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hi my name floor bates and i run the everyday sexes and project which for anybody who doesn't know what it is is a very simple website that collects people's experiences of daily gender imbalance have anything on the spectrum from the more minor incidents that were often told to brush ff and not make a fuss about all the way through workplace discrimination sexual harassment to sexual assault and even rape i set the project up just under two years ago and we've now received fifty thousand entries from women of all works of life all over the world but one thing really shocked me and took me aback about the entries that started to flood in in the first months of the project and it's interesting because people often ask you know what were the most shocking entries and they expect to reply that they were the most serious ones the most harrowing stories and of course those were awful and distressng to read but the thing that really shocked me the most was the number of entries hat we receive from really young women from little girls from university students it just wasn't something that i anticipated and it's some of those stories that i want to talk about today and share some of them with you today particularly because we're here and are beautiful university city and because just so many of the entries that we've received a suggesting that there is a real problem at uk universities i want to take you through some of the things that we've heard about some of the things that are being reported to us over and over and over againso this all really started and i kind of first noticed a real spiking activity to the website the first time that freshesweet came round so the firs year that the website had been launched in april and suddenly when we hit freshe i noticed that it was a massive surge in entries to the project and i remember it started i remember really vividly with one email and it came from a girl who was about to start studying physics at a very highly respected london university and she forward me afforded me an email that she'd receive from the physics society at her university and the email said fresh s lunch this would be mainly a chance for you to scope out who's in your department and stake your claim early on the one in five girls she wrote that she was going into an incredibly el dominated area already and so here the boys in her ear her male peers were being sent the message from a university affiliated society no less to view that female peers who were in the minority in this particular course very much as sexual prey and this was really just the beginning nd so many messages and stories started coming in and often they were about fresh-wavents that were going on in freshens week so i actually started having a look at the events that were scheduled at uk universities that yearas you can see behind me these register a few o the events that i found slaggon-drag tots and vicars pimps and hoes gol prose and tennis ho se yo's and corporate ho rappers and slapper geeks and sluts and at almost every event the title sends the message usually at events that were sponsored yo an association with universities at these students were studying at that men are ceo's prose geeks they're powerful theyre talentd their intelligent whilst women were being valued again and again by their sexualisation alone and the messages we received was suggesting that this created a really serious sense of pressure for young women to dress in a certain way and it's important to say at this point that this was not about a kind of prudish morality ban it wasn't about saying women shouldn't dress in that way if they wanted to but why should it be a requirement it felt like fancy dress for the boys meant something fun meant dressing up in a whole variety of diferent ways bed every time for the girls the was a very very clear very narrow requirement of how they were expected to dress and it started to feel like it was about more than just a bet of fun and more like a kind of sexual pressurand this idea of sexual pressure was really backed up by a lot of stories that we received about initiations and fresh as weak ritualsand again obviously this is something that if people want to g they can and know of its are free choice and if people are choosing to kind of carry out things and you talk about things being a bit of fun but many of the reports that we received made it all sound quite miitant and the idea of freedom of choice is quite complex within this unique situation where for most stdents it was their first week of university for many of them the first time living from home they were anxious to fit in they were kin to make new friends and it was very difficult to be the person standing up and saying no one girl wrote to us in a project entry one of fess events organised by a hose residence was the girl and guys pup troll we were split into one group of girls and one of guys and each group went off on different pub crawl roots all the girls were encouraged to wear pink and dress slutty we had to come up with a sluck-ame which the older students encouraged us to write across our breasts upon arriving at each bar oe of the oldest students which shout out a word which was code for us to either flash our tits or or us or dancing a seductive way in front of the men in the pub i didn't take part in this and didn't want to adopt a flat name i was told i was being too up tight and not getting into the spirit a fresh is weekthe whole thing culminated in the irl and guys meeting up in the student union where we were informed that the oldest students had organized a competition with prizes one prize was for the slut who collected the most ties from the guys the other was for the lad who collected the most braz from the slats i alked out on a scene of groups of drunk male students forcefully taking off female students brasanother entry said i went out for the freshest night of one of the women's sports clubs argute bumped into the men's rugby club in a bar they were putting that freshness through their initiation ceremony all the rugby freshets had their trousers around their ankles and was standing in their boxes they were ecouraged to pick one of us to grind with them one guy grabbed me pulled me on the dance floor and then told me i had to rind on him or else he'd have to do a forfeit when i refused he told me i was frigid and grabbed a different pressureon the one hand i felt ashamed and embarrassed that i felt too uncomfortable to partake fully on wat was considered to be the fun of freshwateri was kind of ashamed that i'd taken part in it a tallit ran my freshest week and left me feeling isolated and humiliated another student said it's very different for people who feel shy or uncomfortable you don't have a choice there were strict initiations and you just had to do what they said or you issed out another said one of the social initiations within the first month of uni was to down a bottle of beer that a man was holding in his crouch i didn't even realize what we were going to do as we were facing the other way when they suddenly shouted down it bitch it was awful but i felt like such a wet blanket with everyone cheering on another we had an event as part of freshweetwhere some of our friends went on stage a long line of girls was lined up and they had to take all their clothes off they were told to race the strip then ther were competitions where you had to do various sex positions they make it all out as a great thing but you get pushed into it and it's not a matter of choice and these one isolated incidents this isn't cherry-picking after i started writing about this i was absolutely