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BACKGROUND: Most brain metastases arise from @entity0 . Few studies compare the brain regions they involve, their numbers and intrinsic attributes. METHODS: Records of all @entity1 referred to Radiation Oncology for treatment of symptomatic brain metastases were obtained. Computed tomography (n = 56) or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 72) brain scans were reviewed. RESULTS: Data from 68 breast and 62 @entity2 @entity1 were compared. Brain metastases presented earlier in the course of the lung than of the @entity0 @entity1 (p = 0.001). There were more metastases in the cerebral hemispheres of the breast than of the @entity2 @entity1 (p = 0.014). More @entity0 @entity1 had cerebellar metastases (p = 0.001). The number of cerebral hemisphere metastases and presence of cerebellar metastases were positively correlated (p = 0.001). The prevalence of at least one @entity3 surrounded with >2 cm of @entity4 was greater for the lung than for the breast @entity1 (p = 0.019). The @entity5 type, rather than the scanning method, correlated with differences between these variables. CONCLUSIONS: Brain metastases from lung occur earlier, are more @entity4 , but fewer in number than those from @entity0 . Cerebellar brain metastases are more frequent in @entity0 .
Attributes of brain metastases from XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity0 :: ('MESH:D001943', 'Disease') :: ['breast than lung cancer', 'breast cancers', 'breast and lung cancers', 'breast cancer']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['primary tumor']", "@entity4 :: ('MESH:D004487', 'Disease') :: ['edematous', 'edema']", "@entity2 :: ('MESH:D008175', 'Disease') :: ['lung cancer']", "@entity3 :: ('MESH:D009362', 'Disease') :: ['metastasis']" ]
@entity0 :: (MESH:D001943,Disease) :: ['breast and lung cancer']
PURPOSE: Avastin (bevacizumab) intravitreal injections are widely used for treatment of @entity6 . The aim of our study was to analyze effect of 1.25 mg of intravitreal Avastin on serum concentration of @entity7 ( @entity7 ) in @entity6 @entity1 . METHODS: @entity1 were 10 @entity6 @entity1 on insulin therapy, without any other @entity8 . Both eyes of @entity6 @entity1 were injected simultaneously with 1.25 mg of intravitreal Avastin, as a first step in treatment of nonproliferative @entity6 with clinically significant macular @entity4 (4 @entity1 ), and of proliferative @entity6 (6 @entity1 ). Fluorescein angiography was performed prior to and laser therapy followed 1 month after Avastin treatment. @entity7 concentration in patients serum was measured by ELISA technique: on the day of the Avastin administration, and 1, 7, and 28 days after intravitreal injection. RESULTS: In all analyzed @entity1 , 24 hours after Avastin treatment, serum levels of @entity7 were lower then basal (preinjection value). Maximal reduction of serum @entity7 was noted on the 7th postoperative day. Twenty-eight days after, @entity7 level in serum was raised, without completely reaching basal preoperative concentrations in most @entity1 . CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal injections of anti- @entity7 drugs have an effect on decreasing systemic @entity7 values. Rhythm of changes in serum @entity7 concentrations and lowest detected concentration on the seventh postinjection day are according to pharmacokinetics of Avastin in serum and vitreous, reported by similar studies. The small number of @entity1 involved in this pilot study implicates the need for further studies.
Changes of serum XXXX concentration after intravitreal injection of Avastin in treatment of @entity6 .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['participants', 'patients', 'Participants']", "@entity8 :: ('MESH:D007674', 'Disease') :: ['eye or systemic disease, and no kidney disfunction']", "@entity6 :: ('MESH:D003920', 'Disease') :: ['diabetic', 'diabetic retinopathy']", "@entity7 :: ('7422', 'Gene') :: ['vascular endothelial growth factor', 'VEGF']", "@entity4 :: ('MESH:D004487', 'Disease') :: ['edema']" ]
@entity7 :: (7422,Gene) :: ['VEGF']
PURPOSE: Avastin (bevacizumab) intravitreal injections are widely used for treatment of @entity6 . The aim of our study was to analyze effect of 1.25 mg of intravitreal Avastin on serum concentration of @entity7 ( @entity7 ) in @entity6 @entity1 . METHODS: @entity1 were 10 @entity6 @entity1 on insulin therapy, without any other @entity8 . Both eyes of @entity6 @entity1 were injected simultaneously with 1.25 mg of intravitreal Avastin, as a first step in treatment of nonproliferative @entity6 with clinically significant macular @entity4 (4 @entity1 ), and of proliferative @entity6 (6 @entity1 ). Fluorescein angiography was performed prior to and laser therapy followed 1 month after Avastin treatment. @entity7 concentration in patients serum was measured by ELISA technique: on the day of the Avastin administration, and 1, 7, and 28 days after intravitreal injection. RESULTS: In all analyzed @entity1 , 24 hours after Avastin treatment, serum levels of @entity7 were lower then basal (preinjection value). Maximal reduction of serum @entity7 was noted on the 7th postoperative day. Twenty-eight days after, @entity7 level in serum was raised, without completely reaching basal preoperative concentrations in most @entity1 . CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal injections of anti- @entity7 drugs have an effect on decreasing systemic @entity7 values. Rhythm of changes in serum @entity7 concentrations and lowest detected concentration on the seventh postinjection day are according to pharmacokinetics of Avastin in serum and vitreous, reported by similar studies. The small number of @entity1 involved in this pilot study implicates the need for further studies.
Changes of serum @entity7 concentration after intravitreal injection of Avastin in treatment of XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['participants', 'patients', 'Participants']", "@entity8 :: ('MESH:D007674', 'Disease') :: ['eye or systemic disease, and no kidney disfunction']", "@entity6 :: ('MESH:D003920', 'Disease') :: ['diabetic', 'diabetic retinopathy']", "@entity7 :: ('7422', 'Gene') :: ['vascular endothelial growth factor', 'VEGF']", "@entity4 :: ('MESH:D004487', 'Disease') :: ['edema']" ]
@entity6 :: (MESH:D003920,Disease) :: ['diabetic retinopathy']
OBJECTIVES: @entity9 is a @entity10 that may result from greater occipital nerve entrapment. Entrapped peripheral nerves typically have an increase in cross-sectional area. The purpose of this study was to measure the cross-sectional area and circumference of symptomatic and asymptomatic greater occipital nerves in @entity1 with @entity9 and to correlate the greater occipital nerve cross-sectional area with @entity10 severity, sex, and body mass index. METHODS: Both symptomatic and contralateral asymptomatic greater occipital nerve cross-sectional areas and circumferences were measured by a single examiner using sonography in 17 @entity1 . The Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman rank order correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Significant differences between the cross-sectional areas and circumferences of the symptomatic and asymptomatic greater occipital nerves were noted (P < .001). No difference existed in cross-sectional area (P = .40) or circumference (P = .10) measurements of the nerves between male and female @entity1 . A significant correlation existed between the body mass index and symptomatic (r = 0.424; P = .045) and asymptomatic (r = 0.443; P = .037) cross-sectional areas. There was no correlation shown between the cross-sectional area of the symptomatic nerve and the severity of @entity10 Impact Test 6 scores (r = -0.342; P = .179). CONCLUSIONS: We report sonographic evidence showing an increased cross-sectional area and circumference of the symptomatic greater occipital nerve in @entity1 with @entity9 .
Sonographic evaluation of the greater occipital nerve in XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity10 :: ('MESH:D006261', 'Disease') :: ['headache', 'Headache']", "@entity9 :: ('MESH:D009437', 'Disease') :: ['Occipital neuralgia', 'unilateral occipital neuralgia']" ]
@entity9 :: (MESH:D009437,Disease) :: ['unilateral occipital neuralgia']
Despite advancements in research made over the past decades, the prognosis of @entity11 remains dismal. Fas/ @entity12 ( @entity12 )-related immunotherapy may be regarded as a treatment of choice as it can induce the apoptosis of @entity11 cells, and has shown promising results in experimental studies. Over the years, @entity13 stem cells (BGSCs) have been accepted as the origin of @entity11 and determine their biological features. The theory of BGSCs has facilitated the study of @entity11 . In this study, we conducted a series of assays to culture BGSCs from clinical samples and determined the mRNA expression levels of Fas/ @entity12 in BGSCs. We also investigated the effects of Fas/ @entity12 -related immunotherapy on the apoptosis of @entity11 cells. BGSCs were grown from samples of 8 @entity1 suffering from @entity11 and identified by the assessment of biological characteristics and immunocytochemistry. Total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed into cDNA, and the expression levels of Fas/ @entity12 mRNA were determined by real-time RT-PCR, followed by statistical analysis. The results showed that the Fas and @entity12 mRNA expression levels in BGSCs were lower compared to those in primary @entity11 cells, which were statistically significant (P<0.001). These results indicate that immunotherapy involving Fas/ @entity12 may not eradicate the BGSCs, which would result in the relapse of @entity11 . However, further research is required to investigate the mechanisms involved and define the prospect of Fas-involved immunotherapy against @entity11 .
Expression levels of Fas/ @entity12 mRNA in @entity1 XXXX stem cells.
[ "@entity11 :: ('MESH:D005910', 'Disease') :: ['cultured glioma', 'glioma', 'gliomas']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity12 :: ('356', 'Gene') :: ['Fas-L', 'Fas ligand']", "@entity13 :: ('MESH:C564230', 'Disease') :: ['brain glioma']" ]
@entity13 :: (MESH:C564230,Disease) :: ['brain glioma']
Despite advancements in research made over the past decades, the prognosis of @entity11 remains dismal. Fas/ @entity12 ( @entity12 )-related immunotherapy may be regarded as a treatment of choice as it can induce the apoptosis of @entity11 cells, and has shown promising results in experimental studies. Over the years, @entity13 stem cells (BGSCs) have been accepted as the origin of @entity11 and determine their biological features. The theory of BGSCs has facilitated the study of @entity11 . In this study, we conducted a series of assays to culture BGSCs from clinical samples and determined the mRNA expression levels of Fas/ @entity12 in BGSCs. We also investigated the effects of Fas/ @entity12 -related immunotherapy on the apoptosis of @entity11 cells. BGSCs were grown from samples of 8 @entity1 suffering from @entity11 and identified by the assessment of biological characteristics and immunocytochemistry. Total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed into cDNA, and the expression levels of Fas/ @entity12 mRNA were determined by real-time RT-PCR, followed by statistical analysis. The results showed that the Fas and @entity12 mRNA expression levels in BGSCs were lower compared to those in primary @entity11 cells, which were statistically significant (P<0.001). These results indicate that immunotherapy involving Fas/ @entity12 may not eradicate the BGSCs, which would result in the relapse of @entity11 . However, further research is required to investigate the mechanisms involved and define the prospect of Fas-involved immunotherapy against @entity11 .
Expression levels of Fas/ XXXX mRNA in @entity1 @entity13 stem cells.
[ "@entity11 :: ('MESH:D005910', 'Disease') :: ['cultured glioma', 'glioma', 'gliomas']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity12 :: ('356', 'Gene') :: ['Fas-L', 'Fas ligand']", "@entity13 :: ('MESH:C564230', 'Disease') :: ['brain glioma']" ]
@entity12 :: (356,Gene) :: ['Fas-L']
Despite advancements in research made over the past decades, the prognosis of @entity11 remains dismal. Fas/ @entity12 ( @entity12 )-related immunotherapy may be regarded as a treatment of choice as it can induce the apoptosis of @entity11 cells, and has shown promising results in experimental studies. Over the years, @entity13 stem cells (BGSCs) have been accepted as the origin of @entity11 and determine their biological features. The theory of BGSCs has facilitated the study of @entity11 . In this study, we conducted a series of assays to culture BGSCs from clinical samples and determined the mRNA expression levels of Fas/ @entity12 in BGSCs. We also investigated the effects of Fas/ @entity12 -related immunotherapy on the apoptosis of @entity11 cells. BGSCs were grown from samples of 8 @entity1 suffering from @entity11 and identified by the assessment of biological characteristics and immunocytochemistry. Total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed into cDNA, and the expression levels of Fas/ @entity12 mRNA were determined by real-time RT-PCR, followed by statistical analysis. The results showed that the Fas and @entity12 mRNA expression levels in BGSCs were lower compared to those in primary @entity11 cells, which were statistically significant (P<0.001). These results indicate that immunotherapy involving Fas/ @entity12 may not eradicate the BGSCs, which would result in the relapse of @entity11 . However, further research is required to investigate the mechanisms involved and define the prospect of Fas-involved immunotherapy against @entity11 .
Expression levels of Fas/ @entity12 mRNA in XXXX @entity13 stem cells.
[ "@entity11 :: ('MESH:D005910', 'Disease') :: ['cultured glioma', 'glioma', 'gliomas']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity12 :: ('356', 'Gene') :: ['Fas-L', 'Fas ligand']", "@entity13 :: ('MESH:C564230', 'Disease') :: ['brain glioma']" ]
@entity1 :: (9606,Species) :: ['human']
BACKGROUND: Adults with physical disabilities are less likely than others to receive @entity5 screening. It is not known, however, whether commonly used measures assess elements of physical ability necessary for successful screening. The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether @entity1 who reported limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental ADLs (IADLs) are perceived by their primary care clinicians to have physical limitations that may impede @entity5 screening. METHODS: @entity1 at 2 rural primary care clinics were surveyed about ADLs and IADLs and about their up-to-date status for breast, cervical, and/or @entity14 screening. Clinicians and office staff were asked whether they believed each @entity1 had a physical limitation that might impede screening. The agreement between @entity1 and clinician assessments was evaluated. RESULTS: Clinicians believed that 43% of @entity1 with severe disability (ADLs) and 30% of @entity1 with moderate disability (IADLs) had limitations that might affect screening. Agreement between @entity1 and clinician assessments was low according to the kappa statistic (k = 0.355), but had a high percentage of negative agreement (92.3%) and a low percentage of positive agreement (42.7%). @entity1 with ADL/IADL-related disability were less likely than nondisabled @entity1 to be current for cervical and @entity0 screening. @entity1 who were viewed by clinicians as having limitations relevant for screening were less likely to be current for cervical @entity5 screening. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a common measure of general disability may not capture all factors relevant for @entity5 screening. An instrument designed to include these factors may help identify and accommodate @entity1 who have disabilities that may impede screening.
Does a standard measure of self-reported physical disability correlate with clinician perception of impairment related to XXXX screening?
[ "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['cancer']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients', 'patient']", "@entity0 :: ('MESH:D001943', 'Disease') :: ['breast cancer']", "@entity14 :: ('MESH:D015179', 'Disease') :: ['colorectal cancer']" ]
@entity5 :: (MESH:D009369,Disease) :: ['cancer']
The majority of @entity15 fail to remyelinate after chronic demyelinating episodes resulting in @entity16 . In the current study, chronic @entity17 was investigated by using the @entity18 model, a toxic @entity17 model. C57BL/6 @entity19 were administered a 0.2% @entity18 diet up to 16 weeks to induce chronic @entity17 . For comparison, another group was maintained only for 6 weeks on @entity18 to model acute @entity17 . Both groups were analysed regarding the remyelination process after withdrawal of the toxin. Reexpression of myelin proteins after chronic @entity17 was reduced by a factor of two as judged by LFB and myelin protein stainings compared to acute @entity17 after 2 weeks on remyelination. During chronic @entity17 mature oligodendrocytes ( @entity20 positive cells) were severely depleted by 90% compared to age matched controls. Nevertheless, extensive remyelination occurred after withdrawal of @entity18 and was nearly complete after 12 weeks. There was only minimal @entity21 as judged by APP staining, with the course of APP positive axons correlating with macrophage/microglia accumulation. Chronic @entity21 detected by SMI-32 positive staining was only seen after chronic @entity17 and was still observable during the whole remyelination period. These data suggest that two pattern of @entity21 occur in the @entity18 model.
Chronic toxic demyelination in the central nervous system leads to XXXX despite remyelination.
[ "@entity17 :: ('MESH:D003711', 'Disease') :: ['demyelination']", "@entity20 :: ('68585(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Nogo-A']", "@entity19 :: ('10090', 'Species') :: ['mice']", "@entity16 :: ('MESH:D009422', 'Disease') :: ['neurologic disability']", "@entity18 :: ('MESH:D003471', 'Chemical') :: ['cuprizone']", "@entity21 :: ('MESH:D001480', 'Disease') :: ['acute axonal damage', 'axonal injury', 'axonal damage']", "@entity15 :: ('MESH:D009103', 'Disease') :: ['multiple sclerosis lesions']" ]
@entity21 :: (MESH:D001480,Disease) :: ['axonal damage']
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of intensive sleep retraining in comparison and combination with traditional behavioral intervention for chronic @entity22 . @entity1 : Seventy-nine volunteers with @entity22 (with or without sleep maintenance difficulties) were randomly assigned either to intensive sleep retraining (ISR), @entity23 ( @entity23 ), ISR plus @entity23 , or the control (sleep hygiene) treatment condition. INTERVENTION: ISR treatment consisted of 50 sleep onset trials over a 25-h sleep deprivation period. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Treatment response was assessed with sleep diary, activity monitoring, and questionnaire measures. The active treatment groups (ISR, @entity23 , ISR+ @entity23 ) all resulted in significant improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency, with moderate to large effect sizes from pre- to post-treatment. Wake time after sleep onset decreased significantly in the @entity23 and ISR+ @entity23 groups. Total sleep time increased significantly in the ISR and ISR+ @entity23 treatment groups. @entity1 receiving ISR (ISR, ISR+ @entity23 ) experienced rapidly improved SOL and @entity24 during treatment, suggesting an advantage of rapid improvements in sleep in response to ISR. Although there were few statistically significant differences between groups on individual variables, ISR+ @entity23 resulted in consistently larger effect sizes of change than other treatments, including questionnaire measures of @entity25 , sleep self-efficacy, and daytime functioning. The combination treatment group (ISR+ @entity23 ) showed trends to outperform other active treatment groups with fewer treatment dropouts, and a greater proportion of treatment responders with 61% reaching " @entity25 " status. Treatment gains achieved at post-treatment in the active treatment groups were largely maintained throughout follow-up periods to 6 months. CONCLUSION: This 25-hour intensive conditioning treatment for @entity22 can produce rapid improvements in sleep, daytime functioning, and psychological variables. Adding ISR to traditional interventions seems to result in a superior treatment response.
A randomized controlled trial of intensive sleep retraining (ISR): a brief conditioning treatment for XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Participants', 'PARTICIPANTS']", "@entity23 :: ('MESH:D007174', 'Disease') :: ['SCT', 'stimulus control therapy']", "@entity24 :: ('7263', 'Gene') :: ['TST']", "@entity25 :: ('MESH:D012893', 'Disease') :: ['good sleeper', 'sleep quality']", "@entity22 :: ('MESH:D007319', 'Disease') :: ['primary insomnia', 'chronic insomnia', 'chronic sleep-onset insomnia']" ]
@entity22 :: (MESH:D007319,Disease) :: ['chronic insomnia']
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between @entity26 desaturation index (ODI), body mass index (BMI), and @entity27 index (AHI) in a large sleep clinic population. DESIGN: Retrospective observational. SETTING: @entity25 clinic. @entity1 OR @entity1 : 11,448 individuals undergoing diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) at a @entity25 clinic. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Polysomnography were scored using Chicago criteria. ODI at 2%, 3%, and 4% threshold levels were derived. The study population was subdivided into BMI categories in steps of 5 kg/m(2). Mean ODI and the accuracy of ODI for detecting an AHI >= 15 (moderate-severe OSA) or >= 30 (severe OSA) were examined by BMI category, using the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for the 3 ODI thresholds. Based on AUC, ODI-3% performed best overall, achieving a significantly higher AUC than ODI-2% and ODI-4% for the diagnosis of moderate-severe OSA, and a higher AUC than ODI-2% for the diagnosis of severe OSA. When examining the effect of BMI, ODI-3% achieved a significantly higher AUC than ODI-2% in all BMI categories, and ODI-4% in non- @entity28 subjects. The sensitivity of ODI for detecting OSA increased with BMI, while specificity decreased. CONCLUSIONS: ODI-3% performed best overall, and when combined with appropriate clinical assessment, could be considered as an initial diagnostic test for OSA. OSA is more frequently associated with @entity26 desaturation in @entity28 subjects. BMI influences the accuracy of ODI for the diagnosis of OSA, and ODI should not be used in isolation as a test for OSA in subjects with a BMI below 25kg/m(2).
Interrelationships between body mass, XXXX desaturation, and @entity27 indices in a sleep clinic population.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['PATIENTS', 'PARTICIPANTS']", "@entity28 :: ('MESH:D009765', 'Disease') :: ['obese']", "@entity26 :: ('MESH:D010100', 'Chemical') :: ['oxygen']", "@entity27 :: ('MESH:D020181', 'Disease') :: ['apnea-hypopnea']", "@entity25 :: ('MESH:D012893', 'Disease') :: ['Sleep disorders', 'sleep disorders']" ]
@entity26 :: (MESH:D010100,Chemical) :: ['oxygen']
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between @entity26 desaturation index (ODI), body mass index (BMI), and @entity27 index (AHI) in a large sleep clinic population. DESIGN: Retrospective observational. SETTING: @entity25 clinic. @entity1 OR @entity1 : 11,448 individuals undergoing diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) at a @entity25 clinic. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Polysomnography were scored using Chicago criteria. ODI at 2%, 3%, and 4% threshold levels were derived. The study population was subdivided into BMI categories in steps of 5 kg/m(2). Mean ODI and the accuracy of ODI for detecting an AHI >= 15 (moderate-severe OSA) or >= 30 (severe OSA) were examined by BMI category, using the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for the 3 ODI thresholds. Based on AUC, ODI-3% performed best overall, achieving a significantly higher AUC than ODI-2% and ODI-4% for the diagnosis of moderate-severe OSA, and a higher AUC than ODI-2% for the diagnosis of severe OSA. When examining the effect of BMI, ODI-3% achieved a significantly higher AUC than ODI-2% in all BMI categories, and ODI-4% in non- @entity28 subjects. The sensitivity of ODI for detecting OSA increased with BMI, while specificity decreased. CONCLUSIONS: ODI-3% performed best overall, and when combined with appropriate clinical assessment, could be considered as an initial diagnostic test for OSA. OSA is more frequently associated with @entity26 desaturation in @entity28 subjects. BMI influences the accuracy of ODI for the diagnosis of OSA, and ODI should not be used in isolation as a test for OSA in subjects with a BMI below 25kg/m(2).
Interrelationships between body mass, @entity26 desaturation, and XXXX indices in a sleep clinic population.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['PATIENTS', 'PARTICIPANTS']", "@entity28 :: ('MESH:D009765', 'Disease') :: ['obese']", "@entity26 :: ('MESH:D010100', 'Chemical') :: ['oxygen']", "@entity27 :: ('MESH:D020181', 'Disease') :: ['apnea-hypopnea']", "@entity25 :: ('MESH:D012893', 'Disease') :: ['Sleep disorders', 'sleep disorders']" ]
@entity27 :: (MESH:D020181,Disease) :: ['apnea-hypopnea']
AIM: To study the response to infliximab in pediatric @entity29 ( @entity29 ), as reflected in fecal calprotectin levels. METHODS: Thirty-six pediatric @entity1 with @entity29 [23 @entity30 ( @entity30 ), 13 @entity31 ( @entity31 ); median age 14 years] were treated with infliximab. Fecal calprotectin was measured at baseline, and 2 and 6 wk after therapy, and compared to blood inflammatory markers. Maintenance medication was unaltered until the third infusion but glucocorticoids were tapered off if the @entity1 was doing well. RESULTS: At introduction of infliximab, median fecal calprotectin level was 1150 g/g (range 54-6032 g/g). By week 2, the fecal calprotectin level had declined to a median 261 g/g (P < 0.001). In 37% of the @entity1 , fecal calprotectin was normal (< 100 g/g) at 2 wk. By week 6, there was no additional improvement in the fecal calprotectin level (median 345 g/g). In 22% of the @entity1 , fecal calprotectin levels increased by week 6 to pretreatment levels or above, suggesting no response (or a loss of early response). Thus, in @entity30 , the proportion of non-responsive @entity1 by week 6 seemed lower, because only 9% showed no improvement in their fecal calprotectin level when compared to the respective figure of 46% of the @entity31 @entity1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: When treated with infliximab, fecal calprotectin levels reflecting intestinal @entity32 normalized rapidly in one third of pediatric @entity1 suggesting complete @entity33 .
