# Datasets:disfl_qa

Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 10K<n<100K
Language Creators: found
Annotations Creators: expert-generated
Source Datasets: original
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"5a5918ff3e1742001a15cf7e"
"What do unstable isotope studies indicate?"
"What do petrologists no what do unstable isotope studies indicate?"
"Geology"
"In addition to identifying rocks in the field, petrologists identify rock samples in the laboratory. Two of the primary methods for identifying rocks in the laboratory are through optical microscopy and by using an electron microprobe. In an optical mineralogy analysis, thin sections of rock samples are analyzed through a petrographic microscope, where the minerals can be identified through their different properties in plane-polarized and cross-polarized light, including their birefringence, pleochroism, twinning, and interference properties with a conoscopic lens. In the electron microprobe, individual locations are analyzed for their exact chemical compositions and variation in composition within individual crystals. Stable and radioactive isotope studies provide insight into the geochemical evolution of rock units."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"What is the basic unit of territorial division in Warsaw?"
"What is the second level of territorial division in Poland no make that the basic unit of territorial division in Warsaw?"
"Warsaw"
"The basic unit of territorial division in Poland is a commune (gmina). A city is also a commune – but with the city charter. Both cities and communes are governed by a mayor – but in the communes the mayor is vogt (wójt in Polish), however in the cities – burmistrz. Some bigger cities obtain the entitlements, i.e. tasks and privileges, which are possessed by the units of the second level of the territorial division – counties or powiats. An example of such entitlement is a car registration: a gmina cannot register cars, this is a powiat's task (i.e. a registration number depends on what powiat a car had been registered, not gmina). In this case we say about city county or powiat grodzki. Such cities are for example Lublin, Kraków, Gdańsk, Poznań. In Warsaw, its districts additionally have some of powiat's entitlements – like already mentioned car registration. For example, the district Wola has its own evidence and the district Ursynów – its own (and the cars from Wola have another type of registration number than these from Ursynów). But for instance the districts in Kraków do not have entitlements of powiat, so the registration numbers in Kraków are of the same type for all districts."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"572684365951b619008f7543"
"Which genus lack tentacles and sheaths?"
"Juvenile platyctenids no wow Which genus lack tentacles and sheaths?"
"Ctenophora"
"Development of the fertilized eggs is direct, in other words there is no distinctive larval form, and juveniles of all groups generally resemble miniature cydippid adults. In the genus Beroe the juveniles, like the adults, lack tentacles and tentacle sheaths. In most species the juveniles gradually develop the body forms of their parents. In some groups, such as the flat, bottom-dwelling platyctenids, the juveniles behave more like true larvae, as they live among the plankton and thus occupy a different ecological niche from their parents and attain the adult form by a more radical metamorphosis, after dropping to the sea-floor."
{ "text": [ "Beroe", "Beroe", "Beroe" ], "answer_start": [ 185, 185, 185 ] }
"5729f799af94a219006aa70a"
"Long-lived memory cells can remember previous encounters with what?"
"When a pathogen is met again scratch that I mean long-lived memory cells are capable of remembering previous encounters with what?"
"Immune_system"
"When B cells and T cells are activated and begin to replicate, some of their offspring become long-lived memory cells. Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these memory cells remember each specific pathogen encountered and can mount a strong response if the pathogen is detected again. This is "adaptive" because it occurs during the lifetime of an individual as an adaptation to infection with that pathogen and prepares the immune system for future challenges. Immunological memory can be in the form of either passive short-term memory or active long-term memory."
{ "text": [ "specific pathogen", "pathogen", "each specific pathogen" ], "answer_start": [ 190, 199, 185 ] }
"What led to Newcastle's rise to power as military advisor?"
"What led to the Duke of Cumberland's rise to power as military advisor sorry no Newcastle's?"
"French_and_Indian_War"
"The British failures in North America, combined with other failures in the European theater, led to the fall from power of Newcastle and his principal military advisor, the Duke of Cumberland. Newcastle and Pitt joined in an uneasy coalition in which Pitt dominated the military planning. He embarked on a plan for the 1758 campaign that was largely developed by Loudoun. He had been replaced by Abercrombie as commander in chief after the failures of 1757. Pitt's plan called for three major offensive actions involving large numbers of regular troops, supported by the provincial militias, aimed at capturing the heartlands of New France. Two of the expeditions were successful, with Fort Duquesne and Louisbourg falling to sizable British forces."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a665b56846392001a1e1b1d"
"How long did Julia Butterfly Hill live near a nuclear-missile installation?"
"Did Julia Butterfly wait How long did Julia Butterfly Hill live near a nuclear-missile installation?"
"Civil_disobedience"
"Civil disobedients have chosen a variety of different illegal acts. Bedau writes, "There is a whole class of acts, undertaken in the name of civil disobedience, which, even if they were widely practiced, would in themselves constitute hardly more than a nuisance (e.g. trespassing at a nuclear-missile installation)...Such acts are often just a harassment and, at least to the bystander, somewhat inane...The remoteness of the connection between the disobedient act and the objectionable law lays such acts open to the charge of ineffectiveness and absurdity." Bedau also notes, though, that the very harmlessness of such entirely symbolic illegal protests toward public policy goals may serve a propaganda purpose. Some civil disobedients, such as the proprietors of illegal medical cannabis dispensaries and Voice in the Wilderness, which brought medicine to Iraq without the permission of the U.S. Government, directly achieve a desired social goal (such as the provision of medication to the sick) while openly breaking the law. Julia Butterfly Hill lived in Luna, a 180-foot (55 m)-tall, 600-year-old California Redwood tree for 738 days, successfully preventing it from being cut down."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"When was Warsaw ranked as the 22nd most liveable city in the world?"
"When was Frankfurt ranked as the 22nd most liveable city in the world, no sorry it was Warsaw?"
"Warsaw"
"In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. It was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central Europe. Today Warsaw is considered an "Alpha–" global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Warsaw's economy, by a wide variety of industries, is characterised by FMCG manufacturing, metal processing, steel and electronic manufacturing and food processing. The city is a significant centre of research and development, BPO, ITO, as well as of the Polish media industry. The Warsaw Stock Exchange is one of the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security, has its headquarters in Warsaw. It has been said that Warsaw, together with Frankfurt, London, Paris and Barcelona is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. Warsaw has also been called "Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants"."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5729727baf94a219006aa437"
"What is the name of the supposition that any number larger than 2 can be represented as the sum of two primes?"
"What is the name of the number theory, or rather, the supposition that any number larger than 2 can be represented as the sum of two primes?"
"Prime_number"
"Many questions regarding prime numbers remain open, such as Goldbach's conjecture (that every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes), and the twin prime conjecture (that there are infinitely many pairs of primes whose difference is 2). Such questions spurred the development of various branches of number theory, focusing on analytic or algebraic aspects of numbers. Primes are used in several routines in information technology, such as public-key cryptography, which makes use of properties such as the difficulty of factoring large numbers into their prime factors. Prime numbers give rise to various generalizations in other mathematical domains, mainly algebra, such as prime elements and prime ideals."
{ "text": [ "Goldbach's conjecture", "Goldbach's conjecture", "Goldbach's conjecture", "Goldbach's conjecture", "Goldbach's conjecture" ], "answer_start": [ 60, 60, 60, 60, 60 ] }
"Which group sets the time agenda?"
"Scottish_Parliament"
"As a member of the Scottish Parliamentary Corporate Body, the Presiding Officer is responsible for ensuring that the Parliament functions effectively and has the staff, property and resources it requires to operate. Convening the Parliamentary Bureau, which allocates time and sets the work agenda in the chamber, is another of the roles of the Presiding Officer. Under the Standing Orders of the Parliament the Bureau consists of the Presiding Officer and one representative from each political parties with five or more seats in the Parliament. Amongst the duties of the Bureau are to agree the timetable of business in the chamber, establish the number, remit and membership of parliamentary committees and regulate the passage of legislation (bills) through the Parliament. The Presiding Officer also represents the Scottish Parliament at home and abroad in an official capacity."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"When three forces act on a point particle, what happens?"
"What geometric er when three forces act on a point particle, what happens?"
"Force"
"Historically, forces were first quantitatively investigated in conditions of static equilibrium where several forces canceled each other out. Such experiments demonstrate the crucial properties that forces are additive vector quantities: they have magnitude and direction. When two forces act on a point particle, the resulting force, the resultant (also called the net force), can be determined by following the parallelogram rule of vector addition: the addition of two vectors represented by sides of a parallelogram, gives an equivalent resultant vector that is equal in magnitude and direction to the transversal of the parallelogram. The magnitude of the resultant varies from the difference of the magnitudes of the two forces to their sum, depending on the angle between their lines of action. However, if the forces are acting on an extended body, their respective lines of application must also be specified in order to account for their effects on the motion of the body."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"What profession does Zbigniew Marek have?"
"What profession does Irena Bajerska no Zbigniew Marek have?"
"Warsaw"
"Another important library – the University Library, founded in 1816, is home to over two million items. The building was designed by architects Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski and opened on 15 December 1999. It is surrounded by green. The University Library garden, designed by Irena Bajerska, was opened on 12 June 2002. It is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in Europe with an area of more than 10,000 m2 (107,639.10 sq ft), and plants covering 5,111 m2 (55,014.35 sq ft). As the university garden it is open to the public every day."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5729d609af94a219006aa665"
"What type of wages does mechanization and automation lead to?"
"What type of wages does equipment for labor no the mechanization and automation lead to?"
"Economic_inequality"
"In Marxian analysis, capitalist firms increasingly substitute capital equipment for labor inputs (workers) under competitive pressure to reduce costs and maximize profits. Over the long-term, this trend increases the organic composition of capital, meaning that less workers are required in proportion to capital inputs, increasing unemployment (the "reserve army of labour"). This process exerts a downward pressure on wages. The substitution of capital equipment for labor (mechanization and automation) raises the productivity of each worker, resulting in a situation of relatively stagnant wages for the working class amidst rising levels of property income for the capitalist class."
{ "text": [ "stagnant", "stagnant wages", "stagnant" ], "answer_start": [ 585, 585, 585 ] }
"5727ee372ca10214002d99f0"
"What type of impact or uh entrepreneurship leads to advancements in technology?"
"Economic_inequality"
"On the other hand, higher economic inequality tends to increase entrepreneurship rates at the individual level (self-employment). However, most of it is often based on necessity rather than opportunity. Necessity-based entrepreneurship is motivated by survival needs such as income for food and shelter ("push" motivations), whereas opportunity-based entrepreneurship is driven by achievement-oriented motivations ("pull") such as vocation and more likely to involve the pursue of new products, services, or underserved market needs. The economic impact of the former type of entrepreneurialism tends to be redistributive while the latter is expected to foster technological progress and thus have a more positive impact on economic growth."
{ "text": [ "opportunity-based entrepreneurship", "opportunity-based entrepreneurship", "opportunity-based" ], "answer_start": [ 333, 333, 333 ] }
"57335ddbd058e614000b5930"
"What does the highest level of the Vistula plateau contain?"
"Why does What does the highest level of the Vistula plateau contain?"
"Warsaw"
"The plain moraine plateau has only a few natural and artificial ponds and also groups of clay pits. The pattern of the Vistula terraces is asymmetrical. The left side consist mainly of two levels: the highest one contains former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood plain terrace. The contemporary flooded terrace still has visible valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from the Vistula old – riverbed. They consist of still quite natural streams and lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches. The right side of Warsaw has a different pattern of geomorphological forms. There are several levels of the plain Vistula terraces (flooded as well as former flooded once) and only small part and not so visible moraine escarpment. Aeolian sand with a number of dunes parted by peat swamps or small ponds cover the highest terrace. These are mainly forested areas (pine forest)."