deluged with messages from students at universities up and down the country who had experienced similar things and felt uncomfortable or pressuredand there was also a lot of evidence in what we were hearing to suggest that this kind of sexual objectification carried over beyond fresheske-beyond the initiations and the ritualsa huge number of students mention specific competitions and point systems for sleeping with freshies particularly female threshes often coming from the oldest students he was supposed to be there to look after them and helped them settle in one student described how their student union there was an ado on the wall that was looking for people to help out with fresh week it was a cartoon of a vulnerable looking girl with the slogan want to feel a little fresheranother girl said i remmber when i was a fresher i had a couple of male students discussing a point system for sleeping with female flashes while in the laundry room another girl described a night where female freshes had to dress up as foxes male freshes had to dress up as hounds and the second and third year boys dressed as huntsman the idea was that the hounds had to catch their huntsman or fox another student said at my university the freshweetcrew are designed to help new students but they get points for scoring with freshets especially virgins we heard about point scoring systems where people got bonus points if they took the girl's virginity or brought her nikon one student said it wa called seal clubbing at her university at another i was called sharking and another it was simply called faceshe it seemed to be such a widely acknowledged practice that the were these colloquial names for it at different uniersitiesand the more you hear about this the less harmless it sounds and the more sounds like part of something widras one student pointed out when she wrote to us about a chant that her male pierce had a university that was about slatshors and slags these are the world leaders the ceos and the politicians of tomorrow these are the attitudes about women in their place that are being drummed into them from the very first week of university and it's important to say that these do sometimes happen to boys too we had one entry from a fresher man who was forced to watch pawn in his underwear while a fresher woman was told to sit on his lap to see if he got an erection but in the main the stories including the ones from men that came in because they were talking about what had happened to their female pears seemed to suggest that this sexualized aspect and often undercurrent of misogyny kind of making the girls do things that were somehow embarrassing or degrading focused much more on women and that the men's initiation seemed more to focus on things like drinking excessive amount of alcohol or having to eat disgusting combinations of foodso these again are not isolated incidents many f you will probably know that in the last year alone with seen events easing the slogan famish pete at more than one university in the uk students have reported being groped grabbed pursued and positioned a part of freshwak events we've seen fresh week poster at one university that had a picture o it of a t-shirt with the words last night i was raping a woman and she cried we've seen students who've been banned for playing a game called it's not rate it the leads club nite fresher violation which was advertised on utube using a video of a male fresher being asked what he was going to do at fresh violation and saying that he was going to rape a female fresher we've seen the video of lads on the bus joking and aughing about sexual assault and about miscarriges and the boys who went out in casual rapt shirts all in the last year alone so why does all this matter what's the big deal lamat is because according to a survive by the national union of students which licked specifically at female students experiences walt at university one in seven experienced a serious physical or sexual assault twelve per cent were stalked and sixty eight percent were victims of sexual arrestmentit also matches because most perpetrators were known to the victims and most perpetrators were students and it matches more than ever because only four percent of the female students who was seriously sexually assaulted reported it to their academic institution and only ten per cet felt able to report it to the police and when thy were giving reasons for these low reporting rates they were asked why didn't you feel able to report what happened fifty fifty percent said that they didn't report t because they were ashamed or embarrassed and forty-three percent because they thought they would be blamed for what happened so suddenly importantly this is where we come back to freshet jokes and initiations and slaglapper labels the pressure on female students to dress in a certain way often university affiliated nights the ideas they're pressure to perpetuate the bunts games about chasing female students down hunting them stripping their brows you look at the statistics at nearly a hundred per cent of all students who didn't report a sexual assault were either ashamed or thought they'd be blamedand of course it's not a simple case of cause and effect of course it's not to suggest that a male student will go to one of these events and suddenly go out and rape will sexually assault a female pier is more complex than that is a case of saying against this backdrop what do we do given that we're dealing with the culture in which so many female students are experiencing sexual harassment and assault what would be useful given that were dealing wth the culture in which female students feel unable to report and sexual lisle isn't taken seriously how might these kinds of stereotypes be contributing to that problem and to that wider culture and talking about culture you might have heard the term rape culture used recently it is used to describe a culture in which rape and sexual iolence are common and in which prevalent attitudes normals practices and media normalize exces tolerate or even condone rapean online this frequently focuses on students and young women thanks to websites like unia the lad bible and confessions of a uni student i'm talking about entire websites where even though most of the articles are about women you won't see a single female name because they are replaced with wenches hoes clung scank sloppy seconds pussy tramp chick bir milk slut and gash they are part of a groing culture in which the sexual targeting of female students as prey is actively encouraged even when it verges on sexual assault it's an atmosphere in which victims are silenced and perpetrators encouraged to seek crimes mrely as banter just part of being a ladthese are websites with articles saying things like eighty five percent or rate cases go unreported that seems to be fairly gododwebsites which describe a female student who has said that she doesn't want to sleep with you as an obstacle course just a game to get around websites wear posters talking about smashing a virgin and having blood stains to prove it and when criticized these sites in their own words tend to say get a fucking grip we're having a bit of harmless bntera recent post that appeared on one of teir facebook pages describes a graphic incident of a ma knocking a woman clean out with one smack and leaving her for dead on the side of the rate and yet this word banter this cloak of irony is being used to excuse mainstream horrific sexism the normalization and belittling of rape and domestic vilence and it's a very clever way of silencing because something's a joke it's very hard to stand up to if you objet to something and it's just a joke then