Infliximab in pediatric XXXX rapidly decreases fecal calprotectin levels.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'patient']", "@entity32 :: ('MESH:D007249', 'Disease') :: ['inflammation']", "@entity31 :: ('MESH:D003093', 'Disease') :: ['ulcerative colitis', 'UC']", "@entity33 :: ('MESH:D052016', 'Disease') :: ['mucosal healing']", "@entity29 :: ('MESH:D015212', 'Disease') :: ['inflammatory bowel disease', 'IBD']", "@entity30 :: ('MESH:D003424', 'Disease') :: ['CD', \"Crohn's disease\"]" ]
@entity29 :: (MESH:D015212,Disease) :: ['inflammatory bowel disease']
OBJECT: The usefulness of @entity34 ( @entity34 ) as a local therapy for @entity11 was evaluated by investigating histological changes in a @entity35 @entity36 model treated with a combination of @entity37 , a water-soluble photosensitizer derived from @entity38 and exposure to a diode laser. METHODS: @entity11 cells (C6) at the confluence stage were transplanted stereotactically into the right frontal lobe of SD @entity35 . Five days later, the @entity35 underwent right frontal craniotomy and intravenous administration of @entity37 . One hour after @entity37 administration, each @entity35 was irradiated by a 664 nm diode laser beam. The brain was removed 1, 3 or 6h after laser irradiation for histological examination of @entity5 -affected brain tissue and surrounding normal brain tissue. RESULTS: In addition to the @entity5 mass, @entity5 cells invading surrounding @entity4 brain tissue were seen in untreated @entity35 , ranging from the brain surface to a depth of 2mm. One hour after @entity34 , @entity39 as well as disappearance of indication of cell viability such as disappearance of @entity5 cell processes and foamy changes of cytoplasm were noted in the @entity5 tissue at a depth of 0.5mm, accompanied by reduction of cytoplasmic @entity40 ( @entity40 ) expression and appearance of granular M30 cytodeath positivity. Three hours later, the cytoplasm of the @entity41 cells showed disappearance of @entity40 expression and increased expression of M30 cytodeath. Six hours later, the foamy cytoplasm of swollen @entity5 cells demonstrated strong positivity for M30 cytodeath. CONCLUSION: @entity34 using @entity37 induced @entity39 and apoptosis in @entity35 with @entity36 .
Photodynamic therapy of C6-implanted @entity11 cells in the @entity35 brain employing second-generation photosensitizer XXXX .
[ "@entity41 :: ('MESH:D018365', 'Disease') :: ['residual tumor']", "@entity39 :: ('MESH:D009336', 'Disease') :: ['coagulation necrosis']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor']", "@entity4 :: ('MESH:D004487', 'Disease') :: ['edematous']", "@entity36 :: ('MESH:C567307', 'Disease') :: ['C6 glioma']", "@entity11 :: ('MESH:D005910', 'Disease') :: ['malignant glioma', 'Glioma']", "@entity40 :: ('24387(Tax:10116)', 'Gene') :: ['glial fibrillary acidic protein', 'GFAP']", "@entity35 :: ('10116', 'Species') :: ['rat', 'rats']", "@entity37 :: ('MESH:C053434', 'Chemical') :: ['talaporfin sodium']", "@entity38 :: ('MESH:D002734', 'Chemical') :: ['chlorophyll']", "@entity34 :: ('MESH:D016609', 'Disease') :: ['photodynamic therapy', 'PDT']" ]
@entity37 :: (MESH:C053434,Chemical) :: ['talaporfin sodium']
OBJECT: The usefulness of @entity34 ( @entity34 ) as a local therapy for @entity11 was evaluated by investigating histological changes in a @entity35 @entity36 model treated with a combination of @entity37 , a water-soluble photosensitizer derived from @entity38 and exposure to a diode laser. METHODS: @entity11 cells (C6) at the confluence stage were transplanted stereotactically into the right frontal lobe of SD @entity35 . Five days later, the @entity35 underwent right frontal craniotomy and intravenous administration of @entity37 . One hour after @entity37 administration, each @entity35 was irradiated by a 664 nm diode laser beam. The brain was removed 1, 3 or 6h after laser irradiation for histological examination of @entity5 -affected brain tissue and surrounding normal brain tissue. RESULTS: In addition to the @entity5 mass, @entity5 cells invading surrounding @entity4 brain tissue were seen in untreated @entity35 , ranging from the brain surface to a depth of 2mm. One hour after @entity34 , @entity39 as well as disappearance of indication of cell viability such as disappearance of @entity5 cell processes and foamy changes of cytoplasm were noted in the @entity5 tissue at a depth of 0.5mm, accompanied by reduction of cytoplasmic @entity40 ( @entity40 ) expression and appearance of granular M30 cytodeath positivity. Three hours later, the cytoplasm of the @entity41 cells showed disappearance of @entity40 expression and increased expression of M30 cytodeath. Six hours later, the foamy cytoplasm of swollen @entity5 cells demonstrated strong positivity for M30 cytodeath. CONCLUSION: @entity34 using @entity37 induced @entity39 and apoptosis in @entity35 with @entity36 .
Photodynamic therapy of C6-implanted XXXX cells in the @entity35 brain employing second-generation photosensitizer @entity37 .
[ "@entity41 :: ('MESH:D018365', 'Disease') :: ['residual tumor']", "@entity39 :: ('MESH:D009336', 'Disease') :: ['coagulation necrosis']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor']", "@entity4 :: ('MESH:D004487', 'Disease') :: ['edematous']", "@entity36 :: ('MESH:C567307', 'Disease') :: ['C6 glioma']", "@entity11 :: ('MESH:D005910', 'Disease') :: ['malignant glioma', 'Glioma']", "@entity40 :: ('24387(Tax:10116)', 'Gene') :: ['glial fibrillary acidic protein', 'GFAP']", "@entity35 :: ('10116', 'Species') :: ['rat', 'rats']", "@entity37 :: ('MESH:C053434', 'Chemical') :: ['talaporfin sodium']", "@entity38 :: ('MESH:D002734', 'Chemical') :: ['chlorophyll']", "@entity34 :: ('MESH:D016609', 'Disease') :: ['photodynamic therapy', 'PDT']" ]
@entity11 :: (MESH:D005910,Disease) :: ['glioma']
OBJECT: The usefulness of @entity34 ( @entity34 ) as a local therapy for @entity11 was evaluated by investigating histological changes in a @entity35 @entity36 model treated with a combination of @entity37 , a water-soluble photosensitizer derived from @entity38 and exposure to a diode laser. METHODS: @entity11 cells (C6) at the confluence stage were transplanted stereotactically into the right frontal lobe of SD @entity35 . Five days later, the @entity35 underwent right frontal craniotomy and intravenous administration of @entity37 . One hour after @entity37 administration, each @entity35 was irradiated by a 664 nm diode laser beam. The brain was removed 1, 3 or 6h after laser irradiation for histological examination of @entity5 -affected brain tissue and surrounding normal brain tissue. RESULTS: In addition to the @entity5 mass, @entity5 cells invading surrounding @entity4 brain tissue were seen in untreated @entity35 , ranging from the brain surface to a depth of 2mm. One hour after @entity34 , @entity39 as well as disappearance of indication of cell viability such as disappearance of @entity5 cell processes and foamy changes of cytoplasm were noted in the @entity5 tissue at a depth of 0.5mm, accompanied by reduction of cytoplasmic @entity40 ( @entity40 ) expression and appearance of granular M30 cytodeath positivity. Three hours later, the cytoplasm of the @entity41 cells showed disappearance of @entity40 expression and increased expression of M30 cytodeath. Six hours later, the foamy cytoplasm of swollen @entity5 cells demonstrated strong positivity for M30 cytodeath. CONCLUSION: @entity34 using @entity37 induced @entity39 and apoptosis in @entity35 with @entity36 .
Photodynamic therapy of C6-implanted @entity11 cells in the XXXX brain employing second-generation photosensitizer @entity37 .
[ "@entity41 :: ('MESH:D018365', 'Disease') :: ['residual tumor']", "@entity39 :: ('MESH:D009336', 'Disease') :: ['coagulation necrosis']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor']", "@entity4 :: ('MESH:D004487', 'Disease') :: ['edematous']", "@entity36 :: ('MESH:C567307', 'Disease') :: ['C6 glioma']", "@entity11 :: ('MESH:D005910', 'Disease') :: ['malignant glioma', 'Glioma']", "@entity40 :: ('24387(Tax:10116)', 'Gene') :: ['glial fibrillary acidic protein', 'GFAP']", "@entity35 :: ('10116', 'Species') :: ['rat', 'rats']", "@entity37 :: ('MESH:C053434', 'Chemical') :: ['talaporfin sodium']", "@entity38 :: ('MESH:D002734', 'Chemical') :: ['chlorophyll']", "@entity34 :: ('MESH:D016609', 'Disease') :: ['photodynamic therapy', 'PDT']" ]
@entity35 :: (10116,Species) :: ['rat']
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility and the accuracy of B-mode ultrasonographic features of three different kinds of benign @entity42 : @entity43 , @entity44 , and @entity45 . METHODS: Digitally stored B-mode sonographic images of 98 @entity1 submitted to surgery for the presence of an adnexal mass were evaluated by five different examiners with different degrees of experience. The histological type of each mass was predicted on the basis of the B-mode typical benign findings, as in the case of @entity46 (groundglass endocystic pattern), @entity44 (echogenic pattern with or without acoustic shadow), and @entity45 ( @entity45 without @entity47 ). To assess the reproducibility of the B-mode findings, intraobserver and interobserver agreements were calculated using the kappa index. RESULTS: The intraobserver agreement was good or very good for all examiners and for all patterns (kappa = 0.71-1) except for the @entity48 , which showed moderate agreement (kappa = 0.42) for the highly experienced operator. The interobserver agreement was good for all experts for @entity46 (kappa = 0.66-0.78) and for @entity45 (kappa = 0.82-1), whereas it was moderate or good for @entity44 (kappa = 0.51-0.72). Interobserver agreement between experts and highly experienced operators was fair (kappa = 0.33-0.36) for @entity44 and good or very good for @entity46 (kappa = 0.70-0.83) and @entity45 (kappa = 0.76-0.82). For different kinds of cysts, the accuracy was comparable among different operators. CONCLUSIONS: Typical features of benign masses using grayscale transvaginal ultrasonography are reproducible even in moderately experienced examiners, although more experience was associated with better interobserver agreement. The diagnostic performance of different operators with different degrees of experience is similar.
Diagnosis of the most frequent benign XXXX : is ultrasonography accurate and reproducible?
[ "@entity43 :: ('MESH:D010051', 'Disease') :: ['ovarian endometrioma']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['women']", "@entity48 :: ('MESH:D003884', 'Disease') :: ['dermoid cyst']", "@entity42 :: ('MESH:D010048', 'Disease') :: ['ovarian cysts']", "@entity46 :: ('MESH:D004715', 'Disease') :: ['endometrioma']", "@entity45 :: ('MESH:D010181', 'Disease') :: ['anechoic cyst', 'serous cyst']", "@entity47 :: ('MESH:D018458', 'Disease') :: ['endocystic vegetations']", "@entity44 :: ('MESH:D013724', 'Disease') :: ['cystic teratoma', 'mature teratoma', 'teratoma']" ]
@entity42 :: (MESH:D010048,Disease) :: ['ovarian cysts']
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: @entity49 is a rare entity that can be difficult to manage. Most @entity1 with @entity50 recover after treatment with heparin, but a subgroup of severe @entity50 has a poor prognosis. Those @entity1 may benefit from intrasinus thrombolysis. The purpose of this research was to carry out a retrospective analysis of @entity1 with severe @entity50 , and to study the safety and efficacy of intrasinus thrombolysis in @entity1 with @entity50 unresponsive to conventional heparin therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven @entity1 with @entity50 who received intrasinus thrombolysis during a 3-year period (January 2007 to December 2009) were included in this study. Urokinase was infused into the sinus via a microcatheter. Data regarding demographic, clinical, and radiologic features were collected. Follow-up data were obtained at 6 months. MRV was repeated to assess the recanalization of the venous sinus. RESULTS: Twenty-seven @entity1 (73%) had good outcome and 7 @entity1 (19%) who were independent for activities of daily life had only mild deficits. One @entity1 survived with severe @entity51 and 2 @entity1 died. Complete recanalization of the superior sagittal sinus was seen in 35 @entity1 (97%). At a follow-up of 6 months, 34 @entity1 (92%) were either asymptomatic or had only minor subjective symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Intrasinus thrombolysis is safe and effective in @entity1 with severe @entity50 . However, the subgroup of @entity1 that is likely to benefit the most from this procedure is not clear from our data. Large randomized controlled trials are required to further clarify this issue.
Local thrombolysis for severe XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'patient']", "@entity51 :: ('MESH:D009461', 'Disease') :: ['neurologic deficits']", "@entity50 :: ('MESH:D012851', 'Disease') :: ['cerebral venous sinus thrombosis', 'cerebral sinus thrombosis']", "@entity49 :: ('MESH:D019851', 'Disease') :: ['Cerebral venous thrombosis']" ]
@entity50 :: (MESH:D012851,Disease) :: ['cerebral venous sinus thrombosis']
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the strategies used to decrease the risk of @entity43 ( @entity43 ) and their impact on pregnancy and live birth rates. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: University hospital. @entity1 (S): One hundred eighty-eight @entity1 undergoing fresh @entity52 ( @entity52 ) cycles between 2000 and 2004, with peak serum @entity53 levels >2500 pg/mL and presumed to be at risk for @entity43 . INTERVENTION(S): Coasting and elective embryo cryopreservation were evaluated for their effect on @entity43 and live birth rates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pregnancy, live birth rates, and @entity43 incidence. RESULT(S): Out of 188 @entity1 at risk for @entity43 , 21 @entity1 had their cycles coasted (group 1), and elective embryo cryopreservation was performed in 32 @entity1 (group 2). In 135 @entity1 with no other risk factors, ovulation was triggered with @entity1 chorionic gonadotropin and embryo transfer was performed (group 3). The incidence in our @entity52 population was 38 out of 1002 (3.8%). The overall incidence of @entity43 for those who had an @entity53 level >2500 pg/mL was 20.2% (38 out of 188), and none of the @entity1 in group 1 developed @entity43 ; 13 out of 32 @entity1 in group 2 (40.6%) and 25 out of 135 (18.5%) @entity1 in group 3 developed @entity43 . The live birth rate was 38%, 40%, and 45% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and the cumulative live birth rate was 52%, 75%, and 59%, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Elective cryopreservation of embryos with subsequent frozen embryo transfer and coasting are effective ways of maximizing pregnancy and limiting severe @entity43 .
XXXX : steps to maximize success and minimize effect for assisted reproductive outcome.
[ "@entity43 :: ('MESH:D010051', 'Disease') :: ['ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome', 'OHSS']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['human', 'patients', 'PATIENT']", "@entity52 :: ('MESH:C566179', 'Disease') :: ['IVF', 'in vitro fertilization']", "@entity53 :: ('MESH:D004958', 'Chemical') :: ['estradiol']" ]
@entity43 :: (MESH:D010051,Disease) :: ['Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome']
BACKGROUND: Exposure to @entity54 allergens results in enhanced total serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophils in @entity19 . The associated @entity55 and immunologic responses are comparable to those detected in @entity1 @entity56 @entity57 . Allergen-induced cytokines are thought to regulate the inflammatory and immune responses in these animals. METHODS: In the present study, we exposed C57BL/6 and BALB/c @entity19 to A. fumigatus antigen. Both wild-type and @entity58 knockout phenotypes of animals of both strains were used. Some animals were also treated with anti- @entity59 or anti- @entity60 . Total serum IgE, @entity54 species IgG subclass, peripheral blood eosinophils, and lung histology were studied. RESULTS: The results demonstrate @entity55 in all wild-type and @entity58 -/- animals exposed to A. fumigatus antigen. Similarly, in spite of the diverse immune response produced by the anticytokine treatment, no major differences were detected among any of the animal groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that A. fumigatus exposure in an immunologically unaltered host is predominantly of a @entity61 type, and that depletion of the @entity61 cytokine leads to a @entity55 but with a characteristic Th1 response, suggesting that the pathogenesis of @entity56 is the result of multiple induction pathways.
Immune responses to XXXX antigen in @entity58 -/- @entity19 and the effect of eosinophil ablation.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['human']", "@entity57 :: ('MESH:D055732', 'Disease') :: ['bronchopulmonary aspergillosis']", "@entity59 :: ('16191(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IL-5']", "@entity55 :: ('MESH:D011014', 'Disease') :: ['pulmonary inflammation', 'similar lung inflammation']", "@entity19 :: ('10090', 'Species') :: ['mice']", "@entity60 :: ('15978(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IFN-gamma']", "@entity61 :: ('15111(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Th2']", "@entity54 :: ('746128', 'Species') :: ['Aspergillus fumigatus', 'Aspergillus']", "@entity56 :: ('MESH:D004342', 'Disease') :: ['allergic aspergillosis', 'allergic']", "@entity58 :: ('16189(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IL-4']" ]
@entity54 :: (746128,Species) :: ['Aspergillus']
BACKGROUND: Exposure to @entity54 allergens results in enhanced total serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophils in @entity19 . The associated @entity55 and immunologic responses are comparable to those detected in @entity1 @entity56 @entity57 . Allergen-induced cytokines are thought to regulate the inflammatory and immune responses in these animals. METHODS: In the present study, we exposed C57BL/6 and BALB/c @entity19 to A. fumigatus antigen. Both wild-type and @entity58 knockout phenotypes of animals of both strains were used. Some animals were also treated with anti- @entity59 or anti- @entity60 . Total serum IgE, @entity54 species IgG subclass, peripheral blood eosinophils, and lung histology were studied. RESULTS: The results demonstrate @entity55 in all wild-type and @entity58 -/- animals exposed to A. fumigatus antigen. Similarly, in spite of the diverse immune response produced by the anticytokine treatment, no major differences were detected among any of the animal groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that A. fumigatus exposure in an immunologically unaltered host is predominantly of a @entity61 type, and that depletion of the @entity61 cytokine leads to a @entity55 but with a characteristic Th1 response, suggesting that the pathogenesis of @entity56 is the result of multiple induction pathways.
Immune responses to @entity54 antigen in XXXX -/- @entity19 and the effect of eosinophil ablation.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['human']", "@entity57 :: ('MESH:D055732', 'Disease') :: ['bronchopulmonary aspergillosis']", "@entity59 :: ('16191(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IL-5']", "@entity55 :: ('MESH:D011014', 'Disease') :: ['pulmonary inflammation', 'similar lung inflammation']", "@entity19 :: ('10090', 'Species') :: ['mice']", "@entity60 :: ('15978(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IFN-gamma']", "@entity61 :: ('15111(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Th2']", "@entity54 :: ('746128', 'Species') :: ['Aspergillus fumigatus', 'Aspergillus']", "@entity56 :: ('MESH:D004342', 'Disease') :: ['allergic aspergillosis', 'allergic']", "@entity58 :: ('16189(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IL-4']" ]
@entity58 :: (16189(Tax:10090),Gene) :: ['IL-4']
BACKGROUND: Exposure to @entity54 allergens results in enhanced total serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophils in @entity19 . The associated @entity55 and immunologic responses are comparable to those detected in @entity1 @entity56 @entity57 . Allergen-induced cytokines are thought to regulate the inflammatory and immune responses in these animals. METHODS: In the present study, we exposed C57BL/6 and BALB/c @entity19 to A. fumigatus antigen. Both wild-type and @entity58 knockout phenotypes of animals of both strains were used. Some animals were also treated with anti- @entity59 or anti- @entity60 . Total serum IgE, @entity54 species IgG subclass, peripheral blood eosinophils, and lung histology were studied. RESULTS: The results demonstrate @entity55 in all wild-type and @entity58 -/- animals exposed to A. fumigatus antigen. Similarly, in spite of the diverse immune response produced by the anticytokine treatment, no major differences were detected among any of the animal groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that A. fumigatus exposure in an immunologically unaltered host is predominantly of a @entity61 type, and that depletion of the @entity61 cytokine leads to a @entity55 but with a characteristic Th1 response, suggesting that the pathogenesis of @entity56 is the result of multiple induction pathways.
Immune responses to @entity54 antigen in @entity58 -/- XXXX and the effect of eosinophil ablation.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['human']", "@entity57 :: ('MESH:D055732', 'Disease') :: ['bronchopulmonary aspergillosis']", "@entity59 :: ('16191(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IL-5']", "@entity55 :: ('MESH:D011014', 'Disease') :: ['pulmonary inflammation', 'similar lung inflammation']", "@entity19 :: ('10090', 'Species') :: ['mice']", "@entity60 :: ('15978(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IFN-gamma']", "@entity61 :: ('15111(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Th2']", "@entity54 :: ('746128', 'Species') :: ['Aspergillus fumigatus', 'Aspergillus']", "@entity56 :: ('MESH:D004342', 'Disease') :: ['allergic aspergillosis', 'allergic']", "@entity58 :: ('16189(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['IL-4']" ]
@entity19 :: (10090,Species) :: ['mice']
Many research studies have demonstrated asymptomatic @entity62 ( @entity62 ) in older adults, which are postulated to be @entity63 in origin. We hypothesized that certain clinical predictors, measured in a population of healthy older adults, would have a positive relationship with WMH scoring on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As part of a longitudinal study of cognitive aging we have performed MRI on healthy older adults. In a group of 46 volunteers (25 females; median age 73, range 63-84 years), we have calculated of the Hachinski score and Framingham @entity64 Risk Profile (FSRP). Volunteers also provided self-reported health information using the Cornell Medical Index (CMI). These were compared against the total Age Related White Matter Changes (ARWMC) score. The mean total ARWMC score was 7.4 + or - 5.27 (+ or - S.D.) and only 3 (6.5%) individuals had no evidence of WMH. Regression analysis of individual variables identified self-report of @entity65 from the CMI, section C as the only significant predictor of ARWMC. A multivariate linear regression model also identified FSRP at 1 year as a second independently significant predictor. The multivariate model accounted for 19% of the variance in total ARWMC score. The only 6.5% of individuals who had no WMH is in keeping with previous studies. The important finding was the positive relationship with self-reported @entity65 , which is a possible biomarker of sub-clinical @entity66 ( @entity66 ).
Clinical correlates of XXXX in cognitively normal older adults.
[ "@entity64 :: ('MESH:D020521', 'Disease') :: ['Stroke']", "@entity66 :: ('MESH:D004194', 'Disease') :: ['CVD', 'cerebrovascular disease']", "@entity63 :: ('MESH:D007511', 'Disease') :: ['ischemic']", "@entity62 :: ('MESH:D056784', 'Disease') :: ['WMHs', 'white matter hyperintensities']", "@entity65 :: ('MESH:D002318', 'Disease') :: ['cardiovascular disease']" ]
@entity62 :: (MESH:D056784,Disease) :: ['cerebral white matter hyperintensities']
Left atrial (LA) volume reflects left ventricular (LV) diastolic properties. The latter is an important determinant of exercise capacity in @entity1 with normal LV systolic function. We hypothesized that LA volume predicts exercise capacity in @entity1 with isolated LV @entity67 . Echocardiography and treadmill exercise testing were performed in 256 @entity1 with normal LV systolic function (ejection fraction>= 50%). @entity67 was defined using standard Doppler criteria. LA volume was measured using the ellipsoid method and indexed to the body surface area. 119 @entity1 had LV @entity67 . They had higher indexed maximum LA volume (LA Vol(max), p=0.004) and lower exercise capacity (p<0.001). Univariate predictors of exercise capacity were age, mitral E/A, E wave deceleration time, ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/Ea), and indexed LA Vol(max). On multivariate analysis, only age, mitral E/A and indexed LA Vol(max) were independent predictors of exercise capacity. Notably, the combination of LV @entity67 and enlarged LA Vol(max) predicted worse exercise intolerance. In conclusion, indexed LA volume is an independent and reliable predictor of exercise capacity in @entity1 with isolated LV @entity67 .
Left atrial volume is an independent predictor of exercise capacity in XXXX with isolated left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity67 :: ('MESH:D018754', 'Disease') :: ['Diastolic dysfunction', 'diastolic dysfunction']" ]
@entity1 :: (9606,Species) :: ['patients']