{ "text": [ "former flooded terraces", "former flooded terraces", "peat swamps or small ponds" ], "answer_start": [ 222, 222, 806 ] }
"5a2ed354a83784001a7d24ef"
"What percentage of Venice residents died of the plague in 1361?"
"What percentage of Parisian residents died of the plague in 1361 no Venice residents?"
"Black_Death"
"In 1466, perhaps 40,000 people died of the plague in Paris. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the plague was present in Paris around 30 per cent of the time. The Black Death ravaged Europe for three years before it continued on into Russia, where the disease was present somewhere in the country 25 times between 1350 to 1490. Plague epidemics ravaged London in 1563, 1593, 1603, 1625, 1636, and 1665, reducing its population by 10 to 30% during those years. Over 10% of Amsterdam's population died in 1623–25, and again in 1635–36, 1655, and 1664. Plague occurred in Venice 22 times between 1361 and 1528. The plague of 1576–77 killed 50,000 in Venice, almost a third of the population. Late outbreaks in central Europe included the Italian Plague of 1629–1631, which is associated with troop movements during the Thirty Years' War, and the Great Plague of Vienna in 1679. Over 60% of Norway's population died in 1348–50. The last plague outbreak ravaged Oslo in 1654."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57379829c3c5551400e51f3f"
"What is the effect of beta decay?"
"What is the result of no no I mean what is the effect of beta decay?"
"Force"
"The weak force is due to the exchange of the heavy W and Z bosons. Its most familiar effect is beta decay (of neutrons in atomic nuclei) and the associated radioactivity. The word "weak" derives from the fact that the field strength is some 1013 times less than that of the strong force. Still, it is stronger than gravity over short distances. A consistent electroweak theory has also been developed, which shows that electromagnetic forces and the weak force are indistinguishable at a temperatures in excess of approximately 1015 kelvins. Such temperatures have been probed in modern particle accelerators and show the conditions of the universe in the early moments of the Big Bang."
"5a835482e60761001a2eb598"
"What kind of organs do some sponges have?"
"What kind of organs do ctenophores or no make that do some sponges have?"
"Ctenophora"
"Ctenophores form an animal phylum that is more complex than sponges, about as complex as cnidarians (jellyfish, sea anemones, etc.), and less complex than bilaterians (which include almost all other animals). Unlike sponges, both ctenophores and cnidarians have: cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet-like basement membranes; muscles; nervous systems; and some have sensory organs. Ctenophores are distinguished from all other animals by having colloblasts, which are sticky and adhere to prey, although a few ctenophore species lack them."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5acfed9477cf76001a686541"
"How did the party overthrow the elected government in 1929?"
"How did the party overthrow the elected government in 1985 no i mean 1929?"
"Islamism"
"After al-Nimeiry was overthrown in 1985 the party did poorly in national elections, but in 1989 it was able to overthrow the elected post-al-Nimeiry government with the help of the military. Turabi was noted for proclaiming his support for the democratic process and a liberal government before coming to power, but strict application of sharia law, torture and mass imprisonment of the opposition, and an intensification of the long-running war in southern Sudan, once in power. The NIF regime also harbored Osama bin Laden for a time (before 9/11), and worked to unify Islamist opposition to the American attack on Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5725daa8ec44d21400f3d6b3"
"In what year did Fresno get its first pedestrian mall?"
"How no sorry in what year did Fresno get its first pedestrian mall?"
"Fresno,_California"
"Fulton Street in Downtown Fresno was Fresno's main financial and commercial district before being converted into one of the nation's first pedestrian malls in 1964. Renamed the Fulton Mall, the area contains the densest collection of historic buildings in Fresno. While the Fulton Mall corridor has suffered a sharp decline from its heyday, the Mall includes some of the finest public art pieces in the country, including the only Pierre-Auguste Renoir piece in the world that one can walk up to and touch. Current plans call for the reopening of the Fulton Mall to automobile traffic. The public art pieces will be restored and placed near their current locations and will feature wide sidewalks (up to 28' on the east side of the street) to continue with the pedestrian friendly environment of the district."
{ "text": [ "1964", "1964", "1964" ], "answer_start": [ 159, 159, 159 ] }
"Who were the main detractors of the humoral theory of immunity?"
"What are or actually who were the main detractors of the humoral theory of immunity?"
"Immune_system"
"Immunology is strongly experimental in everyday practice but is also characterized by an ongoing theoretical attitude. Many theories have been suggested in immunology from the end of the nineteenth century up to the present time. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century saw a battle between "cellular" and "humoral" theories of immunity. According to the cellular theory of immunity, represented in particular by Elie Metchnikoff, it was cells – more precisely, phagocytes – that were responsible for immune responses. In contrast, the humoral theory of immunity, held, among others, by Robert Koch and Emil von Behring, stated that the active immune agents were soluble components (molecules) found in the organism’s “humors” rather than its cells."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57297781af94a219006aa4a5"
"What is one function that prime numbers have that 1 does not?"
"Which theorem, oh wait, what is one function that prime numbers have that 1 does not?"
"Prime_number"
"A large body of mathematical work would still be valid when calling 1 a prime, but Euclid's fundamental theorem of arithmetic (mentioned above) would not hold as stated. For example, the number 15 can be factored as 3 · 5 and 1 · 3 · 5; if 1 were admitted as a prime, these two presentations would be considered different factorizations of 15 into prime numbers, so the statement of that theorem would have to be modified. Similarly, the sieve of Eratosthenes would not work correctly if 1 were considered a prime: a modified version of the sieve that considers 1 as prime would eliminate all multiples of 1 (that is, all other numbers) and produce as output only the single number 1. Furthermore, the prime numbers have several properties that the number 1 lacks, such as the relationship of the number to its corresponding value of Euler's totient function or the sum of divisors function."
{ "text": [ "the sum of divisors function", "relationship of the number to its corresponding value of Euler's totient function", "relationship of the number to its corresponding value of Euler's totient function", "relationship of the number to its corresponding value of Euler's totient function", "the relationship of the number to its corresponding value of Euler's totient function" ], "answer_start": [ 862, 777, 777, 777, 773 ] }
"5a8923a23b2508001a72a4c9"
"What is another function that primes have that the number 15 does not?"
"What is a fundamental no is another function that primes have that the number 15 does not?"
"Prime_number"
"A large body of mathematical work would still be valid when calling 1 a prime, but Euclid's fundamental theorem of arithmetic (mentioned above) would not hold as stated. For example, the number 15 can be factored as 3 · 5 and 1 · 3 · 5; if 1 were admitted as a prime, these two presentations would be considered different factorizations of 15 into prime numbers, so the statement of that theorem would have to be modified. Similarly, the sieve of Eratosthenes would not work correctly if 1 were considered a prime: a modified version of the sieve that considers 1 as prime would eliminate all multiples of 1 (that is, all other numbers) and produce as output only the single number 1. Furthermore, the prime numbers have several properties that the number 1 lacks, such as the relationship of the number to its corresponding value of Euler's totient function or the sum of divisors function."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a58d33e3e1742001a15ce3d"
"Why do oceanic plates and mantle convection currents move in opposite directions?"
"When was um no why do oceanic plates and mantle convection currents move in opposite directions?"
"Geology"
"In the 1960s, a series of discoveries, the most important of which was seafloor spreading, showed that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into a number of tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, solid, upper mantle, which is called the asthenosphere. There is an intimate coupling between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection of the mantle: oceanic plate motions and mantle convection currents always move in the same direction, because the oceanic lithosphere is the rigid upper thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle. This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a3e5697378766001a002599"
"Below what levels were the projected sea levels in the 2001 IPCC projection?"
"Below what levels were the projected sea levels in the 2007 or no make that the 2001 IPCC projection?"
"Intergovernmental_Panel_on_Climate_Change"
"On 1 February 2007, the eve of the publication of IPCC's major report on climate, a study was published suggesting that temperatures and sea levels have been rising at or above the maximum rates proposed during the last IPCC report in 2001. The study compared IPCC 2001 projections on temperature and sea level change with observations. Over the six years studied, the actual temperature rise was near the top end of the range given by IPCC's 2001 projection, and the actual sea level rise was above the top of the range of the IPCC projection."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"Who disagrees with the timetable of business in the chamber?"
"Who sets the work agenda and allocates time in the chamber no not this I want to know who disagrees with the timetable of business in the chamber?"
"Scottish_Parliament"
"As a member of the Scottish Parliamentary Corporate Body, the Presiding Officer is responsible for ensuring that the Parliament functions effectively and has the staff, property and resources it requires to operate. Convening the Parliamentary Bureau, which allocates time and sets the work agenda in the chamber, is another of the roles of the Presiding Officer. Under the Standing Orders of the Parliament the Bureau consists of the Presiding Officer and one representative from each political parties with five or more seats in the Parliament. Amongst the duties of the Bureau are to agree the timetable of business in the chamber, establish the number, remit and membership of parliamentary committees and regulate the passage of legislation (bills) through the Parliament. The Presiding Officer also represents the Scottish Parliament at home and abroad in an official capacity."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"Which building was vacated three times to allow for the meeting of the Church's General Assembly?"
"Which building was vacated three times to allow for the meeting of the General Assembly Hall or no rather of the Church's General Assembly?"
"Scottish_Parliament"
"Whilst the permanent building at Holyrood was being constructed, the Parliament's temporary home was the General Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland on the Royal Mile in Edinburgh. Official photographs and television interviews were held in the courtyard adjoining the Assembly Hall, which is part of the School of Divinity of the University of Edinburgh. This building was vacated twice to allow for the meeting of the Church's General Assembly. In May 2000, the Parliament was temporarily relocated to the former Strathclyde Regional Council debating chamber in Glasgow, and to the University of Aberdeen in May 2002."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5729f4e46aef051400155156"
"What career does Joseph Stiglitz have?"
"What skills, no, what career does Joseph Stiglitz have?"
"Economic_inequality"
"Economist Joseph Stiglitz argues that rather than explaining concentrations of wealth and income, market forces should serve as a brake on such concentration, which may better be explained by the non-market force known as "rent-seeking". While the market will bid up compensation for rare and desired skills to reward wealth creation, greater productivity, etc., it will also prevent successful entrepreneurs from earning excess profits by fostering competition to cut prices, profits and large compensation. A better explainer of growing inequality, according to Stiglitz, is the use of political power generated by wealth by certain groups to shape government policies financially beneficial to them. This process, known to economists as rent-seeking, brings income not from creation of wealth but from "grabbing a larger share of the wealth that would otherwise have been produced without their effort""
{ "text": [ "Economist", "Economist", "Economist" ], "answer_start": [ 0, 0, 0 ] }
"5725fcbe271a42140099d3ae"
"What is another name for State Route 168?"
"What is another name for State Route 41 or no 168?"
"Fresno,_California"
"Fresno is served by State Route 99, the main north/south freeway that connects the major population centers of the California Central Valley. State Route 168, the Sierra Freeway, heads east to the city of Clovis and Huntington Lake. State Route 41 (Yosemite Freeway/Eisenhower Freeway) comes into Fresno from Atascadero in the south, and then heads north to Yosemite. State Route 180 (Kings Canyon Freeway) comes from the west via Mendota, and from the east in Kings Canyon National Park going towards the city of Reedley."
{ "text": [ "the Sierra Freeway", "Sierra Freeway", "Sierra Freeway" ], "answer_start": [ 159, 163, 163 ] }
"5a664447c2b11c001a425eec"
"What was written by Ghandi in 1819?"
