during the Second Italian War of Independence, resulting in a French-Sardinian victory under Napoleon III against the Austrians under Marshal Ferencz Gyulai.\n", "It took place near the town of Magenta in the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, a crown land of the Austrian Empire on 4 June 1859. Napoleon III's army crossed the Ticino River and outflanked the Austrian right forcing the Austrian army under Gyulai to retreat. The confined nature of the country, a vast spread of orchards cut up by streams and irrigation canals, precluded elaborate manoeuvre. The Austrians turned every house into a miniature fortress. The brunt of the fighting was borne by 5,000 grenadiers of the French Imperial Guard, still mostly in their First Empire style of uniforms. The battle of Magenta was not a particularly large battle, but it was a decisive victory for the Franco-Sardinian alliance. Patrice Maurice de MacMahon was created Duke of Magenta for his role in this battle, and would later go on to serve as one of the French President of the Third French Republic.\n", "An overwhelming majority of the French-Piedmontese coalition soldiers were French (1,100 were Piedmontese and 58,000 were French).\n", "Section::::Aftermath.\n", "A dye producing the colour magenta was discovered in 1859, and was named after this battle, as was the Boulevard de Magenta in Paris.\n" ] }
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"June 1859 events,Battles involving France,Battles involving the French Foreign Legion,Battles involving Austria,Conflicts in 1859,1859 in France,1859 in Italy,Battles of the Wars of Italian Independence,1859 in the Austrian Empire"
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{ "pageid": 157656, "parentid": 881776779, "revid": 882013049, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-02-06T07:24:13Z", "url": "" }
"Guibert of Nogent"
{ "paragraph": [ "Guibert of Nogent\n", "Guibert de Nogent (c. 1055–1124) was a Benedictine historian, theologian and author of autobiographical memoirs. Guibert was relatively unknown in his own time, going virtually unmentioned by his contemporaries. He has only recently caught the attention of scholars who have been more interested in his extensive autobiographical memoirs and personality which provide insight into medieval life.\n", "Section::::Life.\n", "Guibert was born of parents from the minor nobility at Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Guibert claims that it took his parents over seven years to conceive, as he writes in his \"Monodiae\". According to his memoirs, the labour nearly cost him and his mother their lives, as Guibert turned around in the womb. Guibert's family made an offering to a shrine of the Virgin Mary, and promised that if Guibert survived, he would be dedicated to a clerical life. Since he survived, he followed this path. His father was violent, unfaithful and prone to excess, and was captured at the Battle of Mortemer, dying eight months later. In his memoirs, Guibert views his death as a type of blessing, stating that if his father had survived, he likely would have forced Guibert to become a knight, thus breaking the oath to the Virgin Mary to dedicate Guibert to the church. His mother was domineering, of great beauty and intelligence, and exceedingly zealous. Guibert writes so much about his mother, and in such detail, that some scholars, such as Archambault, have suggested that he may have had an Oedipus complex. She assumed control of his education, isolated him from his peers and hired him a private tutor, from the ages of six to twelve. Guibert remembers the tutor as brutally exacting, and incompetent; nevertheless Guibert and his tutor developed a strong bond. When Guibert was around the age of twelve, his mother retired to an abbey near Saint-Germer-de-Fly (or Flay), and he soon followed. Entering the Order at St. Germer, he studied with great zeal, devoting himself at first to the secular poets Ovid and Virgil—an experience which left its imprint on his works. He later changed his focus to theology, through the influence of Anselm of Bec, who later became the Archbishop of Canterbury.\n", "In 1104, he was chosen abbot of the poor and tiny abbey of Nogent-sous-Coucy (founded 1059) and henceforth took a more prominent part in ecclesiastical affairs, where he came into contact with bishops and court society. More importantly, it gave him time to engage in his passion for writing. His first major work of this period is his history of the First Crusade called \"Dei gesta per Francos\" (\"God's deeds through the Franks\"), finished in 1108 and touched up in 1121. The history is largely a paraphrase, in ornate style, of the \"Gesta Francorum\" of an anonymous Norman author; Crusade historians have traditionally not given it favourable reviews; the fact that he stays so close to \"Gesta Francorum\", and the difficulty of his Latin, make it seem superfluous. Recent editors and translators, however, have called attention to his excellent writing and original material. More importantly, the \"Dei gesta\" supplies us with invaluable information about the reception of the crusade in France. Guibert personally knew crusaders, had grown up with crusaders, and talked with them about their memories and experiences.\n", "For the modern reader, his autobiography (\"De vita sua sive monodiarum suarum libri tres\"), or \"Monodiae\" (\"Solitary Songs\", commonly referred to as his \"Memoirs\"), written in 1115, is considered the most interesting of his works. Written towards the close of his life, and based on the model of the \"Confessions\" of Saint Augustine, he traces his life from his childhood to adulthood. Throughout, he gives picturesque glimpses of his time and the customs of his country. The text is divided into three \"Books.\" The first covers his own life, from birth to adulthood; the second is a brief history of his monastery; the third is a description of an uprising in nearby Laon. He provides invaluable information on daily life in castles and monasteries, on the educational methods then in vogue, and gives insights into some of the major and minor personalities of his time. His work is coloured by his passions and prejudices, which add a personal touch to the work.\n", "For example, he was quite sceptical about the propriety of Catholic relics of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary and numerous Catholic saints, and entertained doubts about their authenticity, noting that some shrines and pilgrimage sites made conflicting claims about which bodily remnants, clothing or other sacred objects were held at which site.