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , total @entity68 binding capacity (TIBC), hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) @entity70 ( @entity70 ), and @entity70 ( @entity70 ) in @entity1 with @entity71 . METHODS: MethodsaaThe sample consisted of 48 @entity71 @entity1 and sex and age matched control @entity1 (a couple of 28 @entity1 , 22 @entity1 ; age 6-8 years; mean SD, 6.98 0.39). We diagnosed @entity71 according to DSM-IV. @entity71 symptoms were evaluated subjectively with Conners' Parent Rating Scales, Dupaul Parent @entity71 Rating Scales. Subjects with @entity71 and control were evaluated the hematology test including the @entity68 , @entity69 , MCV etc. Paired t test were used to evaluate the relation of a lot of hematology findings between @entity71 and control group. RESULTS: The serum @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , TIBC, hemoglobin, MCV, @entity70 , and @entity70 of @entity71 group were respectively 80.92 33.33 ug/dL, 35.81 16.59 ng/mL, 248.42 44.15 mg/dL, 351.69 102.13 ug/dL, 12.78 0.71 g/dL, 82.94 2.58 fL, 27.18 1.12 uug, 32.79 1.12%. Otherwise the serum @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , TIBC, hemoglobin, MCV, @entity70 , and @entity70 of control group were respectively 82.04 28.14 ug/dL, 37.05 18.28 ng/mL, 266.27 25.40 mg/dL, 352.77 89.54 ug/dL, 12.77 0.70 g/dL, 81.81 2.96 fL, 26.69 0.99 uug, 32.66 0.96%. A significant difference were found in the @entity69 (t=2.63, p=0.011), MCV (t=2.19, p=0.034), and @entity70 (t=2.18, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These results suggested that lower @entity69 levels might be related with @entity71 symptoms.
@entity69 in korean @entity1 with XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['children', 'boys', 'girls']", "@entity71 :: ('MESH:D001289', 'Disease') :: ['ADHD']", "@entity69 :: ('7018', 'Gene') :: ['transferrin']", "@entity70 :: ('MESH:D006445', 'Disease') :: ['MCHC', 'mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration', 'mean corpuscular hemoglobin', 'MCH']", "@entity68 :: ('MESH:D007501', 'Chemical') :: ['iron']" ]
@entity71 :: (MESH:D001289,Disease) :: ['attention deficit hyperactivity disorder']
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , total @entity68 binding capacity (TIBC), hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) @entity70 ( @entity70 ), and @entity70 ( @entity70 ) in @entity1 with @entity71 . METHODS: MethodsaaThe sample consisted of 48 @entity71 @entity1 and sex and age matched control @entity1 (a couple of 28 @entity1 , 22 @entity1 ; age 6-8 years; mean SD, 6.98 0.39). We diagnosed @entity71 according to DSM-IV. @entity71 symptoms were evaluated subjectively with Conners' Parent Rating Scales, Dupaul Parent @entity71 Rating Scales. Subjects with @entity71 and control were evaluated the hematology test including the @entity68 , @entity69 , MCV etc. Paired t test were used to evaluate the relation of a lot of hematology findings between @entity71 and control group. RESULTS: The serum @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , TIBC, hemoglobin, MCV, @entity70 , and @entity70 of @entity71 group were respectively 80.92 33.33 ug/dL, 35.81 16.59 ng/mL, 248.42 44.15 mg/dL, 351.69 102.13 ug/dL, 12.78 0.71 g/dL, 82.94 2.58 fL, 27.18 1.12 uug, 32.79 1.12%. Otherwise the serum @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , TIBC, hemoglobin, MCV, @entity70 , and @entity70 of control group were respectively 82.04 28.14 ug/dL, 37.05 18.28 ng/mL, 266.27 25.40 mg/dL, 352.77 89.54 ug/dL, 12.77 0.70 g/dL, 81.81 2.96 fL, 26.69 0.99 uug, 32.66 0.96%. A significant difference were found in the @entity69 (t=2.63, p=0.011), MCV (t=2.19, p=0.034), and @entity70 (t=2.18, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These results suggested that lower @entity69 levels might be related with @entity71 symptoms.
XXXX in korean @entity1 with @entity71 .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['children', 'boys', 'girls']", "@entity71 :: ('MESH:D001289', 'Disease') :: ['ADHD']", "@entity69 :: ('7018', 'Gene') :: ['transferrin']", "@entity70 :: ('MESH:D006445', 'Disease') :: ['MCHC', 'mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration', 'mean corpuscular hemoglobin', 'MCH']", "@entity68 :: ('MESH:D007501', 'Chemical') :: ['iron']" ]
@entity69 :: (7018,Gene) :: ['Transferrin']
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , total @entity68 binding capacity (TIBC), hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) @entity70 ( @entity70 ), and @entity70 ( @entity70 ) in @entity1 with @entity71 . METHODS: MethodsaaThe sample consisted of 48 @entity71 @entity1 and sex and age matched control @entity1 (a couple of 28 @entity1 , 22 @entity1 ; age 6-8 years; mean SD, 6.98 0.39). We diagnosed @entity71 according to DSM-IV. @entity71 symptoms were evaluated subjectively with Conners' Parent Rating Scales, Dupaul Parent @entity71 Rating Scales. Subjects with @entity71 and control were evaluated the hematology test including the @entity68 , @entity69 , MCV etc. Paired t test were used to evaluate the relation of a lot of hematology findings between @entity71 and control group. RESULTS: The serum @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , TIBC, hemoglobin, MCV, @entity70 , and @entity70 of @entity71 group were respectively 80.92 33.33 ug/dL, 35.81 16.59 ng/mL, 248.42 44.15 mg/dL, 351.69 102.13 ug/dL, 12.78 0.71 g/dL, 82.94 2.58 fL, 27.18 1.12 uug, 32.79 1.12%. Otherwise the serum @entity68 , ferritin, @entity69 , TIBC, hemoglobin, MCV, @entity70 , and @entity70 of control group were respectively 82.04 28.14 ug/dL, 37.05 18.28 ng/mL, 266.27 25.40 mg/dL, 352.77 89.54 ug/dL, 12.77 0.70 g/dL, 81.81 2.96 fL, 26.69 0.99 uug, 32.66 0.96%. A significant difference were found in the @entity69 (t=2.63, p=0.011), MCV (t=2.19, p=0.034), and @entity70 (t=2.18, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These results suggested that lower @entity69 levels might be related with @entity71 symptoms.
@entity69 in korean XXXX with @entity71 .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['children', 'boys', 'girls']", "@entity71 :: ('MESH:D001289', 'Disease') :: ['ADHD']", "@entity69 :: ('7018', 'Gene') :: ['transferrin']", "@entity70 :: ('MESH:D006445', 'Disease') :: ['MCHC', 'mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration', 'mean corpuscular hemoglobin', 'MCH']", "@entity68 :: ('MESH:D007501', 'Chemical') :: ['iron']" ]
@entity1 :: (9606,Species) :: ['children']
@entity71 ( @entity71 ) and @entity72 ( @entity72 ) are often comorbid and share @entity73 in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 @entity1 with @entity71 to 20 age and IQ matched @entity72 and 20 healthy @entity1 using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. @entity71 and @entity72 @entity1 had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not @entity1 , suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode @entity74 . However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in @entity71 relative to @entity72 @entity1 , which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in @entity71 @entity1 . @entity72 @entity1 , on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both @entity71 and control @entity1 , presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that @entity71 and @entity72 @entity1 have both shared and disorder-specific @entity75 during sustained attention. @entity51 were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in @entity71 and a @entity76 in @entity72 .
Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with @entity71 ( XXXX ) and with autism.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'boys']", "@entity75 :: ('MESH:D001927', 'Disease') :: ['abnormalities in brain function']", "@entity73 :: ('MESH:D003072', 'Disease') :: ['behavioural-cognitive abnormalities']", "@entity71 :: ('MESH:D001289', 'Disease') :: ['ADHD', 'Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder']", "@entity51 :: ('MESH:D009461', 'Disease') :: ['Shared deficits']", "@entity72 :: ('MESH:D002659', 'Disease') :: ['Autism Spectrum Disorder', 'ASD']", "@entity74 :: ('MESH:D030342', 'Disease') :: ['network in both disorders']", "@entity76 :: ('MESH:D002526', 'Disease') :: ['disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation']" ]
@entity71 :: (MESH:D001289,Disease) :: ['ADHD']
@entity71 ( @entity71 ) and @entity72 ( @entity72 ) are often comorbid and share @entity73 in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 @entity1 with @entity71 to 20 age and IQ matched @entity72 and 20 healthy @entity1 using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. @entity71 and @entity72 @entity1 had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not @entity1 , suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode @entity74 . However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in @entity71 relative to @entity72 @entity1 , which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in @entity71 @entity1 . @entity72 @entity1 , on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both @entity71 and control @entity1 , presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that @entity71 and @entity72 @entity1 have both shared and disorder-specific @entity75 during sustained attention. @entity51 were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in @entity71 and a @entity76 in @entity72 .
Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with XXXX ( @entity71 ) and with autism.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'boys']", "@entity75 :: ('MESH:D001927', 'Disease') :: ['abnormalities in brain function']", "@entity73 :: ('MESH:D003072', 'Disease') :: ['behavioural-cognitive abnormalities']", "@entity71 :: ('MESH:D001289', 'Disease') :: ['ADHD', 'Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder']", "@entity51 :: ('MESH:D009461', 'Disease') :: ['Shared deficits']", "@entity72 :: ('MESH:D002659', 'Disease') :: ['Autism Spectrum Disorder', 'ASD']", "@entity74 :: ('MESH:D030342', 'Disease') :: ['network in both disorders']", "@entity76 :: ('MESH:D002526', 'Disease') :: ['disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation']" ]
@entity71 :: (MESH:D001289,Disease) :: ['Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder']
BACKGROUND: A novel @entity77 - @entity78 composite injectable bone graft substitute has been approved by the FDA for filling @entity79 in a nonweightbearing application based on preclinical studies. Its utility has not been documented in the literature. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We therefore determined postoperative function and complications in @entity1 with @entity79 treated with this bioceramic. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all 56 @entity1 with @entity79 treated with the bioceramic from 2006 to 2008. There were 29 male and 27 female @entity1 with an average age of 17.6 years (range, 4-63 years). They were treated for the following diagnoses: unicameral bone cyst (13), @entity80 (10), nonossifying @entity81 (eight), @entity82 (five), @entity83 (four), @entity84 (four), and other (12). We obtained a @entity85 Society (MSTS) functional evaluation on all @entity1 . The minimum followup was 26 months (average, 42 months; range, 26-57 months). RESULTS: The average MSTS score was 29 (range, 20-30). Most @entity1 returned to normal function. There were three local recurrences, all of which were treated with repeat injection or curettage. Two @entity1 had @entity86 treated in a closed manner. Two @entity1 had wound complications, neither of which required removal of the graft material. CONCLUSION: @entity1 treated with this material reported high MSTS functional scores more than 24 months after operative intervention and experienced low complication rates. We believe the novel bioceramic to be a reasonable treatment option for @entity79 .
Function after injection of XXXX with a bioceramic.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients']", "@entity82 :: ('MESH:D005355', 'Disease') :: ['fibrous dysplasia']", "@entity83 :: ('MESH:D002812', 'Disease') :: ['enchondroma']", "@entity78 :: ('MESH:C020243', 'Chemical') :: ['calcium phosphate']", "@entity79 :: ('MESH:D001847', 'Disease') :: ['bone defects', 'benign bone lesions']", "@entity80 :: ('MESH:D017824', 'Disease') :: ['aneurysmal bone cyst']", "@entity86 :: ('MESH:D019106', 'Disease') :: ['postoperative fractures']", "@entity84 :: ('MESH:D002804', 'Disease') :: ['chondroblastoma']", "@entity77 :: ('MESH:D002133', 'Chemical') :: ['calcium sulfate']", "@entity85 :: ('MESH:D009140', 'Disease') :: ['Musculoskeletal Tumor']", "@entity81 :: ('MESH:D005350', 'Disease') :: ['fibroma']" ]
@entity79 :: (MESH:D001847,Disease) :: ['benign bone lesions']
We report a study of 55 subjects with @entity87 , aged 9 months to 35 years. Each @entity1 has been evaluated with an assessment of "gestalt" and detailed facial measurement, using previously published methodology, with compilation of Z score pattern profiles. The facial phenotype of @entity87 is quite distinctive, even in the young @entity1 . The overall face shape is broad and square. The brows are heavy, with excessive lateral extension of the eyebrows. The eyes slant upwards and appear close set and deep set. The nose has a depressed root and, in the young @entity1 , a scooped bridge. With time, the bridge becomes more @entity88 jump shaped. The height of the nose is markedly reduced while the nasal base is broad and the tip of the nose is full. The shape of the mouth and upper lip are most distinctive. The mouth is wide with full upper and lower lips. The central portion of the upper lip is fleshy and everted with bulky philtral pillars, producing a tented appearance that, in profile, is striking. With age, mandibular growth is greater than average and exceeds that of the maxilla. This leads to @entity89 and protrusion and marked @entity90 . Craniofacial pattern analysis supports these subjective impressions. After mid-childhood, mandibular dimensions consistently exceed their maxillary counterparts. Craniofacial widths are greater than corresponding depths and heights. Nasal height is reduced while nasal width is increased. There is mild @entity91 . The most marked age related changes are increased width of the nose and lower face (mandibular width) with reduction in nasal height and @entity92 .
The face of XXXX : a subjective and objective study.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['person', 'child']", "@entity90 :: ('MESH:C564570', 'Disease') :: ['midface hypoplasia']", "@entity87 :: ('MESH:D058496', 'Disease') :: ['SMS', 'Smith-Magenis syndrome']", "@entity89 :: ('MESH:D007571', 'Disease') :: ['increased jaw width']", "@entity92 :: ('MESH:D007222', 'Disease') :: ['midfacial depth']", "@entity88 :: ('6497', 'Gene') :: ['ski']", "@entity91 :: ('MESH:D003398', 'Disease') :: ['brachycephaly']" ]
@entity87 :: (MESH:D058496,Disease) :: ['Smith-Magenis syndrome']
BACKGROUND: @entity5 angiogenesis is essential for primary and metastatic @entity5 growth. Computed tomography perfusion ( @entity93 ) is a new imaging method, made possible by the recent development of fast CT scanners and improved data analysis techniques, which allows measurement of the physiologic and hemodynamic properties of tissue vasculature. This study aimed to evaluate @entity93 in the quantification of angiogenesis and to assess the relationship between tissue perfusion parameters and microvascular density (MVD) and @entity94 ( @entity94 ), attempting to detect the physiologic properties of angiogenesis. METHODS: Sixteen @entity95 with VX2 @entity96 underwent multi-slice CT perfusion (MSCTP) on day 14 after @entity5 inoculation. @entity93 parameters included hepatic blood flow (HBF), hepatic blood volume ( @entity97 ), mean transit time ( @entity98 ), permeability of capillary vessel surface (PS), @entity99 ( @entity99 ), hepatic artery perfusion (HAP), and @entity99 ( @entity99 ). The border of the @entity5 was stained with @entity100 and @entity94 immunohistochemical stains, and MVD was measured by anti- @entity100 . Then, @entity93 parameters were determined whether they were correlated with MVD and @entity94 using Pearsonos correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The positive expression of MVD was different in the center and border of the @entity5 (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between MVD and @entity94 in the border (P<0.05). As more @entity94 was expressed, the number of microvessels increased. Correlation analyses were also made between the perfusion parameters and MVD and @entity94 in the border of the @entity5 . HBF, PS, @entity99 , and HAP values were positively correlated with MVD and @entity94 (P<0.05), @entity99 was negatively correlated with MVD and @entity94 (P<0.01), and @entity97 and @entity98 values were not correlated with MVD and @entity94 (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Significant correlations were found between perfusion parameters and MVD and @entity94 . Therefore, MSCTP can be used to evaluate @entity5 angiogenesis in vivo.
Quantification of angiogenesis by CT perfusion imaging in @entity96 of XXXX .
[ "@entity97 :: ('10407', 'Species') :: ['HBV']", "@entity96 :: ('MESH:D008113', 'Disease') :: ['liver tumors']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor', 'Tumor']", "@entity93 :: ('MESH:D003570', 'Chemical') :: ['CTP']", "@entity95 :: ('9986', 'Species') :: ['rabbits']", "@entity100 :: ('100343670(Tax:9986)', 'Gene') :: ['CD34']", "@entity98 :: ('CHEBI:53233', 'Chemical') :: ['MTT']", "@entity94 :: ('100008899(Tax:9986)', 'Gene') :: ['VEGF', 'vascular endothelial growth factor']", "@entity99 :: ('MESH:D056486', 'Disease') :: ['hepatic portal perfusion', 'HPP', 'hepatic artery index', 'HAI']" ]
@entity95 :: (9986,Species) :: ['rabbit']
BACKGROUND: @entity5 angiogenesis is essential for primary and metastatic @entity5 growth. Computed tomography perfusion ( @entity93 ) is a new imaging method, made possible by the recent development of fast CT scanners and improved data analysis techniques, which allows measurement of the physiologic and hemodynamic properties of tissue vasculature. This study aimed to evaluate @entity93 in the quantification of angiogenesis and to assess the relationship between tissue perfusion parameters and microvascular density (MVD) and @entity94 ( @entity94 ), attempting to detect the physiologic properties of angiogenesis. METHODS: Sixteen @entity95 with VX2 @entity96 underwent multi-slice CT perfusion (MSCTP) on day 14 after @entity5 inoculation. @entity93 parameters included hepatic blood flow (HBF), hepatic blood volume ( @entity97 ), mean transit time ( @entity98 ), permeability of capillary vessel surface (PS), @entity99 ( @entity99 ), hepatic artery perfusion (HAP), and @entity99 ( @entity99 ). The border of the @entity5 was stained with @entity100 and @entity94 immunohistochemical stains, and MVD was measured by anti- @entity100 . Then, @entity93 parameters were determined whether they were correlated with MVD and @entity94 using Pearsonos correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The positive expression of MVD was different in the center and border of the @entity5 (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between MVD and @entity94 in the border (P<0.05). As more @entity94 was expressed, the number of microvessels increased. Correlation analyses were also made between the perfusion parameters and MVD and @entity94 in the border of the @entity5 . HBF, PS, @entity99 , and HAP values were positively correlated with MVD and @entity94 (P<0.05), @entity99 was negatively correlated with MVD and @entity94 (P<0.01), and @entity97 and @entity98 values were not correlated with MVD and @entity94 (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Significant correlations were found between perfusion parameters and MVD and @entity94 . Therefore, MSCTP can be used to evaluate @entity5 angiogenesis in vivo.
Quantification of angiogenesis by CT perfusion imaging in XXXX of @entity95 .
[ "@entity97 :: ('10407', 'Species') :: ['HBV']", "@entity96 :: ('MESH:D008113', 'Disease') :: ['liver tumors']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor', 'Tumor']", "@entity93 :: ('MESH:D003570', 'Chemical') :: ['CTP']", "@entity95 :: ('9986', 'Species') :: ['rabbits']", "@entity100 :: ('100343670(Tax:9986)', 'Gene') :: ['CD34']", "@entity98 :: ('CHEBI:53233', 'Chemical') :: ['MTT']", "@entity94 :: ('100008899(Tax:9986)', 'Gene') :: ['VEGF', 'vascular endothelial growth factor']", "@entity99 :: ('MESH:D056486', 'Disease') :: ['hepatic portal perfusion', 'HPP', 'hepatic artery index', 'HAI']" ]
@entity96 :: (MESH:D008113,Disease) :: ['liver tumor']
OBJECTIVE: Most of studies about adherence in @entity101 highlight the adherence to the medical treatment but do not include the adherence to the other recommendations, such as lifestyle modifications. The factors effective on adherence to each type of recommendation may differ. Accordingly, we aimed in this study to show that nonadherence to each recommendation should be assessed individually. METHODS: The study, which was designed as cross-sectional and descriptive, included 150 @entity1 who were followed by the outpatient clinics for at least one year. A data collecting form with 44 questions was prepared by the investigators, and the @entity1 adherence was assessed in five categories: medicine-related adherence, diet-related adherence, exercise-related adherence, measurement-related adherence and smoking related adherence. The face-to-face interview method was used to collect data. Statistical analysis was accomplished by Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 150 subjects included in the study, 94 (63%) were female and mean age was 56+/- 12 (20-81) years. Mean duration of drug use was 6.5+/- 6.5 years and the mean number of drugs used was 1.6+/- 0.8. The adherence to recommendations of medication, diet, exercise, home-blood measurement and smoking were 72%, 65%, 31% , 63% and 83%, respectively. Each @entity1 was adherent to at least one recommendation, while 11% of @entity1 were adherent to one recommendation, 23% - to two, 29% - to three, 24% - to four and 13% - to five. According to the regression analysis, factors effective on each type of adherence were found to be different from others. The presence of three or more types of adherence was related to income level (OR= 0.297; 95%CI - 0.132-0.666; <0.001) and presence of any other @entity102 (OR=2.329; 95% CI - 1.114-4.859; p=0.002). CONCLUSION: The rates of adherence to medicine and life-style changes were generally found to be low in @entity101 . The cause of nonadherence is different according to the type of adherence. Each recommendation should be assessed individually in terms of adherence.
The assessment of adherence of XXXX individuals to treatment and lifestyle change recommendations.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patient', 'patients']", "@entity101 :: ('MESH:D006973', 'Disease') :: ['hypertension']", "@entity102 :: ('MESH:D002908', 'Disease') :: ['chronic disease']" ]
@entity101 :: (MESH:D006973,Disease) :: ['hypertensive']
There has been growing interest in recent years in the potential of brassica vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, etc.) as vectors for the introduction of anticarcinogenic compounds in the diet. @entity103 , a major @entity104 metabolite present in the cruciferous vegetables, has been found to inhibit various rodent @entity5 when administered prior to or during carcinogen exposure. In this study, the antitumour promoting potential of @entity103 was studied in a two-stage @entity19 skin model of @entity105 . The animals were initiated with a single subcarcinogenic dose of @entity106 . After one week, 250 microg of @entity103 was applied topically to each animal prior to promotion with 5 microg TPA twice per week. @entity5 development was significantly inhibited in @entity103 -supplemented animals in terms of cumulative numbers of @entity5 and average @entity5 per @entity19 . About 44% of male and 29% of female @entity19 remained @entity5 -free in this group at the end of the experiment. A significant delay in the @entity5 induction time was also observed in @entity103 -supplemented animals. This evidence suggests that @entity103 , in the manner and dose given, inhibits the development of @entity5 in the two-stage @entity19 skin model of @entity105 .
Antitumour promoting activity of @entity103 in @entity19 XXXX .
[ "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['Tumour', 'tumours', 'tumour']", "@entity19 :: ('10090', 'Species') :: ['mice', 'mouse']", "@entity103 :: ('MESH:C016517', 'Chemical') :: ['indole-3-carbinol', 'Indole-3-carbinol']", "@entity106 :: ('MESH:D015127', 'Chemical') :: ['DMBA']", "@entity105 :: ('MESH:D063646', 'Disease') :: ['carcinogenesis']", "@entity104 :: ('MESH:C030374', 'Chemical') :: ['indole']" ]
@entity105 :: (MESH:D063646,Disease) :: ['skin carcinogenesis']
There has been growing interest in recent years in the potential of brassica vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, etc.) as vectors for the introduction of anticarcinogenic compounds in the diet. @entity103 , a major @entity104 metabolite present in the cruciferous vegetables, has been found to inhibit various rodent @entity5 when administered prior to or during carcinogen exposure. In this study, the antitumour promoting potential of @entity103 was studied in a two-stage @entity19 skin model of @entity105 . The animals were initiated with a single subcarcinogenic dose of @entity106 . After one week, 250 microg of @entity103 was applied topically to each animal prior to promotion with 5 microg TPA twice per week. @entity5 development was significantly inhibited in @entity103 -supplemented animals in terms of cumulative numbers of @entity5 and average @entity5 per @entity19 . About 44% of male and 29% of female @entity19 remained @entity5 -free in this group at the end of the experiment. A significant delay in the @entity5 induction time was also observed in @entity103 -supplemented animals. This evidence suggests that @entity103 , in the manner and dose given, inhibits the development of @entity5 in the two-stage @entity19 skin model of @entity105 .
Antitumour promoting activity of XXXX in @entity19 @entity105 .
[ "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['Tumour', 'tumours', 'tumour']", "@entity19 :: ('10090', 'Species') :: ['mice', 'mouse']", "@entity103 :: ('MESH:C016517', 'Chemical') :: ['indole-3-carbinol', 'Indole-3-carbinol']", "@entity106 :: ('MESH:D015127', 'Chemical') :: ['DMBA']", "@entity105 :: ('MESH:D063646', 'Disease') :: ['carcinogenesis']", "@entity104 :: ('MESH:C030374', 'Chemical') :: ['indole']" ]
@entity103 :: (MESH:C016517,Chemical) :: ['indole-3-carbinol']
There has been growing interest in recent years in the potential of brassica vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, etc.) as vectors for the introduction of anticarcinogenic compounds in the diet. @entity103 , a major @entity104 metabolite present in the cruciferous vegetables, has been found to inhibit various rodent @entity5 when administered prior to or during carcinogen exposure. In this study, the antitumour promoting potential of @entity103 was studied in a two-stage @entity19 skin model of @entity105 . The animals were initiated with a single subcarcinogenic dose of @entity106 . After one week, 250 microg of @entity103 was applied topically to each animal prior to promotion with 5 microg TPA twice per week. @entity5 development was significantly inhibited in @entity103 -supplemented animals in terms of cumulative numbers of @entity5 and average @entity5 per @entity19 . About 44% of male and 29% of female @entity19 remained @entity5 -free in this group at the end of the experiment. A significant delay in the @entity5 induction time was also observed in @entity103 -supplemented animals. This evidence suggests that @entity103 , in the manner and dose given, inhibits the development of @entity5 in the two-stage @entity19 skin model of @entity105 .