you're being up tight the jokes on new eudes don't have a sense of humour and the implication is that if something is a joke everybody gets it except you it isolates victims and makes it much harder to stand up to one female student who wrote to me said i don't find it funny these pages are not pages for jokes there are no punch lines they're not sexes jokes they're just displays of sexism displays of misogyny i find it threatening i find it terrifying this is not banter she asked to remain anonymous because she said i'm afraid of these people i'm afraid that these attitudes that we thought were ebbing away are coming back with force i'm afraid that by taking a stand against pages like this i will mark myself as a target and again these are an isolated incidents the imperial college newspaper thelix printed a joke article which provided male students with a recipe for the date rape drug were hipnal because they said it was a full proof way to have sex on valentine's day for ceaper than the price of a hooker an exeter university society printed a shag mag in which it speculated about how many calories male students could burn by stripping female students naked without their consent at one uniersity the cross team were given rules that stated members don't date that's what rapes for at another university the men's hockey team held an event where the theme was rape victims and it isn't just something that happens in clubs or when students go out its some that's beginning to become pervasive in all aspects of the academic experience you see pages like this on facebook where girls completely unwittingly university university library during their work find that their pictures appear later on on facebook we head from one girl who said that there was a group of lads at her univesity that started an anonymous page where they taked about girls who were eating at the canteen but she said because they didn't know who the people were that were doing it she had a choie to make between not eating not going to the canteen all risking that her picture would end up on facebook with people talking about coming all over her breasts on facebook is wild is banter about abuse and violence and at other places n line has also proliferated in recent years these next slides may be very distressing so they come with a trigger warning for domestic violence and sexual assault if you feel he need to look away and again this is all part of the normalization of a society in which we joke about rape a society in which sexual assault is just something to laugh about jus vantage as part of being a lad and against that backdrop we get stories like these a male student at university with me outright told me i was having sex with him that night he was calling me a lag a slot and hore he straggled himself across my legs and started pinning me against the seat forcing kisses on me and saying now i've got you another student said i was raped to my second year of university i had some great support from my family and some great therapy i thought this was the worst part but when i felt safe enough to tell my friends the question started was i drunk was i dressed slutterly did i know him had i let him onand imfat what happens is the boundaries begin to come so blurred that people aren't even aware of what they have the right to be protected from i often speak in universities rall up and down the ukon i have a slide which simply sets the definition of sexual assault under uklawwhich is that if somebody touches you anywhere on your body and the touching is sexual you don't consent and they dntreasobly believe that you consent then it's a form of sexual assault but when i talk about it in universities young women come up to me afterwards saying that can't be sexual assault because it's normal that can't be sexual assault because it's just what happens when i go out with my friends because there's a massive gap between what people are protected from under te lure on what society is telling women particularly young women parcular university is just part of life and just something that they ought to be putting up with but we can say no we can't stand up and we can shout back we have to start now no means no it doesn't matter what you're wearing or where you are or who you've had sex within the past whether you've been flirting it doesn't matter if it's someone you know if it's late at night or if you're drunk nobody has the right to touch you sexually without your consent so what can you do to play your part the important thing is that we need a cultural shift in attitudes in the way that we perceive women and everybody can be a part of that we can petition student unions and clubs to take a zerotolernce policy towards sexual harassment and groping we can speak up about consent and try to offset some of these normalized assumptions we can support students wh are sexually assaulted to feel able to report it if they want to we can all play a part in influencing these social norms and the culture around us not letting the mal slugs stuff slide because it's those mino incidents that contribute to the same attitudes about womn that lead to the bigger issues happening cooling women slats and slags giving them marks out of tandy humaizes them joking about rape and assault normalizes it so we have to speak up and our voice is a lodest when we raise them together thank you eeeeee
i see a teneatis varied the tibetans divines divinisedon't let my mask scare you i'm just tryin to stay anonymous my name is anmic nagi i'm a proud indian and i have one problem with my country and the problem is why is india so filthy i've travelled outside india in neighbouring countries in asia my fiends have been to africa and we can all agree on one thing in india we tolerate filth on our streets but why we can send a rocket to mars but we can't fix this problem why do we keep our houses clean and our streets dirty even mcdonald's was coming to bangalore is cleaning he steps of its outlet out there but you can see how dirty it is outside are either incapable or unwilling to fix at outside so what's the problem via be like his and i think all over in this audience know the answer it's not my problem i pay tax i wrote isn't that enough what more should i do and som of you will say ok i want to fix it i don't even know how to start let me take you to dreamland in this dreamland there is no corruption the government is strong a budget goes up ten times do you think our chippies will be clea-what do you think and the answer is no i think we all realize it's not about money or system to tell it is abot us as a people look at this picture can someone shout out which city is this form look closely look at the furniture can you guess shout out which city is this it's not bangalorelook closely again to the clue out here at the bank of india the other clue is that it's very poorly maintained there are pan stains everywhere this is a restaurant it is singapore and it is little india sinaporeand what does this tell us about us what a singapore's brand image cleandliness it is a fine city the enforced laws the very affluent they care about their look but when a group of indians lie in one neighborhood we seem to bring down the civic standards we can beat the world's best system in fact i would like to say and i'm an indian we are the undisputed world champions of publi filthwhy do we need a policeman when we have a traffic light because we're a society that doesn't like to follow rulesin bangalow dusbins are not allowed you're expected to keep our garbage at home till the collector comes but it doesn't seem to wor so one neighborhood and bangor indraniker said let's put dustbins so they put dustbins and