"What was written by Henry David Thoreau or sorry Ghandi in 1819? "," What was referenced err I mean written by Ghandi in 1819?"
"Civil_disobedience"
"Following the Peterloo massacre of 1819, poet Percy Shelley wrote the political poem The Mask of Anarchy later that year, that begins with the images of what he thought to be the unjust forms of authority of his time—and then imagines the stirrings of a new form of social action. It is perhaps the first modern[vague] statement of the principle of nonviolent protest. A version was taken up by the author Henry David Thoreau in his essay Civil Disobedience, and later by Gandhi in his doctrine of Satyagraha. Gandhi's Satyagraha was partially influenced and inspired by Shelley's nonviolence in protest and political action. In particular, it is known that Gandhi would often quote Shelley's Masque of Anarchy to vast audiences during the campaign for a free India."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5acfeb5f77cf76001a6864ba"
"Who deployed its army into Iraq in 1979?"
"Who deployed its army into Afghanistan in 1979 no sorry not Afghanistan but in Iraq?"
"Islamism"
"In 1979, the Soviet Union deployed its 40th Army into Afghanistan, attempting to suppress an Islamic rebellion against an allied Marxist regime in the Afghan Civil War. The conflict, pitting indigenous impoverished Muslims (mujahideen) against an anti-religious superpower, galvanized thousands of Muslims around the world to send aid and sometimes to go themselves to fight for their faith. Leading this pan-Islamic effort was Palestinian sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. While the military effectiveness of these "Afghan Arabs" was marginal, an estimated 16,000 to 35,000 Muslim volunteers came from around the world came to fight in Afghanistan."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"572908c13f37b31900477fbf"
"Innate cells can act as mediators in the activation of what branch of the immune system?"
"What cells are the second arm of the innate immune system or rather Innate cells can act as mediators in the activation of what branch of the immune system?"
"Immune_system"
"Leukocytes (white blood cells) act like independent, single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system. The innate leukocytes include the phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells), mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and natural killer cells. These cells identify and eliminate pathogens, either by attacking larger pathogens through contact or by engulfing and then killing microorganisms. Innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system."
"What publication printed that the wealthiest 1% have more money than those in the bottom 99%?"
"What institution no um publication printed that the wealthiest 1% have more money than those in the bottom 99%?"
"Economic_inequality"
"According to PolitiFact the top 400 richest Americans "have more wealth than half of all Americans combined." According to the New York Times on July 22, 2014, the "richest 1 percent in the United States now own more wealth than the bottom 90 percent". Inherited wealth may help explain why many Americans who have become rich may have had a "substantial head start". In September 2012, according to the Institute for Policy Studies, "over 60 percent" of the Forbes richest 400 Americans "grew up in substantial privilege"."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a7b44ae21c2de001afe9e23"
"What is the name of the park in Atascadero?"
"What is the name of the park in Reedley er uh better Atascadero?"
"Fresno,_California"
"Fresno is served by State Route 99, the main north/south freeway that connects the major population centers of the California Central Valley. State Route 168, the Sierra Freeway, heads east to the city of Clovis and Huntington Lake. State Route 41 (Yosemite Freeway/Eisenhower Freeway) comes into Fresno from Atascadero in the south, and then heads north to Yosemite. State Route 180 (Kings Canyon Freeway) comes from the west via Mendota, and from the east in Kings Canyon National Park going towards the city of Reedley."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57332562d058e614000b5734"
"When was the Masovian Duchy reincorporated into the Polish Crown?"
"When was the settlement which would become Warsaw established no not that but when was the Masovian Duchy reincorporated into the Polish Crown?"
"Warsaw"
"The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno (9th/10th century) and Jazdów (12th/13th century). After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa. The Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on mostly crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Polish Crown in 1526."
{ "text": [ "1526", "1526", "1526" ], "answer_start": [ 706, 706, 706 ] }
"5acf7fdf77cf76001a684fd4"
"In what decade did the U of C affiliate with numerous national colleges?"
"In what decade did the Des Moines College or no make that the U of C affiliate with numerous national colleges?"
"University_of_Chicago"
"In the 1890s, the University of Chicago, fearful that its vast resources would injure smaller schools by drawing away good students, affiliated with several regional colleges and universities: Des Moines College, Kalamazoo College, Butler University, and Stetson University. In 1896, the university affiliated with Shimer College in Mount Carroll, Illinois. Under the terms of the affiliation, the schools were required to have courses of study comparable to those at the university, to notify the university early of any contemplated faculty appointments or dismissals, to make no faculty appointment without the university's approval, and to send copies of examinations for suggestions. The University of Chicago agreed to confer a degree on any graduating senior from an affiliated school who made a grade of A for all four years, and on any other graduate who took twelve weeks additional study at the University of Chicago. A student or faculty member of an affiliated school was entitled to free tuition at the University of Chicago, and Chicago students were eligible to attend an affiliated school on the same terms and receive credit for their work. The University of Chicago also agreed to provide affiliated schools with books and scientific apparatus and supplies at cost; special instructors and lecturers without cost except travel expenses; and a copy of every book and journal published by the University of Chicago Press at no cost. The agreement provided that either party could terminate the affiliation on proper notice. Several University of Chicago professors disliked the program, as it involved uncompensated additional labor on their part, and they believed it cheapened the academic reputation of the university. The program passed into history by 1910."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"572827fc3acd2414000df5bb"
"What portion of households in Jacksonville have only one person?"
"Which percentage of households in Jacksonville have more than no sorry have only one person?"
"Jacksonville,_Florida"
"As of 2010[update], there were 366,273 households out of which 11.8% were vacant. 23.9% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.4% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.5 years. For every 100 females there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males."
{ "text": [ "29.7%", "29.7%", "29.7%" ], "answer_start": [ 266, 266, 266 ] }
"5726516a708984140094c225"
"How much do estimations of the population during the plague vary?"
"How much did the clergy no do estimations of the population during the plague vary?"
"Black_Death"
"It is recognised that an epidemiological account of the plague is as important as an identification of symptoms, but researchers are hampered by the lack of reliable statistics from this period. Most work has been done on the spread of the plague in England, and even estimates of overall population at the start vary by over 100% as no census was undertaken between the time of publication of the Domesday Book and the year 1377. Estimates of plague victims are usually extrapolated from figures from the clergy."
{ "text": [ "by over 100%", "by over 100%", "over 100%" ], "answer_start": [ 318, 318, 321 ] }
"572fe9b3947a6a140053cde4"
"There's a rough border between Switzerland and what other country formed by the Rhine?"
"There's a tributary border between Switzerland and what other country formed by the Rhine no a rough?"
"Rhine"
"The Rhine emerges from Lake Constance, flows generally westward, as the Hochrhein, passes the Rhine Falls, and is joined by its major tributary, the river Aare. The Aare more than doubles the Rhine's water discharge, to an average of nearly 1,000 m3/s (35,000 cu ft/s), and provides more than a fifth of the discharge at the Dutch border. The Aare also contains the waters from the 4,274 m (14,022 ft) summit of Finsteraarhorn, the highest point of the Rhine basin. The Rhine roughly forms the German-Swiss border from Lake Constance with the exceptions of the canton of Schaffhausen and parts of the cantons of Zürich and Basel-Stadt, until it turns north at the so-called Rhine knee at Basel, leaving Switzerland."
{ "text": [ "German", "German-Swiss border", "German" ], "answer_start": [ 494, 494, 494 ] }
"What is not a form of immunological memory?"
"Which is or no make that what is not a form of immunological memory?"
"Immune_system"
"When B cells and T cells are activated and begin to replicate, some of their offspring become long-lived memory cells. Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these memory cells remember each specific pathogen encountered and can mount a strong response if the pathogen is detected again. This is "adaptive" because it occurs during the lifetime of an individual as an adaptation to infection with that pathogen and prepares the immune system for future challenges. Immunological memory can be in the form of either passive short-term memory or active long-term memory."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a2ecb43a83784001a7d248e"
"In what month in 1349 did the second wave of the plague reach England?"
"In what month in 1347 no um 1349 did the second wave of the plague reach England?"
"Black_Death"
"The study also found that there were two previously unknown but related clades (genetic branches) of the Y. pestis genome associated with medieval mass graves. These clades (which are thought to be extinct) were found to be ancestral to modern isolates of the modern Y. pestis strains Y. p. orientalis and Y. p. medievalis, suggesting the plague may have entered Europe in two waves. Surveys of plague pit remains in France and England indicate the first variant entered Europe through the port of Marseille around November 1347 and spread through France over the next two years, eventually reaching England in the spring of 1349, where it spread through the country in three epidemics. Surveys of plague pit remains from the Dutch town of Bergen op Zoom showed the Y. pestis genotype responsible for the pandemic that spread through the Low Countries from 1350 differed from that found in Britain and France, implying Bergen op Zoom (and possibly other parts of the southern Netherlands) was not directly infected from England or France in 1349 and suggesting a second wave of plague, different from those in Britain and France, may have been carried to the Low Countries from Norway, the Hanseatic cities or another site."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5729de24af94a219006aa689"
"What increases entrepreneurship rates at the individual level?"
"How does no actually what increases entrepreneurship rates at the individual level?"
"Economic_inequality"
"On the other hand, higher economic inequality tends to increase entrepreneurship rates at the individual level (self-employment). However, most of it is often based on necessity rather than opportunity. Necessity-based entrepreneurship is motivated by survival needs such as income for food and shelter ("push" motivations), whereas opportunity-based entrepreneurship is driven by achievement-oriented motivations ("pull") such as vocation and more likely to involve the pursue of new products, services, or underserved market needs. The economic impact of the former type of entrepreneurialism tends to be redistributive while the latter is expected to foster technological progress and thus have a more positive impact on economic growth."
{ "text": [ "higher economic inequality", "higher economic inequality", "higher economic inequality" ], "answer_start": [ 19, 19, 19 ] }
"What Chinese system did Kublai's government not compromise with?"
"What Chinese system did Mongols no the Kublai's government not compromise with?"
"Yuan_dynasty"
"Politically, the system of government created by Kublai Khan was the product of a compromise between Mongolian patrimonial feudalism and the traditional Chinese autocratic-bureaucratic system. Nevertheless, socially the educated Chinese elite were in general not given the degree of esteem that they had been accorded previously under native Chinese dynasties. Although the traditional Chinese elite were not given their share of power, the Mongols and the Semuren (various allied groups from Central Asia and the western end of the empire) largely remained strangers to the mainstream Chinese culture, and this dichotomy gave the Yuan regime a somewhat strong "colonial" coloration. The unequal treatment is possibly due to the fear of transferring power to the ethnic Chinese under their rule. The Mongols and Semuren were given certain advantages in the dynasty, and this would last even after the restoration of the imperial examination in the early 14th century. In general there were very few North Chinese or Southerners reaching the highest-post in the government compared with the possibility that Persians did so in the Ilkhanate. Later the Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty also mentioned the discrimination that existed during the Yuan dynasty. In response to an objection against the use of "barbarians" in his government, the Yongle Emperor answered: "... Discrimination was used by the Mongols during the Yuan dynasty, who employed only "Mongols and Tartars" and discarded northern and southern Chinese and this was precisely the cause that brought disaster upon them"."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57300580b2c2fd1400568750"
"How many avulsions have occurred in the past 6000 yeas?"
"How many avulsions have occurred in upland areas or actually just the past 6000 years?"
"Rhine"
