Dataset Preview Go to dataset viewer
claim_id (string)claim (string)claim_label (class label)evidences (json)
0
Global warming is driving polar bears toward extinction
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Extinction risk from global warming:170", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Extinction risk from global warming", "evidence": "\"Recent Research Shows Human Activity Driving Earth Towards Global Extinction Event\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:14", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Environmental impacts include the extinction or relocation of many species as their ecosystems change, most immediately the environments of coral reefs, mountains, and the Arctic.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:178", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Rising temperatures push bees to their physiological limits, and could cause the extinction of bee populations.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Habitat destruction:61", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Habitat destruction", "evidence": "Rising global temperatures, caused by the greenhouse effect, contribute to habitat destruction, endangering various species, such as the polar bear.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Polar bear:1328", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Polar bear", "evidence": "\"Bear hunting caught in global warming debate\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
5
The sun has gone into ‘lockdown’ which could cause freezing weather, earthquakes and famine, say scientists
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Famine:386", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Famine", "evidence": "The current consensus of the scientific community is that the aerosols and dust released into the upper atmosphere causes cooler temperatures by preventing the sun's energy from reaching the ground.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Weather:67", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Weather", "evidence": "The Little Ice Age caused crop failures and famines in Europe.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Winter:114", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Winter", "evidence": "The persistently cold, wet weather caused great hardship, was primarily responsible for the Great Famine of 1315–1317, and strongly contributed to the weakened immunity and malnutrition leading up to the Black Death (1348–1350).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Winter:20", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Winter", "evidence": "The manifestation of the meteorological winter (freezing temperatures) in the northerly snow–prone latitudes is highly variable depending on elevation, position versus marine winds and the amount of precipitation.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Winter:5", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Winter", "evidence": "In many regions, winter is associated with snow and freezing temperatures.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
6
The polar bear population has been growing.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Polar bear:1332", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Polar bear", "evidence": "\"Ask the experts: Are polar bear populations increasing?\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Polar bear:272", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Polar bear", "evidence": "The growth of the human population in the Eurasian Arctic in the 16th and 17th century, together with the advent of firearms and increasing trade, dramatically increased the harvest of polar bears.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Polar bear:280", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Polar bear", "evidence": "The numbers taken grew rapidly in the 1960s, peaking around 1968 with a global total of 1,250 bears that year.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Polar bear:308", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Polar bear", "evidence": "In two areas where harvest levels have been increased based on increased sightings, science-based studies have indicated declining populations, and a third area is considered data-deficient.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Polar bear:61", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Polar bear", "evidence": "Of the 19 recognized polar bear subpopulations, one is in decline, two are increasing, seven are stable, and nine have insufficient data, as of 2017.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
9
Ironic' study finds more CO2 has slightly cooled the planet
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Atmosphere of Mars:131", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Atmosphere of Mars", "evidence": "CO2 in the mesosphere acts as a cooling agent by efficiently radiating heat into space.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Atmosphere of Mars:136", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Atmosphere of Mars", "evidence": "The higher concentration of CO2 in the Martian thermosphere may explain part of the discrepancy because of the cooling effects of CO2 in high altitude.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:10", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "This increase of CO 2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere has produced the current episode of global warming.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:63", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary atmosphere warms the planet's surface beyond the temperature it would have in the absence of its atmosphere.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:191", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Less energy reaches the upper atmosphere, which is therefore cooler because of this absorption.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
10
Human additions of CO2 are in the margin of error of current measurements and the gradual increase in CO2 is mainly from oceans degassing as the planet slowly emerges from the last ice age.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:140", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "While CO 2 absorption and release is always happening as a result of natural processes, the recent rise in CO 2 levels in the atmosphere is known to be mainly due to human (anthropogenic) activity.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:144", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "The burning of long-buried fossil fuels releases CO 2 containing carbon of different isotopic ratios to those of living plants, enabling distinction between natural and human-caused contributions to CO 2 concentration.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:42", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "The beginning of human agriculture during the current Holocene epoch may have been strongly connected to the atmospheric CO 2 increase after the last ice age ended, a fertilization effect raising plant biomass growth and reducing stomatal conductance requirements for CO 2 intake, consequently reducing transpiration water losses and increasing water usage efficiency.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Ocean acidification:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Ocean acidification", "evidence": "Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the atmosphere.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea:226", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea", "evidence": "More recently, anthropogenic activities have steadily increased the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere; about 30–40% of the added CO2 is absorbed by the oceans, forming carbonic acid and lowering the pH (now below 8.1) through a process called ocean acidification.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
11
They tell us that we are the primary forces controlling earth temperatures by the burning of fossil fuels and releasing their carbon dioxide.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:183", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Most carbon dioxide from human activities is released from burning coal and other fossil fuels.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:21", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Since the Industrial Revolution anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:132", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "The main sources of greenhouse gases due to human activity are: burning of fossil fuels and deforestation leading to higher carbon dioxide concentrations in the air.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:186", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "At present, the primary source of CO 2 emissions is the burning of coal, natural gas, and petroleum for electricity and heat.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Petroleum:271", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Petroleum", "evidence": "When burned, petroleum releases carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
14
The Great Barrier Reef is experiencing the most widespread bleaching ever recorded
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Coral bleaching:52", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Coral bleaching", "evidence": "These temperatures have caused the most severe and widespread coral bleaching ever recorded in the Great Barrier reef.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Great Barrier Reef:14", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Great Barrier Reef", "evidence": "A March 2016 report stated that coral bleaching was more widespread than previously thought, seriously affecting the northern parts of the reef as a result of warming ocean temperatures.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Great Barrier Reef:179", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Great Barrier Reef", "evidence": "The decline in the quality of water over the past 150 years (due to development) has contributed to coral bleaching, algal blooms, and pesticide pollution.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Great Barrier Reef:8", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Great Barrier Reef", "evidence": "Other environmental pressures on the reef and its ecosystem include runoff, climate change accompanied by mass coral bleaching, dumping of dredging sludge and cyclic population outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Great Barrier Reef:96", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Great Barrier Reef", "evidence": "Mass coral bleaching events due to elevated ocean temperatures occurred in the summers of 1998, 2002 and 2006, and coral bleaching is expected to become an annual occurrence.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
18
it’s not a pollutant that threatens human civilization.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Air pollution:12", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Air pollution", "evidence": "An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global catastrophic risk:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global catastrophic risk", "evidence": "A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale, even endangering or destroying modern civilization.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global catastrophic risk:104", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global catastrophic risk", "evidence": "The report warned that the pollution crisis was exceeding \"the envelope on the amount of pollution the Earth can carry\" and “threatens the continuing survival of human societies”.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global catastrophic risk:207", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global catastrophic risk", "evidence": "The present, unprecedented scale and speed of human movement make it more difficult than ever to contain an epidemic through local quarantines, and other sources of uncertainty and the evolving nature of the risk means natural pandemics may pose a realistic threat to human civilization.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global catastrophic risk:487", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global catastrophic risk", "evidence": "\"Global pollution kills 9m a year and threatens 'survival of human societies'\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null ] } ]
19
If CO2 was so terrible for the planet, then installing a CO2 generator in a greenhouse would kill the plants.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:63", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary atmosphere warms the planet's surface beyond the temperature it would have in the absence of its atmosphere.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:146", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "At very high concentrations (100 times atmospheric concentration, or greater), carbon dioxide can be toxic to animal life, so raising the concentration to 10,000 ppm (1%) or higher for several hours will eliminate pests such as whiteflies and spider mites in a greenhouse.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:21", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Since the Industrial Revolution anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Terraforming of Mars:59", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Terraforming of Mars", "evidence": "Because its atmosphere consists mainly of CO 2, a known greenhouse gas, once Mars begins to heat, the CO 2 may help to keep thermal energy near the surface.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Terraforming of Mars:78", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Terraforming of Mars", "evidence": "These gases are proposed for introduction because they generate a greenhouse effect thousands of times stronger than that of CO 2.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
21
Sea level rise has been slow and a constant, pre-dating industrialization
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Russia:153", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Russia", "evidence": "Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a command economy, industrialization of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:26", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Since the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago, the sea level has risen by more than 125 metres (410 ft), with rates varying from less than a mm/year to 40+ mm/year, as a result of melting ice sheets over Canada and Eurasia.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:405", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "\"Climate-change–driven accelerated sea-level rise detected in the altimeter era\".", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:50", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Data collected by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia show the current global mean sea level trend to be 3.2 mm (0.13 in) per year, a doubling of the rate during the 20th century.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sweden:173", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sweden", "evidence": "Between 1870 and 1914, Sweden began developing the industrialised economy that exists today.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
27
Earth about to enter 30-YEAR ‘Mini Ice Age’
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Earth:55", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "The last continental glaciation ended 10,000 years ago.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:76", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "About a billion years from now, all surface water will have disappeared and the mean global temperature will reach 70 °C (158 °F).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Little Ice Age:22", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Little Ice Age", "evidence": "The Little Ice Age ended in the latter half of the 19th century or early in the 20th century.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Little Ice Age:383", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Little Ice Age", "evidence": "15 (1): 1–30.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Little Ice Age:458", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Little Ice Age", "evidence": "23 February 1998.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
28
Volcanoes Melting West Antarctic Glaciers, Not Global Warming
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Antarctica:375", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Antarctica", "evidence": "The amount of surface warming in West Antarctica, while large, has not led to appreciable melting at the surface, and is not directly affecting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea level.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate variability:93", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate variability", "evidence": "This created a warming that later melted the ice and brought Earth's temperature back to equilibrium.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate variability:98", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate variability", "evidence": "Previous interglacials such as the Eemian phase created temperatures higher than today, higher sea levels, and some partial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Parinacota (volcano):246", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Parinacota (volcano)", "evidence": "The postulated period coincides with a global clustering of volcano collapse events; perhaps global warming occurring during this time when the last glacial maximum approached its end predisposed volcanoes to collapse.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Snowball Earth:129", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Snowball Earth", "evidence": "Global warming associated with large accumulations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over millions of years, emitted primarily by volcanic activity, is the proposed trigger for melting a snowball Earth.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] } ]
30
the bushfires [in Australia] were caused by arsonists and a series of lightning strikes, not 'climate change'
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "2007 Kangaroo Island bushfires:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "2007 Kangaroo Island bushfires", "evidence": "The 2007 Kangaroo Island bushfires were a series of bushfires caused by lightning strikes on 6 December 2007 on Kangaroo Island, South Australia, resulting in the destruction of 95,000 hectares (230,000 acres) of national park and wilderness protection area.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Bushfires in Australia:101", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Bushfires in Australia", "evidence": "Many fires are as a result of either deliberate arson or carelessness, however these fires normally happen in readily accessible areas and are rapidly brought under control.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Bushfires in Australia:102", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Bushfires in Australia", "evidence": "Man-made events include arcing from overhead power lines, arson, accidental ignition in the course of agricultural clearing, grinding and welding activities, campfires, cigarettes and dropped matches, sparks from machinery, and controlled burn escapes.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Bushfires in Australia:17", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Bushfires in Australia", "evidence": "The fires would have been caused by both natural phenomenon and human hands.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Natural disaster:68", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Natural disaster", "evidence": "A summer heat wave in Victoria, Australia, created conditions which fuelled the massive bushfires in 2009.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
31
Discovery Of Massive Volcanic CO2 Emissions Discredits Global Warming Theory
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon tax:6", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon tax", "evidence": "CO 2 is a heat-trapping greenhouse gas which causes global warming, which damages the environment and human health.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum:152", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum", "evidence": "Intrusions of hot magma into carbon-rich sediments may have triggered the degassing of isotopically light methane in sufficient volumes to cause global warming and the observed isotope anomaly.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Permian–Triassic extinction event:1171", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Permian–Triassic extinction event", "evidence": "\"Global Warming Led To Atmospheric Hydrogen Sulfide And Permian Extinction\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Permian–Triassic extinction event:177", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Permian–Triassic extinction event", "evidence": "The eruptions would also have emitted carbon dioxide, causing global warming.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Permian–Triassic extinction event:182", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Permian–Triassic extinction event", "evidence": "The basalt lava erupted or intruded into carbonate rocks and into sediments that were in the process of forming large coal beds, both of which would have emitted large amounts of carbon dioxide, leading to stronger global warming after the dust and aerosols settled.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
33
Harvard study finds that wind turbines create MORE global warming than the fossil fuels they eliminate