\n", "Section::::References.\n", "BULLET::::- Sources\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Autobiography Of Guibert\". C.C. Swinton Bland, translator,\"The Autobiography of Guibert, Abbot of Nogent-sous-Coucy\" (London: George Routledge: New York: E.P. Dutton, 1925) From Internet Archive\n", "BULLET::::- \"Memoirs\" and from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Excerpts from the English translation by C.C. Swinton Bland.\n", "BULLET::::- \"On the Saints and their Relics\" from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Revolt in Laon\" from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook.\n", "BULLET::::- \"On the First Crusade\", includes Guibert's version of Pope Urban's speech and impressions of Peter the Hermit.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Deeds of God through the Franks, e-text from Project Gutenburg. Translated by Robert Levine 1997.\n", "BULLET::::- Books\n", "BULLET::::- Paul J. Archambault (1995). \"A Monk's Confession: The Memoirs of Guibert of Nogent\".\n", "BULLET::::- John Benton, ed. (1970). \"Self and Society in Medieval France: The Memoirs of Abbot Guibert of Nogent\". A revised edition of the 1925 C.C. Swinton Bland edition, includes introduction and latest research. (1984 reprint, University of Toronto Press).\n", "BULLET::::- Guibert of Nogent, \"Dei Gesta per Francos\", ed. R.B.C. Huygens, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis 127A (Turnhout: Brepols, 1996)\n", "BULLET::::- Robert Levine (1997). \"The Deeds of God through the Franks : A Translation of Guibert de Nogent's `Gesta Dei per Francos' \".\n", "BULLET::::- Joseph McAlhany, Jay Rubenstein, eds. (2011). \"Monodies and On the Relics of Saints: the Autobiography and a Manifesto of a French Monk from the Time of the Crusades\". Translated from the Latin, with introduction and notes. Penguin Classics.\n", "BULLET::::- Jay Rubenstein (2002). \"Guibert of Nogent: Portrait of a Medieval Mind\", London. .\n", "BULLET::::- Karin Fuchs, \"Zeichen und Wunder bei Guibert de Nogent. Kommunikation, Deutungen und Funktionalisierungen von Wundererzählungen im 12. Jahrhundert\" (München: Oldenbourg, 2008) (Pariser Historische Studien, 84).\n", "BULLET::::- Laurence Terrier (2013). \"La doctrine de l'eucharistie de Guibert de Nogent. De pigneribus Livre II. Texte et Traduction\", Paris, Vrin.\n", "BULLET::::- Articles\n", "BULLET::::- Elizabeth Lapina, \"Anti-Jewish rhetoric in Guibert of Nogent's \"Dei gesta per Francos\",\" \"Journal of Medieval History\", 35,3 (2009), 239-253.\n" ] }
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"French religious writers,Crusade literature,French historians,Year of birth uncertain,French abbots,French male writers,1124 deaths,12th-century historians,12th-century French writers,French autobiographers,Benedictine abbots"
{ "description": "Benedictine historian, theologian", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q4289", "wikidata_label": "Guibert of Nogent", "wikipedia_title": "Guibert of Nogent", "aliases": { "alias": [] } }
{ "pageid": 157654, "parentid": 869510235, "revid": 895238918, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-05-02T22:16:27Z", "url": "" }
"Raymond of Poitiers"
{ "paragraph": [ "Raymond of Poitiers\n", "Raymond of Poitiers (c. 1099- 29 June 1149) was Prince of Antioch from 1136 to 1149. He was the younger son of William IX, Duke of Aquitaine and his wife Philippa, Countess of Toulouse, born in the very year that his father the Duke began his infamous liaison with Dangereuse de Chatelherault.\n", "Section::::Assuming control.\n", "Following the death of Prince Bohemund II of Antioch in 1130, the principality came under the regency first of King Baldwin II (1130–31), then King Fulk (1131–35), and finally Princess Alice (1135–36), Bohemond's widow. The reigning princess was Bohemond II's daughter, Constance (born 1127). Against the wishes of Alice, a marriage was arranged for Constance with Raymond, at the time staying in England, which he left only after the death of Henry I on 1 December 1135.\n", "Upon hearing word that Raymond was going to pass through his lands in order to marry the princess of Antioch, King Roger II of Sicily ordered him arrested. By a series of subterfuges, Raymond passed through southern Italy and only arrived at Antioch after 19 April 1136. Patriarch Ralph of Domfront then convinced Alice that Raymond was there to marry her, whereupon she allowed him to enter Antioch (whose loyal garrison had refused him entry) and the patriarch married him to Constance. Alice then left the city, now under the control of Raymond and Ralph.\n", "The first years of their joint rule were spent in conflicts with the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus, who had come south partly to recover Cilicia from Leo of Armenia, and to reassert his rights over Antioch. Raymond was forced to pay homage, and even to promise to cede his principality as soon as he was recompensed by a new fief, which John promised to carve out for him in the Muslim territory to the east of Antioch. The expedition of 1138, in which Raymond joined with John, and which was to conquer this territory, proved a failure. The expedition culminated in the unsuccessful Siege of Shaizar. Raymond was not anxious to help the emperor to acquire new territories, when their acquisition only meant for him the loss of Antioch. John Comnenus returned unsuccessful to Constantinople, after demanding from Raymond, without response, the surrender of the citadel of Antioch.\n", "Section::::Struggles.\n", "There followed a struggle between Raymond and the patriarch. Raymond was annoyed by the homage which he had been forced to pay to the patriarch in 1135 and the dubious validity of the patriarch's election offered a handle for opposition. Eventually Raymond triumphed, and the patriarch was deposed (1139). In 1142 John Comnenus returned to the attack, but Raymond refused to recognize or renew his previous submission, and John, though he ravaged the neighborhood of Antioch, was unable to effect anything against him. When, however Raymond demanded from Manuel, who had succeeded John in 1143, the cession of some of the Cilician towns, he found that he had met his match. Manuel forced him to a humiliating visit to Constantinople, during which he renewed his oath of homage and promised to acknowledge a Greek patriarch.