"Since ~3000 yr BP (= years Before Present), human impact is seen in the delta. As a result of increasing land clearance (Bronze Age agriculture), in the upland areas (central Germany), the sediment load of the Rhine has strongly increased and delta growth has sped up. This caused increased flooding and sedimentation, ending peat formation in the delta. The shifting of river channels to new locations, on the floodplain (termed avulsion), was the main process distributing sediment across the subrecent delta. Over the past 6000 years, approximately 80 avulsions have occurred. Direct human impact in the delta started with peat mining, for salt and fuel, from Roman times onward. This was followed by embankment, of the major distributaries and damming of minor distributaries, which took place in the 11–13th century AD. Thereafter, canals were dug, bends were short cut and groynes were built, to prevent the river's channels from migrating or silting up."
{ "text": [ "80", "80", "80" ], "answer_start": [ 552, 552, 552 ] }
"What question has not led to criticism?"
"What question has not led to consequences uh alternatively criticism?"
"Scottish_Parliament"
"A procedural consequence of the establishment of the Scottish Parliament is that Scottish MPs sitting in the UK House of Commons are able to vote on domestic legislation that applies only to England, Wales and Northern Ireland – whilst English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish Westminster MPs are unable to vote on the domestic legislation of the Scottish Parliament. This phenomenon is known as the West Lothian question and has led to criticism. Following the Conservative victory in the 2015 UK election, standing orders of the House of Commons were changed to give MPs representing English constituencies a new "veto" over laws only affecting England."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57299c2c6aef051400155021"
"What is one general concept that applies to elements of commutative rings?"
"Which is or no make that what is one general concept that applies to elements of commutative rings?"
"Prime_number"
"Prime numbers give rise to two more general concepts that apply to elements of any commutative ring R, an algebraic structure where addition, subtraction and multiplication are defined: prime elements and irreducible elements. An element p of R is called prime element if it is neither zero nor a unit (i.e., does not have a multiplicative inverse) and satisfies the following requirement: given x and y in R such that p divides the product xy, then p divides x or y. An element is irreducible if it is not a unit and cannot be written as a product of two ring elements that are not units. In the ring Z of integers, the set of prime elements equals the set of irreducible elements, which is"
{ "text": [ "prime elements", "prime elements", "prime elements", "prime elements" ], "answer_start": [ 186, 186, 186, 186 ] }
"5728fd206aef05140015494e"
"What probiotic flora is found in unpasteurized yogurt?"
"Which or rather what probiotic flora is found in unpasteurized yogurt?"
"Immune_system"
"Within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and, in some cases, by changing the conditions in their environment, such as pH or available iron. This reduces the probability that pathogens will reach sufficient numbers to cause illness. However, since most antibiotics non-specifically target bacteria and do not affect fungi, oral antibiotics can lead to an "overgrowth" of fungi and cause conditions such as a vaginal candidiasis (a yeast infection). There is good evidence that re-introduction of probiotic flora, such as pure cultures of the lactobacilli normally found in unpasteurized yogurt, helps restore a healthy balance of microbial populations in intestinal infections in children and encouraging preliminary data in studies on bacterial gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, urinary tract infection and post-surgical infections."
{ "text": [ "lactobacilli", "lactobacilli", "lactobacilli" ], "answer_start": [ 656, 656, 656 ] }
"5a55068b134fea001a0e180c"
"What is Circuit Switching?"
"What is packet or uh Circuit Switching?"
"Packet_switching"
"Packet switching contrasts with another principal networking paradigm, circuit switching, a method which pre-allocates dedicated network bandwidth specifically for each communication session, each having a constant bit rate and latency between nodes. In cases of billable services, such as cellular communication services, circuit switching is characterized by a fee per unit of connection time, even when no data is transferred, while packet switching may be characterized by a fee per unit of information transmitted, such as characters, packets, or messages."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5733140a4776f419006606e2"
"When did Warsaw become the capital of the Kingdom of Poland?"
"When is or actually tell me when did Warsaw become the capital of the Kingdom of Poland?"
"Warsaw"
"The first historical reference to Warsaw dates back to the year 1313, at a time when Kraków served as the Polish capital city. Due to its central location between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's capitals of Kraków and Vilnius, Warsaw became the capital of the Commonwealth and of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland when King Sigismund III Vasa moved his court from Kraków to Warsaw in 1596. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, Warsaw was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars, the city became the official capital of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, a puppet state of the First French Empire established by Napoleon Bonaparte. In accordance with the decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the Russian Empire annexed Warsaw in 1815 and it became part of the "Congress Kingdom". Only in 1918 did it regain independence from the foreign rule and emerge as a new capital of the independent Republic of Poland. The German invasion in 1939, the massacre of the Jewish population and deportations to concentration camps led to the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto in 1943 and to the major and devastating Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944. Warsaw gained the title of the "Phoenix City" because it has survived many wars, conflicts and invasions throughout its long history. Most notably, the city required painstaking rebuilding after the extensive damage it suffered in World War II, which destroyed 85% of its buildings. On 9 November 1940, the city was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari, during the Siege of Warsaw (1939)."
{ "text": [ "1596", "1596", "1596" ], "answer_start": [ 390, 390, 390 ] }
"What is the rarest cause of poor immune function in developing countries?"
"What occurs er what is the rarest cause of poor immune function in developing countries?"
"Immune_system"
"Immunodeficiencies occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive. The ability of the immune system to respond to pathogens is diminished in both the young and the elderly, with immune responses beginning to decline at around 50 years of age due to immunosenescence. In developed countries, obesity, alcoholism, and drug use are common causes of poor immune function. However, malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency in developing countries. Diets lacking sufficient protein are associated with impaired cell-mediated immunity, complement activity, phagocyte function, IgA antibody concentrations, and cytokine production. Additionally, the loss of the thymus at an early age through genetic mutation or surgical removal results in severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to infection."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a679cc7f038b7001ab0c348"
"What can non-profit trusts and societies do no no wait What does poor academic achievement lead to according to critics?"
"Private_school"
"Legally, only non-profit trusts and societies can run schools in India. They will have to satisfy a number of infrastructure and human resource related criteria to get Recognition (a form of license) from the government. Critics of this system point out that this leads to corruption by school inspectors who check compliance and to fewer schools in a country that has the largest adult illiterate population in the world. While official data does not capture the real extent of private schooling in the country, various studies have reported unpopularity of government schools and an increasing number of private schools. The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), which evaluates learning levels in rural India, has been reporting poorer academic achievement in government schools than in private schools. A key difference between the government and private schools is that the medium of education in private schools is English while it is the local language in government schools."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"What castle currently houses the Centre for Ujazdow Art?"
"What castle currently concerts er uh houses the Centre for Ujazdow Art?"
"Warsaw"
"The 17th century Royal Ujazdów Castle currently houses Centre for Contemporary Art, with some permanent and temporary exhibitions, concerts, shows and creative workshops. The Centre currently realizes about 500 projects a year. Zachęta National Gallery of Art, the oldest exhibition site in Warsaw, with a tradition stretching back to the mid-19th century organises exhibitions of modern art by Polish and international artists and promotes art in many other ways. Since 2011 Warsaw Gallery Weekend is held on last weekend of September."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a3e5697378766001a002595"
"What did the 2007 IPCC report suggest had been decreasing?"
"What did the 2001 er uh 2007 IPCC report suggest had been decreasing?"
"Intergovernmental_Panel_on_Climate_Change"
"On 1 February 2007, the eve of the publication of IPCC's major report on climate, a study was published suggesting that temperatures and sea levels have been rising at or above the maximum rates proposed during the last IPCC report in 2001. The study compared IPCC 2001 projections on temperature and sea level change with observations. Over the six years studied, the actual temperature rise was near the top end of the range given by IPCC's 2001 projection, and the actual sea level rise was above the top of the range of the IPCC projection."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a605b5ee9e1cc001a33cd3f"
"Did Davies and Baran collaborate at any point after they both developed this concept?"
"Did Davies and Baran propose uh instead collaborate at any point after they both developed this concept?"
"Packet_switching"
"Starting in 1965, Donald Davies at the National Physical Laboratory, UK, independently developed the same message routing methodology as developed by Baran. He called it packet switching, a more accessible name than Baran's, and proposed to build a nationwide network in the UK. He gave a talk on the proposal in 1966, after which a person from the Ministry of Defence (MoD) told him about Baran's work. A member of Davies' team (Roger Scantlebury) met Lawrence Roberts at the 1967 ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles and suggested it for use in the ARPANET."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"572996c73f37b319004784b4"
"What is another type of public key cryptography algorithm?"
"Which is or no rather what is another type of public key cryptography algorithm?"
"Prime_number"
"Several public-key cryptography algorithms, such as RSA and the Diffie–Hellman key exchange, are based on large prime numbers (for example, 512-bit primes are frequently used for RSA and 1024-bit primes are typical for Diffie–Hellman.). RSA relies on the assumption that it is much easier (i.e., more efficient) to perform the multiplication of two (large) numbers x and y than to calculate x and y (assumed coprime) if only the product xy is known. The Diffie–Hellman key exchange relies on the fact that there are efficient algorithms for modular exponentiation, while the reverse operation the discrete logarithm is thought to be a hard problem."
{ "text": [ "the Diffie–Hellman key exchange", "Diffie–Hellman", "Diffie–Hellman key exchange", "Diffie–Hellman key exchange" ], "answer_start": [ 60, 64, 64, 64 ] }
"572758e0f1498d1400e8f6b0"
"What state constitutional amendments make reference to the government funding religious schools?"
"What state constitutional amendments make reference to the government funding private schools no no I mean religious schools?"
"Private_school"
"Funding for private schools is generally provided through student tuition, endowments, scholarship/voucher funds, and donations and grants from religious organizations or private individuals. Government funding for religious schools is either subject to restrictions or possibly forbidden, according to the courts' interpretation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment or individual state Blaine Amendments. Non-religious private schools theoretically could qualify for such funding without hassle, preferring the advantages of independent control of their student admissions and course content instead of the public funding they could get with charter status."
{ "text": [ "Blaine", "Blaine Amendments", "Blaine Amendments" ], "answer_start": [ 401, 401, 401 ] }
"5729d51d3f37b3190047858f"
"What did Neoclassical economics view the inequality in the distribution of income as being from?"
"What philosophy er what did Neoclassical economics view the inequality in the distribution of income as being from?"
"Economic_inequality"
"Neoclassical economics views inequalities in the distribution of income as arising from differences in value added by labor, capital and land. Within labor income distribution is due to differences in value added by different classifications of workers. In this perspective, wages and profits are determined by the marginal value added of each economic actor (worker, capitalist/business owner, landlord). Thus, in a market economy, inequality is a reflection of the productivity gap between highly-paid professions and lower-paid professions."
{ "text": [ "differences in value added by labor, capital and land", "differences in value added by labor, capital and land", "differences in value added by labor, capital and land" ], "answer_start": [ 88, 88, 88 ] }
"The Second Minister, Scottish cabinet ministers and whom sit in the front row in the debating chamber?"
"Why is the seating arrangement no no no the Second Minister, Scottish cabinet ministers and whom sit in the front row in the debating chamber?"
"Scottish_Parliament"
