bigscience /bloom-560m

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 --- license: bigscience-bloom-rail-1.0 language: - ak - ar - as - bm - bn - ca - code - en - es - eu - fon - fr - gu - hi - id - ig - ki - kn - lg - ln - ml - mr - ne - nso - ny - or - pa - pt - rn - rw - sn - st - sw - ta - te - tn - ts - tum - tw - ur - vi - wo - xh - yo - zh - zhs - zht - zu pipeline_tag: text-generation ---

BLOOM LM

BigScience Large Open-science Open-access Multilingual Language Model

Model Card

Version 1.0 / 26.May.2022 ## Table of Contents 1. [Model Details](#model-details) 2. [Uses](#uses) 3. [Training Data](#training-data) 4. [Risks and Limitations](#risks-and-limitations) 5. [Evaluation](#evaluation) 6. [Recommendations](#recommendations) 7. [Glossary and Calculations](#glossary-and-calculations) 8. [More Information](#more-information) 9. [Model Card Authors](#model-card-authors) ## Model Details ### Basics *This section provides information for anyone who wants to know about the model.*
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**Developed by:** BigScience ([website](https://bigscience.huggingface.co)) * All collaborators are either volunteers or have an agreement with their employer. *(Further breakdown of participants forthcoming.)* **Model Type:** Transformer-based Language Model **Version:** 1.0.0 **Languages:** Multiple; see [training data](#training-data) **License:** RAIL License v1.0 ([link](https://huggingface.co/spaces/bigscience/license)) **Release Date Estimate:** Monday, 11.July.2022 **Send Questions to:** bigscience-contact@googlegroups.com **Cite as:** BigScience, _BigScience Language Open-science Open-access Multilingual (BLOOM) Language Model_. International, May 2021-May 2022 **Funded by:** * The French government. * Hugging Face ([website](https://huggingface.co)). * Organizations of contributors. *(Further breakdown of organizations forthcoming.)*
### Technical Specifications *This section provides information for people who work on model development.*
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Please see [the BLOOM training README](https://github.com/bigscience-workshop/bigscience/tree/master/train/tr11-176B-ml#readme) for full details on replicating training. **Model Architecture:** Modified from Megatron-LM GPT2 (see [paper](https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.08053), [BLOOM Megatron code](https://github.com/bigscience-workshop/Megatron-DeepSpeed)): * Decoder-only architecture * Layer normalization applied to word embeddings layer (StableEmbedding; see [code](https://github.com/facebookresearch/bitsandbytes), [paper](https://arxiv.org/pdf/2110.02861.pdf)) * ALiBI positional encodings (see [paper](https://arxiv.org/pdf/2108.12409.pdf)), with GeLU activation functions * 559,214,592 parameters: * 256,901,120 embedding parameters * 24 layers, 16 attention heads * Hidden layers are 1024-dimensional * Sequence length of 2048 tokens (see [BLOOM tokenizer](https://huggingface.co/bigscience/tokenizer), [tokenizer description](#tokenization)) **Objective Function:** Cross Entropy with mean reduction (see [API documentation](https://pytorch.org/docs/stable/generated/torch.nn.CrossEntropyLoss.html#torch.nn.CrossEntropyLoss)). **Compute infrastructure:** Jean Zay Public Supercomputer, provided by the French government (see [announcement](https://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/fr/signature-du-marche-d-acquisition-de-l-un-des-supercalculateurs-les-plus-puissants-d-europe-46733)). * Hardware: 384 A100 80GB GPUs (48 nodes): * Additional 32 A100 80GB GPUs (4 nodes) in reserve * 8 GPUs per node Using NVLink 4 inter-gpu connects, 4 OmniPath links * CPU: AMD * CPU memory: 512GB per node * GPU memory: 640GB per node * Inter-node connect: Omni-Path Architecture (OPA) * NCCL-communications network: a fully dedicated subnet * Disc IO network: shared network with other types of nodes * Software: * Megatron-DeepSpeed ([Github link](https://github.com/bigscience-workshop/Megatron-DeepSpeed)) * DeepSpeed ([Github link](https://github.com/microsoft/DeepSpeed)) * PyTorch (pytorch-1.11 w/ CUDA-11.5; see [Github link](https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch)) * apex ([Github link](https://github.com/NVIDIA/apex)) #### **Training** Training logs: [Tensorboard link](https://huggingface.co/bigscience/tr11e-350M-logs) - Training throughput: About 150 TFLOPs per GPU - Number of epochs: 1 (*current target*) - Dates: - Started 11th March, 2022 11:42am PST - Ended 5th July, 2022 - Estimated cost of training: Equivalent of \$2-5M in cloud computing (including preliminary experiments and other model sizes) - Server training location: Île-de-France, France #### **Tokenization** The BLOOM tokenizer ([link](https://huggingface.co/bigscience/tokenizer)) is a learned subword tokenizer trained using: - A byte-level Byte Pair Encoding (BPE) algorithm - A simple pre-tokenization rule, no normalization - A vocabulary size of 250,680 It was trained on a subset of a preliminary version of the corpus using alpha-weighting per language.
### Environmental Impact
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The training supercomputer, Jean Zay ([website](http://www.idris.fr/eng/jean-zay/jean-zay-presentation-eng.html)), uses mostly nuclear energy. The heat generated by it is reused for heating campus housing. **Estimated carbon emissions:** *(Forthcoming upon completion of training.)* **Estimated electricity usage:** *(Forthcoming upon completion of training.)*