Antitumour promoting activity of @entity103 in XXXX @entity105 .
[ "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['Tumour', 'tumours', 'tumour']", "@entity19 :: ('10090', 'Species') :: ['mice', 'mouse']", "@entity103 :: ('MESH:C016517', 'Chemical') :: ['indole-3-carbinol', 'Indole-3-carbinol']", "@entity106 :: ('MESH:D015127', 'Chemical') :: ['DMBA']", "@entity105 :: ('MESH:D063646', 'Disease') :: ['carcinogenesis']", "@entity104 :: ('MESH:C030374', 'Chemical') :: ['indole']" ]
@entity19 :: (10090,Species) :: ['mouse']
In this immunohistological study we investigated integrin expression in EAF in female @entity35 treated with @entity107 ( @entity108 ) as initiator and @entity109 (PB) as promotor ( @entity108 -PB treatment) for up to 32 weeks. Using a beta1-integrin antibody, there was an increased cytoplasmic staining and a decreased sinusoidal staining in EAF, as compared to non-EAF areas. The majority of small EAF and all larger EAF exhibited this altered distribution of beta1-integrin. The increased cytoplasmic staining was not found in EAF after a 10 week treatment-free period. In periportal areas in partial hepatectomized control @entity35 a similar increase in cytoplasmic staining was seen. EAF in @entity108 -initiated and @entity108 -promoted @entity35 ( @entity108 - @entity108 treatment) were also studied. This protocol induced rapidly growing EAF. Most lesions did not show the increased cytoplasmic staining. However, after partial hepatectomy of @entity108 - @entity108 -treated @entity35 , a cytoplasmic staining was seen in EAF. It is concluded that PB induced a reversible cytoplasmic beta1-integrin expression in many EAF and in all larger EAF. It is suggested that the alteration constitutes part of hepatocyte resistance to toxicological stress and apoptosis in EAF.
XXXX -induced cytoplasmic accumulation of beta1-integrin in @entity35 liver enzyme altered foci; an immunohistological study.
[ "@entity35 :: ('10116', 'Species') :: ['rats']", "@entity107 :: ('MESH:D004052', 'Chemical') :: ['diethylnitrosamine']", "@entity108 :: ('CHEBI:34873', 'Chemical') :: ['DEN']", "@entity109 :: ('MESH:D010634', 'Chemical') :: ['phenobarbital']" ]
@entity109 :: (MESH:D010634,Chemical) :: ['Phenobarbital']
In this immunohistological study we investigated integrin expression in EAF in female @entity35 treated with @entity107 ( @entity108 ) as initiator and @entity109 (PB) as promotor ( @entity108 -PB treatment) for up to 32 weeks. Using a beta1-integrin antibody, there was an increased cytoplasmic staining and a decreased sinusoidal staining in EAF, as compared to non-EAF areas. The majority of small EAF and all larger EAF exhibited this altered distribution of beta1-integrin. The increased cytoplasmic staining was not found in EAF after a 10 week treatment-free period. In periportal areas in partial hepatectomized control @entity35 a similar increase in cytoplasmic staining was seen. EAF in @entity108 -initiated and @entity108 -promoted @entity35 ( @entity108 - @entity108 treatment) were also studied. This protocol induced rapidly growing EAF. Most lesions did not show the increased cytoplasmic staining. However, after partial hepatectomy of @entity108 - @entity108 -treated @entity35 , a cytoplasmic staining was seen in EAF. It is concluded that PB induced a reversible cytoplasmic beta1-integrin expression in many EAF and in all larger EAF. It is suggested that the alteration constitutes part of hepatocyte resistance to toxicological stress and apoptosis in EAF.
@entity109 -induced cytoplasmic accumulation of beta1-integrin in XXXX liver enzyme altered foci; an immunohistological study.
[ "@entity35 :: ('10116', 'Species') :: ['rats']", "@entity107 :: ('MESH:D004052', 'Chemical') :: ['diethylnitrosamine']", "@entity108 :: ('CHEBI:34873', 'Chemical') :: ['DEN']", "@entity109 :: ('MESH:D010634', 'Chemical') :: ['phenobarbital']" ]
@entity35 :: (10116,Species) :: ['rat']
@entity110 is characterized by the appearance of hives and @entity111 . Those hives are formed by @entity4 and vasodilatation and they disappear when they are pressed on. The acute presentation is extremely common and affects between 10 and 20% of the population at a determined moment. In its simplest form, @entity110 is envisioned to represent the same sort of wheal-and-flare reaction observed when @entity112 is injected into the skin. It produces erythema because of capillary vasodilatation, @entity4 because of increased permeability in capillary and @entity111 secondary at local specific receptors stimulation. @entity113 is caused by the same pathologic alterations that occur in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Thus, an area involved with @entity113 has @entity4 as the prominent manifestation and appearance of the skin itself may be normal. Due to reduced nerve supply in dermis, @entity113 is associated with oppression and not @entity111 . Immunoallergological study of @entity110 and/or @entity113 was requested in 133 cases from 648 from the first @entity1 's visits to the surgery. It supposes a 20.52%. The family suspicion of etiology was food in 62 cases, chemical products in 39 cases, other factors (physical, stings, balloons and other manufactured products.) in 7 cases and 25 cases without a direct relation. Out of 100 @entity1 diagnosed of @entity113 67 was by food; the foods implicated in frequency order were: eggs and nuts, fruit, milk, vegetables, fish and shellfish. In second place, chemical products were responsible of @entity110 in 12 @entity1 ; five of them were positive in diagnosed proof (prick, oral challenge) for @entity114 and @entity115 , both from beta-lactamic group; two of them had and adverse reaction to anesthetic agents; other two cases were after administration of vaccination and due to @entity116 toxin; and three cases were due to @entity117 , confirmed by oral provocation test. In 10 @entity1 the etiological agent was latex. Other etiologies were: three cutaneous reactions after stings (two by wasps and one by mosquito) three reactions due to spices (paprika, cumin, anise, mustard) and two reactions caused by manufactures products containing additives as yellow-orange.
[Round Table: Immunological XXXX mediated by IgE].
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['children', 'patient']", "@entity115 :: ('MESH:D000658', 'Chemical') :: ['amoxicillin']", "@entity4 :: ('MESH:D004487', 'Disease') :: ['oedema', 'swelling']", "@entity114 :: ('MESH:D010406', 'Chemical') :: ['penicillin']", "@entity117 :: ('MESH:D001241', 'Chemical') :: ['aspirin']", "@entity111 :: ('MESH:D011537', 'Disease') :: ['pruritus']", "@entity113 :: ('MESH:D000799', 'Disease') :: ['angioedema', 'allergic urticaria-angioedema', 'Angioedema']", "@entity112 :: ('MESH:D006632', 'Chemical') :: ['histamine']", "@entity116 :: ('MESH:D013746', 'Disease') :: ['tetanus']", "@entity110 :: ('MESH:D014581', 'Disease') :: ['Urticaria', 'urticaria']" ]
@entity110 :: (MESH:D014581,Disease) :: ['urticaria']
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of raised pulmonary artery pressure and resistance in adults with isolated @entity118 (so called secundum defect) or @entity119 . DESIGN: A historical, retrospective, unrandomised study. SETTING: A tertiary referral centre. METHODS: Cardiac catheterisation was performed in all @entity1 , with measurement of pulmonary artery pressure and resistance. Pulmonary to systemic flow ratio was calculated using the Fick principle. @entity120 was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure > 30 mm Hg, and increased resistance as an Rp/Rs ratio > 0.3. @entity1 : All @entity1 with a secundum @entity119 who presented between July 1988 and December 1997 were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: Pulmonary artery pressure and resistance in the @entity1 with @entity119 (n = 31) was higher than in @entity1 with @entity118 (n = 138). @entity120 was present in 26% of @entity1 with sinus venosus and in 9% of @entity1 with @entity118 . The incidence of raised pulmonary vascular resistance was 16% in @entity1 with sinus venosus and 4% in @entity1 with @entity118 . The increase in resistance occurred at a younger age in @entity119 than in @entity118 . CONCLUSIONS: @entity1 with @entity119 have @entity120 and resistances and develop these complications at younger age than @entity1 with @entity118 . Thus they should be managed differently than @entity1 with "simple" @entity118 .
Incidence of XXXX in adults with @entity119 .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients', 'PATIENTS']", "@entity118 :: ('MESH:D006344', 'Disease') :: ['atrial septal defect', 'atrial septal defects', 'atrial septal defect within the oval fossa']", "@entity120 :: ('MESH:D006976', 'Disease') :: ['higher pulmonary pressures', 'Pulmonary hypertension']", "@entity119 :: ('MESH:C548009', 'Disease') :: ['atrial septal or sinus venosus defect', 'sinus venosus defect']" ]
@entity120 :: (MESH:D006976,Disease) :: ['secondary pulmonary hypertension']
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of raised pulmonary artery pressure and resistance in adults with isolated @entity118 (so called secundum defect) or @entity119 . DESIGN: A historical, retrospective, unrandomised study. SETTING: A tertiary referral centre. METHODS: Cardiac catheterisation was performed in all @entity1 , with measurement of pulmonary artery pressure and resistance. Pulmonary to systemic flow ratio was calculated using the Fick principle. @entity120 was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure > 30 mm Hg, and increased resistance as an Rp/Rs ratio > 0.3. @entity1 : All @entity1 with a secundum @entity119 who presented between July 1988 and December 1997 were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: Pulmonary artery pressure and resistance in the @entity1 with @entity119 (n = 31) was higher than in @entity1 with @entity118 (n = 138). @entity120 was present in 26% of @entity1 with sinus venosus and in 9% of @entity1 with @entity118 . The incidence of raised pulmonary vascular resistance was 16% in @entity1 with sinus venosus and 4% in @entity1 with @entity118 . The increase in resistance occurred at a younger age in @entity119 than in @entity118 . CONCLUSIONS: @entity1 with @entity119 have @entity120 and resistances and develop these complications at younger age than @entity1 with @entity118 . Thus they should be managed differently than @entity1 with "simple" @entity118 .
Incidence of @entity120 in adults with XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients', 'PATIENTS']", "@entity118 :: ('MESH:D006344', 'Disease') :: ['atrial septal defect', 'atrial septal defects', 'atrial septal defect within the oval fossa']", "@entity120 :: ('MESH:D006976', 'Disease') :: ['higher pulmonary pressures', 'Pulmonary hypertension']", "@entity119 :: ('MESH:C548009', 'Disease') :: ['atrial septal or sinus venosus defect', 'sinus venosus defect']" ]
@entity119 :: (MESH:C548009,Disease) :: ['atrial septal or sinus venosus defects']
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to evaluate which arterial stiffness parameter - AASI or the home arterial stiffness index (HASI) - correlates best with vascular, cardiac and @entity8 in @entity101 individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 258 @entity101 @entity1 . AASI and HASI were defined as the 1-regression slope of diastolic over systolic blood pressure readings obtained from 24-hour recordings and home blood pressure over 6 days. @entity8 was evaluated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and microalbuminuria; vascular damage by carotid @entity121 ( @entity121 ), pulse wave velocity ( @entity122 ) and ankle/brachial index (ABI); and left @entity123 by the Cornell voltage-duration product (VDP) and the Novacode index. RESULTS: AASI and HASI were not correlated with microalbuminuria, however AASI and HASI- blood pressure variability ratio (BPVR) showed negative correlation with GRF. The Cornell PDV was positively correlated with AASI- BPVR-Sleep (r = 0.15, p < 0.05) and the left ventricular mass index with HASI-BPVR (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Carotid @entity121 and @entity122 were positively correlated with all the parameters except the HASI, while ABI was negatively correlated with AASI and Awake-AASI. After adjusting for age, gender and 24 hours heart rate, statistical significance remains of the @entity121 with AASI, Awake AASI and AASI-BPVR. @entity122 with the AASI, Awake-AASI and Sleep-AASI. ABI with AASI and Awake-AASI. Odd Ratio to presence target organ damage was for AASI: 10.47(IC95% 1.29 to 65.34), Awake-AASI: 8.85(IC95% 1.10 to 71.04), Sleep-AASI: 2.19(IC95% 1.10 to 4.38) and AASI-BPVR-night: 4.09 (IC95% 1.12 to 14.92). CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for age, gender and 24-hour heart, the variables that best associated with the variability of @entity121 , @entity122 and ABI were AASI and Awake-AASI, and with GFR was HASI-BPVR.
Ambulatory arterial stiffness indices and target organ damage in XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity8 :: ('MESH:D007674', 'Disease') :: ['Renal damage', 'renal damage']", "@entity101 :: ('MESH:D006973', 'Disease') :: ['hypertensive']", "@entity123 :: ('MESH:D024741', 'Disease') :: ['ventricular hypertrophy']", "@entity121 :: ('MESH:D009135', 'Disease') :: ['IMT', 'intima-media thickness']", "@entity122 :: ('31732', 'Species') :: ['PWV']" ]
@entity101 :: (MESH:D006973,Disease) :: ['hypertension']
The objective of this study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of Notch signaling genes in @entity14 . @entity14 samples were prospectively collected from @entity1 post-surgery at the 3rd Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Immunohistochemistry of tissue arrays was used to analyze the samples and genes involved in the Notch signaling pathway. @entity124 ( @entity124 ) was detected by fluorescence multiplex polymerase chain reaction. A total of 146 @entity14 samples were collected, including 84 @entity1 (57.7%) and 62 @entity1 (42.5%). The average age of the study population was 60.8 10.5 years. @entity125 and @entity126 gene expression correlated with @entity5 pathology type and degree of differentiation. In addition, @entity127 ( @entity127 ) and hairy enhancer of split 1 gene expression correlated with the degree of @entity5 differentiation. Delta-like 1 gene expression varied significantly with @entity5 location. There was a significant difference between gene expression and @entity124 . Of the 138 @entity1 , 134 (91.8%) participated in on-site visits, and the average follow-up time was 42.3 13.3 months. During this period, 86 @entity1 (71.6%) were @entity5 -free. At 1 year post-surgery, 93% of @entity1 were alive, 74% of @entity1 lived for 3 years, and 67% of @entity1 lived for 5 years. The log-rank test was used to perform univariate analysis, and the COX proportional hazards model was used for the multivariate analysis. Based on these analyses, @entity5 prognosis correlated with the TNM stage, pathological type, microsatellite status as well as @entity126 and @entity127 gene expression. @entity1 expressing high levels of @entity126 and @entity127 presented with a significantly better prognosis compared to @entity1 expressing negative or weak levels of @entity126 and @entity127 . The expression levels of genes associated with the Notch signaling pathway correlated with @entity5 pathology and the degree of differentiation. In addition, @entity126 and @entity127 expression levels correlated with survival; however, the underlying mechanism for these correlations remains unclear.
Expression and clinical significance of Notch signaling genes in XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['women', 'Patients', 'patients', 'men']", "@entity124 :: ('MESH:D053842', 'Disease') :: ['Microsatellite instability', 'MSI']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor']", "@entity125 :: ('4851', 'Gene') :: ['Notch1']", "@entity14 :: ('MESH:D015179', 'Disease') :: ['Colorectal cancer', 'colorectal cancer']", "@entity127 :: ('182', 'Gene') :: ['JAG1', 'Jagged 1']", "@entity126 :: ('4853', 'Gene') :: ['Notch2']" ]
@entity14 :: (MESH:D015179,Disease) :: ['colorectal cancer']
INTRODUCTION: @entity128 during implant placement is a preventable, serious complication with major medico-legal implications. The incidence of implant related @entity129 ( @entity129 ) @entity130 varies from 0-40%. This article presents four cases of @entity131 following mandibular implant placement with early removal, referred to the oral surgery department, King's College Hospital, London. OBJECTIVES: To assess @entity132 and recovery in @entity1 with implant related @entity131 and assess whether early removal of the implants promotes neural recovery. To present recommendations on how to best deal with suspected/actual nerve @entity130 and prevent their occurrence. METHODS: Over the last two years, four @entity1 referred for specialist opinion to the oral surgery department were identified as having sustained implant related @entity131 with early removal (18 hours to four days @entity130 ). Data were collected by referral to health records. RESULTS: All @entity1 suffered from numbness of the affected @entity133 with three out of four cases also experiencing some form of @entity9 . Cases 1 and 2, who had their implants removed at 18 and 36 hours @entity130 respectively, regained almost complete sensory recovery. Case 1 also had adjunctive NSAID and @entity134 therapy. Cases 3 and 4 suffered complete numbness in the @entity133 and did not experience any improvement in sensation following removal of their implants at two and four days @entity130 respectively. Both @entity1 with significant persistent @entity16 (Cases 3 _ 4) reported functional problems. CONCLUSION: This cohort of @entity1 may demonstrate that early removal of implants associated with @entity131 (less than 36 hours @entity130 ) may assist in minimising or even resolution of @entity129 @entity16 . Adjunctive corticosteroid and high dose non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy also appears effective. Implant related @entity131 is a preventable, elective procedure and a suggested protocol of management of suspected @entity130 , for dental practitioners, is presented.
Case studies on implant removal influencing the resolution of XXXX injury.
[ "@entity129 :: ('MESH:D003389', 'Disease') :: ['IAN', 'inferior alveolar nerve']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity131 :: ('MESH:D001930', 'Disease') :: ['IAN injury']", "@entity132 :: ('MESH:D010468', 'Disease') :: ['sensory disturbance']", "@entity16 :: ('MESH:D009422', 'Disease') :: ['neuropathy']", "@entity128 :: ('MESH:D020209', 'Disease') :: ['Nerve injury']", "@entity133 :: ('MESH:D002282', 'Disease') :: ['inferior alveolar dermatome']", "@entity134 :: ('CHEBI:35341', 'Chemical') :: ['steroid']", "@entity9 :: ('MESH:D009437', 'Disease') :: ['neuropathic pain']", "@entity130 :: ('MESH:D014947', 'Disease') :: ['injuries', 'post-injury']" ]
@entity129 :: (MESH:D003389,Disease) :: ['inferior alveolar nerve']
BACKGROUND: Management of advanced @entity135 is a challenging proposition. Presently concomitant chemo-irradiation has become the standard of care in such @entity1 . Many chemotherapeutic drugs have shown radio-sensitising effects when used concomitantly along with radiation. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the feasibility and efficacy of low dose @entity136 as radiosensitizer when used during radical radiotherapeutic management of @entity1 with locally advanced @entity135 . @entity1 AND METHODS: From November 2000 to March 2003, eighty histopathologically proven cases of squamous cell @entity135 were included in this trial, 40 @entity1 were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy alone and 40 @entity1 to receive @entity136 along with radiotherapy. RESULTS: All @entity1 were assessable for @entity137 and response. Severe @entity33 (WHO level 5 reactions were observed in 67% @entity1 in the CT/ @entity138 group vs 16% @entity1 in the @entity138 only group. No severe hematological @entity137 was seen. The rates of complete and partial responses were 42.5% _ 57.5% respectively for @entity138 only and 62.5% _37.5%, respectively for CT/ @entity138 group. There was no significant difference in the response rates at the end of treatment but disease free survival at three years was better in the CT/ @entity138 group (63.3% vs 20%). Nine of the 17 @entity1 with complete response in the radiation only group developed relapse while no relapses were seen in CT/ @entity138 group. CONCLUSION: In the present study the combination of @entity136 and radiotherapy has not shown any statistical difference in locoregional control but survival advantage was seen as compared to radiotherapy alone. At the same time more @entity137 was encountered when @entity136 is given concurrently with radiation.
XXXX concurrent with radiation therapy for locally advanced @entity135 .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'PATIENTS']", "@entity135 :: ('MESH:D006258', 'Disease') :: ['head and neck carcinoma', 'head and neck carcinomas']", "@entity137 :: ('MESH:D064420', 'Disease') :: ['toxicity', 'mucosal and skin toxicity']", "@entity138 :: ('MESH:C563738', 'Disease') :: ['RT']", "@entity33 :: ('MESH:D052016', 'Disease') :: ['mucositis']", "@entity136 :: ('MESH:C056507', 'Chemical') :: ['Gemcitabine', 'gemcitabine']" ]
@entity136 :: (MESH:C056507,Chemical) :: ['Gemcitabine']
BACKGROUND: Management of advanced @entity135 is a challenging proposition. Presently concomitant chemo-irradiation has become the standard of care in such @entity1 . Many chemotherapeutic drugs have shown radio-sensitising effects when used concomitantly along with radiation. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the feasibility and efficacy of low dose @entity136 as radiosensitizer when used during radical radiotherapeutic management of @entity1 with locally advanced @entity135 . @entity1 AND METHODS: From November 2000 to March 2003, eighty histopathologically proven cases of squamous cell @entity135 were included in this trial, 40 @entity1 were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy alone and 40 @entity1 to receive @entity136 along with radiotherapy. RESULTS: All @entity1 were assessable for @entity137 and response. Severe @entity33 (WHO level 5 reactions were observed in 67% @entity1 in the CT/ @entity138 group vs 16% @entity1 in the @entity138 only group. No severe hematological @entity137 was seen. The rates of complete and partial responses were 42.5% _ 57.5% respectively for @entity138 only and 62.5% _37.5%, respectively for CT/ @entity138 group. There was no significant difference in the response rates at the end of treatment but disease free survival at three years was better in the CT/ @entity138 group (63.3% vs 20%). Nine of the 17 @entity1 with complete response in the radiation only group developed relapse while no relapses were seen in CT/ @entity138 group. CONCLUSION: In the present study the combination of @entity136 and radiotherapy has not shown any statistical difference in locoregional control but survival advantage was seen as compared to radiotherapy alone. At the same time more @entity137 was encountered when @entity136 is given concurrently with radiation.
@entity136 concurrent with radiation therapy for locally advanced XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'PATIENTS']", "@entity135 :: ('MESH:D006258', 'Disease') :: ['head and neck carcinoma', 'head and neck carcinomas']", "@entity137 :: ('MESH:D064420', 'Disease') :: ['toxicity', 'mucosal and skin toxicity']", "@entity138 :: ('MESH:C563738', 'Disease') :: ['RT']", "@entity33 :: ('MESH:D052016', 'Disease') :: ['mucositis']", "@entity136 :: ('MESH:C056507', 'Chemical') :: ['Gemcitabine', 'gemcitabine']" ]
@entity135 :: (MESH:D006258,Disease) :: ['head and neck carcinomas']
Glutamatergic synaptic input in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a critical role in regulating sympathetic outflow in @entity101 . @entity139 -lacking @entity140 receptors (AMPARs) are permeable to @entity141 , and their currents show unique inward rectification. However, little is known about changes in the AMPAR composition and its functional significance in @entity101 . In this study, we found that AMPAR-mediated EPSCs (AMPAR-EPSCs) of retrogradely labeled spinally projecting PVN neurons exhibited a linear current-voltage relationship in @entity35 -Kyoto (WKY) @entity35 . However, AMPAR-EPSCs of labeled PVN neurons in spontaneously @entity101 @entity35 (SHR) displayed inward rectification at positive holding potentials, which were not altered by lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy. Blocking @entity139 -lacking AMPARs with @entity142 (NAS) caused a greater reduction in the AMPAR-EPSC amplitude and firing activity of PVN neurons in SHR than in WKY @entity35 . Furthermore, blocking @entity143 receptors and inhibition of calpain or calcineurin abolished inward rectification of AMPAR-EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHR. The @entity139 protein level was significantly less in the plasma membrane but greater in the cytosolic vesicle fraction in SHR than in WKY @entity35 . In addition, microinjection of @entity144 into the PVN decreased blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in SHR but not in WKY @entity35 . Our study reveals that increased @entity139 -lacking AMPAR activity of PVN neurons results from @entity139 internalization through @entity143 receptor-calpain-calcineurin signaling in @entity101 . This phenotype switch in synaptic AMPARs contributes to increased excitability of PVN presympathetic neurons and sympathetic vasomotor tone in @entity101 .
Switch to glutamate receptor 2-lacking @entity140 receptors increases neuronal excitability in hypothalamus and sympathetic drive in XXXX .
[ "@entity142 :: ('MESH:C067506', 'Chemical') :: ['1-naphthyl acetyl spermine']", "@entity101 :: ('MESH:D006973', 'Disease') :: ['hypertension', 'hypertensive']", "@entity35 :: ('10116', 'Species') :: ['Wistar', 'rats']", "@entity144 :: ('MESH:C015378', 'Chemical') :: ['NAS']", "@entity139 :: ('29627(Tax:10116)', 'Gene') :: ['GluR2']", "@entity140 :: ('MESH:D018350', 'Chemical') :: ['AMPA']", "@entity143 :: ('CHEBI:6121', 'Chemical') :: ['NMDA']", "@entity141 :: ('CHEBI:29108', 'Chemical') :: ['Ca(2+)']" ]