"The debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament has seating arranged in a hemicycle, which reflects the desire to encourage consensus amongst elected members. There are 131 seats in the debating chamber. Of the total 131 seats, 129 are occupied by the Parliament's elected MSPs and 2 are seats for the Scottish Law Officers – the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General for Scotland, who are not elected members of the Parliament but are members of the Scottish Government. As such the Law Officers may attend and speak in the plenary meetings of the Parliament but, as they are not elected MSPs, cannot vote. Members are able to sit anywhere in the debating chamber, but typically sit in their party groupings. The First Minister, Scottish cabinet ministers and Law officers sit in the front row, in the middle section of the chamber. The largest party in the Parliament sits in the middle of the semicircle, with opposing parties on either side. The Presiding Officer, parliamentary clerks and officials sit opposite members at the front of the debating chamber."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a57d364770dc0001aeefdcc"
"Why is the Holocene not shown clearly on the first timeline?"
"Why is the Holocene not shown clearly on the first scale or uh timeline?"
"Geology"
"The following four timelines show the geologic time scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this compresses the most recent eon. Therefore, the second scale shows the most recent eon with an expanded scale. The second scale compresses the most recent era, so the most recent era is expanded in the third scale. Since the Quaternary is a very short period with short epochs, it is further expanded in the fourth scale. The second, third, and fourth timelines are therefore each subsections of their preceding timeline as indicated by asterisks. The Holocene (the latest epoch) is too small to be shown clearly on the third timeline on the right, another reason for expanding the fourth scale. The Pleistocene (P) epoch. Q stands for the Quaternary period."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a678f35f038b7001ab0c2c7"
"What tool do they use in public school to maintain discipline?"
"What tool do they use in private school to maintain discipline, oh sorry that was supposed to be public schools?"
"Private_school"
"Private schools in Australia may be favoured for many reasons: prestige and the social status of the 'old school tie'; better quality physical infrastructure and more facilities (e.g. playing fields, swimming pools, etc.), higher-paid teachers; and/or the belief that private schools offer a higher quality of education. Some schools offer the removal of the purported distractions of co-education; the presence of boarding facilities; or stricter discipline based on their power of expulsion, a tool not readily available to government schools. Student uniforms for Australian private schools are generally stricter and more formal than in government schools - for example, a compulsory blazer. Private schools in Australia are always more expensive than their public counterparts.[citation needed]"
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"What did the ongoing Alpine orogeny cause before the Eocene?"
"What did the ongoing Upper Rhine uh rather Alpine orogeny cause before the Eocene?"
"Rhine"
"From the Eocene onwards, the ongoing Alpine orogeny caused a N–S rift system to develop in this zone. The main elements of this rift are the Upper Rhine Graben, in southwest Germany and eastern France and the Lower Rhine Embayment, in northwest Germany and the southeastern Netherlands. By the time of the Miocene, a river system had developed in the Upper Rhine Graben, that continued northward and is considered the first Rhine river. At that time, it did not yet carry discharge from the Alps; instead, the watersheds of the Rhone and Danube drained the northern flanks of the Alps."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5727d6154b864d1900163e37"
"In 2009 what was the total of Grants awarded from Harvard?"
"In 2008 what was the total of Grants awarded from Harvard no uh 2009?"
"Harvard_University"
"For the 2012–13 school year annual tuition was $38,000, with a total cost of attendance of$57,000. Beginning 2007, families with incomes below $60,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between$60,000 to $80,000 pay only a few thousand dollars per year, and families earning between$120,000 and $180,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling$414 million across all eleven divisions;[further explanation needed] $340 million came from institutional funds,$35 million from federal support, and $39 million from other outside support. Grants total 88% of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid also provided by loans (8%) and work-study (4%)." { "text": [ "$414 million", "$414 million", "$414 million" ], "answer_start": [ 449, 449, 449 ] }
"5a57f487770dc0001aeefeff"
"What has it now become possible to do when dating isotopes while using fossils?"
"What has it now become possible let me rephrase what is now possible regarding dating isotopes while using fossils?"
"Geology"
"At the beginning of the 20th century, important advancement in geological science was facilitated by the ability to obtain accurate absolute dates to geologic events using radioactive isotopes and other methods. This changed the understanding of geologic time. Previously, geologists could only use fossils and stratigraphic correlation to date sections of rock relative to one another. With isotopic dates it became possible to assign absolute ages to rock units, and these absolute dates could be applied to fossil sequences in which there was datable material, converting the old relative ages into new absolute ages."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5733638fd058e614000b59e9"
"Why aren't the examples of bouregois architecture visible today?"
"Why is no why aren't the examples of bouregois architecture visible today?"
"Warsaw"
"Exceptional examples of the bourgeois architecture of the later periods were not restored by the communist authorities after the war (like mentioned Kronenberg Palace and Insurance Company Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like Warsaw Philharmony edifice originally inspired by Palais Garnier in Paris). Despite that the Warsaw University of Technology building (1899–1902) is the most interesting of the late 19th-century architecture. Some 19th-century buildings in the Praga district (the Vistula’s right bank) have been restored although many have been poorly maintained. Warsaw’s municipal government authorities have decided to rebuild the Saxon Palace and the Brühl Palace, the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw."
{ "text": [ "not restored by the communist authorities", "were not restored", "not restored by the communist authorities after the war" ], "answer_start": [ 77, 72, 77 ] }
"5a55234d134fea001a0e1977"
"Global internet was help funded by what foundation?"
"CSNet no no I meant Global internet was help funded by what foundation?"
"Packet_switching"
"The Computer Science Network (CSNET) was a computer network funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) that began operation in 1981. Its purpose was to extend networking benefits, for computer science departments at academic and research institutions that could not be directly connected to ARPANET, due to funding or authorization limitations. It played a significant role in spreading awareness of, and access to, national networking and was a major milestone on the path to development of the global Internet."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57286d7d4b864d19001649e4"
"What comedian is also a university graduate?"
"What photographer uh no comedian is also a university graduate?"
"University_of_Chicago"
"In the arts and entertainment, minimalist composer Philip Glass, dancer, choreographer and leader in the field of dance anthropology Katherine Dunham, Bungie founder and developer of the Halo video game series Alex Seropian, Serial host Sarah Koenig, actor Ed Asner, Pulitzer Prize for Criticism winning film critic and the subject of the 2014 documentary film Life Itself Roger Ebert, director, writer, and comedian Mike Nichols, film director and screenwriter Philip Kaufman, and Carl Van Vechten, photographer and writer, are graduates."
{ "text": [ "Mike Nichols", "Mike Nichols", "Mike Nichols" ], "answer_start": [ 417, 417, 417 ] }
"5a552578134fea001a0e1993"
"Public and private funding led to what development?"
"Public and private funding led to what program no um development?"
"Packet_switching"
"The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States. NSFNET was also the name given to several nationwide backbone networks operating at speeds of 56 kbit/s, 1.5 Mbit/s (T1), and 45 Mbit/s (T3) that were constructed to support NSF's networking initiatives from 1985-1995. Initially created to link researchers to the nation's NSF-funded supercomputing centers, through further public funding and private industry partnerships it developed into a major part of the Internet backbone."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57264684708984140094c124"
"How did the black death make it to the Mediterranean and Europe?"
"How did the black death make it to the Mediterranean and America oops I mean Europe?"
"Black_Death"
"The Black Death is thought to have originated in the arid plains of Central Asia, where it then travelled along the Silk Road, reaching Crimea by 1343. From there, it was most likely carried by Oriental rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships. Spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe, the Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60% of Europe's total population. In total, the plague reduced the world population from an estimated 450 million down to 350–375 million in the 14th century. The world population as a whole did not recover to pre-plague levels until the 17th century. The plague recurred occasionally in Europe until the 19th century."
{ "text": [ "merchant ships.", "merchant ships", "Silk Road" ], "answer_start": [ 270, 270, 116 ] }
"5acf99b577cf76001a6853ef"
"Which University's library system has over 10 millionvolumes?"
"What collection no sorry I mean which University's library system has over 10 million volumes?"
"University_of_Chicago"
"The University of Chicago Library system encompasses six libraries that contain a total of 9.8 million volumes, the 11th most among library systems in the United States. The university's main library is the Regenstein Library, which contains one of the largest collections of print volumes in the United States. The Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, built in 2011, houses a large study space and an automatic book storage and retrieval system. The John Crerar Library contains more than 1.3 million volumes in the biological, medical and physical sciences and collections in general science and the philosophy and history of science, medicine, and technology. The university also operates a number of special libraries, including the D'Angelo Law Library, the Social Service Administration Library, and the Eckhart Library for mathematics and computer science, which closed temporarily for renovation on July 8, 2013. Harper Memorial Library no longer contains any volumes; however it is, in addition to the Regenstein Library, a 24-hour study space on campus."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5729f69caf94a219006aa6fa"
"What is the process by which the antigen/antibody complex is processed in to peptides?"
"What is the process by which the antigen/antibody complex is binding no I mean processed in to peptides?"
"Immune_system"
"A B cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a specific foreign antigen. This antigen/antibody complex is taken up by the B cell and processed by proteolysis into peptides. The B cell then displays these antigenic peptides on its surface MHC class II molecules. This combination of MHC and antigen attracts a matching helper T cell, which releases lymphokines and activates the B cell. As the activated B cell then begins to divide, its offspring (plasma cells) secrete millions of copies of the antibody that recognizes this antigen. These antibodies circulate in blood plasma and lymph, bind to pathogens expressing the antigen and mark them for destruction by complement activation or for uptake and destruction by phagocytes. Antibodies can also neutralize challenges directly, by binding to bacterial toxins or by interfering with the receptors that viruses and bacteria use to infect cells."
{ "text": [ "proteolysis", "proteolysis", "proteolysis" ], "answer_start": [ 170, 170, 170 ] }
"5a665747846392001a1e1aeb"
"What does rebellion require in Christian Bay's encyclopedia?"
"What does civil disobedience require in Christian Bay's encyclopedia sorry no rebellion?"
"Civil_disobedience"
"There have been debates as to whether civil disobedience must necessarily be non-violent. Black's Law Dictionary includes non-violence in its definition of civil disobedience. Christian Bay's encyclopedia article states that civil disobedience requires "carefully chosen and legitimate means," but holds that they do not have to be non-violent. It has been argued that, while both civil disobedience and civil rebellion are justified by appeal to constitutional defects, rebellion is much more destructive; therefore, the defects justifying rebellion must be much more serious than those justifying disobedience, and if one cannot justify civil rebellion, then one cannot justify a civil disobedients' use of force and violence and refusal to submit to arrest. Civil disobedients' refraining from violence is also said to help preserve society's tolerance of civil disobedience."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a550f98134fea001a0e189d"
"What type of network does SITA HLN not use?"
"What type of network does ARPANET no make that SITA HLN not use?"
"Packet_switching"
"ARPANET and SITA HLN became operational in 1969. Before the introduction of X.25 in 1973, about twenty different network technologies had been developed. Two fundamental differences involved the division of functions and tasks between the hosts at the edge of the network and the network core. In the datagram system, the hosts have the responsibility to ensure orderly delivery of packets. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is an example of a datagram protocol. In the virtual call system, the network guarantees sequenced delivery of data to the host. This results in a simpler host interface with less functionality than in the datagram model. The X.25 protocol suite uses this network type."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a894a483b2508001a72a5b0"
"What gets smaller when a number is prime?"
"What gets smaller when a number is global ummm prime?"
"Prime_number"