see what happened we don't like to follow rules so all the garbages outside the dustbin now this is the problem without a society we need to all admit that we are all ugly indians and more importantly only w can sae us from ourselves and as long as we are mosl about it we won't solve it and so do you think there s any hope what do you'll think a lot of people i've given up to leave the country the stangated communities but some people said no let us try and fix this problem in an indian way by understanding the indians psychology and so social experiments began on church street in bangalore in two thousand ten but the idea was simple let us understand indians behavior from a point of view culture behavioral psychology let see what it takes to make an ugly indian change but most importantly without him or her realizing it we don't like to be told what to do yet we falled into improving our behavior can be nudge and nagle indian towards better behaviour in public spaces you may hve heard the broken windows theory which says that if a place's ugly it becomes uglier for places beautiful it commands respect there is another theory in economics called the tragedy of the commons hich means we care for our private spaces we don't care about public spaces india is a perfect example of both these theories in action this is coromangula that lady is throwing garbage on the road in a beautiful part of an upscale neighborhood and why she doing it because someone is already thrown before what can we do to make her change her behaviour without her knowing itthis is a typical example of civic problems in india panstains on the wall this is on the wall of deconered newspaper in church street it has been like this forever because there spanstains people unit on it nobody walks in that foot pth so a few people sat and observed it and tried an experimntthis is what they did they painted the wall they painted a red band at the bottom they put some flower pots and incredibly there were no more pan stains on that wall and why because the person's fitting pan is trying his best to be clean he chooses to split into the pot if by mistake spits in the corner of the red color masks it one people sto pitting people actually go on the footpath it works there are dozens of walls in bango with a red band at the ottom that has taken an indian solution to apply to an indian problem this is very common dust entrance the young school boys facing a dead rat we see this very often at any one of you never seen a death-trap banos full of deathtraps the little boys to walk around look at that footpath and if you go on master residents the have complained or years nothing has happened three people said let's fix it this is what they did they actually went and fixed the footpath it has remained fixed for six months what's the message if you see a problem you go fix it nobody stops you you can actually make a change don't waste your time complaininglittle beans are a problem why someimes they look like animals they made of fiber class they catch fire with cigarettes some little pins are resting they falling on the ground and don't little pins look so dirty that they actually bring down the aesthetics of the place the latter man is suppose to make it clean sometimes they're not they were you want them so people improvise they put letter in trees so some eople sartain said can we design a litter bin that will not get stolen that looks beautiful that people will use that last through weather and actually improve the aretheics of the place and so they came up with some called the there bin which is a designer dubin this is on igy road in anglo brigade road her the beautiful partified it is not stealable nobody wants it because it's made of aters nobody wants it works it looks clean ad for the last three years there are two hundred dusbins across bangaloand it has worked because somebody applied his mind to sove a problem as a problem this is in front of it pal the usban is exactly where united near a bus to people used t has worked and this is the biggest problem of all open garbage this is outside the corumangula club you'd think they would figure it out but they didn't and some people said let's make this as an example and this is what they did it has remained fixed it does not offer to up at aland the reason well known places are taken is that if people who are rich powerful and with social pressur cannot do it then there's something wrong with usthis is outside the house of doctor rachkumar poor mr pnitarachkuman has to see this every year he's got amazing socil power he couldn't fix it this is what was done and it has remained fixed for the last six months is jepping a gar outside umbri house again were chosen people who are important who can get thins done but it requires the public to do ithis is outside a slum this is cow-dung this is their children wait for their school bus which became a beautiful bus stopthis is outside a tech park every turk park in bangalow this is outing rods got open drains there are billion ollar companies rapparently nobody is willing to fix this their al blaming somebody else a few people went made it a safe zone malita bus stop its working and so the point is whether tesla er take parker and affluence zone you an make change this is in whitefield nearby this is actually an open toilet that slam at the back where people who use the toilet that's a wine shop distending the jagetheaterit's crazy so samper from whitefield said let's fix it so they fixed it but what happened pople skill through gabbage you cannot fix a place by this painting and yo have to solve the underlying problem so indeed two five people went to all the houses and said from tomorrow we'll make a new stem that you don't need to put your garbage on the ground see what happened what is interesting is that all the peopl that slum-dwellers the winsor jacet pepple in apartments got together to solve a common problem they have never spoken to each other before to complain to each other about each other before when the community comes together to fix a common problem it is no longer a tragedy of the commons this is a vctory of the commons and this particular project has spared many many more projects and wild fieldnow look closely this is act urine outside a wine shop indian men need to urrinate and let's accept that let's not getting motiona about it can we make them internet in a digified way and rescue the public sphere so this is a wineshop that juron outside the wineshop on a cun be bordered it created an innovation but someone said let's create a dignified wife way for men to grent and rescue a public space it resulted in something called the wonder-lo which is an open air urinal of private space the men urinate and the rest of the wall gates rescued now who did all these proects look closely there are senior citizens that ladies in seven tissue holding a crow-bar the retired army officers that as slam children to the wineshop on they all came together endethe project there was no contract labor athletes all done entirely by citizens and that evening people came in their car to buy their liquor and used restroom in the open everybody's happy so everybody all the stakeholders in that spot eventually got what they wanted even though they have hugely opposin ideologies they're getting along and that's the big message out here so what do you think is there any hopeyea that's good over four hundred such sports have been fixed but what's more interesting than ninety percent have survved and that's an excellent survival rate for for problems that were so chronic no one even knew how to start solving them but how does it all work and that's what i'm here to tell you