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Fossil fuel:15", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Fossil fuel", "evidence": "Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that increases radiative forcing and contributes to global warming along with ocean acidification.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Petroleum:11", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Petroleum", "evidence": "The use of petroleum as fuel causes global warming and ocean acidification.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Wind power:295", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Wind power", "evidence": "Compared with other low carbon power sources, wind turbines have some of the lowest global warming potential per unit of electrical energy generated.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Wind power:392", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Wind power", "evidence": "Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, have become an increasingly important source of renewable energy and are used in many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Wind turbine:230", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Wind turbine", "evidence": "Over 1,500 tons of carbon dioxide per year can be eliminated by using a one-megawatt turbine instead of one megawatt of energy from a fossil fuel.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
35
Ice berg melts, ocean level remains the same.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Antarctic ice sheet:170", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Antarctic ice sheet", "evidence": "\"The melting of floating ice raises the ocean level\" (PDF).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:128", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "There is a threshold in surface warming beyond which a partial or near-complete melting of the Greenland ice sheet occurs.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:195", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "The gravitational effects comes into play when a large ice sheet melts.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:26", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Since the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago, the sea level has risen by more than 125 metres (410 ft), with rates varying from less than a mm/year to 40+ mm/year, as a result of melting ice sheets over Canada and Eurasia.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:691", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "\"The melting of floating ice raises the ocean level\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
36
When the exact same group of 'experts' who claimed it was global cooling in 1977 now claim it's global warming you can easily see why I am skeptical
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change denial:137", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change denial", "evidence": "Trend sceptics or deniers (who deny there is global warming), [and] argue that no significant climate warming is taking place at all, claiming that the warming trend measured by weather stations is an artefact due to urbanisation around those stations (\"urban heat island effect\").", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change denial:407", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change denial", "evidence": "Many such people prefer to call themselves skeptics and describe their position as climate change skepticism.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global cooling:2", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global cooling", "evidence": "The current scientific consensus on climate change is that the Earth underwent global warming throughout the 20th century and continues to warm.", "entropy": 1.0986123085021973, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Richard Lindzen:148", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Richard Lindzen", "evidence": "He said, \"A lot of my older colleagues are very skeptical on the global warming thing\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Richard Lindzen:150", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Richard Lindzen", "evidence": "John Wallace of the University of Washington agreed with Lindzen that progress in climate change science had been exaggerated, but said there are \"relatively few scientists who are as skeptical of the whole thing as Dick [Lindzen] is\".", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
38
Scientists studying Antarctica sea ice warn a rise in accumulation could spark the next ice age.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Antarctica:1046", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Antarctica", "evidence": "\"A 40-y record reveals gradual Antarctic sea ice increases followed by decreases at rates far exceeding the rates seen in the Arctic\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Ice age:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Ice age", "evidence": "An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Ice age:133", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Ice age", "evidence": "According to research published in Nature Geoscience, human emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) will defer the next ice age.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Ice age:175", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Ice age", "evidence": "The release of water raised sea levels again, restoring the ingress of colder water from the Pacific with an accompanying shift to northern hemisphere ice accumulation.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:82", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Based on changes of Antarctica's ice mass balance over millions of years, due to natural climate fluctuations, researchers concluded that the sea-ice acts as a barrier for warmer waters surrounding the continent.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
41
More than 500 scientists and professionals in climate and related fields have sent a 'European Climate Declaration' to the Secretary-General of the United Nations
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:13", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "This scientific opinion is expressed in synthesis reports, by scientific bodies of national or international standing, and by surveys of opinion among climate scientists.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:135", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2007 issued a formal declaration on climate change titled Let's Be Honest: Human activity is most likely responsible for climate warming.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:269", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Dennis Bray and Hans von Storch conducted a survey in August 2008 of 2058 climate scientists from 34 different countries.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sustainability:151", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Sustainability", "evidence": "The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is an international synthesis by over 1000 of the world's leading biological scientists that analyzes the state of the Earth's ecosystems and provides summaries and guidelines for decision-makers.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sustainability:92", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sustainability", "evidence": "It was signed by 15,364 scientists from 184 countries, what made it the letter with the most signatures of scientists in history In November 2019, more than 11,000 scientists from 153 countries published a letter in which they warn about big threats to sustainability from climate change if big changes in policies will not happen.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
42
Unprecedented climate change has caused sea level at Sydney Harbour to rise approximately 0.0 cm over the past 140 years.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming:146", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Between 1993 and 2017, the global mean sea level rose on average by 3.1 ± 0.3 mm per year, with an acceleration detected as well.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:147", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Over the 21st century, the IPCC projects that in a very high emissions scenario the sea level could rise by 61–110 cm.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:1", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Between 1900 and 2016, the sea level rose by 16–21 cm (6.3–8.3 in).", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:614", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "18 January 2019.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level:62", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level", "evidence": "For at least the last 100 years, sea level has been rising at an average rate of about 1.8 mm (0.07 in) per year.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
44
Human-produced carbon might be one of the factors [of climate change], but there’s simply no evidence that it is a significant one.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:78", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "According to the United States National Research Council, [T]here is a strong, credible body of evidence, based on multiple lines of research, documenting that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:139", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "European Science Foundation in a 2007 position paper states: There is now convincing evidence that since the industrial revolution, human activities, resulting in increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases have become a major agent of climate change ... On-going and increased efforts to mitigate climate change through reduction in greenhouse gases are therefore crucial.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:283", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Seventy-five of 77 believed that human activity is a significant factor in changing mean global temperatures.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:543", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "7–10 \"There is now convincing evidence that since the industrial revolution, human activities, resulting in increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases have become a major agent of climate change.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:692", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "While ‘climate change’ can be due to natural forces or human activity, there is now substantial evidence to indicate that human activity – and specifically increased greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions – is a key factor in the pace and extent of global temperature increases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
51
CO2 does not cause climate change, it RESPONDS to it [...]
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:221", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations lead to further acidification ...", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change adaptation:957", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change adaptation", "evidence": "\"Adaptation To Global Climate Change Is An Essential Response To A Warming Planet\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:457", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "\"Correction to \"Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming.\"\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:912", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "\"Blaming cities for climate change?", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:147", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "A new statement, adopted by the society in 2003, revised in 2007, and revised and expanded in 2013, affirms that rising levels of greenhouse gases have caused and will continue to cause the global surface temperature to be warmer: Human activities are changing Earth's climate.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
55
[T]he raw data, the actual thermometer data[...] shows that the US has been cooling for 80 to 90 years.
3 (DISPUTED)
[ { "evidence_id": "Hockey stick controversy:113", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Hockey stick controversy", "evidence": "It said that \"by 1300 it began to cool, and by 1400 we were well into the Little Ice Age.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hockey stick controversy:144", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Hockey stick controversy", "evidence": "The reconstruction found significant variability around a long-term cooling trend of −0.02 °C per century, as expected from orbital forcing, interrupted in the 20th century by rapid warming which stood out from the whole period, with the 1990s \"the warmest decade, and 1998 the warmest year, at moderately high levels of confidence\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hockey stick controversy:175", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Hockey stick controversy", "evidence": "He said there had probably been no global warming since the 1940s, and \"Satellite data show no appreciable warming of the global atmosphere since 1979.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, "SUPPORTS" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hockey stick controversy:176", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Hockey stick controversy", "evidence": "In fact, if one ignores the unusual El Nino year of 1998, one sees a cooling trend.\"", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, "SUPPORTS" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hockey stick controversy:206", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Hockey stick controversy", "evidence": "That's the data we've had for the past 150 years, which is quite consistent with the expectation that the climate is continuing to warm.\"", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, "REFUTES" ] } ]
57
Earth’s mean temperature over the last 2,000 years shows two previous periods when temperatures were warmer than they are now; from 1–200 A.D., an epoch called the Roman Warm Period, and more recently the Medieval Warm Period from 900–1100 A.D.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Medieval Warm Period:0", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Medieval Warm Period", "evidence": "The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region lasting from c. 950 to c. 1250.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Medieval Warm Period:10", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Medieval Warm Period", "evidence": "1250, during the European Middle Ages.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Medieval Warm Period:13", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Medieval Warm Period", "evidence": "1200 AD, and was followed by a decline of temperature levels till between c. 1500 and c. 1700 the coldest phase since the last ice age occurred.\"", "entropy": 1.0986123085021973, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Medieval Warm Period:6", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Medieval Warm Period", "evidence": "It is thought that between c. 950 and c. 1100 was the Northern Hemisphere's warmest period since the Roman Warm Period.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Medieval Warm Period:9", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Medieval Warm Period", "evidence": "The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) is generally thought to have occurred from c. 950–c.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
60
So that means that probably about half, maybe half of that nine-tenths of the degree [of total warming] might be caused by greenhouse gases
3 (DISPUTED)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming:55", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Before the Industrial Revolution, naturally occurring amounts of greenhouse gases caused the air near the surface to be warmer by about 33 °C (59 °F) than it would be in their absence.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Patrick Michaels:30", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Patrick Michaels", "evidence": "In 2018, Michaels asserted on Fox News, \"probably about half, maybe half of that nine-tenths of the degree [of total warming] might be caused by greenhouse gases.\"", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, "SUPPORTS" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:136", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Most of the climatic warming over the last 50 years is likely to have been caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, "SUPPORTS" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:150", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Human-caused increases in greenhouse gases are responsible for most of the observed global average surface warming of roughly 0.8 °C (1.5 °F) over the past 140 years.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:459", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said the likelihood was 90 percent to 99 percent that emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, spewed from tailpipes and smokestacks, were the dominant cause of the observed warming of the last 50 years.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, "SUPPORTS" ] } ]
61
[NASA] has been adjusting temperatures from the past[...]
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming:1459", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "\"Estimating Changes in Global Temperature since the Preindustrial Period\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:401", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The 1720–1800 period is most suitable to be defined as preindustrial in physical terms ...", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "NASA:12", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "NASA", "evidence": "On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published \"A National Research Program for Space Technology\" stating: Play media It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space ...", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "NASA:1227", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "NASA", "evidence": "\"\"2016 Climate Trends Continue to Break Records\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Space Shuttle Challenger disaster:97", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Space Shuttle Challenger disaster", "evidence": "Tests and adjusted calculations later confirmed that the temperature of the joint was not substantially different from the ambient temperature.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
65
A windmill could spin until it falls apart and never generate as much energy as was invested in building it.
3 (DISPUTED)
[ { "evidence_id": "Wind farm:150", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Wind farm", "evidence": "The energy consumed to manufacture and transport the materials used to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy produced by the plant within a few months.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Wind turbine:228", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Wind turbine", "evidence": "The energy harvested from the turbine will offset the installation cost, as well as provide virtually free energy for years.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Windmill:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Windmill", "evidence": "A windmill is a structure that converts wind power into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades, specifically to mill grain (gristmills), but the term is also extended to windpumps, wind turbines and other applications.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Windmill:30", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Windmill", "evidence": "The spread of tower mills came with a growing economy that called for larger and more stable sources of power, though they were more expensive to build.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Windmill:89", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Windmill", "evidence": "A wind turbine is a windmill-like structure specifically developed to generate electricity.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
67
Fifty-five thousand years ago the whole world was 2°C warmer than it is today[...]
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Beringia:39", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Beringia", "evidence": "During the LGM 22,000 YBP the average summer temperature was 3–5 °C (5–9 °F) degrees cooler than today, with variations of 2.9 °C (5.2 °F) degrees cooler on the Seward Peninsula to 7.5 °C (13.5 °F) cooler in the Yukon.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:206", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "Consequently, summers are 2.3 °C (4 °F) warmer in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere under similar conditions.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Holocene:279", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Holocene", "evidence": "\"Centennial-scale climate cooling with a sudden event around 8,200 years ago\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Holocene:49", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Holocene", "evidence": "This period of warmth ended about 5,500 years ago with the descent into the Neoglacial and concomitant Neopluvial.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Nordland:70", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Nordland", "evidence": "Research using sediment in lakes near the Okstind Glacier has shown that the summer climate in Nordland was up to 2.5 °C warmer 9,000 to 6,000 years ago, and then slowly cooled—it was 0.5 °C warmer 2,000 years before present (see Holocene climatic optimum.).", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
69