"In particular, this norm gets smaller when a number is multiplied by p, in sharp contrast to the usual absolute value (also referred to as the infinite prime). While completing Q (roughly, filling the gaps) with respect to the absolute value yields the field of real numbers, completing with respect to the p-adic norm |−|p yields the field of p-adic numbers. These are essentially all possible ways to complete Q, by Ostrowski's theorem. Certain arithmetic questions related to Q or more general global fields may be transferred back and forth to the completed (or local) fields. This local-global principle again underlines the importance of primes to number theory."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5acf8bbd77cf76001a6851b2"
"After which decade did modern styles give way to Gothic styles on campus?"
"After which decade did Ludwig Mies van der Rohe excuse me I mean modern styles give way to Gothic styles on campus?"
"University_of_Chicago"
"After the 1940s, the Gothic style on campus began to give way to modern styles. In 1955, Eero Saarinen was contracted to develop a second master plan, which led to the construction of buildings both north and south of the Midway, including the Laird Bell Law Quadrangle (a complex designed by Saarinen); a series of arts buildings; a building designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the university's School of Social Service Administration;, a building which is to become the home of the Harris School of Public Policy Studies by Edward Durrell Stone, and the Regenstein Library, the largest building on campus, a brutalist structure designed by Walter Netsch of the Chicago firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Another master plan, designed in 1999 and updated in 2004, produced the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center (2003), the Max Palevsky Residential Commons (2001), South Campus Residence Hall and dining commons (2009), a new children's hospital, and other construction, expansions, and restorations. In 2011, the university completed the glass dome-shaped Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, which provides a grand reading room for the university library and prevents the need for an off-campus book depository."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a89150d3b2508001a72a4ac"
"What is the name of one algebraic generalization Goldbach's conjecture has inspired?"
"What is the name of one algebraic generalization that prime numbers no Goldbach's conjecture has inspired?"
"Prime_number"
"Many questions regarding prime numbers remain open, such as Goldbach's conjecture (that every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes), and the twin prime conjecture (that there are infinitely many pairs of primes whose difference is 2). Such questions spurred the development of various branches of number theory, focusing on analytic or algebraic aspects of numbers. Primes are used in several routines in information technology, such as public-key cryptography, which makes use of properties such as the difficulty of factoring large numbers into their prime factors. Prime numbers give rise to various generalizations in other mathematical domains, mainly algebra, such as prime elements and prime ideals."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"572ffc0f947a6a140053cef0"
"How did the Rhine extend watershed southward?"
"What period er how did the Rhine extend watershed southward?"
"Rhine"
"Through stream capture, the Rhine extended its watershed southward. By the Pliocene period, the Rhine had captured streams down to the Vosges Mountains, including the Mosel, the Main and the Neckar. The northern Alps were then drained by the Rhone. By the early Pleistocene period, the Rhine had captured most of its current Alpine watershed from the Rhône, including the Aar. Since that time, the Rhine has added the watershed above Lake Constance (Vorderrhein, Hinterrhein, Alpenrhein; captured from the Rhône), the upper reaches of the Main, beyond Schweinfurt and the Vosges Mountains, captured from the Meuse, to its watershed."
{ "text": [ "stream capture", "stream capture", "stream capture" ], "answer_start": [ 8, 8, 8 ] }
"What system gives an organism long lasting immunity against a pathogen?"
"What response er like system gives an organism long lasting immunity against a pathogen?"
"Immune_system"
"Microorganisms or toxins that successfully enter an organism encounter the cells and mechanisms of the innate immune system. The innate response is usually triggered when microbes are identified by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize components that are conserved among broad groups of microorganisms, or when damaged, injured or stressed cells send out alarm signals, many of which (but not all) are recognized by the same receptors as those that recognize pathogens. Innate immune defenses are non-specific, meaning these systems respond to pathogens in a generic way. This system does not confer long-lasting immunity against a pathogen. The innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a3e2ba4378766001a0024ba"
"What year did Hoesung Lee become President?"
"When did no what year did Hoesung Lee become President?"
"Intergovernmental_Panel_on_Climate_Change"
"Korean economist Hoesung Lee is the chair of the IPCC since October 8, 2015, following the election of the new IPCC Bureau. Before this election, the IPCC was led by his vice-Chair Ismail El Gizouli, who was designated acting Chair after the resignation of Rajendra K. Pachauri in February 2015. The previous chairs were Rajendra K. Pachauri, elected in May 2002; Robert Watson in 1997; and Bert Bolin in 1988. The chair is assisted by an elected bureau including vice-chairs, working group co-chairs, and a secretariat."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"What was intent of Celeron's expedition?"
"How did sorry What was intent of Celeron's expedition?"
"French_and_Indian_War"
"Céloron's expedition force consisted of about 200 Troupes de la marine and 30 Indians. The expedition covered about 3,000 miles (4,800 km) between June and November 1749. It went up the St. Lawrence, continued along the northern shore of Lake Ontario, crossed the portage at Niagara, and followed the southern shore of Lake Erie. At the Chautauqua Portage (near present-day Barcelona, New York), the expedition moved inland to the Allegheny River, which it followed to the site of present-day Pittsburgh. There Céloron buried lead plates engraved with the French claim to the Ohio Country. Whenever he encountered British merchants or fur-traders, Céloron informed them of the French claims on the territory and told them to leave."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"What happens when tyrosinase is expressed at low levels?"
"What happens when tyrosinase is expressed at normal, scratch that, low levels?"
"Immune_system"
"Another important role of the immune system is to identify and eliminate tumors. This is called immune surveillance. The transformed cells of tumors express antigens that are not found on normal cells. To the immune system, these antigens appear foreign, and their presence causes immune cells to attack the transformed tumor cells. The antigens expressed by tumors have several sources; some are derived from oncogenic viruses like human papillomavirus, which causes cervical cancer, while others are the organism's own proteins that occur at low levels in normal cells but reach high levels in tumor cells. One example is an enzyme called tyrosinase that, when expressed at high levels, transforms certain skin cells (e.g. melanocytes) into tumors called melanomas. A third possible source of tumor antigens are proteins normally important for regulating cell growth and survival, that commonly mutate into cancer inducing molecules called oncogenes."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a25d23bef59cd001a623ce2"
"What do partnering and construction management emphasize for the design-build process?"
"What helpser er what do partnering and construction management emphasize for the design-build process?"
"Construction"
"Several project structures can assist the owner in this integration, including design-build, partnering and construction management. In general, each of these project structures allows the owner to integrate the services of architects, interior designers, engineers and constructors throughout design and construction. In response, many companies are growing beyond traditional offerings of design or construction services alone and are placing more emphasis on establishing relationships with other necessary participants through the design-build process."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5728fd3c3f37b31900477f2b"
"What is the main goal of criminal punishment of civil disobedients?"
"What is the deterrent no main goal of criminal punishment of civil disobedience?"
"Civil_disobedience"
"Along with giving the offender his "just deserts", achieving crime control via incapacitation and deterrence is a major goal of criminal punishment. Brownlee argues, "Bringing in deterrence at the level of justification detracts from the law’s engagement in a moral dialogue with the offender as a rational person because it focuses attention on the threat of punishment and not the moral reasons to follow this law." Leonard Hubert Hoffmann writes, "In deciding whether or not to impose punishment, the most important consideration would be whether it would do more harm than good. This means that the objector has no right not to be punished. It is a matter for the state (including the judges) to decide on utilitarian grounds whether to do so or not.""
{ "text": [ "incapacitation", "achieving crime control via incapacitation and deterrence", "achieving crime control via incapacitation and deterrence", "achieving crime control", "achieving crime control" ], "answer_start": [ 79, 51, 51, 51, 51 ] }
"57284b904b864d19001648e2"
"What are the first buildings the university built knows as today?"
"Which or rather what are the first buildings the university built knows as today?"
"University_of_Chicago"
"The first buildings of the University of Chicago campus, which make up what is now known as the Main Quadrangles, were part of a "master plan" conceived by two University of Chicago trustees and plotted by Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb. The Main Quadrangles consist of six quadrangles, each surrounded by buildings, bordering one larger quadrangle. The buildings of the Main Quadrangles were designed by Cobb, Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, Holabird & Roche, and other architectural firms in a mixture of the Victorian Gothic and Collegiate Gothic styles, patterned on the colleges of the University of Oxford. (Mitchell Tower, for example, is modeled after Oxford's Magdalen Tower, and the university Commons, Hutchinson Hall, replicates Christ Church Hall.)"
"What debate lasts for 55 minutes?"
"What does er uh what debate lasts for 55 minutes?"
"Scottish_Parliament"
"Immediately after Decision Time a "Members Debate" is held, which lasts for 45 minutes. Members Business is a debate on a motion proposed by an MSP who is not a Scottish minister. Such motions are on issues which may be of interest to a particular area such as a member's own constituency, an upcoming or past event or any other item which would otherwise not be accorded official parliamentary time. As well as the proposer, other members normally contribute to the debate. The relevant minister, whose department the debate and motion relate to "winds up" the debate by speaking after all other participants."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5728eb1a3acd2414000e01c8"
"What is the group called that does not agree with government at all?"
"What do no What is the group called that does not agree with government at all?"
"Civil_disobedience"
"Some civil disobedients feel it is incumbent upon them to accept punishment because of their belief in the validity of the social contract, which is held to bind all to obey the laws that a government meeting certain standards of legitimacy has established, or else suffer the penalties set out in the law. Other civil disobedients who favor the existence of government still don't believe in the legitimacy of their particular government, or don't believe in the legitimacy of a particular law it has enacted. And still other civil disobedients, being anarchists, don't believe in the legitimacy of any government, and therefore see no need to accept punishment for a violation of criminal law that does not infringe the rights of others."
{ "text": [ "anarchists", "anarchists", "anarchists", "anarchists", "anarchists" ], "answer_start": [ 553, 553, 553, 553, 553 ] }
"5728151b4b864d1900164429"
"Brownlee argues disobedience can be justified toward what institutions?"
"Brownlee argues opposition or maybe disobedience can be justified toward what institutions?"
"Civil_disobedience"
"Some theories of civil disobedience hold that civil disobedience is only justified against governmental entities. Brownlee argues that disobedience in opposition to the decisions of non-governmental agencies such as trade unions, banks, and private universities can be justified if it reflects "a larger challenge to the legal system that permits those decisions to be taken". The same principle, she argues, applies to breaches of law in protest against international organizations and foreign governments."
{ "text": [ "trade unions, banks, and private universities", "non-governmental agencies", "decisions of non-governmental agencies", "non-governmental agencies", "non-governmental agencies" ], "answer_start": [ 216, 182, 169, 182, 182 ] }
"572744aff1498d1400e8f589"
"Building printing is making it possible to flexibly construct small commercial buildings and private habitations in what amount of time?"
"Building printing is being researched or rather making it possible to flexibly construct small commercial buildings and private habitations in what amount of time?"
"Construction"
"New techniques of building construction are being researched, made possible by advances in 3D printing technology. In a form of additive building construction, similar to the additive manufacturing techniques for manufactured parts, building printing is making it possible to flexibly construct small commercial buildings and private habitations in around 20 hours, with built-in plumbing and electrical facilities, in one continuous build, using large 3D printers. Working versions of 3D-printing building technology are already printing 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) of building material per hour as of January 2013[update], with the next-generation printers capable of 3.5 metres (11 ft) per hour, sufficient to complete a building in a week. Dutch architect Janjaap Ruijssenaars's performative architecture 3D-printed building is scheduled to be built in 2014."