it's not about going and painting a wall that is much more to it than that and the most important thing is this come charlo-mobantonly work no talk by muchco-kelsa acco it's as simple as that in india we talk too much we refuse t listen but if you decide to go and do and don't talk incredible things can be achieved don't lecture don't modelize don't create avenda drives don't tell people what do don't act ondecentg in so i know the solution to your problem because it may not even be a problem at all if you take the lead others will follow some of you may have been a protestanas mingo anna protest some people join you some people ignore you it's the same thing with good work if you go into disruptive positive anarchy some will follow you some will ignore you but nobody will stop you so the only person stopping you from going out and doing good is yourself don't blame anybody else for stopping you don't xpect credit don't expect applause strianonyous don't take anybody's money use your own whatever your means are if a person a single person does someth within his own means you'll be surprised how many other people join you the moment you take many years almost losing your independencegan didi famously said be the change you want to see there's is problem with that with your respect to gang the situation is hopeless you first need to see the change that you want to believe that you can won't make the change and that's where facebook has been fantastic every before after photograph goes on facebook people say how it's possible let me try it creating beliefs that are pathetic civic situation can improve is the biggest lesson that the agenda movement has learned focus on results not on who's doing it how it's being done if you ca deliver before photograph if not and the facebook is a very brutal decider of whether the project was good or nothere are many myths about social movements which have got broken volunteers are the easiest to get bangalore has got thousands of people who come out on weekends and work these are not social activity the people who got regular jobs to take time out to work money is no problem at all many of the project it were shown cost less than three thousand rupes or sixty years dollars if ten people get together put three hundred rouples each you can fix a spot it's cheaper than going out for dinner or having coffee in one of bangalor's upscale restaurants and the best part you can make a dramatic change without asking any bodies for help a lot of people are warried about the government the government loves it if the citizens engaged this paying taxes on voting is not an ofif you come out and work te government loves it the bang lord and the bb empe has taken the first step in entering partnership citizen movements it is unprecedented in india and we are hopeful that other cities to inorethat when the collective energies of the government implies the citizens are put on the common cause which is improving the dramatic change can happen we spend too much time fighting with the gvernment that should stop india is truly rising what began in bangalore church street four years quickly spread and now there are literally twenty to thirty teams in bangor operational all their works on facebook and slowly across india there are thirty to forty cities canfora chennai it is named the city people are coming out i know the best prt none of them know each other nobody talks to each other the only thing that counts results so wherever go out and do something put postlinif your work on an ugly den you become famous on your street other people join youthese are random photos sent by people kanpo ramaderagracha everybody's trying to copy emulate what's happening elsewhere simple message if you want to change the world start with your own streetif you want a street to change you should do t if you wait for somebody else to do it it may never happen and the choice is yours a question that is often asked hy are ugly indians anonymous so far i've rvealed my gender because of my tone of voice and the language that i speak in which i'm proficient in but you don't know what i speak at home you don't know my age you don't know my religion you don't know my cast you don't now my poliical views you don't know why whether i ware a ponytail or i have a tattoo the problem with india as we make judgments on people are not on the work they do and the reason are not the aglindinhas worked is that the focused only on results not who did it why are they doing it water the motivations anonymity allows a lot of people to come and join the fold so the message here stop being an ugly indian from today go out and do something do you think there's any hopei came here two days back with a friend to check out the hall this is how it looks like outside the area that's the footpath it says way to school very helpfully so you going to school assoould basically take that foot path that's exactly outside the soul this is what you would normally do this is called celtitude i don't care it's not my problem to get from a to b all this jump over we need to change from shelta had to come chalos warded with umi and my friend went to a construction site we got some laborers we got some inroads be fixed so caltha car changed to kamchaluif i'm going to spend eighteen minutes doig mochalo in this auditorium i said i'll spend eighteen minutes wrking outside and in eighteen minutes that place was fixed and when you go out today please walk on that footpath on the way to brigade school because it has got fixed two days ago regarding the josh of it just outside the entrance of this hall is an opened electricity box with the garbage spent an hour in fixed it so when you go out today you will see work done by three people three days back because they felt they needed it the question to ask is have you made an impact n your street and we loved her decks the said tate as a tak fest cantatas do anything so two days ago a hundred people from this audience came out into the spot fixion bangalow and that's the story we gone to share with you now this is car circles one of banglas favorite circles is a beautifu place but with one problem pedestrians have to cross the road there are underpasses there beautifully designed but the problem is there either closed or if they ope they look like this that is urine that has not been cleane for years in the middle of the lady coming in is holding anoses look at this lady has to wait for the man to cross she walks bravely holing her nose in a dark dingy uran field room to get to work isn't that sad these girls are risking their lives and crossing to go to college because they o want to use the underpass that girl is reading a book and taking a decsion she'd rather walk on the road than go on the underpass this goal goes to college with a nose closed is the mayor of anglo we invited him to come and inspect this and he said you tried for years to fix it can the public help the public series and so a group of public rent in clean displace the mayor came and joined they transformed the subway and for the last three weeks it's been running well this is at it looks like now so two days ago the ted volunteers came a then entering the subject to check it out this is a clean subwa see how different it is look at how many people are walking the smiling there is a friendly place all it takes to convert a public space is a little bit of sincerity and effort and the public has rescued a subway they came here to see the change that they wanted to beand this is what they did in the next one hour hundred people from this room actually went ad cleaned up the subways this all how they look ten subways were painted as we speak the subways are being cleaned and come next week they were allopen six subways in classic kill open because of eforts taken by people that dead this is what it looks like i want to walk from the library to freedom park it's very difficultbut what they have done now is bngler is a beautiful underconnected pedestrian walkways with are lyng dormant they've been rescued we have cared certain for cars and we have a pedestrian circle for pedestrians so what do you think is there any hopeall the people who work on the spot fixed give yourselves a big handthasise e