Sea level rise is not going to happen.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:1", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Between 1900 and 2016, the sea level rose by 16–21 cm (6.3–8.3 in).", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:139", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Over the 21st century, this is expected to rise, with glaciers contributing 7 to 24 cm (3 to 9 in) to global sea levels.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:160", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "If emissions remain very high, the IPCC projects sea level will rise by 52–98 cm (20–39 in).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:165", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "This could mean rapid sea level rise of up to 19 mm (0.75 in) per year by the end of the century.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:26", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Since the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago, the sea level has risen by more than 125 metres (410 ft), with rates varying from less than a mm/year to 40+ mm/year, as a result of melting ice sheets over Canada and Eurasia.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
71
Cold weather to grip world as solar minimum to deepen, NASA says
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "NASA:365", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "NASA", "evidence": "Its statements concur with the global scientific consensus that the global climate is warming.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Solar minimum:19", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Solar minimum", "evidence": "Solar physicist Dean Pesnell of the Goddard Space Flight Center came to the following conclusion: \"We're experiencing a very deep solar minimum.\"", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Solar minimum:33", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Solar minimum", "evidence": "\"NOAA Space Weather Scales Page Has Changed\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Solar minimum:44", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Solar minimum", "evidence": "\"Deep Solar Minimum – NASA Science\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sun:139", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sun", "evidence": "The coolest layer of the Sun is a temperature minimum region extending to about 500 km above the photosphere, and has a temperature of about 4,100 K. This part of the Sun is cool enough to allow the existence of simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water, which can be detected via their absorption spectra.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
72
[O]ne of the previously fastest shrinking glaciers in the world is growing again, calling into question the narrative that rapid climate change [...]
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Begging the question:181", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Begging the question", "evidence": ": 'Conception is defined as the beginning of life.']\"", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Begging the question:63", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Begging the question", "evidence": "Such preface is then followed with the question, as in: [...] personal letter delivery is at an all-time low...", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Narrative:472", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Narrative", "evidence": "Holstein, James A.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Question mark:129", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Question mark", "evidence": "Eats, Shoots & Leaves, 2003. p. 139.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Question mark:57", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Question mark", "evidence": "\"), whereas in the English language orthography no space is allowed in front of the question mark (e.g.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
74
The models predicted about three times the amount of warming in the world we’ve seen since [1988].
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:224", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "Models referenced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predict that global temperatures are likely to increase by 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) between 1990 and 2100.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:22", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Currently, surface temperatures are rising by about 0.2 °C per decade.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:317", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "In 1896, he published the first climate model of its kind, showing that halving of CO 2 could have produced the drop in temperature initiating the ice age.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:67", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The 10th Emissions Gap Report issued by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) predicts that if emissions continue to increase at the same rate as they have in 2010–2020, global temperatures would rise by as much as 4° by 2100.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:7", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Climate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C (0.5 to 3.1 °F) in a moderate scenario, or as much as 2.6 to 4.8 °C (4.7 to 8.6 °F) in an extreme scenario, depending on the rate of future greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] } ]
75
The science is clear, climate change is making extreme weather events, including tornadoes, worse.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:57", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "The main impact of global warming on the weather is an increase in extreme weather events such as heat waves, droughts, cyclones, blizzards and rainstorms.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:137", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Documented long-term climate changes include changes in Arctic temperatures and ice, widespread changes in precipitation amounts, ocean salinity, wind patterns and extreme weather including droughts, heavy precipitation, heat waves and the intensity of tropical cyclones.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:715", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "As the Earth's climate warms, we are seeing many changes: stronger, more destructive hurricanes; heavier rainfall; more disastrous flooding; more areas of the world experiencing severe drought; and more heat waves.\"", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:721", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "This could lead to changing, and for all emissions scenarios more unpredictable, weather patterns around the world, less frost days, more extreme events (droughts and storm or flood disasters), and warmer sea temperatures and melting glaciers causing sea levels to rise.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Weather:96", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Weather", "evidence": "Climate change caused by human activities that emit greenhouse gases into the air is expected to affect the frequency of extreme weather events such as drought, extreme temperatures, flooding, high winds, and severe storms.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] } ]
76
Burping cows are more damaging to the climate than all the cars on this planet.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change mitigation:241", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change mitigation", "evidence": "Many citizens of countries like the United States and Canada who drive personal cars often, see well over half of their climate change impact stemming from the emissions produced from their cars.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change mitigation:317", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change mitigation", "evidence": "For richer people, emissions tend to be associated with things such as eating beef, cars, frequent flying, and home heating.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change mitigation:379", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change mitigation", "evidence": "Most environmentally related taxes with implications for greenhouse gas emissions in OECD countries are levied on energy products and motor vehicles, rather than on CO2 emissions directly.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:351", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "The Moon may have dramatically affected the development of life by moderating the planet's climate.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:668", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "Our Changing Sun: The Role of Solar Nuclear Evolution and Magnetic Activity on Earth's Atmosphere and Climate.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] } ]
77
[S]unspot activity on the surface of our star has dropped to a new low.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Proxima Centauri:39", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Proxima Centauri", "evidence": "It has a regular activity cycle of starspots.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Star:266", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Star", "evidence": "This surface activity produces starspots, which are regions of strong magnetic fields and lower than normal surface temperatures.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Star:274", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Star", "evidence": "During the Maunder Minimum, for example, the Sun underwent a 70-year period with almost no sunspot activity.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Star:328", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Star", "evidence": "Patches of the star's surface with a lower temperature and luminosity than average are known as starspots.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sun:186", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sun", "evidence": "At solar-cycle minimum, the toroidal field is, correspondingly, at minimum strength, sunspots are relatively rare, and the poloidal field is at its maximum strength.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
79
The rate of warming according to the data is much slower than the models used by the IPCC
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming:99", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Physical climate models are also unable to reproduce the rapid warming observed in recent decades when taking into account only variations in solar output and volcanic activity.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "IPCC Fourth Assessment Report:48", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "IPCC Fourth Assessment Report", "evidence": "The observed increase in hurricane intensity is larger than climate models predict for the sea surface temperature changes we have experienced.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:128", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", "evidence": "Projections based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios suggest warming over the 21st century at a more rapid rate than that experienced for at least the last 10,000 years.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:507", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Since the start of the 20th century, the global mean surface temperature of the Earth has increased by more than 0.7°C and the rate of warming has been largest in the last 30 years.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:719", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "On the basis of available data, climate scientists are now projecting an average global temperature rise over this century of 2.0 to 4.5°C.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] } ]
82
The ­atmospheric residency time of carbon dioxide is five years
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:196", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Five hundred million years ago the carbon dioxide concentration was 20 times greater than today, decreasing to 4–5 times during the Jurassic period and then slowly declining with a particularly swift reduction occurring 49 million years ago.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Eocene:203", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Eocene", "evidence": "\"Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:129", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "As a result of this balance, the atmospheric mole fraction of carbon dioxide remained between 260 and 280 parts per million for the 10,000 years between the end of the last glacial maximum and the start of the industrial era.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:69", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "The atmospheric lifetime of CO 2 is estimated of the order of 30–95 years.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:74", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "N2O has a mean atmospheric lifetime of 121 years.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
85
Sea-level rise does not seem to depend on ocean temperature, and certainly not on CO2
3 (DISPUTED)
[ { "evidence_id": "Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum:98", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum", "evidence": "This depth depends on (among other things) temperature and the amount of CO 2 dissolved in the ocean.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:3", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "This acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:68", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "The heat needed to raise an average temperature increase of the entire world ocean by 0.01 °C would increase the atmospheric temperature by approximately 10 °C.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:69", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Thus, a small change in the mean temperature of the ocean represents a very large change in the total heat content of the climate system.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:74", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Because different climate models have slightly different patterns of ocean heating, they do not agree fully on the predictions for the contribution of ocean heating on sea level rise.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
86
There isn’t yet any empirical evidence for their claim that greenhouse gases even cause temperatures to increase.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate:108", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Climate", "evidence": "Increases in greenhouse gases, such as by volcanic activity, can increase the global temperature and produce an interglacial period.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:276", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:310", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "During the late 20th century, a scientific consensus evolved that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere cause a substantial rise in global temperatures and changes to other parts of the climate system, with consequences for the environment and for human health.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:155", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Increases in ambient temperatures and changes in related processes are directly linked to rising anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:692", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "While ‘climate change’ can be due to natural forces or human activity, there is now substantial evidence to indicate that human activity – and specifically increased greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions – is a key factor in the pace and extent of global temperature increases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
87
NOAA has adjusted past temperatures to look colder than they were and recent temperatures to look warmer than they were.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:196", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "A study released in 2009, combined historical weather station data with satellite measurements to deduce past temperatures over large regions of the continent, and these temperatures indicate an overall warming trend.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming hiatus:377", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming hiatus", "evidence": "'Our corrected data set says things have warmed up about 1.65 degrees Fahrenheit.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:463", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "This is much colder than the conditions that actually exist at the Earth's surface (the global mean surface temperature is about 14 °C).", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Instrumental temperature record:84", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Instrumental temperature record", "evidence": "Even accounting for the presence of internal climate variability, recent years rank among the warmest on record.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "La Niña:6", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "La Niña", "evidence": "La Niña is the positive and cold phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, and is associated with cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
91
They were going to be gone by now, but now they're setting records
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Apple Corps:230", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Apple Corps", "evidence": "We’ve got to put a stop to it in order to set a precedent.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Apple Corps:63", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Apple Corps", "evidence": "Lennon said, \"It's a company we're setting up, involving records, films, and electronics, and – as a sideline – manufacturing or whatever.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "The Carpenters:412", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "The Carpenters", "evidence": "Offering/Ticket to Ride (1969) Close to You (1970) Carpenters (1971) A Song for You (1972) Now & Then (1973) Horizon (1975) A Kind of Hush (1976) Passage (1977) Christmas Portrait (1978) Made in America (1981) Posthumous releases Voice of the Heart (1983) An Old-Fashioned Christmas (1984) Lovelines (1989) As Time Goes By (2004) Carpenters With The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (2018) Notes Even though they are referred to as \"The Carpenters\", their official name for authorized recordings and press material is simply \"Carpenters\".", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "The Rolling Stones:617", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "The Rolling Stones", "evidence": "I'm planning the next set of tours, so the answer is really, 'No, not really.'\"", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "The Simpsons:888", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "The Simpsons", "evidence": "The Simpson's sets a record by staying relevant\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
93
unadjusted data suggests that temperatures in Australia have only increased by 0.3 degrees over the past century, not the 1 degree usually claimed
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Australia:1011", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Australia", "evidence": "\"Australia's extreme heat is sign of things to come, scientists warn\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Australia:136", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Australia", "evidence": "According to the Bureau of Meteorology's 2011 Australian Climate Statement, Australia had lower than average temperatures in 2011 as a consequence of a La Niña weather pattern; however, \"the country's 10-year average continues to demonstrate the rising trend in temperatures, with 2002–2011 likely to rank in the top two warmest 10-year periods on record for Australia, at 0.52 °C (0.94 °F) above the long-term average\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Australia:137", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Australia", "evidence": "Furthermore, 2014 was Australia's third warmest year since national temperature observations commenced in 1910.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Australia:141", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Australia", "evidence": "January 2019 was the hottest month ever in Australia with average temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Australia:240", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Australia", "evidence": "], inflation has typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
95
[climate scientists] say that aspects of the case of Hurricane Harvey suggest global warming is making a bad situation worse.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:92", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "Global warming not only causes changes in tropical cyclones, it may also make some impacts from them worse via sea level rise.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hurricane Harvey:1021", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Hurricane Harvey", "evidence": "\"It's a fact: climate change made Hurricane Harvey more deadly\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hurricane Harvey:292", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Hurricane Harvey", "evidence": "The Gulf of Mexico is known for hurricanes in August, so their incidence alone cannot be attributed to global warming, but the warming climate does influence certain attributes of storms.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hurricane Harvey:294", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Hurricane Harvey", "evidence": "Weather events are due to multiple factors, and so cannot be said to be caused by one precondition, but climate change affects aspects of extreme events, and very likely worsened some of the impacts of Harvey.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hurricane Harvey:996", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Hurricane Harvey", "evidence": "\"Storm Harvey: impacts likely worsened due to global warming\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