\n", "In the last year of Raymond's life Louis VII and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine (Raymond's niece) visited Antioch during the Second Crusade. Raymond sought to prevent Louis from going south to Jerusalem and to induce him to stay in Antioch and help in the conquest of Aleppo and Caesarea. Raymond was also suspected of having an incestuous affair with his beautiful niece Eleanor. According to John of Salisbury, Louis became suspicious of the attention Raymond lavished on Eleanor, and the long conversations they enjoyed. William of Tyre claims that Raymond seduced Eleanor to get revenge on her husband, who refused to aid him in his wars against the Saracens, and that \"\"contrary to [Eleanor's] royal dignity, she disregarded her marriage vows and was unfaithful to her husband.\"\" Most modern historians dismiss such rumours, however, pointing out the closeness of Raymond and his niece during her early childhood, and the effulgent Aquitainian manner of behaviour. Also, as the pious Louis continued to have relations with his wife, it is doubtful that he believed his charge of incest.\n", "Louis hastily left Antioch and Raymond was balked in his plans. In 1149 he was killed in the Battle of Inab during an expedition against Nur ad-Din Zangi. He was beheaded by Shirkuh, the uncle of Saladin, and his head was placed in a silver box and sent to the Caliph of Baghdad as a gift.\n", "Section::::Personality and family.\n", "Raymond is described by William of Tyre (the main authority for his career) as \"\"a lord of noble descent, of tall and elegant figure, the handsomest of the princes of the earth, a man of charming affability and conversation, open-handed and magnificent beyond measure\"\"; pre-eminent in the use of arms and military experience; \"litteratorum, licet ipse esset, cultor\" (\"although he was himself illiterate, he was a cultivator of literature\" – he caused the \"Chanson des chétifs\" to be composed); a regular churchman and faithful husband; but headstrong, irascible and unreasonable, with too great a passion for gambling (bk. xiv. c. xxi.). For his career see Rey, in the \"Revue de l'orient latin\", vol. iv.\n", "With Constance he had the following children: \n", "BULLET::::- Bohemond III\n", "BULLET::::- Maria, married emperor Manuel I Komnenos\n", "BULLET::::- Philippa\n", "BULLET::::- Baldwin\n" ] }
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"12th-century Princes of Antioch,1149 deaths,Roman Catholic monarchs,Christians of the Second Crusade,Princes of Antioch,Occitan people,1099 births,Monarchs killed in action"
{ "description": "Prince of Antioch", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q437271", "wikidata_label": "Raymond of Poitiers", "wikipedia_title": "Raymond of Poitiers", "aliases": { "alias": [ "Raymond of Antioch" ] } }
{ "pageid": 157660, "parentid": 881788787, "revid": 906090280, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-13T15:19:31Z", "url": "" }
"Wall Street Crash of 1929"
{ "paragraph": [ "Wall Street Crash of 1929\n", "The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Stock Market Crash of 1929 or the Great Crash, was a major stock market crash that occurred in late October 1929. It started on October 24 (\"Black Thursday\") and continued until October 29, 1929 (\"Black Tuesday\"), when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed.\n", "It was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects. The crash, which followed the London Stock Exchange's crash of September, signaled the beginning of the 12-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries.\n", "Section::::Background.\n", "The Roaring Twenties, the decade that followed World War I that led to the crash, was a time of wealth and excess. Building on post-war optimism, rural Americans migrated to the cities in vast numbers throughout the decade with the hopes of finding a more prosperous life in the ever-growing expansion of America's industrial sector. While American cities prospered, the overproduction of agricultural produce created widespread financial despair among American farmers throughout the decade. This would later be blamed as one of the key factors that led to the 1929 stock market crash.\n", "Despite the dangers of speculation, it was widely believed that the stock market would continue to rise forever. On March 25, 1929, after the Federal Reserve warned of excessive speculation, a small crash occurred as investors started to sell stocks at a rapid pace, exposing the market's shaky foundation. Two days later, banker Charles E. Mitchell announced that his company, the National City Bank, would provide $25 million in credit to stop the market's slide. Mitchell's move brought a temporary halt to the financial crisis, and call money declined from 20 to 8 percent. However, the American economy showed ominous signs of trouble: steel production declined, construction was sluggish, automobile sales went down, and consumers were building up high debts because of easy credit. Despite all the economic trouble signs and the market breaks in March and May 1929, stocks resumed their advance in June and the gains continued almost unabated until early September 1929 (the Dow Jones average gained more than 20% between June and September). The market had been on a nine-year run that saw the Dow Jones Industrial Average increase in value tenfold, peaking at 381.17 on September 3, 1929. Shortly before the crash, economist Irving Fisher famously proclaimed, \"Stock prices have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau.\" The optimism and the financial gains of the great bull market were shaken after a well-publicized early September prediction from financial expert Roger Babson that \"a crash was coming\". The initial September decline was thus called the \"Babson Break\" in the press. That was the start of the Great Crash, but until the severe phase of the crash in October, many investors regarded the September \"Babson Break\" as a \"healthy correction\" and buying opportunity.\n", "On September 20, the London Stock Exchange crashed when top British investor Clarence Hatry and many of his associates were jailed for fraud and forgery. The London crash greatly weakened the optimism of American investment in markets overseas. In the days leading up to the crash, the market was severely unstable. Periods of selling and high volumes were interspersed with brief periods of rising prices and recovery.\n", "Section::::Crash.