@entity101 :: (MESH:D006973,Disease) :: ['hypertension']
Glutamatergic synaptic input in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a critical role in regulating sympathetic outflow in @entity101 . @entity139 -lacking @entity140 receptors (AMPARs) are permeable to @entity141 , and their currents show unique inward rectification. However, little is known about changes in the AMPAR composition and its functional significance in @entity101 . In this study, we found that AMPAR-mediated EPSCs (AMPAR-EPSCs) of retrogradely labeled spinally projecting PVN neurons exhibited a linear current-voltage relationship in @entity35 -Kyoto (WKY) @entity35 . However, AMPAR-EPSCs of labeled PVN neurons in spontaneously @entity101 @entity35 (SHR) displayed inward rectification at positive holding potentials, which were not altered by lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy. Blocking @entity139 -lacking AMPARs with @entity142 (NAS) caused a greater reduction in the AMPAR-EPSC amplitude and firing activity of PVN neurons in SHR than in WKY @entity35 . Furthermore, blocking @entity143 receptors and inhibition of calpain or calcineurin abolished inward rectification of AMPAR-EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHR. The @entity139 protein level was significantly less in the plasma membrane but greater in the cytosolic vesicle fraction in SHR than in WKY @entity35 . In addition, microinjection of @entity144 into the PVN decreased blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in SHR but not in WKY @entity35 . Our study reveals that increased @entity139 -lacking AMPAR activity of PVN neurons results from @entity139 internalization through @entity143 receptor-calpain-calcineurin signaling in @entity101 . This phenotype switch in synaptic AMPARs contributes to increased excitability of PVN presympathetic neurons and sympathetic vasomotor tone in @entity101 .
Switch to glutamate receptor 2-lacking XXXX receptors increases neuronal excitability in hypothalamus and sympathetic drive in @entity101 .
[ "@entity142 :: ('MESH:C067506', 'Chemical') :: ['1-naphthyl acetyl spermine']", "@entity101 :: ('MESH:D006973', 'Disease') :: ['hypertension', 'hypertensive']", "@entity35 :: ('10116', 'Species') :: ['Wistar', 'rats']", "@entity144 :: ('MESH:C015378', 'Chemical') :: ['NAS']", "@entity139 :: ('29627(Tax:10116)', 'Gene') :: ['GluR2']", "@entity140 :: ('MESH:D018350', 'Chemical') :: ['AMPA']", "@entity143 :: ('CHEBI:6121', 'Chemical') :: ['NMDA']", "@entity141 :: ('CHEBI:29108', 'Chemical') :: ['Ca(2+)']" ]
@entity140 :: (MESH:D018350,Chemical) :: ['AMPA']
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether @entity145 (AC) compromise neurocognitive function and psychological profiles in pediatric @entity1 , depending on various clinical factors. METHODS: We assessed neurocognitive functions and psychological tests in 35 AC @entity1 and 35 healthy control subjects between October 2007 and April 2008. AC @entity1 ranged in age from 3 to 15 (7.94 +/- 3.12) years old and control @entity1 from 5 to 13 (8.84 +/- 2.17) years old. The location of the AC were temporal (n = 22), frontal (n = 6), suprasellar (n = 4), and posterior fossa (n = 3). @entity1 underwent neurocognitive and psychological assessments before surgery. To investigate which AC impair neurocognitive function and psychological profile, we assessed intelligence, memory, attention, executive function, @entity146 , @entity147 , and parenting stress. RESULTS: AC caused some @entity73 by both neurocognitive function and psychological assessments. Left hemisphere AC tended to have more @entity148 ; mood changes can be detected depending on cyst grade. An incidental finding of AC after @entity130 is more intelligent, well-reserved executive function. Frontal locations tended to cause more @entity148 than temporal locations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that intracranial AC impairs some @entity149 . An incidental finding of AC after @entity130 was a more intelligent, well-reserved executive function. AC in the left hemisphere, frontal location tended to cause more @entity148 . The AC itself did not cause differences in neurocognitive function from the control group. However, parenting stress in the AC group was much higher than in the control group.
@entity149 in pediatric XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients']", "@entity146 :: ('MESH:D001523', 'Disease') :: ['behavioral problems']", "@entity73 :: ('MESH:D003072', 'Disease') :: ['demonstrated impairment']", "@entity149 :: ('MESH:D002493', 'Disease') :: ['neurocognitive and psychological functions']", "@entity147 :: ('MESH:D005316', 'Disease') :: ['emotional distress']", "@entity145 :: ('MESH:D016080', 'Disease') :: ['intracranial arachnoid cysts']", "@entity148 :: ('MESH:D001008', 'Disease') :: ['anxiety']", "@entity130 :: ('MESH:D014947', 'Disease') :: ['trauma']" ]
@entity145 :: (MESH:D016080,Disease) :: ['arachnoid cyst']
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether @entity145 (AC) compromise neurocognitive function and psychological profiles in pediatric @entity1 , depending on various clinical factors. METHODS: We assessed neurocognitive functions and psychological tests in 35 AC @entity1 and 35 healthy control subjects between October 2007 and April 2008. AC @entity1 ranged in age from 3 to 15 (7.94 +/- 3.12) years old and control @entity1 from 5 to 13 (8.84 +/- 2.17) years old. The location of the AC were temporal (n = 22), frontal (n = 6), suprasellar (n = 4), and posterior fossa (n = 3). @entity1 underwent neurocognitive and psychological assessments before surgery. To investigate which AC impair neurocognitive function and psychological profile, we assessed intelligence, memory, attention, executive function, @entity146 , @entity147 , and parenting stress. RESULTS: AC caused some @entity73 by both neurocognitive function and psychological assessments. Left hemisphere AC tended to have more @entity148 ; mood changes can be detected depending on cyst grade. An incidental finding of AC after @entity130 is more intelligent, well-reserved executive function. Frontal locations tended to cause more @entity148 than temporal locations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that intracranial AC impairs some @entity149 . An incidental finding of AC after @entity130 was a more intelligent, well-reserved executive function. AC in the left hemisphere, frontal location tended to cause more @entity148 . The AC itself did not cause differences in neurocognitive function from the control group. However, parenting stress in the AC group was much higher than in the control group.
XXXX in pediatric @entity145 .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients']", "@entity146 :: ('MESH:D001523', 'Disease') :: ['behavioral problems']", "@entity73 :: ('MESH:D003072', 'Disease') :: ['demonstrated impairment']", "@entity149 :: ('MESH:D002493', 'Disease') :: ['neurocognitive and psychological functions']", "@entity147 :: ('MESH:D005316', 'Disease') :: ['emotional distress']", "@entity145 :: ('MESH:D016080', 'Disease') :: ['intracranial arachnoid cysts']", "@entity148 :: ('MESH:D001008', 'Disease') :: ['anxiety']", "@entity130 :: ('MESH:D014947', 'Disease') :: ['trauma']" ]
@entity149 :: (MESH:D002493,Disease) :: ['Neurocognitive and psychological profiles']
OBJECTIVE: The course of non-muscle-invasive @entity150 (BC) staged T1G3 is hardly predictable and treatment is subject of intensive debate. In muscle-invasive BC, the infiltrative growth pattern at the @entity5 invasion front was able to predict @entity1 ' survival, in contrast to the nodular and trabecular growth pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate this aspect in a series of primary T1G3 BC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical and histopathological characteristics of @entity1 with initial T1G3 BC treated between 1990 and 2007 at a single institute were retrospectively analysed. After independent blinded reassessment by two uropathologists, 205 @entity1 were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was 6.7 years (range 0.4-13.2 years). All @entity1 underwent transurethral resection of the bladder and opted for either initial cystectomy (19%) or repeat resection followed by adjuvant Bacillus Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) instillation therapy (81%). In total, 34% of @entity1 were cystectomized. RESULTS: The most common invasion subtype was nodular (43.9%), followed by infiltrative (42.0%) and trabecular (14.1%) growth patterns. Progression and recurrence-free survival did not differ. However, @entity5 -specific survival rate was statistically significantly worse in infiltrative (59.3%) than in nodular (91.1%) and trabecular (86.2%) subtypes. These results were detected in the @entity1 subgroups with initial radical cystectomy (p<0.01) and a primary bladder-sparing approach (p=0.02). In multivariate analysis of @entity5 in situ and growth pattern showed statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Tumour invasion pattern may be a strong predictor of @entity5 -specific survival and should be considered in counselling @entity1 in selecting appropriate therapy for T1G3 BC.
Prognostic value of histopathological @entity5 growth patterns at the invasion front of T1G3 XXXX .
[ "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['cancer', 'cancer-specific survival, carcinoma', 'tumour']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'patient']", "@entity150 :: ('MESH:D001749', 'Disease') :: ['urothelial carcinoma of the bladder']" ]
@entity150 :: (MESH:D001749,Disease) :: ['urothelial carcinoma of the bladder']
OBJECTIVE: The course of non-muscle-invasive @entity150 (BC) staged T1G3 is hardly predictable and treatment is subject of intensive debate. In muscle-invasive BC, the infiltrative growth pattern at the @entity5 invasion front was able to predict @entity1 ' survival, in contrast to the nodular and trabecular growth pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate this aspect in a series of primary T1G3 BC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical and histopathological characteristics of @entity1 with initial T1G3 BC treated between 1990 and 2007 at a single institute were retrospectively analysed. After independent blinded reassessment by two uropathologists, 205 @entity1 were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was 6.7 years (range 0.4-13.2 years). All @entity1 underwent transurethral resection of the bladder and opted for either initial cystectomy (19%) or repeat resection followed by adjuvant Bacillus Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) instillation therapy (81%). In total, 34% of @entity1 were cystectomized. RESULTS: The most common invasion subtype was nodular (43.9%), followed by infiltrative (42.0%) and trabecular (14.1%) growth patterns. Progression and recurrence-free survival did not differ. However, @entity5 -specific survival rate was statistically significantly worse in infiltrative (59.3%) than in nodular (91.1%) and trabecular (86.2%) subtypes. These results were detected in the @entity1 subgroups with initial radical cystectomy (p<0.01) and a primary bladder-sparing approach (p=0.02). In multivariate analysis of @entity5 in situ and growth pattern showed statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Tumour invasion pattern may be a strong predictor of @entity5 -specific survival and should be considered in counselling @entity1 in selecting appropriate therapy for T1G3 BC.
Prognostic value of histopathological XXXX growth patterns at the invasion front of T1G3 @entity150 .
[ "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['cancer', 'cancer-specific survival, carcinoma', 'tumour']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'patient']", "@entity150 :: ('MESH:D001749', 'Disease') :: ['urothelial carcinoma of the bladder']" ]
@entity5 :: (MESH:D009369,Disease) :: ['tumour']
OBJECTIVES: @entity151 ( @entity151 ) and @entity152 ( @entity152 ) are categorized as high-grade @entity5 because of their poor prognosis compared with those of other @entity5 of the lung. There have been no clinicopathological studies focusing on small-sized high-grade @entity5 . We analysed clinicopathological features of peripheral, small-sized high-grade @entity5 of the lung retrospectively. METHODS: A total of 28 @entity1 with peripheral, small-sized @entity5 (maximum diameter of 3.0 cm) of @entity151 and @entity152 underwent surgical resection in our hospital and were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: Of 28 @entity5 , 18 were @entity151 and 10 were @entity152 . In terms of serum @entity5 marker levels, carcinoembryonic antigen was elevated in 50% of both types of @entity5 , and progastrin-releasing peptide was elevated in 28% of @entity151 and 10% of @entity152 . With regard to preoperative diagnosis, only seven @entity151 cases were correctly diagnosed as @entity151 , but no @entity152 case was correctly diagnosed before surgery. Lymphatic involvement was significantly more frequent in @entity151 than in @entity152 (P = 0.013). Although adjuvant chemotherapy was carried out more frequently in the @entity1 with @entity151 than @entity152 , the recurrence rate after the standard surgery was significantly higher in the @entity1 with @entity151 than @entity152 (P = 0.0037). There was a significant difference between @entity151 and @entity152 in terms of overall survival in clinical-stage IA small-sized @entity5 (P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: In peripheral, small-sized high-grade @entity5 , there are several clinicopathological differences between @entity151 and @entity152 . This study suggested that the prognosis of @entity1 with @entity152 tended to be better than for those with @entity151 in small-sized @entity5 .
A clinicopathological study of peripheral, small-sized high-grade @entity5 of the lung: differences between small-cell lung carcinoma and XXXX .
[ "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumours', 'neuroendocrine tumours', 'tumour']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity151 :: ('MESH:D055752', 'Disease') :: ['SCLC', 'Small-cell lung carcinoma']", "@entity152 :: ('MESH:D018287', 'Disease') :: ['large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma', 'LCNEC']" ]
@entity152 :: (MESH:D018287,Disease) :: ['large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma']
OBJECTIVES: @entity151 ( @entity151 ) and @entity152 ( @entity152 ) are categorized as high-grade @entity5 because of their poor prognosis compared with those of other @entity5 of the lung. There have been no clinicopathological studies focusing on small-sized high-grade @entity5 . We analysed clinicopathological features of peripheral, small-sized high-grade @entity5 of the lung retrospectively. METHODS: A total of 28 @entity1 with peripheral, small-sized @entity5 (maximum diameter of 3.0 cm) of @entity151 and @entity152 underwent surgical resection in our hospital and were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: Of 28 @entity5 , 18 were @entity151 and 10 were @entity152 . In terms of serum @entity5 marker levels, carcinoembryonic antigen was elevated in 50% of both types of @entity5 , and progastrin-releasing peptide was elevated in 28% of @entity151 and 10% of @entity152 . With regard to preoperative diagnosis, only seven @entity151 cases were correctly diagnosed as @entity151 , but no @entity152 case was correctly diagnosed before surgery. Lymphatic involvement was significantly more frequent in @entity151 than in @entity152 (P = 0.013). Although adjuvant chemotherapy was carried out more frequently in the @entity1 with @entity151 than @entity152 , the recurrence rate after the standard surgery was significantly higher in the @entity1 with @entity151 than @entity152 (P = 0.0037). There was a significant difference between @entity151 and @entity152 in terms of overall survival in clinical-stage IA small-sized @entity5 (P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: In peripheral, small-sized high-grade @entity5 , there are several clinicopathological differences between @entity151 and @entity152 . This study suggested that the prognosis of @entity1 with @entity152 tended to be better than for those with @entity151 in small-sized @entity5 .
A clinicopathological study of peripheral, small-sized high-grade XXXX of the lung: differences between small-cell lung carcinoma and @entity152 .
[ "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumours', 'neuroendocrine tumours', 'tumour']", "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity151 :: ('MESH:D055752', 'Disease') :: ['SCLC', 'Small-cell lung carcinoma']", "@entity152 :: ('MESH:D018287', 'Disease') :: ['large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma', 'LCNEC']" ]
@entity5 :: (MESH:D009369,Disease) :: ['neuroendocrine tumours']
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of extended cervical mediastinoscopy (ECM) in the staging of @entity153 ( @entity153 ) of the left lung based on our updated experience. METHODS: From 1998 to 2003, 89 @entity1 underwent routine ECM for staging of @entity153 of the left lung. In 2004, routine positron emission tomography (PET) was included in our staging protocol and ECM was reserved for those with positive mediastinal or hilar PET images, large lymph nodes on computed tomography (CT) scan or central @entity5 . Following this protocol, from 2004 to 2010, we performed 132 selective ECM. ECM was considered positive when metastatic nodes or @entity5 involvement directly in the subaortic or para-aortic regions was confirmed pathologically. @entity1 with negative ECM underwent subsequent thoracotomy for @entity5 resection and systematic nodal dissection (SND). RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-one ECMs were performed from 1998 to 2010 (89 routine and 132 selective). In the routine ECM protocol, four cases were positive and thoracotomy was contraindicated. The remaining 85 @entity1 were operated and five had @entity66 in subaortic (LN5) or para-aortic (LN6) stations. In the selective ECM protocol (n = 188), 132 @entity1 underwent ECM and in 19 it was positive; the remaining 113 @entity1 underwent thoracotomy and SND found involved LN5 or LN6 in six @entity1 ; the other 56 @entity1 underwent direct thoracotomy and four had positive LN5 or LN6. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of ECM were 0.67, 1, 1, 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The staging values of routine/selective ECM protocols were 0.44/0.65, 1/1, 1/1, 0.94/0.94 and 0.94/0.95, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Selective ECM protocol according to CT and PET findings has high negative predictive value and accuracy. Therefore, its selective use is recommended because it saves around 30% ECM without decreasing staging values of the current protocol.
Extended cervical mediastinoscopy: mature results of a clinical protocol for staging XXXX of the left lung.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumours', 'tumour']", "@entity153 :: ('MESH:D002283', 'Disease') :: ['BC', 'bronchogenic carcinoma']", "@entity66 :: ('MESH:D004194', 'Disease') :: ['nodal disease']" ]
@entity153 :: (MESH:D002283,Disease) :: ['bronchogenic carcinoma']
@entity130 not amenable to revascularization may leave poor cosmetic and functional results. We used a compound thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap in a 34-year-old, right-handed, male worker with @entity130 . The flap consisted of a thin nonbulky skin component isolated on two perforators in combination with serratus fascia, both pedicled on the thoracodorsal vessels. The mobility of the two flap components allowed the palmar and dorsal part of the fingers to be reconstructed without relying on multiple flaps or anastomoses. The skin component of the TDAP flap was transferred to the @entity154 flap to the dorsal part of the fingers and sutured loosely. Coverage of the serratus anterior fascia was done with split-thickness skin graft. Both components of the flap survived completely. One month after the first operation, the surgical syndactyly between middle and ring finger was separated, one month later the syndactyly between the ring and little finger. Good coverage of the soft tissue defects with good function could be achieved. There were no donor-site problems. Therefore, we consider the compound TDAP flap as a useful method that provides functional and cosmeticcoverage of severe @entity155 injury of @entity156 . (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2009.
Treatment of XXXX injury of three fingers with a compound thoracodorsal artery perforator flap including serratus anterior fascia.
[ "@entity154 :: ('MESH:D000013', 'Disease') :: ['palmar defect, the serratus fascia']", "@entity155 :: ('MESH:D014084', 'Disease') :: ['avulsion']", "@entity156 :: ('MESH:D000015', 'Disease') :: ['multiple digits']", "@entity130 :: ('MESH:D014947', 'Disease') :: ['Complete degloving injury of three digits', 'traumatic degloving injury']" ]
@entity155 :: (MESH:D014084,Disease) :: ['avulsion']
BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to identify clinical features and independent predictors of survival in @entity1 with bone @entity3 from @entity157 ( @entity157 ). METHODS: @entity1 (n = 205) with bone @entity3 from @entity157 received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) between 1997 and 2007. Demographic variables, laboratory values, @entity5 characteristics, and treatment modalities were determined before EBRT. The total radiation dose ranged from 32 to 66 grays (Gy) (median, 50 Gy) and was focused on the involved bone. RESULTS: In 80 of 205 (39.0%) @entity1 with bone metastasis from @entity157 , @entity5 were characterized by osteolytic, expansile soft-tissue masses. Overall @entity158 relief from EBRT occurred in 204 @entity1 (99.5%). No consistent dose-response relation was found for palliation of bone @entity3 with doses between 32 and 66 Gy (P = .068), but the retreatment rate was higher in @entity1 with expansile soft tissue. On univariate analysis, shorter survival was associated with poorer @entity159 ( @entity159 ), higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and @entity160 levels, @entity5 size >5 cm, uncontrolled @entity5 , multifocal @entity79 , involvement of spinal vertebrae, extraosseous @entity3 , and a shorter disease-free interval after an initial diagnosis of @entity157 . On multivariate analysis, pretreatment-unfavorable predictors were associated with lower @entity159 , higher @entity5 markers, and uncontrolled @entity5 when @entity159 was considered. The median survival was 7.4 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study provide detailed information regarding clinical features, survival outcomes, and prognostic factors for @entity157 with bone @entity3 in a relatively large cohort of @entity1 treated with EBRT. These prognostic factors will help in determining which dose and fraction are appropriate.
Clinical features and prognostic factors in @entity1 with bone @entity3 from XXXX receiving external beam radiotherapy.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor', 'intrahepatic tumors', 'intrahepatic tumor', 'tumors']", "@entity79 :: ('MESH:D001847', 'Disease') :: ['bone lesions']", "@entity160 :: ('174', 'Gene') :: ['alpha-fetoprotein']", "@entity158 :: ('MESH:D010146', 'Disease') :: ['pain']", "@entity3 :: ('MESH:D009362', 'Disease') :: ['metastases']", "@entity157 :: ('MESH:D006528', 'Disease') :: ['HCC', 'hepatocellular carcinoma']", "@entity159 :: ('MESH:D013226', 'Disease') :: ['Karnofsky performance status', 'KPS']" ]
@entity157 :: (MESH:D006528,Disease) :: ['hepatocellular carcinoma']
BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to identify clinical features and independent predictors of survival in @entity1 with bone @entity3 from @entity157 ( @entity157 ). METHODS: @entity1 (n = 205) with bone @entity3 from @entity157 received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) between 1997 and 2007. Demographic variables, laboratory values, @entity5 characteristics, and treatment modalities were determined before EBRT. The total radiation dose ranged from 32 to 66 grays (Gy) (median, 50 Gy) and was focused on the involved bone. RESULTS: In 80 of 205 (39.0%) @entity1 with bone metastasis from @entity157 , @entity5 were characterized by osteolytic, expansile soft-tissue masses. Overall @entity158 relief from EBRT occurred in 204 @entity1 (99.5%). No consistent dose-response relation was found for palliation of bone @entity3 with doses between 32 and 66 Gy (P = .068), but the retreatment rate was higher in @entity1 with expansile soft tissue. On univariate analysis, shorter survival was associated with poorer @entity159 ( @entity159 ), higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and @entity160 levels, @entity5 size >5 cm, uncontrolled @entity5 , multifocal @entity79 , involvement of spinal vertebrae, extraosseous @entity3 , and a shorter disease-free interval after an initial diagnosis of @entity157 . On multivariate analysis, pretreatment-unfavorable predictors were associated with lower @entity159 , higher @entity5 markers, and uncontrolled @entity5 when @entity159 was considered. The median survival was 7.4 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study provide detailed information regarding clinical features, survival outcomes, and prognostic factors for @entity157 with bone @entity3 in a relatively large cohort of @entity1 treated with EBRT. These prognostic factors will help in determining which dose and fraction are appropriate.
Clinical features and prognostic factors in @entity1 with bone XXXX from @entity157 receiving external beam radiotherapy.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor', 'intrahepatic tumors', 'intrahepatic tumor', 'tumors']", "@entity79 :: ('MESH:D001847', 'Disease') :: ['bone lesions']", "@entity160 :: ('174', 'Gene') :: ['alpha-fetoprotein']", "@entity158 :: ('MESH:D010146', 'Disease') :: ['pain']", "@entity3 :: ('MESH:D009362', 'Disease') :: ['metastases']", "@entity157 :: ('MESH:D006528', 'Disease') :: ['HCC', 'hepatocellular carcinoma']", "@entity159 :: ('MESH:D013226', 'Disease') :: ['Karnofsky performance status', 'KPS']" ]
@entity3 :: (MESH:D009362,Disease) :: ['metastases']
BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to identify clinical features and independent predictors of survival in @entity1 with bone @entity3 from @entity157 ( @entity157 ). METHODS: @entity1 (n = 205) with bone @entity3 from @entity157 received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) between 1997 and 2007. Demographic variables, laboratory values, @entity5 characteristics, and treatment modalities were determined before EBRT. The total radiation dose ranged from 32 to 66 grays (Gy) (median, 50 Gy) and was focused on the involved bone. RESULTS: In 80 of 205 (39.0%) @entity1 with bone metastasis from @entity157 , @entity5 were characterized by osteolytic, expansile soft-tissue masses. Overall @entity158 relief from EBRT occurred in 204 @entity1 (99.5%). No consistent dose-response relation was found for palliation of bone @entity3 with doses between 32 and 66 Gy (P = .068), but the retreatment rate was higher in @entity1 with expansile soft tissue. On univariate analysis, shorter survival was associated with poorer @entity159 ( @entity159 ), higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and @entity160 levels, @entity5 size >5 cm, uncontrolled @entity5 , multifocal @entity79 , involvement of spinal vertebrae, extraosseous @entity3 , and a shorter disease-free interval after an initial diagnosis of @entity157 . On multivariate analysis, pretreatment-unfavorable predictors were associated with lower @entity159 , higher @entity5 markers, and uncontrolled @entity5 when @entity159 was considered. The median survival was 7.4 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study provide detailed information regarding clinical features, survival outcomes, and prognostic factors for @entity157 with bone @entity3 in a relatively large cohort of @entity1 treated with EBRT. These prognostic factors will help in determining which dose and fraction are appropriate.
Clinical features and prognostic factors in XXXX with bone @entity3 from @entity157 receiving external beam radiotherapy.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor', 'intrahepatic tumors', 'intrahepatic tumor', 'tumors']", "@entity79 :: ('MESH:D001847', 'Disease') :: ['bone lesions']", "@entity160 :: ('174', 'Gene') :: ['alpha-fetoprotein']", "@entity158 :: ('MESH:D010146', 'Disease') :: ['pain']", "@entity3 :: ('MESH:D009362', 'Disease') :: ['metastases']", "@entity157 :: ('MESH:D006528', 'Disease') :: ['HCC', 'hepatocellular carcinoma']", "@entity159 :: ('MESH:D013226', 'Disease') :: ['Karnofsky performance status', 'KPS']" ]
@entity1 :: (9606,Species) :: ['patients']
BACKGROUND: Despite its estimated high heritability, the genetic architecture leading to differences in cognitive performance remains poorly understood. Different cortical regions play important roles in normal cognitive functioning and impairment. Recently, we reported on sets of regionally enriched genes in three different cortical areas (frontomedial, temporal and occipital cortices) of the adult @entity35 brain. It has been suggested that genes preferentially, or specifically, expressed in one region or organ reflect functional specialisation. Employing a gene-based approach to the analysis, we used the regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG) sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious @entity146 @entity161 ( @entity161 ) (n = 3 samples) and @entity162 (BP) (n = 3 samples), to which @entity73 is linked. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the single gene level, the temporal cortex enriched gene @entity163 ( @entity163 ) showed the strongest overall association, namely to a test of verbal intelligence (Vocabulary, P = 7.7E-04). We also applied gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to test the candidate genes, as gene sets, for enrichment of association signal in the NCNG GWAS and in GWASs of BP and of @entity161 . We found that genes differentially expressed in the temporal cortex showed a significant enrichment of association signal in a test measure of non-verbal intelligence (Reasoning) in the NCNG sample. CONCLUSION: Our gene-based approach suggests that @entity163 could be involved in verbal intelligence differences, while the genes enriched in the temporal cortex might be important to intellectual functions as measured by a test of reasoning in the healthy population. These findings warrant further replication in independent samples on cognitive traits.
Gene-based analysis of regionally enriched cortical genes in GWAS data sets of cognitive traits and XXXX .
[ "@entity162 :: ('MESH:D001714', 'Disease') :: ['bipolar affective disorder']", "@entity163 :: ('309288(Tax:10116)', 'Gene') :: ['RAR-related orphan receptor B', 'RORB']", "@entity146 :: ('MESH:D001523', 'Disease') :: ['psychiatric disorders']", "@entity73 :: ('MESH:D003072', 'Disease') :: ['cognitive impairment']", "@entity161 :: ('MESH:D012559', 'Disease') :: ['schizophrenia', 'SCZ']", "@entity35 :: ('10116', 'Species') :: ['rat']" ]
@entity146 :: (MESH:D001523,Disease) :: ['psychiatric disorders']
@entity1 education is a key component of @entity6 care. Limits in resources often prevent the participation of many @entity1 with @entity164 2 @entity6 to structured education programs. The identification of predictors of response to group education could help in selecting those @entity1 in whom the intervention is more cost-effective. A structured interactive group program was proposed to a consecutive series of 150 @entity164 2 @entity6 @entity1 , who were then followed prospectively in 24 months, with measurements of HbA1c, BMI, quality of life, eating habits. For comparison, another consecutive series of 113 @entity1 who had received no intervention was also observed for 12 months. A significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the intervention group at 12 and 24 months (from 7.5 1.4 to 6.9 1.2 and 6.6 1.1% at 12 and 24 months, respectively, both P < 0.01), with no variation in BMI and quality of life. A sustained reduction in total energy, protein, and fat intake was observed after education. The proportion of success (HbA1c < 7% and/or HbA1c reduction from baseline > 1%) in the intervention group was 60.7% (vs. 38.1% in controls) and 63.3% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. In the intervention group, @entity1 with success at 12 months showed lower baseline HbA1c, BMI, duration of @entity6 , protein, and @entity165 intake. @entity1 with a lower duration of @entity6 appear to have a greater response to structured group education, whereas age is not a predictor of response. Therefore, educational intervention should be planned in the earlier phases of the disease.
Targeting educational therapy for XXXX 2 @entity6 : identification of predictors of therapeutic success.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients', 'Patient']", "@entity165 :: ('MESH:D002784', 'Chemical') :: ['cholesterol']", "@entity164 :: ('MESH:D017827', 'Disease') :: ['type']", "@entity6 :: ('MESH:D003920', 'Disease') :: ['diabetes']" ]
@entity164 :: (MESH:D017827,Disease) :: ['type']
@entity1 education is a key component of @entity6 care. Limits in resources often prevent the participation of many @entity1 with @entity164 2 @entity6 to structured education programs. The identification of predictors of response to group education could help in selecting those @entity1 in whom the intervention is more cost-effective. A structured interactive group program was proposed to a consecutive series of 150 @entity164 2 @entity6 @entity1 , who were then followed prospectively in 24 months, with measurements of HbA1c, BMI, quality of life, eating habits. For comparison, another consecutive series of 113 @entity1 who had received no intervention was also observed for 12 months. A significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the intervention group at 12 and 24 months (from 7.5 1.4 to 6.9 1.2 and 6.6 1.1% at 12 and 24 months, respectively, both P < 0.01), with no variation in BMI and quality of life. A sustained reduction in total energy, protein, and fat intake was observed after education. The proportion of success (HbA1c < 7% and/or HbA1c reduction from baseline > 1%) in the intervention group was 60.7% (vs. 38.1% in controls) and 63.3% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. In the intervention group, @entity1 with success at 12 months showed lower baseline HbA1c, BMI, duration of @entity6 , protein, and @entity165 intake. @entity1 with a lower duration of @entity6 appear to have a greater response to structured group education, whereas age is not a predictor of response. Therefore, educational intervention should be planned in the earlier phases of the disease.
Targeting educational therapy for @entity164 2 XXXX : identification of predictors of therapeutic success.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients', 'Patient']", "@entity165 :: ('MESH:D002784', 'Chemical') :: ['cholesterol']", "@entity164 :: ('MESH:D017827', 'Disease') :: ['type']", "@entity6 :: ('MESH:D003920', 'Disease') :: ['diabetes']" ]
@entity6 :: (MESH:D003920,Disease) :: ['diabetes']
INTRODUCTION: Despite an increasing recognition of @entity166 ( @entity166 ) in sub-Saharan Africa, there is lack of well established surveillance systems for these diseases. In an effort to understand burden of @entity166 in low-resource settings, the African Field Epidemiology Network launched a pilot project in 2009 to routinely capture @entity1 data in the @entity6 clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and, the gender- and age- specific distributions of common NCD risk factors among @entity6 @entity1 attending a referral hospital in rural Uganda. METHODS: A relational Access database was designed to collect information on NCD risk factors. These included smoking, @entity167 use, family history of @entity6 , @entity101 and body mass index. Univariate analyses were done and differences in proportions tested using chi-square P-values in STATA version 10.0. RESULTS: A total of 1,383 @entity1 records were analyzed, with 61% being female and mean age of 39.6 years ( @entity168 15.8). About 24% had a family history of @entity6 . Smoking and @entity167 use were more prevalent among males (16.6% vs. 8.3%; p<0.0001) and (30.7 vs. 13%; p<0.0001) respectively. Overweight, @entity28 and @entity101 were more prevalent in @entity1 (18.6% vs. 9.7%, 8.6% vs. 2.6%; p<0.0001, and 40.3% vs. 33%, p=0.018) respectively. CONCLUSION: This pilot project shows that use of hospital-based data is a valuable initial step in setting up surveillance systems for @entity166 in Uganda. Risk factors for @entity166 were both age and gender-specific and predominantly related to lifestyle. This suggests the need to design gender-sensitive prevention interventions that target lifestyle modification in this setting.
Risk factors for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda: a pilot surveillance project among XXXX @entity1 at a referral hospital clinic.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['women', 'patients', 'patient']", "@entity101 :: ('MESH:D006973', 'Disease') :: ['hypertension']", "@entity6 :: ('MESH:D003920', 'Disease') :: ['diabetic', 'diabetes']", "@entity28 :: ('MESH:D009765', 'Disease') :: ['obesity']", "@entity167 :: ('CHEBI:16236', 'Chemical') :: ['alcohol']", "@entity168 :: ('MESH:D029461', 'Disease') :: ['SD']", "@entity166 :: ('MESH:D003141', 'Disease') :: ['non- communicable diseases', 'NCDs']" ]
@entity6 :: (MESH:D003920,Disease) :: ['diabetes']
INTRODUCTION: Despite an increasing recognition of @entity166 ( @entity166 ) in sub-Saharan Africa, there is lack of well established surveillance systems for these diseases. In an effort to understand burden of @entity166 in low-resource settings, the African Field Epidemiology Network launched a pilot project in 2009 to routinely capture @entity1 data in the @entity6 clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and, the gender- and age- specific distributions of common NCD risk factors among @entity6 @entity1 attending a referral hospital in rural Uganda. METHODS: A relational Access database was designed to collect information on NCD risk factors. These included smoking, @entity167 use, family history of @entity6 , @entity101 and body mass index. Univariate analyses were done and differences in proportions tested using chi-square P-values in STATA version 10.0. RESULTS: A total of 1,383 @entity1 records were analyzed, with 61% being female and mean age of 39.6 years ( @entity168 15.8). About 24% had a family history of @entity6 . Smoking and @entity167 use were more prevalent among males (16.6% vs. 8.3%; p<0.0001) and (30.7 vs. 13%; p<0.0001) respectively. Overweight, @entity28 and @entity101 were more prevalent in @entity1 (18.6% vs. 9.7%, 8.6% vs. 2.6%; p<0.0001, and 40.3% vs. 33%, p=0.018) respectively. CONCLUSION: This pilot project shows that use of hospital-based data is a valuable initial step in setting up surveillance systems for @entity166 in Uganda. Risk factors for @entity166 were both age and gender-specific and predominantly related to lifestyle. This suggests the need to design gender-sensitive prevention interventions that target lifestyle modification in this setting.
Risk factors for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda: a pilot surveillance project among @entity6 XXXX at a referral hospital clinic.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['women', 'patients', 'patient']", "@entity101 :: ('MESH:D006973', 'Disease') :: ['hypertension']", "@entity6 :: ('MESH:D003920', 'Disease') :: ['diabetic', 'diabetes']", "@entity28 :: ('MESH:D009765', 'Disease') :: ['obesity']", "@entity167 :: ('CHEBI:16236', 'Chemical') :: ['alcohol']", "@entity168 :: ('MESH:D029461', 'Disease') :: ['SD']", "@entity166 :: ('MESH:D003141', 'Disease') :: ['non- communicable diseases', 'NCDs']" ]
@entity1 :: (9606,Species) :: ['patients']
The management of the contralateral region in a @entity1 with a known @entity169 is a debated issue among paediatric surgeons. The available literature indicates that the perspective of the @entity1 's parents is seldom. This study was performed to evaluate parents' views on this topic. After the Ethical Committee's approval, 100 consecutive @entity1 under 12 years of age with a @entity169 were studied prospectively from March 2010 to September 2010. After an oral interview, a study form was given to the parents about the nature of an @entity169 , the incidence of 20 to 90% of a contralateral patency of the peritoneal-vaginal duct and the possible surgical options (inguinal repair or laparoscopic repair). The parents' decision and surgical results were analyzed. Eighty-nine parents chose laparoscopic approach, and 11 parents preferred inguinal exploration. Regarding their motives, all 89 parents requesting laparoscopic approach indicated that the convenience and risk to have a second anaesthesia was the primary reason of their decision. The 11 parents who preferred inguinal approach indicated that the fear of a new surgical technology was their primary reason. Conclusion There is no consensus about the management of paediatric @entity1 with a @entity169 . We believe that a correct decision-making strategy for parents' choice is to propose them the both procedures. Our study shows that parents prefer laparoscopic inspection and repair in the vast majority of cases.
XXXX : laparoscopic or inguinal approach. Decision making strategy: a prospective study.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['child', 'patients']", "@entity169 :: ('MESH:D006552', 'Disease') :: ['inguinal hernia', 'unilateral inguinal hernia']" ]
@entity169 :: (MESH:D006552,Disease) :: ['Unilateral inguinal hernia']
Guidelines for @entity170 treatment are available; however, these guidelines suggest when to treat @entity1 , without specific recommendations on what drugs to prescribe in various situations. Choice of @entity170 therapy should be individualized based on consideration of the efficacy, safety, cost, convenience (i.e., dosing regimen and delivery), and other non- @entity170 -related benefits associated with each agent. @entity171 , administered orally or intravenously, should be considered first-line therapy, particularly in older @entity1 , owing to their efficacy across multiple skeletal sites; however, there are potential short- and long-term safety concerns. Selective @entity172 receptor modulators should be considered for younger postmenopausal @entity1 at greater risk for @entity173 or as second-line therapy in @entity1 who cannot tolerate first-line therapies. Low-dose hormone therapy may be appropriate as prevention in @entity1 with menopausal symptoms at lower @entity174 risk. @entity175 , with its relatively benign safety profile, may be appropriate for elderly @entity1 who may have difficulty following the complex dosing schedules of oral @entity171 . Anabolic therapies such as teriparatide should be considered for high-risk @entity1 . @entity176 (approved outside of North America), with both anabolic and antiresorptive properties, may be appropriate for @entity1 who cannot tolerate or are unable to take @entity171 . Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody appropriate for @entity1 at high @entity174 risk or who have failed other @entity170 therapies, and may be considered in @entity1 with @entity177 . It will be important to incorporate newer agents (e.g., @entity178 , tissue selective @entity172 complex) into this individualized treatment paradigm to optimize clinical outcomes in @entity1 with @entity170 .
Individualizing XXXX therapy.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['women', 'patients']", "@entity172 :: ('MESH:D004967', 'Chemical') :: ['estrogen']", "@entity175 :: ('MESH:D002116', 'Chemical') :: ['Calcitonin']", "@entity178 :: ('MESH:C447119', 'Chemical') :: ['bazedoxifene']", "@entity171 :: ('MESH:D004164', 'Chemical') :: ['bisphosphonates', 'Bisphosphonates']", "@entity174 :: ('MESH:D050723', 'Disease') :: ['fracture']", "@entity170 :: ('MESH:D010024', 'Disease') :: ['osteoporosis']", "@entity177 :: ('MESH:D051437', 'Disease') :: ['renal insufficiency']", "@entity173 :: ('MESH:D006620', 'Disease') :: ['vertebral than hip fractures']", "@entity176 :: ('MESH:C081587', 'Chemical') :: ['Strontium ranelate']" ]
@entity170 :: (MESH:D010024,Disease) :: ['osteoporosis']
Combined anterior and posterior surgery is useful for fixed @entity85 . The specific indications for and clinical outcome parameters after combined surgery for @entity1 with @entity179 have not been well defined. We retrospectively reviewed 14 consecutive @entity1 with @entity179 treated with combined anterior and posterior arthrodesis with instrumentation to the pelvis. Mean @entity1 age was 65 years (range, 49-88 years) and mean clinical follow-up was 44 months (range, 30-78 months). Mean preoperative sagittal imbalance was 4.6 cm (range, 1.5-15.5 cm), which was maintained to 2.5 cm (range, 0.5-8 cm) at last follow-up. Mean preoperative Cobb angle of the major curve was 46 degrees (range, 20 degrees-67 degrees), which improved to 6 degrees (range, 2 degrees-30 degrees) at last follow-up. The highest total postoperative scores were reported in @entity1 with maximal correction of their curves at last follow-up. Correlation analysis of clinical outcome domains demonstrated that @entity1 satisfaction with surgical management correlated strongly with domains of @entity158 (r=0.86; P=.008) and weakly with domains of function (r=0.3; P=.02). @entity1 with @entity179 may be effectively treated with combined anterior and posterior surgery with instrumentation to the pelvis. Our results at a minimum of 2-year follow-up indicate that overall clinical outcomes are best in cases with maximal curve correction, and overall @entity1 satisfaction with surgery is correlated with relief from @entity158 .
XXXX : outcomes of combined anterior and posterior pelvis surgery with minimum 2-year follow-up.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients', 'patient']", "@entity85 :: ('MESH:D009140', 'Disease') :: ['deformity of the lumbar spine']", "@entity179 :: ('MESH:D019636', 'Disease') :: ['degenerative lumbar scoliosis']", "@entity158 :: ('MESH:D010146', 'Disease') :: ['pain']" ]
@entity179 :: (MESH:D019636,Disease) :: ['Lumbar degenerative scoliosis']
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to compare the efficiency of slow freezing and vitrification based on survival, development to blastocysts, and cell numbers of blastocysts. Changes in embryonic gene expression in fresh and frozen-thawed embryos were also examined. METHODS: Eight-cell stage embryos were collected from superovulated female BDF1 @entity19 . The collected embryos were randomly divided into three groups. One group was maintained as fresh controls (n=42), one was frozen by slow freezing (n=43), and one was cooled by vitrification (n=43). After thawing or cooling, survival rates, development to blastocyst, and cell numbers and inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers of blastocysts were compared with those of the control group. The expressions of eight genes ( @entity180 , @entity181 , @entity182 , @entity183 , @entity184 , @entity185 , @entity186 , @entity187 ) were examined by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the fresh and frozen-thawed embryos. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the slow freezing and vitrification groups' survival rate after thawing (88.4% vs. 88.4%), development to blastocyst (100% vs. 97.4%), cell numbers (107.0 21.0 vs. 115.0 19.7), or ICM cell numbers of blastocysts (11.3 5.2 vs. 11.1 3.7). Cell numbers of blastocysts were significantly (p<0.05) lower in the frozen-thawed embryos than the fresh embryos. There were no significant differences in the slow freezing and the vitrification groups' expressions of the eight genes. The expressions of @entity184 and @entity187 were higher in the frozen-thawed embryos than in the fresh embryos but there were no significant differences. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that there were no significant differences between embryos that underwent slow freezing and vitrification.
In vitro development and gene expression of frozen-thawed 8-cell stage XXXX embryos following slow freezing or vitrification.
[ "@entity181 :: ('11799(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Birc5']", "@entity19 :: ('10090', 'Species') :: ['mice']", "@entity180 :: ('19652(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Rbm3']", "@entity185 :: ('12367(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Caspase3']", "@entity184 :: ('12696(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Cirbp', 'CirbP']", "@entity186 :: ('22059(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Trp53']", "@entity187 :: ('15511(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Hsp70.1']", "@entity182 :: ('20655(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Sod1']", "@entity183 :: ('20656(Tax:10090)', 'Gene') :: ['Sod2']" ]
@entity19 :: (10090,Species) :: ['mouse']
OBJECTIVE: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows locally complete excision of @entity188 and provides an alternative to conventional surgery for benign @entity5 . However, its role in the curative treatment of @entity189 is controversial. This paper examines the results of TEM compared with radical surgery (RS) for T1 @entity5 . METHODS: 51 @entity1 with @entity5 treated by RS, or local excision by means of TEM were included. The following parameters were evaluated: operating time, @entity190 , hospital stay and complications, as well as local recurrence rate and survival. RESULTS: 17 @entity1 were treated by RS and 34 by TEM. Operative time, @entity190 , and duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in the TEM group compared with the RS group. In the RS group there were 4 @entity1 with complications which required an operative revision (23.5%), compared to 1 reintervention (2.9%) in the TEM group. Local recurrence was 5.88% (n = 2) in the TEM group compared with none after RS (p = 0.547). The overall survival and disease-free survival showed not significant statistical differences between both groups (p = 0.59; p = 1.000, resp.). CONCLUSIONS: Although local recurrence was only observed after local excision, @entity1 treated with TEM showed no significant differences in terms of overall survival and disease-free survival compared with @entity1 who underwent RS. Inasmuch as local excision represents a minimally invasive technique in terms of morbidity, mortality and functional outcome, TEM should be offered as a valid option for well selected @entity1 with early @entity5 .
Local excision of early XXXX : is transanal endoscopic microsurgery an alternative to radical surgery?
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity190 :: ('MESH:D006473', 'Disease') :: ['blood loss']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumours', 'rectal cancer', 'T1 rectal tumours']", "@entity189 :: ('MESH:D002277', 'Disease') :: ['invasive carcinoma']", "@entity188 :: ('MESH:D012004', 'Disease') :: ['rectal neoplasms']" ]
@entity5 :: (MESH:D009369,Disease) :: ['rectal cancer']
@entity191 is the second most frequent @entity179 . While most cases occur sporadic mutations in a growing number of genes including Parkin ( @entity192 ) and @entity193 ( @entity193 ) have been associated with the disease. Different animal models and cell models like @entity1 skin fibroblasts and recombinant cell lines can be used as model systems for @entity191 . Skin fibroblasts present a system with defined mutations and the cumulative cellular damage of the @entity1 . @entity193 and Parkin genes show relevant expression levels in @entity1 fibroblasts and since both genes participate in stress response pathways, we believe fibroblasts advantageous in order to assess, e.g. the effect of stressors. Furthermore, since a bioenergetic deficit underlies early stage @entity191 , while @entity194 underlies later stages, the use of primary cells seems preferable over the use of @entity5 cell lines. The new option to use fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells redifferentiated into dopaminergic neurons is an additional benefit. However, the use of fibroblast has also some drawbacks. We have investigated @entity193 fibroblasts and they mirror closely the respiratory alterations, the expression profiles, the mitochondrial dynamics pathology and the vulnerability to proteasomal stress that has been documented in other model systems. Fibroblasts from @entity1 with @entity192 , @entity193 , @entity191 , @entity195 , and @entity196 demonstrated a distinct and unique mRNA expression pattern of key genes in @entity179 . Thus, primary skin fibroblasts are a useful @entity191 model, able to serve as a complement to animal mutants, transformed cell lines and @entity1 tissues.
Primary skin fibroblasts as a model of XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'human', 'patient']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor']", "@entity192 :: ('5071', 'Gene') :: ['PARK2']", "@entity191 :: ('MESH:D010300', 'Disease') :: [\"Parkinson's disease\", \"idiopathic Parkinson's disease\"]", "@entity196 :: ('MESH:D020754', 'Disease') :: ['spinocerebellar ataxia type 2']", "@entity193 :: ('65018', 'Gene') :: ['PARK6', 'PINK1']", "@entity179 :: ('MESH:D019636', 'Disease') :: ['neurodegeneration', 'neurodegenerative disorder']", "@entity194 :: ('MESH:D001284', 'Disease') :: ['atrophy']", "@entity195 :: ('MESH:D000544', 'Disease') :: [\"Alzheimer's disease\"]" ]