96
The IPCC, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which is sort of the voice of the consensus, concedes that there has been no increase in extreme weather events.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", "evidence": "The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations that is dedicated to providing the world with objective, scientific information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of the risk of human-induced climate change, its natural, political, and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:14", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", "evidence": "The IPCC provides an internationally accepted authority on climate change, producing reports that have the agreement of leading climate scientists and consensus from participating governments.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:159", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", "evidence": "\"Impacts [of climate change] will very likely increase due to increased frequencies and intensities of some extreme weather events\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:228", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "The letter goes on to warn of predicted impacts on the United States such as sea level rise and increases in extreme weather events, water scarcity, heat waves, wildfires, and the disturbance of biological systems.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:301", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Joint Science Academies' statement, 2001: \"The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) represents the consensus of the international scientific community on climate change science.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
97
according, again, to the official figures—during this past 10 years, if anything, mean global temperature, average world temperature, has slightly declined
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "2000s (decade):628", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "2000s (decade)", "evidence": "The global temperature kept climbing during the decade.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Anthony Watts (blogger):267", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Anthony Watts (blogger)", "evidence": "Farmer 2014, p. 44: \"Global average temperatures for 2013 have recently been published by the BEST study...2010 and 2005 remain the warmest years since records began in the 19th century.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:146", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Between 1993 and 2017, the global mean sea level rose on average by 3.1 ± 0.3 mm per year, with an acceleration detected as well.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:22", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Currently, surface temperatures are rising by about 0.2 °C per decade.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:276", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] } ]
98
Trump's action could push the Earth over the brink, to become like Venus, with a temperature of two hundred and fifty degrees, and raining sulphuric acid.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Earth:111", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "At the center, the temperature may be up to 6,000 °C (10,830 °F), and the pressure could reach 360 GPa (52 million psi).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:76", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "About a billion years from now, all surface water will have disappeared and the mean global temperature will reach 70 °C (158 °F).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Venus:11", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Venus", "evidence": "Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), even though Mercury is closer to the Sun.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Venus:88", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Venus", "evidence": "The CO 2-rich atmosphere generates the strongest greenhouse effect in the Solar System, creating surface temperatures of at least 735 K (462 °C; 864 °F).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Venus:89", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Venus", "evidence": "This makes Venus's surface hotter than Mercury's, which has a minimum surface temperature of 53 K (−220 °C; −364 °F) and maximum surface temperature of 700 K (427 °C; 801 °F), even though Venus is nearly twice Mercury's distance from the Sun and thus receives only 25% of Mercury's solar irradiance.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
99
Most likely the primary control knob [on climate change] is the ocean waters and this environment that we live in.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):29", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "These include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents, atmosphere, and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):430", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "\"Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change and ecosystems:124", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change and ecosystems", "evidence": "Eventually the planet will warm to such a degree that the ocean's ability to dissolve water will no longer exist, resulting in a worldwide dead zone.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change and ecosystems:44", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change and ecosystems", "evidence": "Alterations to the ocean currents, due to increased freshwater inputs from glacier melt, and the potential alterations to thermohaline circulation of the worlds oceans, may affect existing fisheries upon which humans depend as well.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change denial:266", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change denial", "evidence": "United States Secretary of Energy Rick Perry, in a 19 June 2017 interview with CNBC, acknowledged the existence of climate change and impact from humans, but said that he did not agree with the idea that carbon dioxide was the primary driver of global warming pointing instead to \"the ocean waters and this environment that we live in\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
100
'Global warming' is a myth — so say 80 graphs from 58 peer-reviewed scientific papers published in 2017.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climatic Research Unit email controversy:85", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climatic Research Unit email controversy", "evidence": "On 22 March 2010 the university announced the composition of an independent Science Assessment Panel to reassess key CRU papers that have already been peer-reviewed and published in journals.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global cooling:99", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global cooling", "evidence": "Academic analysis of the peer-reviewed studies published at that time shows that most papers examining aspects of climate during the 1970s were either neutral or showed a warming trend.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:93", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "A 2013 study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Research Letters analyzed 11,944 abstracts from papers published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature between 1991 and 2011, identified by searching the ISI Web of Science citation index engine for the text strings \"global climate change\" or \"global warming\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:314", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "His 1861 paper proposed changing concentrations of these gases could have caused \"all the mutations of climate which the researches of geologists reveal\" and would explain ice age changes.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "James Delingpole:18", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "James Delingpole", "evidence": "Delingpole has engaged in climate change denialism; in 2009 he wrote of \"The conspiracy behind the Anthropogenic Global Warming myth\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
101
Neither the rate nor the magnitude of the reported late twentieth century surface warming (1979–2000) lay outside normal natural variability.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming:22", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Currently, surface temperatures are rising by about 0.2 °C per decade.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:276", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:299", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The disputed issues include the causes of increased global average air temperature, especially since the mid-20th century, whether this warming trend is unprecedented or within normal climatic variations, whether humankind has contributed significantly to it, and whether the increase is completely or partially an artifact of poor measurements.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:55", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Before the Industrial Revolution, naturally occurring amounts of greenhouse gases caused the air near the surface to be warmer by about 33 °C (59 °F) than it would be in their absence.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hockey stick controversy:177", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Hockey stick controversy", "evidence": "From this, he concluded that \"The post-1980 global warming trend from surface thermometers is not credible.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
102
Forward projections of solar cyclicity imply the next few decades may be marked by global cooling rather than warming, despite continuing CO2 emissions.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global cooling:68", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global cooling", "evidence": "When the model included estimated changes in solar intensity, it gave a reasonable match to temperatures over the previous thousand years and its prediction was that \"CO 2 warming dominates the surface temperature patterns soon after 1980.\"", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:64", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2010 were equivalent to 49 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (using the most recent global warming potentials over 100 years from the AR5 report).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:190", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Avoiding this future warming will require a large and rapid reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:23", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "The current trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions is not consistent with limiting global warming to below 1.5 or 2 °C, relative to pre-industrial levels.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:38", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "It said that Continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and long-lasting changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "REFUTES" ] } ]
103
global warming ceased around the end of the twentieth century and was followed (since 1997) by 19 years of stable temperature
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "20th century:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "20th century", "evidence": "The 20th (twentieth) century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "20th century:6", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "20th century", "evidence": "The average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880; Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20 °C per decade.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:146", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Between 1993 and 2017, the global mean sea level rose on average by 3.1 ± 0.3 mm per year, with an acceleration detected as well.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:366", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The period from 1983 to 2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years in the Northern Hemisphere, where such assessment is possible (medium confidence).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:41", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "An example of such an episode is the slower rate of surface temperature increase from 1998 to 2012, which was dubbed the global warming hiatus.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
104
Increases in atmospheric CO2 followed increases in temperature.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:192", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone have correspondingly strengthened their absorption and emission of infrared radiation, causing the rise in average global temperature since the mid-20th century.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:194", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Not only do increasing carbon dioxide concentrations lead to increases in global surface temperature, but increasing global temperatures also cause increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Gaia hypothesis:88", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Gaia hypothesis", "evidence": "When CO2 levels rise in the atmosphere the temperature increases and plants grow.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:310", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "During the late 20th century, a scientific consensus evolved that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere cause a substantial rise in global temperatures and changes to other parts of the climate system, with consequences for the environment and for human health.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:155", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Increases in ambient temperatures and changes in related processes are directly linked to rising anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
105
Therefore, CO2 levels could not have forced temperatures to rise.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Anoxic event:42", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Anoxic event", "evidence": "Oceanic anoxic events most commonly occurred during periods of very warm climate characterized by high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and mean surface temperatures probably in excess of 25 °C (77 °F).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:192", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone have correspondingly strengthened their absorption and emission of infrared radiation, causing the rise in average global temperature since the mid-20th century.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:194", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Not only do increasing carbon dioxide concentrations lead to increases in global surface temperature, but increasing global temperatures also cause increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:22", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Currently, surface temperatures are rising by about 0.2 °C per decade.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:310", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "During the late 20th century, a scientific consensus evolved that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere cause a substantial rise in global temperatures and changes to other parts of the climate system, with consequences for the environment and for human health.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, "REFUTES" ] } ]
108
sea-level rise is not accelerating.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:2", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an accelerating rise of 7.5 cm (3.0 in) from 1993 to 2017, which is a trend of roughly 30 cm (12 in) per century.", "entropy": 1.0986123085021973, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:405", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "\"Climate-change–driven accelerated sea-level rise detected in the altimeter era\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:492", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "\"Antarctica ice melt has accelerated by 280% in the last 4 decades\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:5", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Climate scientists expect the rate to further accelerate during the 21st century.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:65", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "However scientists have found that ice is being lost, and at an accelerating rate.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] } ]
109
Local and regional sea levels continue to exhibit typical natural variability—in some places rising and in others falling.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Sea level:43", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level", "evidence": "The term \"steric\" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level:51", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level", "evidence": "Local mean sea level (LMSL) is defined as the height of the sea with respect to a land benchmark, averaged over a period of time (such as a month or a year) long enough that fluctuations caused by waves and tides are smoothed out.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea:11", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Sea", "evidence": "Tides, the generally twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by Earth's rotation and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon and, to a lesser extent, of the Sun.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea:147", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Sea", "evidence": "Tides are the regular rise and fall in water level experienced by seas and oceans in response to the gravitational influences of the Moon and the Sun, and the effects of the Earth's rotation.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea:207", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea", "evidence": "For at least the last 100 years, sea level has been rising at an average rate of about 1.8 millimetres (0.071 in) per year.", "entropy": 1.0986123085021973, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null ] } ]
113
The temperature is not rising nearly as fast as the alarmist computer models predicted.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:1008", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "Our results show that the observed rapid rise in global mean temperatures seen after 1985 cannot be ascribed to solar variability, whichever of the mechanisms is invoked and no matter how much the solar variation is amplified.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:190", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "Satellite temperature measurements show that tropospheric temperatures are increasing with \"rates similar to those of the surface temperature\", leading the IPCC to conclude that this discrepancy is reconciled.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:223", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "Conventional projections of future temperature rises depend on estimates of future anthropogenic GHG emissions (see SRES), those positive and negative climate change feedbacks that have so far been incorporated into the models, and the climate sensitivity.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:234", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "Ed Hawkins, of the University of Reading, stated that the \"surface temperatures since 2005 are already at the low end of the range of projections derived from 20 climate models.", "entropy": 1.0986123085021973, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming controversy:240", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming controversy", "evidence": "Confidence in model estimates is higher for some climate variables (e.g., temperature) than for others (e.g., precipitation).", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
118
more than 100 per cent of the warming over the past century is due to human actions
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Kyoto Protocol:20", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Kyoto Protocol", "evidence": "The view that human activities are likely responsible for most of the observed increase in global mean temperature (\"global warming\") since the mid-20th century is an accurate reflection of current scientific thinking.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "SUPPORTS" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:150", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Human-caused increases in greenhouse gases are responsible for most of the observed global average surface warming of roughly 0.8 °C (1.5 °F) over the past 140 years.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:187", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "The dominant cause of the warming since the 1950s is human activities.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "SUPPORTS" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:69", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "The global warming observed over the past 50 years is due primarily to human-induced emissions of heat-trapping gases.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "SUPPORTS" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:77", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), and secondarily the clearing of land, have increased the concentration of carbon dioxide, methane, and other heat-trapping (\"greenhouse\") gases in the atmosphere...There is international scientific consensus that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "SUPPORTS" ] } ]
120