contamination in complicated intention peiinitted in opinionated et there well i work at the seti institute that's almost my name seti search for extraterrestrial intelligence and otherwise i look for aliens and when i tell people that at a cocktail party they usually look at me with a mildly incredulous look on their face i try to keep my own face somewhat dispassionate and a lot of people think is kind of idealistic ridiculous maybe even hopeless but i just want to talk to you a little bit about why i think that the job i have is actually a privilege give you a little better the motivation for my getting into this line of work if that's what you call it ing whips can we go back hallo come on earth there we go is the valley radio observatory behind the sierra nevadas in nineteen sixty eight i was working there collecting data for my thesis as kind lonely it's kinda tedious you's collecting dtaso i would amuse myself by taking photos at neither telescopes or even of myself because you know it at night i would be the only hominid within about thirty miles so here pictures of myself observatory had just acquired a new book written by a russian cosmologist by the name of joseph schlowski and expanded and translated and edited by a little known cornell astronomer by name of carl sagan and i remer reading that book and at three in the morning reading this book and it was explaining how the antennas i was using to measure the spins of galaxies could also be used to communicate to send bits o information from one star system to another now at three o'clock in the morning when you're all alone haven't had much sleep that was a very romantic idea but it was that ieathe fact that you could in fact prove that there's somebody out there just using the same technology that appealed to me so much that twenty years later i took a job at the seti institute now i have to say that my memory is notoriously porous and i often wondered whether there was any truth in this story was no misremembering something but i recently just blew up this old negative of mine and sure enough there you can see the chlain second book underneath that analog calculating deviceso it's true now the idea for ding this it wasn't very old at the time that i made that photo the idea dates from nineteen sixty on a young astronomer by the name of frank drake used this antenna in west virginia pointed at a couple of nearby str in the hopes of eves dropping on e-tnow frank didn't hear anything actually he did but it turned out to be the us air force which doesn't count as extraterrestrial intelligence but drake's idea here became very popular because it was very appealing and i get back to that and on the basis of this experi which didn't didn't succeed we have been doing seti ever since not continuously but ever since we still haven't heard anything we still haven't had anything in fact we don't know about any life beyond earth but i'm going to uggest to you that that's going to change rather soon and part react a majority of reason why i think that's gong to change it's that the equipment's getting better this is the island telescope array about three hundred and fifty miles from whatever seat you're in right now this is something that we're using today to search rite and the electronics have gotten very much better too this is frank drake's electronics in nineteen sixty this is the allen telescope array electronics today some pundit with too much time on his hands has reckoned that the new experiments are approximately a hundred trillion times better than they were in ineteen-sixty hundred twenty times better that's a degree of an improvement that will look out on your report rout something that's not appreciated by the public is in fact that the experiment continues to get better and consequently tends to get faster this little plot and every time you show a plot you lose ten percent of the audience i have the twelve of these but what what i plotted here is just some metric that shows how fast were searching in others we're ooking for a needle in a haystack when you on to big the haystack is it's the galaxy but we're going through the haystack no longer with a teaspoon but with a skip lower because of this increase in speed in fact those of you who are still conscious and mathematically competent will note that this is a semilog plot in other words the rate of increase is exponantial it's exponentially improving now exponential is an overworked word you hear it on media all the time they don't really know what exponential means but this is exponential in fact it's doubling every eighteen months and of course every card carrying member the digerati knows that that's moore's law so this means that over th course of next two dozen years will be able to look at a million star systems a million star systes looking for signals that would prove somebody's out there well a million star systems inside interesting i mean how mny of those star systems have planets and e facts are we didn't know the answer to that even as recently as fifteen years ago andin fact we really didn't know it even as recently six months ago but now we do recent results suggest that virtually every star has planets nd more than one there you kittens get a litter you don't get one kitten you get a bunch so in fact this is a pretty accurate estimate of the number of planets in r galaxy just our galaxy remind the non astronomy majors among you that our alaxyis only one of a hundred billion that we can see wth our telescopes that's a lot of real estate met of course most these plants are gonoworthless like mercury or neptune neptune's probably not very big in your so the question is what fraction of these planets are actually suitable for life we don't know the answer to that either but we will learn that answer this year thanks to nasa's kepler space telescope and in fact the smart money which is to say to people who work on this project the smart money is suggesting that the fraction of planets that might be suitable for life is may be one in a thousand one in a hudred something like that while even taking the pessimistic estimate that one in a thousand that means that there are at least a billion cousins of the earth just in our own galaxy i've given you a lot of numbers here but there mostly big numbers so you know keep that in mind there's plenty of real estate plenty of real estate in universe and if we're the only bit of real estate in which there are some interesting occupants that makes you a miracle and i know you like to think you're a miracle but if you do science you learn rather quickly that every time you think youre a miracle you're wrong so pope up the case so the bottom line is this because of the increase in speed and because of the vast amount of habitable real estate n the cosmos i figure we're gonna pick up a signal within two dozen years and i feel strongly enough about that to make a bet with you either we're gonna find e t in the next two dozen years or i'll buy you a cup of coffeeso that's not so bad i mean neither with two dozen years you open up your brows and there's news of a signal or you know you get a cup of coffee now