\n", "Selling intensified in mid-October. On October 24 (\"Black Thursday\"), the market lost 11 percent of its value at the opening bell on very heavy trading. The huge volume meant that the report of prices on the ticker tape in brokerage offices around the nation was hours late and so investors had no idea what most stocks were actually trading for at the moment, increasing panic. Several leading Wall Street bankers met to find a solution to the panic and chaos on the trading floor. The meeting included Thomas W. Lamont, acting head of Morgan Bank; Albert Wiggin, head of the Chase National Bank; and Charles E. Mitchell, president of the National City Bank of New York. They chose Richard Whitney, vice president of the Exchange, to act on their behalf.\n", "With the bankers' financial resources behind him, Whitney placed a bid to purchase a large block of shares in U.S. Steel at a price well above the current market. As traders watched, Whitney then placed similar bids on other \"blue chip\" stocks. The tactic was similar to one that had ended the Panic of 1907. It succeeded in halting the slide. The Dow Jones Industrial Average recovered, closing with it down only 6.38 points for the day. The rally continued on Friday, October 25, and the half-day session on Saturday, October 26, but unlike 1907, the respite was only temporary.\n", "Over the weekend, the events were covered by the newspapers across the United States. On October 28, \"Black Monday\", more investors facing margin calls decided to get out of the market, and the slide continued with a record loss in the Dow for the day of 38.33 points, or 13%.\n", "The next day, \"Black Tuesday\", October 29, 1929, about 16 million shares traded as the panic selling reached its peak. Some stocks actually had no buyers at any price that day. The Dow lost an additional 30 points, or 12 percent. The volume of stocks traded that day was a record that would not be broken for nearly 40 years.\n", "On October 29, William C. Durant joined with members of the Rockefeller family and other financial giants to buy large quantities of stocks to demonstrate to the public their confidence in the market, but their efforts failed to stop the large decline in prices. The massive volume of stocks traded that day made the ticker continue to run until about 7:45 p.m. The market had lost over $30 billion in the space of two days, including $14 billion on October 29 alone.\n", "After a one-day recovery on October 30, when the Dow regained an additional 28.40 points, or 12 percent, to close at 258.47, the market continued to fall, arriving at an interim bottom on November 13, 1929, with the Dow closing at 198.60. The market then recovered for several months, starting on November 14, with the Dow gaining 18.59 points to close at 217.28, and reaching a secondary closing peak (bear market rally) of 294.07 on April 17, 1930. The following year, the Dow embarked on another, much longer, steady slide from April 1931 to July 8, 1932, when it closed at 41.22, its lowest level of the 20th century, concluding an 89 percent loss rate for all of the market's stocks. \n", "For the rest of the 1930s, beginning on March 15, 1933, the Dow began to slowly regain the ground it had lost during the 1929 crash and the three years following it. The largest percentage increases of the Dow Jones occurred during the early and mid-1930s. In late 1937, there was a sharp dip in the stock market, but prices held well above the 1932 lows. The market would not return to the peak closing of September 3, 1929, until November 23, 1954.\n", "Section::::Aftermath.\n", "In 1932, the Pecora Commission was established by the U.S. Senate to study the causes of the crash. The following year, the U.S. Congress passed the Glass–Steagall Act mandating a separation between commercial banks, which take deposits and extend loans, and investment banks, which underwrite, issue, and distribute stocks, bonds, and other securities.\n", "After the experience of the 1929 crash, stock markets around the world instituted measures to suspend trading in the event of rapid declines, claiming that the measures would prevent such panic sales. However, the one-day crash of Black Monday, October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 22.6%, was worse in percentage terms than any single day of the 1929 crash (although the combined 25% decline of October 28–29, 1929 was larger than that of October 19, 1987, and remains the worst two-day decline ever).\n", "Section::::Aftermath.:World War II.\n", "The American mobilization for World War II at the end of 1941 moved approximately ten million people out of the civilian labor force and into the war. World War II had a dramatic effect on many parts of the economy, and may have hastened the end of the Great Depression in the United States. Government-financed capital spending accounted for only 5 percent of the annual U.S. investment in industrial capital in 1940; by 1943, the government accounted for 67 percent of U.S. capital investment.\n", "Section::::Analysis.\n", "The crash followed a speculative boom that had taken hold in the late 1920s. During the latter half of the 1920s, steel production, building construction, retail turnover, automobiles registered, and even railway receipts advanced from record to record. The combined net profits of 536 manufacturing and trading companies showed an increase, in the first six months of 1929, of 36.6% over 1928, itself a record half-year. Iron and steel led the way with doubled gains. Such figures set up a crescendo of stock-exchange speculation that led hundreds of thousands of Americans to invest heavily in the stock market. A significant number of them were borrowing money to buy more stocks. By August 1929, brokers were routinely lending small investors more than two-thirds of the face value of the stocks they were buying. Over $8.5 billion was out on loan, more than the entire amount of currency circulating in the U.S. at the time.\n", "The rising share prices encouraged more people to invest, hoping the share prices would rise further. Speculation thus fueled further rises and created an economic bubble. Because of margin buying, investors stood to lose large sums of money if the market turned down—or even failed to advance quickly enough. The average P/E (price to earnings) ratio of S&P Composite stocks was 32.6 in September 1929, clearly above historical norms. According to economist John Kenneth Galbraith, this exuberance also resulted in a large number of people placing their savings and money in leverage investment products like Goldman Sachs' \"Blue Ridge trust\" and \"Shenandoah trust\". These too crashed in 1929, resulting in losses to banks of $475 billion 2010 dollars ($ billion in ).