{ "text": [ "around 20 hours", "around 20 hours", "20 hours" ], "answer_start": [ 349, 349, 356 ] }
"572fe41e04bcaa1900d76e4f"
"The Rhine forms the border between Austria and what other country?"
"The Rhine joins no um forms the border between Liechtenstein no um Austria and what other country?"
"Rhine"
"Near Tamins-Reichenau the Anterior Rhine and the Posterior Rhine join and form the Rhine. The river makes a distinctive turn to the north near Chur. This section is nearly 86 km long, and descends from a height of 599 m to 396 m. It flows through a wide glacial alpine valley known as the Rhine Valley (German: Rheintal). Near Sargans a natural dam, only a few metres high, prevents it from flowing into the open Seeztal valley and then through Lake Walen and Lake Zurich into the river Aare. The Alpine Rhine begins in the most western part of the Swiss canton of Graubünden, and later forms the border between Switzerland to the West and Liechtenstein and later Austria to the East."
{ "text": [ "Switzerland", "Switzerland", "Liechtenstein", "Switzerland", "Switzerland" ], "answer_start": [ 612, 612, 640, 612, 612 ] }
"What provides chemical protection to pathogens?"
"What provides respiratory tract secrete antimicrobial peptides no um chemical protection to pathogens?"
"Immune_system"
"Chemical barriers also protect against infection. The skin and respiratory tract secrete antimicrobial peptides such as the β-defensins. Enzymes such as lysozyme and phospholipase A2 in saliva, tears, and breast milk are also antibacterials. Vaginal secretions serve as a chemical barrier following menarche, when they become slightly acidic, while semen contains defensins and zinc to kill pathogens. In the stomach, gastric acid and proteases serve as powerful chemical defenses against ingested pathogens."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5acfee8977cf76001a68656a"
"When was Zia-ul-Haq born?"
"What was er when was Zia-ul-Haq born?"
"Islamism"
"In July 1977, General Zia-ul-Haq overthrew Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's regime in Pakistan. Ali Bhutto, a leftist in democratic competition with Islamists, had announced banning alcohol and nightclubs within six months, shortly before he was overthrown. Zia-ul-Haq was much more committed to Islamism, and "Islamization" or implementation of Islamic law, became a cornerstone of his eleven-year military dictatorship and Islamism became his "official state ideology". Zia ul Haq was an admirer of Mawdudi and Mawdudi's party Jamaat-e-Islami became the "regime's ideological and political arm". In Pakistan this Islamization from above was "probably" more complete "than under any other regime except those in Iran and Sudan," but Zia-ul-Haq was also criticized by many Islamists for imposing "symbols" rather than substance, and using Islamization to legitimize his means of seizing power. Unlike neighboring Iran, Zia-ul-Haq's policies were intended to "avoid revolutionary excess", and not to strain relations with his American and Persian Gulf state allies. Zia-ul-Haq was killed in 1988 but Islamization remains an important element in Pakistani society."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"572663a9f1498d1400e8ddf4"
"Which timeline is further expanded in the fourth scale?"
"Which timeline is further expanded in the second scale or make that the fourth scale?"
"Geology"
"The following four timelines show the geologic time scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this compresses the most recent eon. Therefore, the second scale shows the most recent eon with an expanded scale. The second scale compresses the most recent era, so the most recent era is expanded in the third scale. Since the Quaternary is a very short period with short epochs, it is further expanded in the fourth scale. The second, third, and fourth timelines are therefore each subsections of their preceding timeline as indicated by asterisks. The Holocene (the latest epoch) is too small to be shown clearly on the third timeline on the right, another reason for expanding the fourth scale. The Pleistocene (P) epoch. Q stands for the Quaternary period."
{ "text": [ "Quaternary", "Quaternary", "Quaternary" ], "answer_start": [ 372, 372, 372 ] }
"57263dcd89a1e219009ac5a2"
"What network was designed by the french"
"What network was directed no designed by the french?"
"Packet_switching"
"The CYCLADES packet switching network was a French research network designed and directed by Louis Pouzin. First demonstrated in 1973, it was developed to explore alternatives to the early ARPANET design and to support network research generally. It was the first network to make the hosts responsible for reliable delivery of data, rather than the network itself, using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms. Concepts of this network influenced later ARPANET architecture."
"5a55068b134fea001a0e180d"
"How much bandwidth is dedicated for each communication session?"
"How is packet switching characterized no wait just tell me how much bandwidth is dedicated for each communication session?"
"Packet_switching"
"Packet switching contrasts with another principal networking paradigm, circuit switching, a method which pre-allocates dedicated network bandwidth specifically for each communication session, each having a constant bit rate and latency between nodes. In cases of billable services, such as cellular communication services, circuit switching is characterized by a fee per unit of connection time, even when no data is transferred, while packet switching may be characterized by a fee per unit of information transmitted, such as characters, packets, or messages."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57284d484b864d1900164904"
"When was the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center constructed?"
"How was the no uh make that when was the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center constructed?"
"University_of_Chicago"
"After the 1940s, the Gothic style on campus began to give way to modern styles. In 1955, Eero Saarinen was contracted to develop a second master plan, which led to the construction of buildings both north and south of the Midway, including the Laird Bell Law Quadrangle (a complex designed by Saarinen); a series of arts buildings; a building designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the university's School of Social Service Administration;, a building which is to become the home of the Harris School of Public Policy Studies by Edward Durrell Stone, and the Regenstein Library, the largest building on campus, a brutalist structure designed by Walter Netsch of the Chicago firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Another master plan, designed in 1999 and updated in 2004, produced the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center (2003), the Max Palevsky Residential Commons (2001), South Campus Residence Hall and dining commons (2009), a new children's hospital, and other construction, expansions, and restorations. In 2011, the university completed the glass dome-shaped Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, which provides a grand reading room for the university library and prevents the need for an off-campus book depository."
{ "text": [ "2003", "2003" ], "answer_start": [ 813, 813 ] }
"What decreases with the increase of income inequality?"
"What type of rates, uh no, actually I want to ask what decreases with the increase of income inequality?"
"Economic_inequality"
"On the other hand, higher economic inequality tends to increase entrepreneurship rates at the individual level (self-employment). However, most of it is often based on necessity rather than opportunity. Necessity-based entrepreneurship is motivated by survival needs such as income for food and shelter ("push" motivations), whereas opportunity-based entrepreneurship is driven by achievement-oriented motivations ("pull") such as vocation and more likely to involve the pursue of new products, services, or underserved market needs. The economic impact of the former type of entrepreneurialism tends to be redistributive while the latter is expected to foster technological progress and thus have a more positive impact on economic growth."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"57309564069b5314008321a9"
"Who was made rich and prosperous prior to World War 1"
"What was or make that who was made rich and prosperous prior to World War I?"
"Imperialism"
"During the 20th century, historians John Gallagher (1919–1980) and Ronald Robinson (1920–1999) constructed a framework for understanding European imperialism. They claim that European imperialism was influential, and Europeans rejected the notion that "imperialism" required formal, legal control by one government over another country. "In their view, historians have been mesmerized by formal empire and maps of the world with regions colored red. The bulk of British emigration, trade, and capital went to areas outside the formal British Empire. Key to their thinking is the idea of empire 'informally if possible and formally if necessary.'"[attribution needed] Because of the resources made available by imperialism, the world's economy grew significantly and became much more interconnected in the decades before World War I, making the many imperial powers rich and prosperous."
{ "text": [ "many imperial powers", "imperial powers", "imperial powers", "imperial powers" ], "answer_start": [ 844, 849, 849, 849 ] }
"573083dc2461fd1900a9ce6d"
"Imperialism is confused with what other term?"
"Colonialism is no imperialism is confused with what other term?"
"Imperialism"
"The term "imperialism" is often conflated with "colonialism", however many scholars have argued that each have their own distinct definition. Imperialism and colonialism have been used in order to describe one's superiority, domination and influence upon a person or group of people. Robert Young writes that while imperialism operates from the center, is a state policy and is developed for ideological as well as financial reasons, colonialism is simply the development for settlement or commercial intentions. Colonialism in modern usage also tends to imply a degree of geographic separation between the colony and the imperial power. Particularly, Edward Said distinguishes the difference between imperialism and colonialism by stating; "imperialism involved 'the practice, the theory and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory', while colonialism refers to the 'implanting of settlements on a distant territory.' Contiguous land empires such as the Russian or Ottoman are generally excluded from discussions of colonialism.:116 Thus it can be said that imperialism includes some form of colonialism, but colonialism itself does not automatically imply imperialism, as it lacks a political focus.[further explanation needed]"
{ "text": [ "colonialism", "colonialism", "colonialism", "colonialism", "colonialism" ], "answer_start": [ 48, 48, 48, 48, 48 ] }
"What animal sometimes swims in the Rhine?"
"Which or no make that what animal sometimes swims in the Rhine?"
"Rhine"
"The mouth of the Rhine into Lake Constance forms an inland delta. The delta is delimited in the West by the Alter Rhein ("Old Rhine") and in the East by a modern canalized section. Most of the delta is a nature reserve and bird sanctuary. It includes the Austrian towns of Gaißau, Höchst and Fußach. The natural Rhine originally branched into at least two arms and formed small islands by precipitating sediments. In the local Alemannic dialect, the singular is pronounced "Isel" and this is also the local pronunciation of Esel ("Donkey"). Many local fields have an official name containing this element."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5a3e2f07378766001a0024ce"
"Which organization covers the cost of the President of the IPCC?"
"Which organization covers the cost of the Prime-minister sorry I mean President of the IPCC?"
"Intergovernmental_Panel_on_Climate_Change"
"The IPCC receives funding through the IPCC Trust Fund, established in 1989 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Costs of the Secretary and of housing the secretariat are provided by the WMO, while UNEP meets the cost of the Depute Secretary. Annual cash contributions to the Trust Fund are made by the WMO, by UNEP, and by IPCC Members; the scale of payments is determined by the IPCC Panel, which is also responsible for considering and adopting by consensus the annual budget. The organisation is required to comply with the Financial Regulations and Rules of the WMO."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"5acfea9277cf76001a68648c"
"Secular Arab nationalism was blamed for both the success of Arab troops as well as what type of stagnation?"
"Secular Arab nationalism was blamed for both the defeat of Arab troops as well as what type of stagnation no sorry Secular Arab nationalism blamed for in addition to it's success?"
"Islamism"
"The quick and decisive defeat of the Arab troops during the Six-Day War by Israeli troops constituted a pivotal event in the Arab Muslim world. The defeat along with economic stagnation in the defeated countries, was blamed on the secular Arab nationalism of the ruling regimes. A steep and steady decline in the popularity and credibility of secular, socialist and nationalist politics ensued. Ba'athism, Arab socialism, and Arab nationalism suffered, and different democratic and anti-democratic Islamist movements inspired by Maududi and Sayyid Qutb gained ground."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
"When did the Roman empire fall?"
"When did the Roman empire accept as her Germanic frontier the water-boundary of the Rhine make that fall?fall?"
"Rhine"
"From the death of Augustus in AD 14 until after AD 70, Rome accepted as her Germanic frontier the water-boundary of the Rhine and upper Danube. Beyond these rivers she held only the fertile plain of Frankfurt, opposite the Roman border fortress of Moguntiacum (Mainz), the southernmost slopes of the Black Forest and a few scattered bridge-heads. The northern section of this frontier, where the Rhine is deep and broad, remained the Roman boundary until the empire fell. The southern part was different. The upper Rhine and upper Danube are easily crossed. The frontier which they form is inconveniently long, enclosing an acute-angled wedge of foreign territory between the modern Baden and Württemberg. The Germanic populations of these lands seem in Roman times to have been scanty, and Roman subjects from the modern Alsace-Lorraine had drifted across the river eastwards."
{ "text": [], "answer_start": [] }
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