let me tell you about some aspect of this that people don't think about and that is what what happened what i say is true i mean who knows but suppose it happens suppose some time in the next two dozen years we pick up a faint line that tells us we have some cosmic company what is the effect what's the consequence i might be at ground zero for this i happen to know what the consequence fr me would be because we've had false alarms this is nineteen ninety-seven in so photo i made it about three o'clock in the morning in mountain view here when we were watching the computer monitors because we picked up a signal that we thought this is the real deal i kept waiting for the men in black to show up i kept waiting for i kept waiting for my mom to call somebody to call the government to call nobody called nobody called i was so nervous that i couldn't sit on i just wandered around taking photos like this one just for something to do while at nine thirty in the morning with my head down on my desk has obviously hadn't slept all night the phone rings and it's the new york times and i tink there's a lesson than that and that lesson is that if we pick up a signal the the media will be honored faster than a weasel on ball bearings it's goin to be fast you can be sure that no secrecy okay that's what happens to e in ruins my whole week because whatever i've got playing that week out the window but what about you what's it gonna do to you in the answers we don't know the answer we don't know that's gontaut in a long term not even very uch in this short term that would be a bit like asking chris columbus and fourteen-ine hey charswhat happens if it turns out that there's a continent between here and japan where you're sailing to what will be the consequences for humanity if that turns out to be the case any christ probly would offer you some answer that you might not have understood but it probably wouldnt ave been right and i think to predict what finding e t' going mean we can't preict that either but hear a couple of things i can't say to begin with it's going to be a society that's way in advance of renort hear from alienates are not building transmitters they're gonna be ahead of us maybe by a few thousand ears may a few million years but substantially ahead of us and that means if you can understand anything that they're going to say then you might be able to short circuit history by getting information from a society that's way beyond our own now you might find that a bit hyperbolic and maybe it is but nonetheless it's conceivable that this will happen you could consider this don't know giving julius caesar english lessens and the key to the library of ongress it would change his day that's one another thing that's for sure going to happen is that it will calibrate us we will know that we're not that miracle that were just another duck in a row were not the only kids on the blok and i think that's philosophically a very profound thing to learn we're not a miracle othe third thing that it might tell ou is somewhat vague but i think interesting and importnthis if you find a signal coming from a more advanced society cause they will be that will tell you something about our own possibilities that were not inevitably doomed to self-destruction because they survived their technology we could do it too normally when you look into the universe you're looking backin time i that's interesting to cosmologists but in this sense you actually can look into the future hazily but you can look into the future so those are all the sorts of things that would of detection now let me talk a little bit about something that happens even in the meantime and that is seti i think it's important because it's exploration and it's not only exploration is comprehensible always reading books about explorers i find exploration very interesting article people like magellan shackleton franklin down there scott all these guys it's really nifty expression that there just doing it because i want to explore you might say all that's kind of a frivolous opportunity but that's not frivolous that's not a frivolous activity because i'm a think of ance you dont most dancer program to ollow one another long long line but their coupland may be one percent of those ants that are what they call pioneer ants and there the ones that wander off they are the ones you find on the kitchen countertop ettor thumb before they find the sugar but those ants even to most of them get wiped out those answer the ones that are essetial to the survival of the hive so exploration is important i also think that exploration is important in terms of being able to address what i think is a critical lack in our society and that's the lack of science literacy the lack of the ability to even understand science now look a lot has ben written about the deplorable state of science literacy in this country you've heard about it well here's one example in fact polls taken poles in ten years ago liroughly one-third of the public thinks it aliens or nominally out there were looking for there but they're here right sailing skies and her saucers and occasionally abducting people for experiments thir parents wouldn't approve of well that would be interesting if it was true in job's security for me but i don't tink the evidence is very good that's more you know sad than significant but there are other things that people believe that are significant like the efficacy of homeopathy or that evolution is just sort of a crazy idea by scientists without any legs evolutional that gloal-warming the these sorts of ideas don't really have any validity you can't trust to scientists now we got to sell that prue because that's a critically important problem mightwell ohow gonsalvethat problem was set willet me suggest to you that seti obviously can't solve the problem and an address the problem it can address the problem by getting young people interested in science lus science is hard it has a reputation of being heard and he facts are it is high and that's a result of four hundred years of science i mean the eighteenth century in the eighteenth century you could become an expert on any field of science in an afternoon by going to a library you could find a librayin the nineteenth century if you had a basement lab you could make major scientific discoveries in your own home right because it was all the scientists line around waiting for somebody to pick it up well that's not tore any more today you got to spend years in grad school and post positions just to figure out what the important questions are it's hard there's no doubt about it an infraction example they expos on finding the ex bos on as the ten people you see on the street do you think it's worthwhile to spend billions of swiss ranks looking for the higgs boson i get the answer youre going o get is well i don't no what the igbos on is and i don't now tis important and probably most of the people wouldn't even know the value of a swiss frank yet we're spending billions of swiss francs on this problem as that doesn't get people interested in science because they can't comprehend what it's about sation hands really simple oregon use these big antanaswene on try as drop on signals everybody can understand that yes technologically is very sophisticated but everybody gets the deaso that's one thing the other thing is it's xciting science it's exciting because wre naturally interested in other intelligent beings and i think that's part of our hardwiring i mean we hardware be interested in being that might be if you will competitors or if you're the romantic sort possibly even mates and this is analogous to our interest in things that have big teeth or interest