\n", "Good harvests had built up a mass of 250 million bushels of wheat to be \"carried over\" when 1929 opened. By May there was also a winter-wheat crop of 560 million bushels ready for harvest in the Mississippi Valley. This oversupply caused a drop in wheat prices so heavy that the net incomes of the farming population from wheat were threatened with extinction. Stock markets are always sensitive to the future state of commodity markets , and the slump in Wall Street predicted for May by Sir George Paish arrived on time. In June 1929, the position was saved by a severe drought in the Dakotas and the Canadian West, plus unfavorable seed times in Argentina and eastern Australia. The oversupply would now be wanted to fill the big gaps in the 1929 world wheat production. From 97¢ per bushel in May, the price of wheat rose to $1.49 in July. When it was seen that at this figure American farmers would get rather more for their smaller crop than for that of 1928, stocks went up again.\n", "In August, the wheat price fell when France and Italy were bragging of a magnificent harvest, and the situation in Australia improved. That sent a shiver through Wall Street and stock prices quickly dropped, but word of cheap stocks brought a fresh rush of \"stags\", amateur speculators and investors. Congress voted for a $100 million relief package for the farmers, hoping to stabilize wheat prices. By October though, the price had fallen to $1.31 per bushel.\n", "Other important economic barometers were also slowing or even falling by mid-1929, including car sales, house sales, and steel production. The falling commodity and industrial production may have dented even American self-confidence, and the stock market peaked on September 3 at 381.17 just after Labor Day, then started to falter after Roger Babson issued his prescient \"market crash\" forecast. By the end of September, the market was down 10% from the peak (the \"Babson Break\"). Selling intensified in early and mid October, with sharp down days punctuated by a few up days. Panic selling on huge volume started the week of October 21 and intensified and culminated on October 24, the 28th, and especially the 29th (\"Black Tuesday\").\n", "The president of the Chase National Bank, Albert H. Wiggin, said at the time:\n", "We are reaping the natural fruit of the orgy of speculation in which millions of people have indulged. It was inevitable, because of the tremendous increase in the number of stockholders in recent years, that the number of sellers would be greater than ever when the boom ended and selling took the place of buying.\"\n", "Section::::Effects.\n", "Section::::Effects.:United States.\n", "Together, the 1929 stock market crash and the Great Depression formed the largest financial crisis of the 20th century. The panic of October 1929 has come to serve as a symbol of the economic contraction that gripped the world during the next decade. The falls in share prices on October 24 and 29, 1929 were practically instantaneous in all financial markets, except Japan.\n", "The Wall Street Crash had a major impact on the U.S. and world economy, and it has been the source of intense academic historical, economic, and political debate from its aftermath until the present day. Some people believed that abuses by utility holding companies contributed to the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Depression that followed. Many people blamed the crash on commercial banks that were too eager to put deposits at risk on the stock market.\n", "In 1930, 1,352 banks held more than $853 million in deposits; in 1931, one year later, 2,294 banks went down with nearly $1.7 billion in deposits. Many businesses failed (28,285 failures and a daily rate of 133 in 1931).\n", "The 1929 crash brought the Roaring Twenties to a halt. As tentatively expressed by economic historian Charles P. Kindleberger, in 1929, there was no lender of last resort effectively present, which, if it had existed and been properly exercised, would have been key in shortening the business slowdown that normally follows financial crises. The crash instigated widespread and long-lasting consequences for the United States. Historians still debate whether the 1929 crash sparked the Great Depression or if it merely coincided with the bursting of a loose credit-inspired economic bubble. Only 16% of American households were invested in the stock market within the United States during the period leading up to this depression, suggesting that the crash carried somewhat less of a weight in causing it.\n", "However, the psychological effects of the crash reverberated across the nation as businesses became aware of the difficulties in securing capital market investments for new projects and expansions. Business uncertainty naturally affects job security for employees, and as the American worker (the consumer) faced uncertainty with regards to income, naturally the propensity to consume declined. The decline in stock prices caused bankruptcies and severe macroeconomic difficulties, including contraction of credit, business closures, firing of workers, bank failures, decline of the money supply, and other economically depressing events.\n", "The resultant rise of mass unemployment is seen as a result of the crash, although the crash is by no means the sole event that contributed to the depression. The Wall Street Crash is usually seen as having the greatest impact on the events that followed and therefore is widely regarded as signaling the downward economic slide that initiated the Great Depression. True or not, the consequences were dire for almost everybody. Most academic experts agree on one aspect of the crash: It wiped out billions of dollars of wealth in one day, and this immediately depressed consumer buying.\n", "The failure set off a worldwide run on US gold deposits (i.e. the dollar), and forced the Federal Reserve to raise interest rates into the slump. Some 4,000 banks and other lenders ultimately failed. Also, the uptick rule, which allowed short selling only when the last tick in a stock's price was positive, was implemented after the 1929 market crash to prevent short sellers from driving the price of a stock down in a bear raid.\n", "Section::::Effects.:Europe.