BLOOM is an autoregressive Large Language Model (LLM), trained to continue text from a prompt on vast amounts of text data using industrial-scale computational resources. As such, it is able to output coherent text in 46 languages and 13 programming languages that is hardly distinguishable from text written by humans. BLOOM can also be instructed to perform text tasks it hasn't been explicitly trained for, by casting them as text generation tasks.
This section provides information about the model type, version, license, funders, release date, developers, and contact information. It is useful for anyone who wants to reference the model.
All collaborators are either volunteers or have an agreement with their employer. (Further breakdown of participants forthcoming.)
Model Type: Transformer-based Language Model
transformers (Megatron-DeepSpeed format available here)
Languages: Multiple; see training data
Release Date Estimate: Monday, 11.July.2022
Send Questions to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cite as: BigScience, BigScience Language Open-science Open-access Multilingual (BLOOM) Language Model. International, May 2021-May 2022
The French government.
Hugging Face (website).
Organizations of contributors. (Further breakdown of organizations forthcoming.)
This model is being created in order to enable public research on large language models (LLMs). LLMs are intended to be used for language generation or as a pretrained base model that can be further fine-tuned for specific tasks. Use cases below are not exhaustive.
Exploring characteristics of language generated by a language model
- Examples: Cloze tests, counterfactuals, generations with reframings
- Tasks that leverage language models include: Information Extraction, Question Answering, Summarization
Using the model in high-stakes settings is out of scope for this model. The model is not designed for critical decisions nor uses with any material consequences on an individual's livelihood or wellbeing. The model outputs content that appears factual but may not be correct.
Out-of-scope Uses Include:
Usage in biomedical domains, political and legal domains, or finance domains
Usage for evaluating or scoring individuals, such as for employment, education, or credit
Applying the model for critical automatic decisions, generating factual content, creating reliable summaries, or generating predictions that must be correct
Intentionally using the model for harm, violating human rights, or other kinds of malicious activities, is a misuse of this model. This includes:
Disinformation and influence operations
Disparagement and defamation
Harassment and abuse
Unconsented impersonation and imitation
Generating content without attribution to the model, as specified in the RAIL License, Use Restrictions
This section identifies foreseeable harms and misunderstandings.
Overrepresent some viewpoints and underrepresent others
Contain personal information
Hateful, abusive, or violent language
Discriminatory or prejudicial language
Content that may not be appropriate for all settings, including sexual content
Make errors, including producing incorrect information as if it were factual
Generate irrelevant or repetitive outputs
Induce users into attributing human traits to it, such as sentience or consciousness
This section includes details about the model objective and architecture, and the compute infrastructure. It is useful for people interested in model development.
Jean Zay Public Supercomputer, provided by the French government (see announcement).
384 A100 80GB GPUs (48 nodes)
Additional 32 A100 80GB GPUs (4 nodes) in reserve
8 GPUs per node Using NVLink 4 inter-gpu connects, 4 OmniPath links
CPU memory: 512GB per node
GPU memory: 640GB per node
Inter-node connect: Omni-Path Architecture (OPA)
NCCL-communications network: a fully dedicated subnet
Disc IO network: shared network with other types of nodes