## Uses *This section addresses questions around how the model is intended to be used, discusses the foreseeable users of the model (including those affected by the model), and describes uses that are considered out of scope or misuse of the model. It provides information for anyone considering using the model or who is affected by the model.*
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## Training Data *This section provides a high-level overview of the training data. It is relevant for anyone who wants to know the basics of what the model is learning.*
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Details for each dataset are provided in individual [Data Cards](https://huggingface.co/spaces/bigscience/BigScienceCorpus). Training data includes: - 45 natural languages - 12 programming languages - In 1.5TB of pre-processed text, converted into 350B unique tokens (see [the tokenizer section](#tokenization) for more.) #### **Languages** The pie chart shows the distribution of languages in training data. ![pie chart showing the distribution of languages in training data](https://github.com/bigscience-workshop/model_card/blob/main/assets/data/pie_chart.svg?raw=true) The following table shows the further distribution of Niger-Congo and Indic languages in the training data.
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| Niger Congo | Percentage | | Indic | Percentage | |----------------|------------ |------ |-----------|------------| | Chi Tumbuka | 0.00002 | | Assamese | 0.01 | | Kikuyu | 0.00004 | | Odia | 0.04 | | Bambara | 0.00004 | | Gujarati | 0.04 | | Akan | 0.00007 | | Marathi | 0.05 | | Xitsonga | 0.00007 | | Punjabi | 0.05 | | Sesotho | 0.00007 | | Kannada | 0.06 | | Chi Chewa | 0.0001 | | Nepali | 0.07 | | Setswana | 0.0002 | | Telugu | 0.09 | | Northern Sotho | 0.0002 | | Malayalam | 0.10 | | Fon | 0.0002 | | Urdu | 0.10 | | Kirundi | 0.0003 | | Tamil | 0.20 | | Wolof | 0.0004 | | Bengali | 0.50 | | Kuganda | 0.0004 | | Hindi | 0.70 | | Chi Shona | 0.001 | | Isi Zulu | 0.001 | | Igbo | 0.001 | | Xhosa | 0.001 | | Kinyarwanda | 0.003 | | Yoruba | 0.006 | | Swahili | 0.02 |
The following table shows the distribution of programming languages.
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| Extension | Language | Number of files | |----------------|------------|-----------------| | java | Java | 5,407,724 | | php | PHP | 4,942,186 | | cpp | C++ | 2,503,930 | | py | Python | 2,435,072 | | js | JavaScript | 1,905,518 | | cs | C# | 1,577,347 | | rb | Ruby | 6,78,413 | | cc | C++ | 443,054 | | hpp | C++ | 391,048 | | lua | Lua | 352,317 | | go | GO | 227,763 | | ts | TypeScript | 195,254 | | C | C | 134,537 | | scala | Scala | 92,052 | | hh | C++ | 67,161 | | H | C++ | 55,899 | | tsx | TypeScript | 33,107 | | rs | Rust | 29,693 | | phpt | PHP | 9,702 | | c++ | C++ | 1,342 | | h++ | C++ | 791 | | php3 | PHP | 540 | | phps | PHP | 270 | | php5 | PHP | 166 | | php4 | PHP | 29 |