90 per cent of the world's coral reefs will disappear in the next 35 years due to coral bleaching induced by global warming, pollution and over-development.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Coral bleaching:32", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Coral bleaching", "evidence": "During this time, over 70 percent of the coral reefs around the world have become damaged.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Coral bleaching:54", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Coral bleaching", "evidence": "In late November 2016 surveys of 62 reefs showed that long term heat stress from climate change caused a 29% loss of shallow water coral.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Coral reef:365", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Coral reef", "evidence": "Every 4–7 years, an El Niño event causes some reefs with heat-sensitive corals to bleach, with especially widespread bleachings in 1998 and 2010.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Coral reef:375", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Coral reef", "evidence": "According to the Caribbean Coral Reefs - Status Report 19702-2012, states that; stop overfishing especially fishes key to coral reef like parrotfish, coastal zone management that reduce human pressure on reef, (for example restricting coastal settlement, development and tourism) and control pollution specially sewage, may reduce coral decline or even reverse it.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Coral:189", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Coral", "evidence": "Increasing sea temperatures in tropical regions (~1 degree C) the last century have caused major coral bleaching, death, and therefore shrinking coral populations since although they are able to adapt and acclimate, it is uncertain if this evolutionary process will happen quickly enough to prevent major reduction of their numbers.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
123
the warming is not nearly as great as the climate change computer models have predicted.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Deforestation:57", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Deforestation", "evidence": "The model predicted <0.2 °C warming for upper air at 700 mb and 500 mb.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global catastrophic risk:112", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global catastrophic risk", "evidence": "Projections of future climate change suggest further global warming, sea level rise, and an increase in the frequency and severity of some extreme weather events and weather-related disasters.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global catastrophic risk:51", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global catastrophic risk", "evidence": "Martin Weitzman argues that most of the expected economic damage from climate change may come from the small chance that warming greatly exceeds the mid-range expectations, resulting in catastrophic damage.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:1", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "It is a major aspect of climate change and has been demonstrated by direct temperature measurements and by measurements of various effects of the warming.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:108", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Uncertainty over feedbacks is the major reason why different climate models project different magnitudes of warming for a given amount of emissions.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
126
El Niño drove record highs in global temperatures suggesting rise may not be down to man-made emissions.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Attribution of recent climate change:131", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Attribution of recent climate change", "evidence": "(2012) concluded that human activities had likely led to a warming of extreme daily minimum and maximum temperatures at the global scale.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Global warming is the long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:218", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "CO2 emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:692", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "While ‘climate change’ can be due to natural forces or human activity, there is now substantial evidence to indicate that human activity – and specifically increased greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions – is a key factor in the pace and extent of global temperature increases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:3", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "This acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] } ]
127
Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide has helped raise global food production and reduce poverty.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change and agriculture:222", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change and agriculture", "evidence": "In the 1980s and 1990s low world market prices for cereals and livestock resulted in decreased agricultural growth and increased rural poverty.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:194", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "While increased CO 2 levels help crop growth at lower temperature increases, those crops do become less nutritious.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Human impact on the environment:145", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Human impact on the environment", "evidence": "Global warming is the result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations which is caused primarily by the combustion of fossil energy sources such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas, and to an unknown extent by destruction of forests, increased methane, volcanic activity and cement production.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Human impact on the environment:151", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Human impact on the environment", "evidence": "Potential negative environmental impacts caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are rising global air temperatures, altered hydrogeological cycles resulting in more frequent and severe droughts, storms, and floods, as well as sea level rise and ecosystem disruption.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sustainability:374", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sustainability", "evidence": "A major hurdle to achieve sustainability is the alleviation of poverty.", "entropy": 1.0397207736968994, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] } ]
128
Sea level rise, which was occurring long before humans could be blamed, has not accelerated.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:2", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an accelerating rise of 7.5 cm (3.0 in) from 1993 to 2017, which is a trend of roughly 30 cm (12 in) per century.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:3", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "This acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:405", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "\"Climate-change–driven accelerated sea-level rise detected in the altimeter era\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:492", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "\"Antarctica ice melt has accelerated by 280% in the last 4 decades\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:85", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "A 2018 systematic review study estimated that ice loss across the entire continent was 43 gigatons (Gt) per year on average during the period from 1992 to 2002, but has accelerated to an average of 220 Gt per year during the five years from 2012 to 2017.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
129
Sea level rise could reach six or seven feet by the year 2100.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:160", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "If emissions remain very high, the IPCC projects sea level will rise by 52–98 cm (20–39 in).", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:166", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "The study also concluded that the Paris climate agreement emissions scenario, if met, would result in a median 52 cm (20 in) of sea level rise by 2100.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:172", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "In 2019, a study projected that in low emission scenario, sea level will rise 30 centimeters by 2050 and 69 centimetres by 2100, relatively to the level in 2000.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:173", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "In high emission scenario, it will be 34 cm by 2050 and 111 cm by 2100.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:284", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "The commission said the country must plan for a rise in the North Sea up to 1.3 metres (4 ft 3 in) by 2100 and plan for a 2–4 metres (7–13 ft) m rise by 2200.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] } ]
132
Climate change is not making natural disasters worse
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change adaptation:135", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change adaptation", "evidence": "attribute these events to sudden environmental changes, like natural disasters.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:228", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "Gradual but pervasive environmental change and sudden natural disasters both influence the nature and extent of human migration but in different ways.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:229", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "Slow-onset disasters and gradual environmental erosion such as desertification, reduction of soil fertility, coastal erosion and sea-level rise are likely to induce long term migration.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Habitat destruction:83", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Habitat destruction", "evidence": "Habitat destruction vastly increases an area's vulnerability to natural disasters like flood and drought, crop failure, spread of disease, and water contamination.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:218", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", "evidence": "It assesses the effect that climate change has on the threat of natural disasters and how nations can better manage an expected change in the frequency of occurrence and intensity of severe weather patterns.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
133
The amount of land we use for meat — humankind’s biggest use of land — has declined by an area nearly as large as Alaska
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Agriculture:138", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Agriculture", "evidence": "As of 2010[update], 30% of Earth's ice- and water-free area was used for producing livestock, with the sector employing approximately 1.3 billion people.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Alaska:24", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Alaska", "evidence": "Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles (1,717,856 km2), over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Human impact on the environment:67", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Human impact on the environment", "evidence": "Despite estimated losses of agricultural land, the amount of arable land used in crop production globally increased by about 9% from 1961 to 2012, and is estimated to have been 1.396 billion hectares in 2012.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Human overpopulation:184", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Human overpopulation", "evidence": "The report asserts that expanding human land use for agriculture and overfishing are the main causes of this decline.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Meat:202", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Meat", "evidence": "It is by far the biggest cause of land use, as it accounts for nearly 40% of the global land surface.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
135
Carbon emissions are declining in most rich nations and have been declining in Britain, Germany, and France since the mid-1970s
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "France:301", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "France", "evidence": "As of 2009[update], French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China's.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:155", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "Average carbon emissions within the haulage industry are falling—in the thirty-year period from 1977 to 2007, the carbon emissions associated with a 200-mile journey fell by 21 percent; NOx emissions are also down 87 percent, whereas journey times have fallen by around a third.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:251", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "Within the G8 group of countries, it is most significant for the UK, France and Germany.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:256", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "On the other hand, annual per capita emissions of the EU-15 and the US are gradually decreasing over time.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:257", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "Emissions in Russia and Ukraine have decreased fastest since 1990 due to economic restructuring in these countries.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] } ]
137
Preventing future pandemics requires more not less “industrial” agriculture
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Avian influenza:128", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Avian influenza", "evidence": "In Vietnam policymakers, with the support of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), used HPAI control to accelerate the industrialization of livestock production for export by proposing to increase the portion of large-scale commercial farms and reducing the number of poultry keepers from 8 to 2 million by 2010.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Human overpopulation:95", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Human overpopulation", "evidence": "Food production further increased with the industrial revolution as machinery, fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides were used to increase land under cultivation as well as crop yields.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intensive animal farming:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Intensive animal farming", "evidence": "Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known by its opponents as factory farming, is a type of intensive agriculture, specifically an approach to animal husbandry designed to maximize production, while minimizing costs.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intensive animal farming:112", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Intensive animal farming", "evidence": "There are many potential impacts on human health due to the modern cattle industrial agriculture system.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intensive animal farming:257", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Intensive animal farming", "evidence": "This must be the way forward and we should end industrial agriculture in this country as well.\"", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
138
As a result, half of the people surveyed around the world last year said they thought climate change would make humanity extinct.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change and ecosystems:13", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change and ecosystems", "evidence": "(2007:788) concluded that a global mean temperature increase of around 4 °C (above the 1990-2000 level) by 2100 would lead to major extinctions around the globe.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Human overpopulation:875", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Human overpopulation", "evidence": "\"Biologists think 50% of species will be facing extinction by the end of the century\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:200", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "A 2016 survey found that two-thirds of AMS members think that all or most of climate change is caused by human activity.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:267", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Catastrophic effects in 50–100 years would likely be observed according to 41%, while 44% thought the effects would be moderate and about 13 percent saw relatively little danger.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:284", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Among all respondents, 90% agreed that temperatures have risen compared to pre-1800 levels, and 82% agreed that humans significantly influence the global temperature.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
139
And in January, one out of five British children told pollsters they were having nightmares about climate change.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change denial:1170", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change denial", "evidence": "ISBN 978-1-4614-3640-9. belief that climate change is \"real\" and confidence in climate science has surprisingly decreased… Angus Reid polls conducted in December 2009 found declining support for climate change…in Britain, Canada, and the United States.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change denial:1177", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change denial", "evidence": "Regrettably, this creates the impression that scientific opinion is evenly divided or completely unsettled\" Begley 2007: \"polls found that 64 percent of Americans thought there was 'a lot' of scientific disagreement on climate change; only one third thought planetary warming was \"mainly caused by things people do.\"", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change, industry and society:119", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change, industry and society", "evidence": "In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued the policy statement Global Climate Change and Children's Health: Anticipated direct health consequences of climate change include injury and death from extreme weather events and natural disasters, increases in climate-sensitive infectious diseases, increases in air pollution–related illness, and more heat-related, potentially fatal, illness.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change, industry and society:123", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change, industry and society", "evidence": "Disasters, violence and disease are expected to be more frequent and intense, making the future of the world's poorest children more bleak.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:682", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] } ]
141
Greenpeace didn’t save the whales, switching from whale oil to petroleum and palm oil did
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Greenpeace:124", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenpeace", "evidence": "Greenpeace is also critical of extracting petroleum from oil sands and has used direct action to block operations at the Athabasca oil sands in Canada.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenpeace:171", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenpeace", "evidence": "Another Greenpeace movement concerning the rain forests is discouraging palm oil industries.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenpeace:189", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenpeace", "evidence": "Greenpeace is also calling Wilmar out for breaking the commitment to end deforestation policy signed by Wilmar in December 2013 where they promise to incorporate organic and sustainable ways to collect palm oil.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenpeace:192", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenpeace", "evidence": "Brands cannot let this deception pass unchallenged and have no choice but to suspend all business with Wilmar until it can prove it only trades clean palm oil from responsible producers.\"", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Petroleum:296", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Petroleum", "evidence": "James S. Robbins has argued that the advent of petroleum-refined kerosene saved some species of great whales from extinction by providing an inexpensive substitute for whale oil, thus eliminating the economic imperative for open-boat whaling.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
142
Worst-case global heating scenarios may need to be revised upwards in light of a better understanding of the role of clouds, scientists have said.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Cloud:343", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Cloud", "evidence": "For these reasons the role of tropospheric clouds in regulating weather and climate remains a leading source of uncertainty in global warming projections.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System:3", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System", "evidence": "Results from the CERES and other NASA missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), could lead to a better understanding of the role of clouds and the energy cycle in global climate change.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:134", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "With this information, scientists can produce scenarios of how greenhouse gas emissions may vary in the future.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:362", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Climate change is more accurate scientifically to describe the various effects of greenhouse gases on the world because it includes extreme weather, storms and changes in rainfall patterns, ocean acidification and sea level.\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:7", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Climate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C (0.5 to 3.1 °F) in a moderate scenario, or as much as 2.6 to 4.8 °C (4.7 to 8.6 °F) in an extreme scenario, depending on the rate of future greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