\n", "The stock market crash of October 1929 led directly to the Great Depression in Europe. When stocks plummeted on the New York Stock Exchange, the world noticed immediately. Although financial leaders in the United Kingdom, as in the United States, vastly underestimated the extent of the crisis that would ensue, it soon became clear that the world's economies were more interconnected than ever. The effects of the disruption to the global system of financing, trade, and production and the subsequent meltdown of the American economy were soon felt throughout Europe.\n", "In 1930 and 1931, in particular, unemployed workers went on strike, demonstrated in public, and otherwise took direct action to call public attention to their plight. Within the UK, protests often focused on the so-called Means Test, which the government had instituted in 1931 to limit the amount of unemployment payments made to individuals and families. For working people, the Means Test seemed an intrusive and insensitive way to deal with the chronic and relentless deprivation caused by the economic crisis. The strikes were met forcefully, with police breaking up protests, arresting demonstrators, and charging them with crimes related to the violation of public order.\n", "Section::::Academic debate.\n", "There is ongoing debate among economists and historians as to what role the crash played in subsequent economic, social, and political events. \"The Economist\" argued in a 1998 article that the Depression did not start with the stock market crash, nor was it clear at the time of the crash that a depression was starting. They asked, \"Can a very serious Stock Exchange collapse produce a serious setback to industry when industrial production is for the most part in a healthy and balanced condition?\" They argued that there must be some setback, but there was not yet sufficient evidence to prove that it would be long or would necessarily produce a general industrial depression.\n", "However, \"The Economist\" also cautioned that some bank failures were also to be expected and some banks may not have had any reserves left for financing commercial and industrial enterprises. It concluded that the position of the banks was the key to the situation, but what was going to happen could not have been foreseen.\n", "Some academics view the Wall Street Crash of 1929 as part of a historical process that was a part of the new theories of boom and bust. According to economists such as Joseph Schumpeter, Nikolai Kondratiev and Charles E. Mitchell, the crash was merely a historical event in the continuing process known as economic cycles. The impact of the crash was merely to increase the speed at which the cycle proceeded to its next level.\n", "Milton Friedman's \"A Monetary History of the United States\", co-written with Anna Schwartz, advances the argument that what made the \"great contraction\" so severe was not the downturn in the business cycle, protectionism, or the 1929 stock market crash in themselves but the collapse of the banking system during three waves of panics from 1930 to 1933.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Causes of the Great Depression\n", "BULLET::::- Criticism of the Federal Reserve\n", "BULLET::::- Great Contraction\n", "BULLET::::- List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- Axon, Gordon V. The Stock Market Crash of 1929. London, England: Mason & Lipscomb Publishers Inc., 1974.\n", "BULLET::::- Brooks, John. (1969). \"Once in Golconda: A True Drama of Wall Street 1920–1938\". New York: Harper & Row. .\n", "BULLET::::- Galbraith, John Kenneth. \"1929: New York City.\" \"Lapham's Quarterly\", no. 2 (Spring 2015): 145–146\n", "BULLET::::- Klein, Maury. (2001). \"Rainbow's End: The Crash of 1929\". New York: Oxford University Press. .\n", "BULLET::::- Klingaman, William K. (1989). \"1929: The Year of the Great Crash\". New York: Harper & Row. .\n", "BULLET::::- Leone, Bruno. \"The Great Depression: Opposing Viewpoints,\" 14–25. San Diego, California: Bender, David L., 1994.\n", "BULLET::::- Pendergast, Tom. \"American Decades: 1920–1929\". Farmington Hills, Michigan: UXL American Decades Publishing, 2003.\n", "BULLET::::- Reed, Lawrence W. (1981 & 2008). \"Great Myths of the Great Depression\". Midland, Michigan: Mackinac Center.\n", "BULLET::::- Shachtman, Tom. (1979). \"The Day America Crashed: A Narrative Account of the Great Stock Market Crash of October 24, 1929\". New York: G.P. Putnam. .\n", "BULLET::::- Thomas, Gordon and Morgan-Witts, Max. (1979). \"The Day the Bubble Burst: A Social History of the Wall Street Crash of 1929\". Garden City, New York: Doubleday. .\n", "BULLET::::- Watkins, Tom H. \"The Great Depression: America in the 1930s,\" 22–55. New York: Little, Brown & Company, 1993.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Crash of 1929\", American Experience documentary\n" ] }
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Mitchell", "economic cycles", "Milton Friedman", "A Monetary History of the United States", "Anna Schwartz", "protectionism", "Causes of the Great Depression", "Criticism of the Federal Reserve", "Great Contraction", "List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average", "Brooks, John", "Galbraith, John Kenneth", "Lapham's Quarterly", "Klein, Maury", "Reed, Lawrence W", "Shachtman, Tom", "Thomas, Gordon", "Morgan-Witts, Max", "American Experience" ], "href": [ "stock%20market%20crash", "New%20York%20Stock%20Exchange", "history%20of%20the%20United%20States", "London%20Stock%20Exchange", "Great%20Depression", "Roaring%20Twenties", "World%20War%20I", "speculation", "Federal%20Reserve", "Charles%20E.%20Mitchell", "National%20City%20Bank%20%28New%20York%20City%29", "call%20money", "Dow%20Jones%20Industrial%20Average", "Irving%20Fisher", "bull%20market", "Roger%20Babson", "London%20Stock%20Exchange", "Clarence%20Hatry", "ticker%20tape", "Wall%20Street", "banker", "Thomas%20W.%20Lamont", "Albert%20Wiggin", "Chase%20National%20Bank", "Charles%20E.%20Mitchell", "Citibank%23History", "Richard%20Whitney%20%28financier%29", "U.S.%20Steel", "blue%20chip%20%28stock%20market%29", "Panic%20of%201907", "Margin%20%28finance%29%23Margin%20call", "William%20C.%20Durant", "Rockefeller%20family", "ticker%20tape", "bear%20market", "Pecora%20Commission", "United%20States%20Senate", "1933%20Banking%20Act", "commercial%20bank", "loan", "investment%20bank", "Underwriting", "stock", "bond%20%28finance%29", "security%20%28finance%29", "Black%20Monday%20%281987%29", "World%20War%20II", "speculation", "Leverage%20%28finance%29", "economic%20bubble", "margin%20buying", "P/E%20ratio", "John%20Kenneth%20Galbraith", "Goldman%20Sachs", "George%20Paish", "Roger%20Babson", "Panic%20selling", "Albert%20H.