## Risks and Limitations *This section identifies foreseeable harms and misunderstandings.*
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Model may: - Overrepresent some viewpoints and underrepresent others - Contain stereotypes - Contain [personal information](#personal-data-and-information) - Generate: - Hateful, abusive, or violent language - Discriminatory or prejudicial language - Content that may not be appropriate for all settings, including sexual content - Make errors, including producing incorrect information as if it were factual - Generate irrelevant or repetitive outputs

## Evaluation *This section describes the evaluation protocols and provides the results.*
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### Metrics *This section describes the different ways performance is calculated and why.* Includes: | Metric | Why chosen | |--------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------------| | [Perplexity](#perplexity) | Standard metric for quantifying model improvements during training | | Cross Entropy [Loss](#loss) | Standard objective for language models. | And multiple different metrics for specific tasks. _(More evaluation metrics forthcoming upon completion of evaluation protocol.)_ ### Factors *This section lists some different aspects of what BLOOM models. Its focus is on those aspects that are likely to give rise to high variance in model behavior.* - Language, such as English or Yoruba - Domain, such as newswire or stories - Demographic characteristics, such as gender or nationality ### Results *Results are based on the [Factors](#factors) and [Metrics](#metrics).* **Train-time Evaluation:** As of 25.May.2022, 15:00 PST: - Training Loss: 2.0 - Validation Loss: 2.2 - Perplexity: 8.9 (More evaluation scores forthcoming at the end of model training.)

## Recommendations *This section provides information on warnings and potential mitigations.*
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- Indirect users should be made aware when the content they're working with is created by the LLM. - Users should be aware of [Risks and Limitations](#risks-and-limitations), and include an appropriate age disclaimer or blocking interface as necessary. - Models pretrained with the LLM should include an updated Model Card. - Users of the model should provide mechanisms for those affected to provide feedback, such as an email address for comments.

## Glossary and Calculations *This section defines common terms and how metrics are calculated.*
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- **Loss:** A calculation of the difference between what the model has learned and what the data shows ("groundtruth"). The lower the loss, the better. The training process aims to minimize the loss. - **Perplexity:** This is based on what the model estimates the probability of new data is. The lower the perplexity, the better. If the model is 100% correct at predicting the next token it will see, then the perplexity is 1. Mathematically this is calculated using entropy. - **High-stakes settings:** Such as those identified as "high-risk AI systems" and "unacceptable risk AI systems" in the European Union's proposed [Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act](https://artificialintelligenceact.eu/annexes/). - **Critical decisions:** Such as those defined in [the United States' proposed Algorithmic Accountability Act](https://www.congress.gov/117/bills/s3572/BILLS-117s3572is.pdf). - **Human rights:** Includes those rights defined in the [Universal Declaration of Human Rights](https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/2021/03/udhr.pdf). - **Personal Data and Personal Information:** Personal data and information is defined in multiple data protection regulations, such as "[personal data](https://gdpr-info.eu/issues/personal-data/)" in the [European Union's General Data Protection Regulation](https://gdpr-info.eu); and "personal information" in the Republic of South Africa's [Protection of Personal Information Act](https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_document/201409/3706726-11act4of2013popi.pdf), The People's Republic of China's [Personal information protection law](http://en.npc.gov.cn.cdurl.cn/2021-12/29/c_694559.htm). - **Sensitive characteristics:** This includes specifically protected categories in human rights (see [UHDR, Article 2](https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/2021/03/udhr.pdf)) and personal information regulation (see GDPR, [Article 9; Protection of Personal Information Act, Chapter 1](https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_document/201409/3706726-11act4of2013popi.pdf)) - **Deception:** Doing something to intentionally mislead individuals to believe something that is false, such as by creating deadbots or chatbots on social media posing as real people, or generating text documents without making consumers aware that the text is machine generated.