143
Recent modelling data suggests the climate is considerably more sensitive to carbon emissions than previously believed
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate sensitivity:121", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate sensitivity", "evidence": "Climate sensitivity is an emergent property of these models.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate sensitivity:124", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate sensitivity", "evidence": "The cause of the increased sensitivity lies mainly in improved modelling of clouds so that low clouds descrease more strongly when temperature rise causing enhanced planetary absorption of sunlight.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate sensitivity:48", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate sensitivity", "evidence": "The more sensitive a climate system is to increased greenhouse gases, the more likely it is to have decades when temperatures are much higher or much lower than the longer-term average.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate sensitivity:9", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate sensitivity", "evidence": "Climate sensitivity is typically estimated in three ways; by using observations taken during the industrial age, by using temperature and other data from the Earth's past and by modelling the climate system in computers.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:307", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "The IPCC has pointed out that many long-term climate scenario models require large-scale manmade negative emissions to avoid serious climate change.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
148
Previous IPCC reports tended to assume that clouds would have a neutral impact because the warming and cooling feedbacks would cancel each other out.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Cloud feedback:17", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Cloud feedback", "evidence": "The albedo of increased cloudiness cools the climate, resulting in a negative feedback; while the reflection of infrared radiation by clouds warms the climate, resulting in a positive feedback.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Cloud feedback:19", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Cloud feedback", "evidence": "This feedback would partially cancel the increased surface warming due to the cloudiness.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Cloud feedback:27", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Cloud feedback", "evidence": "In the current climate, clouds exert a cooling effect on climate (the global mean CRF is negative).", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:107", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The main reinforcing feedbacks are the water vapour feedback, the ice–albedo feedback, and probably the net effect of clouds.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Tipping points in the climate system:32", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Tipping points in the climate system", "evidence": "The IPCC reports that feedbacks to increased temperatures are net positive for the remainder of this century, with the impact of cloud cover the largest uncertainty.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
152
“Catherine Senior, head of understanding climate change at the Met Office Hadley Centre, said more studies and more data were needed to fully understand the role of clouds and aerosols.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):67", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:285", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", "evidence": "In a 2006 letter to Nature, Mann, Bradley, and Hughes pointed out that their original article had said that \"more widespread high-resolution data are needed before more confident conclusions can be reached\" and that the uncertainties were \"the point of the article\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:6", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", "evidence": "IPCC reports cover the \"scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.\"", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:192", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "To inform decisions on adaptation and mitigation, it is critical that we improve our understanding of the global climate system and our ability to project future climate through continued and improved monitoring and research.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:94", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "The statement stresses that the scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action, and explicitly endorsed the IPCC consensus.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
157
Contemporary Global Warming placed in geological context.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming:20", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The IPCC has adopted the baseline reference period 1850–1900 as an approximation of pre-industrial global mean surface temperature.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:21", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Multiple independently produced instrumental datasets confirm that the 2009–2018 decade was 0.93 ± 0.07 °C warmer than the pre-industrial baseline (1850–1900).", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:276", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:402", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The 1850–1900 period is a reasonable pragmatic surrogate for preindustrial global mean temperature.\"", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Little Ice Age:745", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Little Ice Age", "evidence": "\"Global warming in the context of the Little Ice Age\".", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] } ]
161
Extreme melting and changes to the climate like this has released pressure on to the continent, allowing the ground to rise up.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Earth:316", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "This is predicted to produce changes such as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, more extreme temperature ranges, significant changes in weather and a global rise in average sea levels.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:128", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "There is a threshold in surface warming beyond which a partial or near-complete melting of the Greenland ice sheet occurs.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:195", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "The gravitational effects comes into play when a large ice sheet melts.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:56", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "The three main reasons warming causes global sea level to rise are: oceans expand, ice sheets lose ice faster than it forms from snowfall, and glaciers at higher altitudes also melt.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea level rise:78", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea level rise", "evidence": "Under the influence of global warming, melt at the base of the ice sheet increases.", "entropy": 0.5623351335525513, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, "SUPPORTS" ] } ]
163
We’ve contacted them to ask more details about the size of the Sif.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Conservative Judaism:407", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Conservative Judaism", "evidence": "Since the 2013 Pew survey, which assessed that only 18 per cent of American Jews identify with it, Conservative leadership is engaged in attempting to solve Conservative Judaism's demographic crisis.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "We Are the World:22", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "We Are the World", "evidence": "Entertainment manager and fellow fundraiser Ken Kragen was contacted by Belafonte, who asked for singers Lionel Richie and Kenny Rogers—Kragen's clients—to participate in Belafonte's musical endeavor.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "We Are the World:5", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "We Are the World", "evidence": "Several musicians were contacted by the pair, before Jackson and Lionel Richie were assigned the task of writing the song.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "We Found Love:145", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "We Found Love", "evidence": "Anticipation for the video grew in the United Kingdom when the national news picked up on the story of sixty-one-year-old Northern Ireland farmer Alan Graham withdrawing his permission to film in his barley field in Bangor, County Down after taking issue with Rihanna's clothing, focusing on her appearing topless and also wearing a red bikini top which he thought was an \"inappropriate state of undress\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "We Found Love:224", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "We Found Love", "evidence": "In the opening lines, Flo Rida introduces himself and raps tongue twisters about Rihanna and The Bahamas, \"You know I got love for you/ See what happened was we in Bahams/ I remember it was the ox summer, oh so pretty I/ ..Girl nice to meet you what's the honour/ Yeah she tap me told me she Rihanna.\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
164
Small increases in average temperature translate to big increases in the number of extremely hot days, and those hot days have a big impact.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:106", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "In Australia, the annual number of hot days (above 35°C) and very hot days (above 40°C) has increased significantly in many areas of the country since 1950.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:15", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "Global warming refers to the long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:80", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "Future climate change will include more very hot days and fewer very cold days.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:85", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "Global warming boosts the probability of extreme weather events such as heat waves where the daily maximum temperature exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5 °C (9 °F) for more than five consecutive days.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Effects of global warming:88", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Effects of global warming", "evidence": "The area in which extremely hot summers are observed has increased 50-100 fold.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
165
When the Emergency Leaders for Climate Action approached the Federal Government in April they were drawing on decades of data showing that fire conditions are getting worse.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "George W. Bush:579", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "George W. Bush", "evidence": "Bush's administration presided over the largest tax cuts since the presidency of Ronald Reagan, and his homeland security reforms proved to be the most significant expansion of the federal government since the Great Society.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Hurricane Sandy:414", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Hurricane Sandy", "evidence": "On January 30, 2015, days after the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released a post-Sandy report examining flood risks for 31,200 miles (50,210 km) of the North Atlantic coast, President Obama issued an executive order directing federal agencies, state and local governments drawing federal funds to adopt stricter building and siting standards to reflect scientific projections that future flooding will be more frequent and intense due to climate change.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Presidency of Donald Trump:421", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Presidency of Donald Trump", "evidence": "The administration rolled back regulations requiring the federal government to account for climate change and sea-level rise when building infrastructure.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Presidency of Donald Trump:453", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Presidency of Donald Trump", "evidence": "The administration released the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4) in November 2018, a long-awaited study conducted by numerous federal agencies that found \"the evidence of human-caused climate change is overwhelming and continues to strengthen, that the impacts of climate change are intensifying across the country, and that climate-related threats to Americans' physical, social, and economic well-being are rising.\"", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Presidency of Donald Trump:509", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Presidency of Donald Trump", "evidence": "In October 2017, the administration declared a 90-day public health emergency over the opioid epidemic and pledged to urgently mobilize the federal government in response to the crisis.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
168
As the temperature has increased, so has the ability of scientists to determine whether specific events are linked to climate change.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Attribution of recent climate change:0", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Attribution of recent climate change", "evidence": "Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent global warming and related climate changes on Earth.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Attribution of recent climate change:112", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Attribution of recent climate change", "evidence": "For example, scientists have established causal links between human activities and the changes in snowpack, maximum and minimum (diurnal) temperature, and the seasonal timing of runoff over mountainous regions of the western United States.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Attribution of recent climate change:58", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Attribution of recent climate change", "evidence": "This has led to increases in mean global temperature, or global warming.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change mitigation:476", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change mitigation", "evidence": "Although proving that particular weather events are due specifically to global warming may never be possible, methodologies have been developed to show the increased risk of such events caused by global warming.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:155", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Increases in ambient temperatures and changes in related processes are directly linked to rising anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
169
They can now model how likely a specific event would be to occur under historical conditions, compared to the record temperatures we’re experiencing.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change in the United States:91", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change in the United States", "evidence": "Looking at the lack of certainty as to the causes of the 1995 to present increase in Atlantic extreme storm activity, a 2007 article in Nature used proxy records of vertical wind shear and sea surface temperature to create a long-term model.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Nuclear winter:198", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Nuclear winter", "evidence": "Compared to climate change for the past millennium, even the smallest exchange modeled would plunge the planet into temperatures colder than the Little Ice Age (the period of history between approximately 1600 and 1850 AD).", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Nuclear winter:201", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Nuclear winter", "evidence": "In both cases, new climate model simulations show that the effects would last for more than a decade.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Nuclear winter:215", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Nuclear winter", "evidence": "The authors used computational models developed by NCAR to simulate the climatic effects of a soot cloud that they suggest would be a result, of a regional nuclear war in which 100 \"small\" (15 Kt) weapons are detonated over cities.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Ocean acidification:44", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Ocean acidification", "evidence": "A 2012 paper in the journal Science examined the geological record in an attempt to find a historical analog for current global conditions as well as those of the future.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
171
We’ll still be facing extreme heat, but at a far more manageable level than if we’d done nothing to halt climate change.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change and gender:39", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change and gender", "evidence": "Climate change is predicted to increase frequency and magnitude of natural hazards such as extreme heat.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change in Australia:1", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change in Australia", "evidence": "In 2013, the CSIRO released a report stating that Australia is becoming hotter, and that it will experience more extreme heat and longer fire seasons because of climate change.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change mitigation:37", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change mitigation", "evidence": "They say that even if all the current pledges will be accomplished there is a chance for a 4.5 degree temperature rise in decades.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:155", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Many regions have probably already seen increases in warm spells and heat waves, and it is virtually certain that these changes will continue over the 21st century.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:9", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The effects of global warming include rising sea levels, regional changes in precipitation, more frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, and expansion of deserts.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
173
If there were [carbon emissions], we could not see because most carbon is black.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Coal:37", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Coal", "evidence": "Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock, usually black, but sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:64", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2010 were equivalent to 49 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (using the most recent global warming potentials over 100 years from the AR5 report).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "James Hansen:76", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "James Hansen", "evidence": "China and India have recently increased their emissions of black carbon corresponding to their rapid development.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Particulates:37", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Particulates", "evidence": "This causes reduced visibility and yellow color.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Particulates:46", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Particulates", "evidence": "As shown in the seventh image on this page, an optical thickness of less than 0.1 (palest yellow) indicates a crystal clear sky with maximum visibility, whereas a value of 1 (reddish-brown) indicates very hazy conditions.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
180
Reef material is calcium carbonate, which contains 44 per cent carbon dioxide.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Calcium carbonate:34", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Calcium carbonate", "evidence": "Under these conditions calcium carbonate decomposes to produce carbon dioxide which, along with other gases, give rise to explosive volcanic eruptions.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon sink:66", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Carbon sink", "evidence": "The calcium carbonate from which coral skeletons are made is just over 60% carbon dioxide.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Coral:131", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Coral", "evidence": "Scleractinian skeletons are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as aragonite.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Limestone:1", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Limestone", "evidence": "Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Reef:34", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Reef", "evidence": "Cyanobacteria can encourage the precipitation or accumulation of calcium carbonate to produce distinct sediment bodies in composition that have relief on the seafloor.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] } ]
181