%20Wiggin", "Roaring%20Twenties", "Charles%20P.%20Kindleberger", "lender%20of%20last%20resort", "bankruptcies", "macroeconomic", "uptick%20rule", "bear%20raid", "New%20York%20Stock%20Exchange", "Economy%20of%20the%20United%20States", "Means%20Test", "The%20Economist", "boom%20and%20bust", "Joseph%20Schumpeter", "Nikolai%20Kondratiev", "Charles%20E.%20Mitchell", "Business%20cycle", "Milton%20Friedman", "A%20Monetary%20History%20of%20the%20United%20States", "Anna%20Schwartz", "protectionism", "Causes%20of%20the%20Great%20Depression", "Criticism%20of%20the%20Federal%20Reserve", "Great%20Contraction", "List%20of%20largest%20daily%20changes%20in%20the%20Dow%20Jones%20Industrial%20Average", "John%20Brooks%20%28writer%29", "John%20Kenneth%20Galbraith", "Lapham%27s%20Quarterly", "Maury%20Klein", "Lawrence%20Reed", "Tom%20Shachtman", "Gordon%20Thomas%20%28author%29", "Max%20Morgan-Witts", "American%20Experience" ], "wikipedia_title": [ "Stock market crash", "New York Stock Exchange", "History of the United States", "London Stock Exchange", "Great Depression", "Roaring Twenties", "World War I", "Speculation", "Federal Reserve", "Charles E. 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Kindleberger", "Lender of last resort", "Bankruptcy", "Macroeconomics", "Uptick rule", "Bear raid", "New York Stock Exchange", "Economy of the United States", "Means test", "The Economist", "Business cycle", "Joseph Schumpeter", "Nikolai Kondratiev", "Charles E. Mitchell", "Business cycle", "Milton Friedman", "A Monetary History of the United States", "Anna Schwartz", "Protectionism", "Causes of the Great Depression", "Criticism of the Federal Reserve", "Great Contraction", "List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average", "John Brooks (writer)", "John Kenneth Galbraith", "Lapham's Quarterly", "Maury Klein", "Lawrence Reed", "Tom Shachtman", "Gordon Thomas (author)", "Max Morgan-Witts", "American Experience" ], "wikipedia_id": [ "63074", "21560", "63876", "197867", "19283335", "369155", "4764461", "63088", "10819", "12843385", "12559806", "33754801", "47361", "404504", "63082", "176826", "197867", "20348508", "538123", "37274", "19360669", "887054", "3039066", "384969", "12843385", "231026", "3118567", "315801", "484549", "735925", "2736859", "369262", "564564", "538123", "63082", "3106063", "24909346", "1718877", "195493", "208852", "163118", "927644", "19372783", "60737", "42162", "314544", "32927", "63088", "1376839", "139993", "2736859", "163066", "84271", "335244", "28372383", "176826", "26271982", "3039066", "369155", "1391900", "921278", "4695", "18820", "2193519", "12575031", "21560", "32022", "1157905", "50449", "168918", "15827", "678430", "12843385", "168918", "19640", "14818477", "2877705", "153023", "455150", "1291858", "1094478", "19533957", "21256608", "84271", "15443105", "37323296", "1604373", "44203434", "4619793", "4619980", "646555" ] }
"Stock market crashes,Great Depression in the United States,1929 in New York City,Roaring Twenties,Economic bubbles,1929 in economics,1929 in international relations"
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{ "pageid": 157649, "parentid": 906687827, "revid": 908233886, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-28T11:09:42Z", "url": "" }
"Rachel Bolan"
{ "paragraph": [ "Rachel Bolan\n", "Rachel Bolan (born February 9, 1966), born James Richard Southworth, is the bass guitar player and main songwriter of the metal band Skid Row. His stage name 'Rachel' is a hybrid of his brother's name, Richard, and his grandfather's name, Manuel. 'Bolan' is a tribute to one of his childhood idols, T. Rex frontman, Marc Bolan. He is the youngest of four children.\n", "Section::::Career.\n", "Bolan, who grew up in Toms River, New Jersey, founded Skid Row in 1986 with guitarist Dave \"The Snake\" Sabo. Bolan has appeared as a vocalist on two of Kiss guitarist Ace Frehley's solo albums and back-up vocals on Mötley Crüe's \"Dr. Feelgood\" album. He has produced numerous bands including Rockets to Ruin , the Luchagors in 2007 with former WWE wrestler Amy \"Lita\" Dumas and Atlantic Records stoner metal band Godspeed. He formed the band Prunella Scales with Solace guitarist Tommy Southard and L. Wood. Prunella Scales released \"Dressing up the Idiot\" on Mutiny Records in 1997. Jack Roberts (guitar) and Ray Kubian (drums), both from the New Jersey-based band Mars Needs Women, joined Prunella Scales for touring. Recently, he played the bass guitar for Stone Sour on the band's new records House of Gold & Bones - Part 1 and House of Gold & Bones – Part 2 as a replacement for the departed bassist Shawn Economaki. He also can be seen playing bass in TRUSTcompany music video for the single \"Heart in My Hands\".\n", "Bolan has another side project called The Quazimotors. He did this project with Skid Row drummer Rob Affuso, Jonathan Callicutt and Evil Jim Wright (guitarist for Spectremen, BigFoot, Road Hawgs).\n", "Section::::Personal life.\n", "He married longtime girlfriend Donna \"Roxxi\" Feldman on June 10, 1994 but later divorced. He has no children.\n", "He drives racecars in his free time. He competes in high performance go-karts, Legends Cars, Thunder Roadster and Pro-Challenge series cars.\n" ] }
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{ "pageid": 157659, "parentid": 873269724, "revid": 873269770, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2018-12-12T04:23:01Z", "url": "" }
"Specific replant disease"
{ "paragraph": [ "Specific replant disease\n", "Specific replant disease (also known as ‘Sick Soil Syndrome’) is a malady that manifests itself when susceptible plants such as apples, pears, plums, cherries and roses are placed into soil previously occupied by a related species. The exact causes are not known, but in the first year the new plants will grow poorly. Root systems are weak and may become blackened, and plants may fail to establish properly.\n", "One theory is that replant disease is due to a whole menagerie of tree pathogens - fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses and other organisms. These parasitise target the living tissues of the mature tree, hastening senility and death, and survive in the soil and decaying roots after the tree has died. Putting a young traumatised tree with an immature root system into this 'broth' of pathogens can be too much for an infant tree to cope with. Any new root growth is rapidly and heavily colonised, so that shoot growth is virtually zero. This is especially true if it is on a dwarfing rootstock, which by its nature will be relatively inefficient. As a rule, replant disease persists for around fifteen years in the soil, although this varies with local conditions. Pathogens survive in dead wood and organic matter until exposed to predation by their home rotting away, and will also depend on whether the original orchard was planted with dwarf or standard trees. Standards have more vigorous - therefore larger - roots, and are thus likely to take longer to degrade.