@entity191 :: (MESH:D010300,Disease) :: ['Parkinson's disease']
@entity197 (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime @entity1 -biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine @entity198 and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the @entity1 -bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of @entity199 from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated @entity200 from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of @entity199 and @entity200 . The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 L cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) =0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 L cm(-2), respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the @entity197 .
Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito XXXX Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['human']", "@entity198 :: ('MESH:D004660', 'Disease') :: ['encephalitis']", "@entity199 :: ('MESH:D039821', 'Chemical') :: ['monoterpenes']", "@entity197 :: ('7160', 'Species') :: ['Asian tiger mosquito', 'Aedes albopictus']", "@entity200 :: ('MESH:D012717', 'Chemical') :: ['sesquiterpenes']" ]
@entity197 :: (7160,Species) :: ['Aedes albopictus']
OBJECTIVES: To measure the sensitivity of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and determine the most appropriate b value for DWI; to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the degree of @entity201 differentiation. METHODS: Preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance examinations were performed for 31 @entity1 with @entity201 . Tumor ADC values were measured, and the signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and signal-intensity ratio between the diffusion-weighted images with various b values as well as the T2-weighted images were calculated. Pathologically confirmed @entity1 were pathologically graded to compare the ADC value with different b values of @entity5 at different degrees of differentiation, and the results were statistically analyzed by using the Friedman test. RESULTS: A total of 29 cases of @entity201 were detected by DWI. As the b value increased, @entity5 signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio between the @entity5 and normal liver gradually decreased, but the @entity5 signal-intensity ratio gradually increased. When b=800 s/ @entity202 , contrast-to-noise ratio between @entity5 and normal liver, @entity5 signal-intensity ratio, and @entity5 signal-to-noise ratio of diffusion-weighted images were all higher than those of T2-weighted images; the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). As the b value increased, the @entity5 ADC value gradually declined. As the degree of differentiation decreased, the @entity5 ADC value declined. CONCLUSION: The b value of 800 s/ @entity202 was the best in DWI of @entity201 ; the lesion ADC value declined as the degree of cancerous tissue differentiation decreased.
Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for detection of XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity201 :: ('MESH:D018281', 'Disease') :: ['extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor']", "@entity202 :: ('10687', 'Gene') :: ['mm2']" ]
@entity201 :: (MESH:D018281,Disease) :: ['extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma']
BACKGROUND: @entity137 ( @entity137 ) is a serious @entity203 that results in @entity204 in approximately 25% to 50% of @entity1 . There is controversy over whether SCORTEN accurately predicts mortality or if treatment interventions such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) can alter mortality. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether SCORTEN accurately predicts mortality in this cohort, whether IVIg improved survival, and which drugs and medical comorbidities impacted mortality. METHODS: We summarize our experience prospectively over 5 years and 82 @entity1 . @entity1 either received supportive care, intravenous immunoglobulin, or @entity205 as treatment. All @entity1 had a SCORTEN on admission, an offending drug on record, and a list of medical comorbidities. RESULTS: Of the 82 @entity1 , 29% died from @entity137 . SCORTEN accurately predicted mortality in this cohort with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 in a receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. A Kaplan-Meier curve did not show improved mortality if @entity1 received IVIg versus supportive care (P = .9). Medications most often responsible for @entity137 were @entity206 / @entity207 , followed by anticonvulsants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and @entity208 . LIMITATIONS: This prospective cohort study design is not as ideal as @entity1 presenting for a randomized controlled trial. CONCLUSIONS: SCORTEN was an accurate predictor of mortality in this cohort. Age older than 40 years, the presence of @entity209 and/or @entity210 , higher body surface area involvement, higher SCORTEN, and higher number of medical comorbidities statistically significantly increased risk of @entity204 . IVIg did not significantly alter mortality. Although the highest number of cases was due to @entity206 / @entity207 , the greatest proportion of @entity204 was due to @entity208 .
XXXX : five years of treatment experience from a burn unit.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients']", "@entity137 :: ('MESH:D064420', 'Disease') :: ['TEN', 'Toxic epidermal necrolysis']", "@entity209 :: ('MESH:D008659', 'Disease') :: ['metabolic syndrome']", "@entity203 :: ('MESH:D003875', 'Disease') :: ['drug eruption']", "@entity205 :: ('MESH:D016572', 'Chemical') :: ['cyclosporine']", "@entity208 :: ('MESH:D000493', 'Chemical') :: ['allopurinol']", "@entity207 :: ('MESH:D013420', 'Chemical') :: ['sulfamethoxazole']", "@entity210 :: ('MESH:D006073', 'Disease') :: ['gout']", "@entity204 :: ('MESH:D003643', 'Disease') :: ['deaths', 'death']", "@entity206 :: ('MESH:D014295', 'Chemical') :: ['trimethoprim']" ]
@entity137 :: (MESH:D064420,Disease) :: ['Toxic epidermal necrolysis']
@entity211 ( @entity212 ) @entity137 was measured in the zebra mussel under varying conditions of pH (6.5, 7.5, or 8.5) and temperature (10, 17, or 25 degrees C). @entity137 decreased significantly with increasing pH at all temperatures. At a given pH level, @entity137 increased significantly with increasing temperature. @entity212 was most toxic at pH 6.5, 25 degrees C and least toxic at pH 8.5, 10 degrees C. Toxicokinetic parameters were determined at trace @entity212 concentrations under each combination of pH and temperature. Increasing temperature generally increased the @entity212 uptake clearance (ku) although elimination rate constants (kd) were unaffected. The effect of pH on toxicokinetic parameters was inconsistent but ku tended to decrease as pH and ionization of @entity212 increased. Lethal body residues (LR50s), estimated from kinetic parameters determined at trace @entity212 concentrations and the LC50 values, varied by a factor of 122 as a function of environmental conditions while LC50s varied by a factor of 381. LR50s were also estimated from the measured @entity212 tissue concentrations and varied by a factor of 8 across conditions. Calculated LR50s were always higher than measured LR50s, determined under identical conditions, by at least a factor of five. However, when LR50 values were recalculated using ku values measured at the LC25 concentration, the resulting adjusted LR50s varied only by a factor of 2.5 across the range of conditions studied and were more consistent with measured LR50 values. Thus, variance in the @entity212 concentration required to produce @entity137 is reduced when LR50s are used in place of LC50s. Further, the method by which lethal residues (LR50 values) are determined can significantly affect the results and their interpretation.
Lethal body residues for XXXX in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) under varying conditions of temperature and pH.
[ "@entity212 :: ('CHEBI:8058', 'Chemical') :: ['PCP']", "@entity211 :: ('MESH:D010416', 'Chemical') :: ['Pentachlorophenol']", "@entity137 :: ('MESH:D064420', 'Disease') :: ['toxicity', 'Toxicity']" ]
@entity211 :: (MESH:D010416,Chemical) :: ['pentachlorophenol']
The 5-year survival rates for cases of @entity213 ( @entity213 ) are only some 60%, mainly because 20%-40% of the @entity1 develop a local relapse in the same or an adjacent anatomic region, even when the surgical margins are histologically @entity5 -free. @entity5 are often discovered in an advanced stage because of the lack of specific symptoms and the diagnostic difficulties. The more advanced the stage of the @entity5 , the more invasive the diagnostic and treatment interventions needed. An early molecular diagnosis is therefore of vital importance in order to increase the survival rate. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient rapid and sensitive mass spectrometric method for the detection of differentially expressed proteins as @entity5 -specific biomarkers in saliva from @entity213 @entity1 . Whole saliva samples were collected from @entity1 with @entity213 and from healthy subjects. The proteins were profiled by using @entity214 PAGE, MALDI @entity215 / @entity215 mass spectrometry and the Mascot database search engine. Several potential @entity5 markers were identified, including @entity216 , @entity217 , @entity218 , @entity219 finger proteins and P53 pathway proteins. All of these proteins play a proven role in @entity5 genesis, and have not been detected previously in saliva. Salivary proteomics is a non-invasive specific method for @entity5 diagnosis and follow-up treatment. It provides facilities for the readily reproducible and reliable @entity5 in early stages.
Mass spectrometry-based salivary proteomics for the discovery of XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity217 :: ('728378', 'Gene') :: ['beta- and gamma-actin']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['Tumours', 'cancer', 'detection of tumours', 'tumour']", "@entity215 :: ('MESH:D013771', 'Disease') :: ['TOF']", "@entity219 :: ('MESH:D015032', 'Chemical') :: ['zinc']", "@entity216 :: ('301', 'Gene') :: ['annexin A1']", "@entity218 :: ('3851;3860', 'Gene') :: ['cytokeratin 4 and 13']", "@entity214 :: ('CHEBI:8984', 'Chemical') :: ['SDS']", "@entity213 :: ('MESH:C535575', 'Disease') :: ['head and neck squamous cell carcinoma', 'HNSCC']" ]
@entity213 :: (MESH:C535575,Disease) :: ['head and neck squamous cell carcinoma']
@entity1 eosinophils have been reported to express both the mRNA and protein for the high affinity IgE receptor ( @entity220 ); it is speculated that this receptor plays a role in eosinophil mediator release in @entity56 . However, questions still remain. How much of the @entity220 protein is actually expressed on the cell surface of the eosinophil? If they are present, are these IgE receptors associated with effector functions of eosinophils? To address these issues, we studied blood eosinophils from @entity1 with ragweed hay @entity221 . A high level of low affinity IgG receptor (FcgammaRII, @entity222 ), but no expression of @entity220 , was detectable on the eosinophil surface by standard FACS analysis. However, after in vitro sensitization with biotinylated chimeric IgE (cIgE), cell-bound cIgE was detected by PE-conjugated streptavidin. This cIgE binding was partially inhibited by anti- @entity220 mAb, suggesting that eosinophils do express minimal amounts of @entity220 detectable only by a sensitive method. Indeed, FACS analysis of whole blood showed that eosinophils express approximately 0.5% of the @entity220 that basophils express. When stimulated with @entity1 IgE or anti-human IgE, these eosinophils did not exert effector functions; there was neither production of @entity223 or @entity224 anion nor any detectable degranulation response. In contrast, eosinophils possessed membrane-bound human IgG and showed functional responses when stimulated with human IgG or anti-human IgG. Thus, IgG and/or cytokines, such as @entity225 , appear to be more important for eosinophil activation in @entity56 than IgE.
Does IgE bind to and activate eosinophils from XXXX with allergy?
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['human', 'patients', 'Human']", "@entity222 :: ('2212', 'Gene') :: ['CD32']", "@entity225 :: ('3567', 'Gene') :: ['IL-5']", "@entity56 :: ('MESH:D004342', 'Disease') :: ['allergic diseases']", "@entity223 :: ('MESH:D017997', 'Chemical') :: ['leukotriene C4']", "@entity224 :: ('MESH:D013481', 'Chemical') :: ['superoxide']", "@entity221 :: ('MESH:D005334', 'Disease') :: ['fever']", "@entity220 :: ('2205', 'Gene') :: ['FcepsilonRI']" ]
@entity1 :: (9606,Species) :: ['patients']
AIMS: To determine if @entity1 with @entity226 ( @entity226 ) treated with corticosteroids develop delayed @entity227 or drug related ocular complications. METHODS: In a multicentre prospective study @entity1 with @entity226 (using precise diagnostic criteria) had ophthalmic evaluations at predetermined intervals up to 1 year. The dose of @entity228 was determined by treating physicians, often outside the study, with the daily dose reduced to the equivalent of 30-40 mg of @entity229 within 5 weeks. Subsequently, treatment guidelines suggested that the dose be reduced as tolerated or the @entity1 was withdrawn from @entity230 in a period not less than 6 months. RESULTS: At presentation, of the 22 @entity1 enrolled, seven @entity1 had nine eyes with @entity130 . Four eyes had improved visual acuity by two lines or more within 1 month of starting corticosteroids. No @entity1 developed late @entity227 as the @entity134 dose was reduced. At 1 year the visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour vision, and threshold perimetry were not significantly different from the 4-5 week determinations. At 1 year, there were no significant @entity231 or glaucomatous changes. At 2 months, there was no difference in systemic complications between @entity1 who received conventional dose (60-80 mg per day) or very high doses (200-1000 mg per day) of corticosteroids at the start or early in the course. CONCLUSIONS: @entity1 with @entity226 related @entity227 can improve with treatment. Corticosteroids with starting doses of 60-1000 mg per day, with reduction to daily doses of 40-50 mg per day given for 4-6 weeks, and gradual dose reduction thereafter, as clinically permitted, did not result in delayed @entity227 . There were no significant drug related ophthalmic complications.
Visual performance in @entity226 ( XXXX ) after 1 year of therapy.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'Patients', 'patient']", "@entity227 :: ('MESH:D014786', 'Disease') :: ['visual loss']", "@entity231 :: ('MESH:D002386', 'Disease') :: ['cataractous']", "@entity229 :: ('MESH:D011241', 'Chemical') :: ['prednisone']", "@entity226 :: ('MESH:D013700', 'Disease') :: ['giant cell arteritis', 'GCA']", "@entity228 :: ('CHEBI:50858', 'Chemical') :: ['corticosteroid']", "@entity134 :: ('CHEBI:35341', 'Chemical') :: ['steroid']", "@entity230 :: ('MESH:D013256', 'Chemical') :: ['steroids']", "@entity130 :: ('MESH:D014947', 'Disease') :: ['ischaemic injury']" ]
@entity226 :: (MESH:D013700,Disease) :: ['temporal arteritis']
AIMS: To determine if @entity1 with @entity226 ( @entity226 ) treated with corticosteroids develop delayed @entity227 or drug related ocular complications. METHODS: In a multicentre prospective study @entity1 with @entity226 (using precise diagnostic criteria) had ophthalmic evaluations at predetermined intervals up to 1 year. The dose of @entity228 was determined by treating physicians, often outside the study, with the daily dose reduced to the equivalent of 30-40 mg of @entity229 within 5 weeks. Subsequently, treatment guidelines suggested that the dose be reduced as tolerated or the @entity1 was withdrawn from @entity230 in a period not less than 6 months. RESULTS: At presentation, of the 22 @entity1 enrolled, seven @entity1 had nine eyes with @entity130 . Four eyes had improved visual acuity by two lines or more within 1 month of starting corticosteroids. No @entity1 developed late @entity227 as the @entity134 dose was reduced. At 1 year the visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour vision, and threshold perimetry were not significantly different from the 4-5 week determinations. At 1 year, there were no significant @entity231 or glaucomatous changes. At 2 months, there was no difference in systemic complications between @entity1 who received conventional dose (60-80 mg per day) or very high doses (200-1000 mg per day) of corticosteroids at the start or early in the course. CONCLUSIONS: @entity1 with @entity226 related @entity227 can improve with treatment. Corticosteroids with starting doses of 60-1000 mg per day, with reduction to daily doses of 40-50 mg per day given for 4-6 weeks, and gradual dose reduction thereafter, as clinically permitted, did not result in delayed @entity227 . There were no significant drug related ophthalmic complications.
Visual performance in XXXX ( @entity226 ) after 1 year of therapy.
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients', 'Patients', 'patient']", "@entity227 :: ('MESH:D014786', 'Disease') :: ['visual loss']", "@entity231 :: ('MESH:D002386', 'Disease') :: ['cataractous']", "@entity229 :: ('MESH:D011241', 'Chemical') :: ['prednisone']", "@entity226 :: ('MESH:D013700', 'Disease') :: ['giant cell arteritis', 'GCA']", "@entity228 :: ('CHEBI:50858', 'Chemical') :: ['corticosteroid']", "@entity134 :: ('CHEBI:35341', 'Chemical') :: ['steroid']", "@entity230 :: ('MESH:D013256', 'Chemical') :: ['steroids']", "@entity130 :: ('MESH:D014947', 'Disease') :: ['ischaemic injury']" ]
@entity226 :: (MESH:D013700,Disease) :: ['giant cell arteritis']
A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of @entity232 was carried out among @entity1 and adults from four villages and one district of Denizli province located in the Southern Aegean Region of @entity233 where 14 @entity1 @entity234 (HVL) cases including 4 adults were reported between 1993 and 2000. Blood samples were taken from 329 @entity1 , 217 adults and 140 @entity235 and a physical examination was also done. Indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for all sera. All 329 sera collected from @entity1 were found to be negative while 2 (0.09%) out of 217 adult sera were found to be seropositive. One seropositive adult @entity1 was confirmed parasitologically as HVL after @entity236 and treated with @entity237 isome while the other was followed only serologically because of the absence of symptoms. The overall @entity235 @entity232 seroprevalence was found to be 20.7%. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps in three out of five study sites and midguts of females were checked for promastigotes after dissection/identification. Eight Phlebotomus species were found in the region. Phlebotomus neglectus and P. papatasi were determined as dominant species with the ratio of 43.52% and 37.35%, respectively. No promastigotes were found in the midgut specimens. In addition, the results showed the presence of vector sand @entity238 species, as well as a high seroprevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies among @entity235 from rural and a suburban area of Denizli province with a large proportion of asymptomatic seropositive @entity235 .
Serological and entomological survey of zoonotic XXXX in Denizli Province, Aegean Region, @entity233 .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['children', 'human', 'patient']", "@entity233 :: ('9103', 'Species') :: ['Turkey']", "@entity235 :: ('9615', 'Species') :: ['canine', 'dogs']", "@entity234 :: ('MESH:D007898', 'Disease') :: ['visceral leishmaniasis']", "@entity232 :: ('MESH:D007896', 'Disease') :: ['leishmaniasis']", "@entity237 :: ('D000666', 'Chemical') :: ['AmB']", "@entity236 :: ('MESH:D001855', 'Disease') :: ['bone marrow aspiration']", "@entity238 :: ('7227', 'Species') :: ['fly']" ]
@entity234 :: (MESH:D007898,Disease) :: ['visceral leishmaniasis']
A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of @entity232 was carried out among @entity1 and adults from four villages and one district of Denizli province located in the Southern Aegean Region of @entity233 where 14 @entity1 @entity234 (HVL) cases including 4 adults were reported between 1993 and 2000. Blood samples were taken from 329 @entity1 , 217 adults and 140 @entity235 and a physical examination was also done. Indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for all sera. All 329 sera collected from @entity1 were found to be negative while 2 (0.09%) out of 217 adult sera were found to be seropositive. One seropositive adult @entity1 was confirmed parasitologically as HVL after @entity236 and treated with @entity237 isome while the other was followed only serologically because of the absence of symptoms. The overall @entity235 @entity232 seroprevalence was found to be 20.7%. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps in three out of five study sites and midguts of females were checked for promastigotes after dissection/identification. Eight Phlebotomus species were found in the region. Phlebotomus neglectus and P. papatasi were determined as dominant species with the ratio of 43.52% and 37.35%, respectively. No promastigotes were found in the midgut specimens. In addition, the results showed the presence of vector sand @entity238 species, as well as a high seroprevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies among @entity235 from rural and a suburban area of Denizli province with a large proportion of asymptomatic seropositive @entity235 .
Serological and entomological survey of zoonotic @entity234 in Denizli Province, Aegean Region, XXXX .
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['children', 'human', 'patient']", "@entity233 :: ('9103', 'Species') :: ['Turkey']", "@entity235 :: ('9615', 'Species') :: ['canine', 'dogs']", "@entity234 :: ('MESH:D007898', 'Disease') :: ['visceral leishmaniasis']", "@entity232 :: ('MESH:D007896', 'Disease') :: ['leishmaniasis']", "@entity237 :: ('D000666', 'Chemical') :: ['AmB']", "@entity236 :: ('MESH:D001855', 'Disease') :: ['bone marrow aspiration']", "@entity238 :: ('7227', 'Species') :: ['fly']" ]
@entity233 :: (9103,Species) :: ['Turkey']
OBJECTIVE: We studied whether whirl baths with plain water or with water containing pine oil or valerian have a different influence on @entity158 , disturbed sleep or tender point count. METHODS: A randomized, comparative and investigator-blinded study was performed. Out- @entity1 with generalized @entity239 were randomized into three treatment groups. INTERVENTIONS: Therapy consisted of either whirl bath with plain water or with the addition of pine oil or valerian. The baths were carried out 10 times, three times a week. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: General @entity158 , change of @entity158 intensity during the day, general well-being and occurrence of disturbed sleep were recorded before and after the therapy. The number of tender points was assessed by digital palpation, the @entity158 threshold on the shinbone and the middle part of the deltoid muscle was measured by the dolorimeter of A. Fischer. The same instrument was used for recording @entity158 threshold and @entity158 tolerance of both trapezius muscles. The tissue compliance of these muscles was measured as well. RESULTS: 30 out of 39 @entity1 included in the study were evaluated statistically. After treatment with @entity240 (n = 12) well-being and sleep were significantly improved and also the tender point count decreased significantly. Pine oil added to the bath water (n = 7) resulted in a significant improvement of well-being, but unfortunately also in a significant decrease of @entity158 threshold of the shinbone and the right deltoid muscle. Whirl bath in plain water (n = 11) reduced general and maximum @entity158 intensity significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Our cautious conclusion of this study is - with respect to the small number of treated @entity1 - that different effects of whirl baths with or without medicinal bath oils can be detected in @entity239 @entity1 . Plain water baths modify the @entity158 intensity, medicinal baths improve well-being and sleep.
[Medicinal baths for treatment of generalized XXXX ].
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity239 :: ('MESH:D005356', 'Disease') :: ['fibromyalgia']", "@entity240 :: ('OMIM:613339', 'Disease') :: ['valerian bath']", "@entity158 :: ('MESH:D010146', 'Disease') :: ['pain']" ]
@entity239 :: (MESH:D005356,Disease) :: ['fibromyalgia']
OBJECTIVE: @entity241 ( @entity241 ) is a relatively rare, slow-growing, fibrohistiocytic @entity242 of intermediate @entity5 . The @entity5 appears most frequently on the trunk and extremities as a slow-growing indurated plaque or nodule. It appears mostly between the second and fifth decades of life. METHODS: This is a case presentation of a 59-year-old @entity1 with a 10 x 12 cm dermal erythematous plaque on the anterior chest wall. RESULTS: The @entity1 has a two year history of painless @entity5 on the chest. The lesion started as a small erythematous plaque and gradually increased in size. At that time the histologic examination revealed a benign @entity82 . Less than two years later the lesion was firm, painless to palpation and movable over deeper structures. The second histologic examination revealed a @entity243 . The third incisional biopsy was diagnostic for @entity241 showing a @entity5 consiting of a storiform pattern with cartwheel-like cells arranged around collagenous hubs. The @entity1 underwent a standard surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: We report an interesting case of @entity241 where limitations of standard vertical histology section resulted in postponed conformation of the diagnosis.
[ XXXX : case report].
[ "@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['woman', 'patient']", "@entity82 :: ('MESH:D005355', 'Disease') :: ['fibrous histiocytoma']", "@entity242 :: ('MESH:D012509', 'Disease') :: ['sarcoma']", "@entity5 :: ('MESH:D009369', 'Disease') :: ['tumor', 'dermal tumor', 'malignancy']", "@entity241 :: ('MESH:D018223', 'Disease') :: ['Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans', 'dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans', 'DFSP']", "@entity243 :: ('MESH:D018208', 'Disease') :: ['myxoid liposarcoma']" ]
@entity241 :: (MESH:D018223,Disease) :: ['Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans']