Reefs need carbon dioxide; it’s their basic food.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Anthozoa:73", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Anthozoa", "evidence": "In this symbiotic relationship, the zooxanthellae benefit by using nitrogenous waste and carbon dioxide produced by the host while the cnidarian gains photosynthetic capability and increased production of calcium carbonate, a substance of great importance to stony corals.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Breathing:2", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Breathing", "evidence": "All aerobic creatures need oxygen for cellular respiration, which uses the oxygen to break down foods for energy and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Gas exchange:9", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Gas exchange", "evidence": "In aerobic organisms, gas exchange is particularly important for respiration, which involves the uptake of oxygen (O 2) and release of carbon dioxide (CO 2).", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Ocean acidification:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Ocean acidification", "evidence": "Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the atmosphere.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Sea:240", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Sea", "evidence": "Marine life plays an important part in the carbon cycle as photosynthetic organisms convert dissolved carbon dioxide into organic carbon and it is economically important to humans for providing fish for use as food.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
184
It has never been shown that human emissions of carbon dioxide drive global warming.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:21", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Since the Industrial Revolution anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:218", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "CO2 emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:276", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:59", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs, and nitrous oxide.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:6", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
185
Modellers assume carbon dioxide drives climate change
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Attribution of recent climate change:29", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Attribution of recent climate change", "evidence": "Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to recent climate change.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Attribution of recent climate change:8", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Attribution of recent climate change", "evidence": "Computer-based climate models are unable to replicate the observed warming unless human greenhouse gas emissions are included.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:675", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "\"Massive peat burn is speeding climate change\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):457", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "\"Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change feedback:21", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change feedback", "evidence": "While models disagree on the strength of any terrestrial carbon cycle feedback, they each suggest any such feedback would accelerate global warming.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
189
The geological history of the planet shows major planetary climate changes have never been driven by a trace gas
3 (DISPUTED)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change denial:658", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change denial", "evidence": "Rennie 2009: \"Claim 1: Anthropogenic CO2 can't be changing climate, because CO2 is only a trace gas in the atmosphere and the amount produced by humans is dwarfed by the amount from volcanoes and other natural sources.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:172", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "This last phenomenon is known as the greenhouse effect: trace molecules within the atmosphere serve to capture thermal energy emitted from the ground, thereby raising the average temperature.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:293", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "The distance of Earth from the Sun, as well as its orbital eccentricity, rate of rotation, axial tilt, geological history, sustaining atmosphere, and magnetic field all contribute to the current climatic conditions at the surface.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:52", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "Scientists have determined that the major factors causing the current climate change are greenhouse gases, land use changes, and aerosols and soot.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Natural environment:69", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Natural environment", "evidence": "The remaining gases are often referred to as trace gases, among which are the greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
190
Climate change is normal and continual.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):10", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "Climate change is a long-term, sustained trend of change in climate.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):229", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "Climate change means a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):36", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "increased emissions of greenhouse gases and dust) or natural (e.g., changes in solar output, the earth's orbit, volcano eruptions).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):43", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "Climate change due to internal variability sometimes occurs in cycles or oscillations, for instance every 100 or 2000 years.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:657", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Although global change has been a natural process throughout Earth's history, humans are responsible for substantially accelerating present-day changes.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, null ] } ]
194
The main greenhouse gas is water vapour[…]
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Global warming:107", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "The main reinforcing feedbacks are the water vapour feedback, the ice–albedo feedback, and probably the net effect of clouds.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:111", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "As water is a potent greenhouse gas, this further heats the climate: the water vapour feedback.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:434", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "\"AGU Water Vapor in the Climate System\".", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:606", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "\"How Much CO2 Does A Single Volcano Emit?\".", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:73", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "Similar issues apply to other greenhouse gases, many of which have longer mean lifetimes than CO 2, e.g.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
195
Carbon dioxide is a non-condensable atmospheric gas like nitrogen and oxygen
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO 2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Explosive:170", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Explosive", "evidence": "The gaseous products of complete reaction are typically carbon dioxide, steam, and nitrogen.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:10", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "The most common gases in Earth's atmosphere are nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and argon (0.9%).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Natural gas:0", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Natural gas", "evidence": "Natural gas (also called fossil gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Natural gas:85", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Natural gas", "evidence": "Like landfill gas, biogas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
196
Without carbon dioxide, all life on Earth would die
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:294", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "The life and death of planet Earth.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere:97", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere", "evidence": "Carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere is essential to life and to most of the planetary biosphere.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:10", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use light energy to photosynthesize carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen produced as a waste product.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:75", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "The lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, making animal life impossible.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Future of Earth:23", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Future of Earth", "evidence": "By that point, all life on the Earth will be extinct.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
197
Plants need almost three times today’s carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere to thrive.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Atmosphere of Earth:2", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Atmosphere of Earth", "evidence": "By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:231", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "During active photosynthesis, plants can absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than they release in respiration.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:240", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Plants can grow as much as 50 percent faster in concentrations of 1,000 ppm CO 2 when compared with ambient conditions, though this assumes no change in climate and no limitation on other nutrients.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Deforestation:47", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Deforestation", "evidence": "Plants remove carbon in the form of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis, but release some carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere during normal respiration.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:164", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "A dry atmosphere is composed of 78.084% nitrogen, 20.946% oxygen, 0.934% argon, and trace amounts of carbon dioxide and other gaseous molecules.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
198
For decades horticulturalists have pumped carbon dioxide into glasshouses to increase yields.
0 (SUPPORTS)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:241", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Elevated CO 2 levels cause increased growth reflected in the harvestable yield of crops, with wheat, rice and soybean all showing increases in yield of 12–14% under elevated CO 2 in FACE experiments.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate change and agriculture:267", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Climate change and agriculture", "evidence": "Elevated CO2 increases crop yields and growth through an increase in photosynthetic rate, and it also decreases water loss as a result of stomatal closing.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse:4", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Greenhouse", "evidence": "Many commercial glass greenhouses or hothouses are high tech production facilities for vegetables, flowers or fruits.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse:71", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse", "evidence": "The possibility of using carbon dioxide enrichment in greenhouse cultivation to enhance plant growth has been known for nearly 100 years.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse:77", "evidence_label": 0, "article": "Greenhouse", "evidence": "The refinery reduces its carbon emissions, whilst the nursery enjoys boosted tomato yields and does not need to provide its own greenhouse heating.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "SUPPORTS", "SUPPORTS", null, null ] } ]
199
In the past, warming has never been a threat to life on Earth.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "Biodiversity:307", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Biodiversity", "evidence": "Global warming is a major threat to global biodiversity.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global catastrophic risk:190", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global catastrophic risk", "evidence": "If such an event were to occur oriented towards the Earth, the massive amounts of gamma radiation could significantly affect the Earth's atmosphere and pose an existential threat to all life.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "James Lovelock:75", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "James Lovelock", "evidence": "Lovelock has become concerned about the threat of global warming from the greenhouse effect.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:166", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Given the potential threat to marine ecosystems and its ensuing impact on human society and economy, especially as it acts in conjunction with anthropogenic global warming, there is an urgent need for immediate action.\"", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:191", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "The ongoing warming will increase risks and stresses to human societies, economies, ecosystems, and wildlife through the 21st century and beyond, making it imperative that society respond to a changing climate.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] } ]
200
if we halved today’s atmospheric carbon dioxide content, all life would die.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Atmosphere of Earth:2", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Atmosphere of Earth", "evidence": "By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:177", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere is a trace gas, currently (mid 2018) having a global average concentration of 409 parts per million by volume (or 622 parts per million by mass).", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:74", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "Earth's increasing surface temperature will accelerate the inorganic carbon cycle, reducing CO 2 concentration to levels lethally low for plants (10 ppm for C4 photosynthesis) in approximately 100–900 million years.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:75", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "The lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, making animal life impossible.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Eocene:22", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Eocene", "evidence": "For contrast, today the carbon dioxide levels are at 400 ppm or 0.04%.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null ] } ]
203
In our lifetime, there has been no correlation between carbon dioxide emissions and temperature
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "An Inconvenient Truth:125", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "An Inconvenient Truth", "evidence": "Gore's use of long ice core records of CO2 and temperature (from oxygen isotope measurements) in Antarctic ice cores to illustrate the correlation between the two drew some scrutiny; Schmidt, Steig and Michael E. Mann back up Gore's data.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "An Inconvenient Truth:135", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "An Inconvenient Truth", "evidence": "In that sense, the ice core CO2-temperature correlation remains an appropriate demonstration of the influence of CO2 on climate.\"", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:276", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Greenhouse gas:101", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Greenhouse gas", "evidence": "Both CO 2 and CH 4 vary between glacial and interglacial phases, and concentrations of these gases correlate strongly with temperature.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "James Hansen:246", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "James Hansen", "evidence": "Decades ago, they correctly predicted how much Earth's temperature would rise due to increasing atmospheric CO2.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ null, "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null ] } ]
204
after a natural orbitally driven warming, atmospheric carbon dioxide content increases 800 years later
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Carbon dioxide:192", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Carbon dioxide", "evidence": "Increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone have correspondingly strengthened their absorption and emission of infrared radiation, causing the rise in average global temperature since the mid-20th century.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:74", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "Earth's increasing surface temperature will accelerate the inorganic carbon cycle, reducing CO 2 concentration to levels lethally low for plants (10 ppm for C4 photosynthesis) in approximately 100–900 million years.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Eocene:118", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Eocene", "evidence": "Along with the decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide reducing the global temperature, orbital factors in ice creation can be seen with 100,000-year and 400,000-year fluctuations in benthic oxygen isotope records.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "SUPPORTS", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum:177", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum", "evidence": "The current warming period is expected to last another 50,000 years due to a minimum in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum:3", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum", "evidence": "The associated period of massive carbon release into the atmosphere has been estimated to have lasted from 20,000 to 50,000 years.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "REFUTES", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] } ]
207
Each of the six major past ice ages began when the atmospheric carbon dioxide content was far higher than at present.
1 (REFUTES)
[ { "evidence_id": "2012 in science:264", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "2012 in science", "evidence": "(BBC) 4 April A new, detailed record of past climate change has shown compelling evidence that the last ice age was ended by a rise in temperature driven by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Climate of Mars:89", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate of Mars", "evidence": "Much of this early atmosphere would have consisted of carbon dioxide.", "entropy": 0.6931471824645996, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Earth:53", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Earth", "evidence": "The present pattern of ice ages began about 40 Mya, and then intensified during the Pleistocene about 3 Mya.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Geologic temperature record:10", "evidence_label": 1, "article": "Geologic temperature record", "evidence": "The gradual intensification of this ice age over the last 3 million years has been associated with declining concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, though it remains unclear if this change is sufficiently large to have caused the changes in temperatures.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "REFUTES", "REFUTES", null, null, null ] }, { "evidence_id": "Peat:182", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Peat", "evidence": "It decomposes and turns into carbon dioxide (CO 2), which is released into the atmosphere.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, null ] } ]
211
For decades, most scientists saw climate change as a distant prospect.
2 (NOT_ENOUGH_INFO)
[ { "evidence_id": "Climate change (general concept):2", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Climate change (general concept)", "evidence": "Scientists have identified many episodes of climate change during Earth's geological history; more recently since the industrial revolution the climate has increasingly been affected by human activities driving global warming, and the terms are commonly used interchangeably in that context.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Global warming:276", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Global warming", "evidence": "In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:170", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Decades of scientific research have shown that climate can change from both natural and anthropogenic causes.", "entropy": 0, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:267", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "Catastrophic effects in 50–100 years would likely be observed according to 41%, while 44% thought the effects would be moderate and about 13 percent saw relatively little danger.", "entropy": 1.0986123085021973, "votes": [ "SUPPORTS", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "REFUTES" ] }, { "evidence_id": "Scientific consensus on climate change:299", "evidence_label": 2, "article": "Scientific consensus on climate change", "evidence": "US National Academy of Sciences: \"In the judgment of most climate scientists, Earth's warming in recent decades has been caused primarily by human activities that have increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.", "entropy": 0.6365141868591309, "votes": [ "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO", null, null, "REFUTES" ] } ]
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for ClimateFever