\n", "It is good organic rotation practice not to follow ‘like with like’ and this rule applies to long lived trees as much as annual vegetables. In the case of temperate fruit trees, the 'Pomes and Stones' rule for rotation should be observed- don’t follow a ‘pome’ fruit (with an apple-type core—apples, pears, medlar, quince) with a tree from the same group. A ‘stone’ fruit (i.e., with a plum-type stone, such as plum, cherry, peach, apricot, almond) should be all right, and vice versa. However, rotation is not always easy in a well planned old orchard when the site it occupies may well be the best available, and starting another orchard elsewhere may not be practical. In this case, and replanting is\n", "unavoidable, a large hole should be dug out, and the soil removed and replaced with ‘clean’ soil from a site where susceptible plants have not been grown.\n", "Using trees on vigorous rootstocks which will have a better chance of competing with the pathogens, or plants grown in large containers with a large root ball may also have a better chance of resisting replant disease. The extra time to cropping may be offset if new trees are planted a few years in advance of old trees finally falling over, furthermore, if the old orchard was grubbed - i.e. trees were healthy when removed, it is unlikely that replant disease would be a problem as pathogen levels may never have been high. The malady is worse where trees have died in situ—pathogens are likely to have contributed to the death and therefore be at a higher level in the soil.\n", "Soil fumigation is another common method employed to control replant disease in both apple and cherry trees. Throughout the 90's, fumigants like Methyl Bromide (Bromomethane) were commonly used in this way to control and treat the disease, through this was later phased out in the 2000s in favour of more modern alternatives such as Chloropicrin, which some studies have shown to be an effective method for resolving SARD in Apple Tree Monoculture in Europe.\n" ] }
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"Pear tree diseases,Apple tree diseases,Plant pathogens and diseases,Stone fruit tree diseases"
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{ "pageid": 157658, "parentid": 880128652, "revid": 904605667, "pre_dump": true, "timestamp": "2019-07-03T07:43:18Z", "url": "" }
"Peter the Hermit"
{ "paragraph": [ "Peter the Hermit\n", "Peter the Hermit (also known as Cucupeter, Little Peter or Peter of Amiens; 1050 – 8 July 1115) was a priest of Amiens and a key figure during the First Crusade.\n", "Section::::Family.\n", "His name in French is \"Pierre l'Ermite\". The structure of this name in French unlike in English has led some francophone scholars to treat l'Ermite as a surname rather than a title.\n", "According to some authors, he was born around 1050 and was the son of Renauld L'Ermite of Auvergne, and his wife Alide Montaigu, de Picardie. Others claim he was a member of the \"L'Hermite\" family of Auvergne in the Netherlands. These claims are disputed by other authors, who argue that nothing can confirm that \"the Hermit\" was an actual surname and that surnames had not developed until after his day.\n", "Section::::Before 1096.\n", "According to Anna Comnena, Peter had attempted to go on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before 1096, but was prevented by the Seljuk Turks from reaching his goal and was reportedly mistreated. He used this supposed mistreatment to preach inflammatory statements about the Turks toward upset Christians. However, doubts remain whether he ever made such a journey.\n", "Sources differ as to whether he was present at Pope Urban II's famous Council of Clermont in 1095. It is certain that he was one of the preachers of the crusade in France afterward, and his own experience may have helped to give fire to the Crusading cause. Tradition in Huy holds that he was there when the crusade was announced and he began his preaching at once. He soon leapt into fame as an emotional revivalist, and the vast majority of sources and historians agree that thousands of peasants eagerly took the cross at his bidding.\n", "Jonathan Riley-Smith has proposed that the People's Crusade also included well-armed soldiers and nobles. This part of the crusade was also known as the crusade of the \"paupers\", a term which in the Middle Ages indicated a status as impoverished or mendicant wards of the Church. Peter organized and guided the paupers as a spiritually purified and holy group of pilgrims who would, supposedly, be protected by the Holy Ghost. A list of known participants in Peter's army can be found at Riley-Smith, et al.\n", "Section::::Crusade to the Holy Land.\n", "Before Peter went on his crusade he got permission from the Patriarch of Jerusalem. This particular Patriarch was named Simeon. Peter was able to recruit from England, Lorraine, France, and Flanders. Peter the Hermit arrived in Cologne, Germany, on Holy Saturday, the 12th of April in 1096. In Germany in spring 1096 Peter was one of the prominent leaders of crusaders involved in the Rhineland massacres against the Jews.\n", "Leading the first of the five sections of the People's Crusade to the destination of their pilgrimage, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, he started (with 40,000 men and women) from Cologne in April, 1096, and arrived (with 30,000 men and women) at Constantinople at the end of July. The Eastern Roman Emperor Alexios I Komnenos was less than pleased with their arrival, for along with the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Patriarch Nicholas III of Constantinople, he was now required to provide for the care and sustenance of the vast host of paupers for the remainder of their journey.\n", "Before reaching Constantinople though, Peter and his followers began to run into trouble. In Zemun, the Governor, who was descendant of a Ghuzz Turk, and a colleague, got frightened by the army's size and decided to tighten regulations on a frontier. This would have been fine if a dispute about the sa