# Dataset Card for DISFL-QA: A Benchmark Dataset for Understanding Disfluencies in Question Answering

### Dataset Summary

Disfl-QA is a targeted dataset for contextual disfluencies in an information seeking setting, namely question answering over Wikipedia passages. Disfl-QA builds upon the SQuAD-v2 (Rajpurkar et al., 2018) dataset, where each question in the dev set is annotated to add a contextual disfluency using the paragraph as a source of distractors.

The final dataset consists of ~12k (disfluent question, answer) pairs. Over 90% of the disfluencies are corrections or restarts, making it a much harder test set for disfluency correction. Disfl-QA aims to fill a major gap between speech and NLP research community. The authors hope the dataset can serve as a benchmark dataset for testing robustness of models against disfluent inputs.

The expriments reveal that the state-of-the-art models are brittle when subjected to disfluent inputs from Disfl-QA. Detailed experiments and analyses can be found in the paper.

### Languages

The dataset is in English only.

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
"text": ["10th and 11th centuries", "in the 10th and 11th centuries", "10th and 11th centuries", "10th and 11th centuries"]
},
"context": "\"The Normans (Norman: Nourmands; French: Normands; Latin: Normanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave thei...",
"id": "56ddde6b9a695914005b9629",
"original question": "When were the Normans in Normandy?",
"disfluent question": "From which countries no tell me when were the Normans in Normandy?"
"title": "Normans"
}


### Data Fields

• id: a string feature.
• title: a string feature.
• context: a string feature.
• original question: Original question from SQuAD-v2 (a string feature)
• disfluent question: Disfluent question from Disfl-QA (a string feature)
• answers: a dictionary feature containing:
• text: a string feature.
• answer_start: a int32 feature.

### Data Splits

Disfl-QA consists of ~12k disfluent questions with the following train/dev/test splits:

File Questions
train.json 7182
dev.json 1000
test.json 3643

## Dataset Creation

### Curation Rationale

The research in NLP and speech community has been impeded by the lack of curated datasets containing such disfluencies. The datasets available today are mostly conversational in nature, and span a limited number of very specific domains (e.g., telephone conversations, court proceedings). Furthermore, only a small fraction of the utterances in these datasets contain disfluencies, with a limited and skewed distribution of disfluencies types. In the most popular dataset in the literature, the SWITCHBOARD corpus (Godfrey et al., 1992), only 5.9% of the words are disfluencies (Charniak and Johnson, 2001), of which > 50% are repetitions (Shriberg, 1996), which has been shown to be the relatively simpler form of disfluencies (Zayats et al., 2014; Jamshid Lou et al., 2018; Zayats et al., 2019). To fill this gap, the authors presented DISFL-QA, the first dataset containing contextual disfluencies in an information seeking setting, namely question answering over Wikipedia passages.

### Source Data

#### Initial Data Collection and Normalization

DISFL-QA is constructed by asking human raters to insert disfluencies in questions from SQUAD-v2, a popular question answering dataset, using the passage and remaining questions as context. These contextual disfluencies lend naturalness to DISFL-QA, and challenge models relying on shallow matching between question and context to predict an answer.

### Annotations

#### Annotation process

Each question associated with the paragraph is sent for a human annotation task to add a contextual disfluency using the paragraph as a source of distractors. Finally, to ensure the quality of the dataset, a subsequent round of human evaluation with an option to re-annotate is conducted.

## Considerations for Using the Data

### Citation Information

@inproceedings{gupta-etal-2021-disflqa,
title = "{Disfl-QA: A Benchmark Dataset for Understanding Disfluencies in Question Answering}",
author = "Gupta, Aditya and Xu, Jiacheng and Upadhyay, Shyam and Yang, Diyi and Faruqui, Manaal",
booktitle = "Findings of ACL",
year = "2021"
}


### Contributions

Thanks to @bhavitvyamalik for adding this dataset.