Dataset Summary

A dataset adopting the FEVER methodology that consists of 1,535 real-world claims regarding climate-change collected on the internet. Each claim is accompanied by five manually annotated evidence sentences retrieved from the English Wikipedia that support, refute or do not give enough information to validate the claim totalling in 7,675 claim-evidence pairs. The dataset features challenging claims that relate multiple facets and disputed cases of claims where both supporting and refuting evidence are present.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[Needs More Information]

Languages

The text in the dataset is in English, as found in real-world claims about climate-change on the Internet. The associated BCP-47 code is en.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

{
  "claim_id": "0",
  "claim": "Global warming is driving polar bears toward extinction",
  "claim_label": 0,  # "SUPPORTS"
  "evidences": [
    {
     "evidence_id": "Extinction risk from global warming:170",
     "evidence_label": 2,  # "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO"
     "article": "Extinction risk from global warming",
     "evidence": "\"Recent Research Shows Human Activity Driving Earth Towards Global Extinction Event\".",
     "entropy": 0.6931471805599453,
     "votes": [
      "SUPPORTS",
      "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO",
      null,
      null,
      null
     ]
    },
    {
     "evidence_id": "Global warming:14",
     "evidence_label": 0,  # "SUPPORTS"
     "article": "Global warming",
     "evidence": "Environmental impacts include the extinction or relocation of many species as their ecosystems change, most immediately the environments of coral reefs, mountains, and the Arctic.",
     "entropy": 0.0,
     "votes": [
      "SUPPORTS",
      "SUPPORTS",
      null,
      null,
      null
     ]
    },
    {
     "evidence_id": "Global warming:178",
     "evidence_label": 2,  # "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO"
     "article": "Global warming",
     "evidence": "Rising temperatures push bees to their physiological limits, and could cause the extinction of bee populations.",
     "entropy": 0.6931471805599453,
     "votes": [
      "SUPPORTS",
      "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO",
      null,
      null,
      null
     ]
    },
    {
     "evidence_id": "Habitat destruction:61",
     "evidence_label": 0,  # "SUPPORTS"
     "article": "Habitat destruction",
     "evidence": "Rising global temperatures, caused by the greenhouse effect, contribute to habitat destruction, endangering various species, such as the polar bear.",
     "entropy": 0.0,
     "votes": [
      "SUPPORTS",
      "SUPPORTS",
      null,
      null,
      null
     ]
    },
    {
     "evidence_id": "Polar bear:1328",
     "evidence_label": 2,  # "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO"
     "article": "Polar bear",
     "evidence": "\"Bear hunting caught in global warming debate\".",
     "entropy": 0.6931471805599453,
     "votes": [
      "SUPPORTS",
      "NOT_ENOUGH_INFO",
      null,
      null,
      null
     ]
    }
  ]
}

Data Fields

  • claim_id: a string feature, unique claim identifier.
  • claim: a string feature, claim text.
  • claim_label: a int feature, overall label assigned to claim (based on evidence majority vote). The label correspond to 0: "supports", 1: "refutes", 2: "not enough info" and 3: "disputed".
  • evidences: a list of evidences with fields:
  • evidence_id: a string feature, unique evidence identifier.
  • evidence_label: a int feature, micro-verdict label. The label correspond to 0: "supports", 1: "refutes" and 2: "not enough info".
  • article: a string feature, title of source article (Wikipedia page).
  • evidence: a string feature, evidence sentence.
  • entropy: a float32 feature, entropy reflecting uncertainty of evidence_label.
  • votes: a list of string features, corresponding to individual votes.

Data Splits

This benchmark dataset currently consists of a single data split test that consists of 1,535 claims or 7,675 claim-evidence pairs.

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[Needs More Information]

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[Needs More Information]

Who are the source language producers?

[Needs More Information]

Annotations

Annotation process

[Needs More Information]

Who are the annotators?

[Needs More Information]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[Needs More Information]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[Needs More Information]

Discussion of Biases

[Needs More Information]

Other Known Limitations

[Needs More Information]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[Needs More Information]

Licensing Information

[Needs More Information]

Citation Information

@misc{diggelmann2020climatefever,
      title={CLIMATE-FEVER: A Dataset for Verification of Real-World Climate Claims},
      author={Thomas Diggelmann and Jordan Boyd-Graber and Jannis Bulian and Massimiliano Ciaramita and Markus Leippold},
      year={2020},
      eprint={2012.00614},
      archivePrefix={arXiv},
      primaryClass={cs.CL}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @tdiggelm for adding this dataset.

Models trained or fine-tuned on climate_fever