Dataset Card for "biomrc"

Dataset Summary

We introduce BIOMRC, a large-scale cloze-style biomedical MRC dataset. Care was taken to reduce noise, compared to the previous BIOREAD dataset of Pappas et al. (2018). Experiments show that simple heuristics do not perform well on the new dataset and that two neural MRC models that had been tested on BIOREAD perform much better on BIOMRC, indicating that the new dataset is indeed less noisy or at least that its task is more feasible. Non-expert human performance is also higher on the new dataset compared to BIOREAD, and biomedical experts perform even better. We also introduce a new BERT-based MRC model, the best version of which substantially outperforms all other methods tested, reaching or surpassing the accuracy of biomedical experts in some experiments. We make the new dataset available in three different sizes, also releasing our code, and providing a leaderboard.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

More Information Needed

Languages

More Information Needed

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

biomrc_large_A

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 408.08 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 1.92 GB
  • Total amount of disk used: 2.33 GB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "abstract": "\"OBJECTIVES: @entity9 is a @entity10 that may result from greater occipital nerve entrapment. Entrapped peripheral nerves typica...",
    "answer": "@entity9 :: (MESH:D009437,Disease) :: ['unilateral occipital neuralgia']\n",
    "entities_list": ["@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']", "@entity10 :: ('MESH:D006261', 'Disease') :: ['headache', 'Headache']", "@entity9 :: ('MESH:D009437', 'Disease') :: ['Occipital neuralgia', 'unilateral occipital neuralgia']"],
    "title": "Sonographic evaluation of the greater occipital nerve in XXXX .\n"
}

biomrc_large_B

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 343.06 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 1.54 GB
  • Total amount of disk used: 1.88 GB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "abstract": "\"BACKGROUND: Adults with physical disabilities are less likely than others to receive @entity2 screening. It is not known, howev...",
    "answer": "@entity2",
    "entities_list": ["@entity2", "@entity1", "@entity0", "@entity3"],
    "title": "Does a standard measure of self-reported physical disability correlate with clinician perception of impairment related to XXXX screening?\n"
}

biomrc_small_A

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 68.88 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 236.32 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 305.20 MB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "abstract": "\"PURPOSE: @entity120 ( @entity120 ) is a life-limiting @entity102 that presents as an elevated blood pressure in the pulmonary a...",
    "answer": "@entity148 :: (MESH:D001008,Disease) :: ['anxiety']\n",
    "entities_list": "[\"@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['patients']\", \"@entity308 :: ('MESH:D003866', 'Disease') :: ['depression']\", \"@entity146 :...",
    "title": "A predictive model of the effects of @entity308 , XXXX , stress, 6-minute-walk distance, and social support on health-related quality of life in an adult pulmonary hypertension population.\n"
}

biomrc_small_B

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 57.70 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 189.62 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 247.33 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "abstract": "\"Single-agent activity for @entity12 reflected by response rates of 10%-30% has been reported in @entity0 with @entity3 ( @entit...",
    "answer": "@entity10",
    "entities_list": ["@entity0", "@entity6", "@entity2", "@entity5", "@entity12", "@entity11", "@entity1", "@entity7", "@entity9", "@entity10", "@entity3", "@entity4", "@entity8"],
    "title": "No synergistic activity of @entity7 and XXXX in the treatment of @entity3 .\n"
}

biomrc_tiny_A

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 0.02 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 0.07 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 0.09 MB

An example of 'test' looks as follows.

This example was too long and was cropped:

{
    "abstract": "\"OBJECTIVE: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) requires later cranioplasty (CP) in survivors. However, if additional ventriculoperit...",
    "answer": "@entity260 :: (MESH:D011183,Disease) :: ['Postoperative Complications']\n",
    "entities_list": ["@entity1 :: ('9606', 'Species') :: ['Patients', 'patients', 'Patient']", "@entity260 :: ('MESH:D011183', 'Disease') :: ['VPS regarding postoperative complications']", "@entity1276 :: ('MESH:D006849', 'Disease') :: ['hydrocephalus']"],
    "title": "Cranioplasty and Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement after Decompressive Craniectomy: Staged Surgery Is Associated with Fewer XXXX .\n"
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

biomrc_large_A

  • abstract: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • entities_list: a list of string features.
  • answer: a string feature.

biomrc_large_B

  • abstract: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • entities_list: a list of string features.
  • answer: a string feature.

biomrc_small_A

  • abstract: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • entities_list: a list of string features.
  • answer: a string feature.

biomrc_small_B

  • abstract: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • entities_list: a list of string features.
  • answer: a string feature.

biomrc_tiny_A

  • abstract: a string feature.
  • title: a string feature.
  • entities_list: a list of string features.
  • answer: a string feature.

Data Splits

biomrc_large_A

train validation test
biomrc_large_A 700000 50000 62707

biomrc_large_B

train validation test
biomrc_large_B 700000 50000 62707

biomrc_small_A

train validation test
biomrc_small_A 87500 6250 6250

biomrc_small_B

train validation test
biomrc_small_B 87500 6250 6250

biomrc_tiny_A

test
biomrc_tiny_A 30

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

More Information Needed

Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

More Information Needed

Citation Information

@inproceedings{pappas-etal-2020-biomrc,
    title = "{B}io{MRC}: A Dataset for Biomedical Machine Reading Comprehension",
    author = "Pappas, Dimitris  and
      Stavropoulos, Petros  and
      Androutsopoulos, Ion  and
      McDonald, Ryan",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 19th SIGBioMed Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing",
    month = jul,
    year = "2020",
    address = "Online",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.bionlp-1.15",
    pages = "140--149",
    abstract = "We introduce BIOMRC, a large-scale cloze-style biomedical MRC dataset. Care was taken to reduce noise, compared to the previous BIOREAD dataset of Pappas et al. (2018). Experiments show that simple heuristics do not perform well on the new dataset and that two neural MRC models that had been tested on BIOREAD perform much better on BIOMRC, indicating that the new dataset is indeed less noisy or at least that its task is more feasible. Non-expert human performance is also higher on the new dataset compared to BIOREAD, and biomedical experts perform even better. We also introduce a new BERT-based MRC model, the best version of which substantially outperforms all other methods tested, reaching or surpassing the accuracy of biomedical experts in some experiments. We make the new dataset available in three different sizes, also releasing our code, and providing a leaderboard.",
}

Contributions

Thanks to @lewtun, @PetrosStav, @lhoestq, @thomwolf for adding this dataset.

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