in things that have big teeth you can see the evolutionary value that and you can also see the practical consequences by watching watching animal planet they make very few programs about gerbils mostly bad things that have big teeth okay so we're intrested in these sorts of things and just kids this allows you to pay it forward by using this subject as a hook to science because seti involves all kinds of science obviously biology obviously astronomy but also geology chemistry various scientific disciplines all can be presented in the guise of we're looking for et so to me this this interesting and important and in fact it's my policy eve though i give a lot of talks to adults you give talks to adults and two days later they're back where hey were but if you give talks to kids in at one and fifty of them some light bulb goes off and iciinever thought of that and then they go you read a book or a magazine whatever they get interested in something now it's my they supported only by anecdotal prsonall anecdotal evidence but nonetheless that kids get intereste in something between the ages of eight and eleven tey got to get him there so all right give talks to dulcet's fine but i try and make ten percent of the talks that i give try and make those for kids i rememer when a guy came to our high school actually rose actually my junior high school in sixth grade and he got some talk all i remember from it was one word electronics this was like dustin hoffman in the graduate right when he said plastics whatever that means plastics set electronics don't remember anything else in fact i don't remember anything that my sixth grade teacher said all year but i remember electronics so i got interested in electronics and studied to get my ham license i was wiring up stuff here i am at about fifteen or something doing that sortie that had a big effect on me so that's my point that you can have a big effect on these kids in fact this is reminds me a cuplefyearsago i give a talk at a school in paloato where the were about a dozen eleven year olds had come to this talk i been brought in to talk to these kids for an hour elevens here all sitting in a little semicircle looking up at me with big eyes and i started the was wiper behind me a start off by writing a one with twenty two zero look this is a number of stars in the visible universe and this number is so big there's noteven a name for it and one of these kids shot up his hand and he saw actually the rs name ford it's a sextile quadroon that kid was wrong by ford foreorders of magnitude there was no doubt about it these kids were smart so stop giving the lecture all i wanted to do was ask questions in fact my last comment to these kids i said you know you kids are smarter tan the people i work with thy didn't even care about that what they wanted what they was my email dress so they could ask me more questions just say look my job is a privilege because we're in a special time previous enerations couldn't do this experiment at all tin another generation down the line i think we will have succeeded to me it is a privilege and when i look in the mirror you know the facts are that i really don't see myself what i see is the generation behind me used as some kids from hoffschool fourth graders talked there but two weeks ago some like i think if you can install some interest in science and how it works well that's a payoff beyond easy measure thank you very much i eeeeeeears
then did casanova eeeeeeeawhat did your digital footprints say about you what i mean by digital footprints i mean all the stuff that we leave online the digital tracks and traces the stuff that makes up other people's perception of wore as well as our own some of these things are really visible and some hm are really invisible so things that you've you've watched the trail of things you've watched on yuca that recommends something else some of tings like your search history but lots of the things that elieve online stuffed are entirely within our control and are about our own of creative process so i want you to start off by thinking about what the last thing that you shared online was now this might ve been two or three minutes ago this might v been hours ago the mit ve been days ago what was that last thing that you shared it might been someting on facebook and bit besoming on snapchat i know that i disprotected tweet automatic lakes i like to be a little bit smug when i'm speaking but what was that last thing what does that thing about you if someone is looking at that what does that tell you does that tell you that's on what you are as i telling about your interests maybe it says something that's really positive or quirky so ganabing a bit smug this baking of mine oh maybe it shows that you've got interest maybe it shows that you do a particular kind of job maybe it shows a particular kind of hobby that you have made us so ing you'd really want to show to the world something really positive so if someone looks at that you'd think brilliant i recognize that person as myself and i think that's what i would like to portray to people may be portraying different parts of herself to different kinds of audiences so i've even got on right about having different kinds of identities for different kinds of context so presenting yourself in the onstage ways and off-stageways but has spin off stages come on stage an feels very relevant right sometimes you have to have different kinds of adenitis and they don't always stay totally separate and in fact some other things sharon line may be the not presenting exactly how you too it is my polite version of carin something slightly inappropriate online this is my cat godfrey he's on twitto and instagram please don't judge me judgment that's you might be sharing stuff that you don't really intend to get a wider airing now godfrey's not to embarras althogh i have to say dont ask his consent to use his image which i really shot off but maybe something gets out of harisee goes nor nat you don't expect it to get seaman then your idetity starts to be this slight model of things that intended for different kinds of udiences you get this idea of context collapse where your friends and your colleagues and people who run we people who are craft maybe they all converge in the same space they all start to see different parts of your density and that's quite challenging an wn you're showing the social media that's really likely to happen your parents might be on facebook people who you don't know mount tiat people who do know when you're sharing stuff in anonymous spaces you have to be thinking about what the identities projecing about you and what you wanted to project about youand is luch about what you share and where you share it is also whom you share a creature it with ou can choose but most of us don't choose to so even doing some research with students at university of edinburgh and we've been asking them to tell us how they use social they think about their identity online and sixty one percent of them very very rarely check their privacy settings and five percent of them have found something online that they did not want to see they thought it been taken away dioscorus settings and who you share with the circles that you share with mateo share to these networks they share further on you have control of tht but most of us choose not to exercise that and that's kind of interesting so we have these footprints we have these things that visible we have these things the are invisiblewe also create other people's footprints for them but we don't always think about it that way so we have an all the social media platform stability to attack peopleand that's great that's lovely you can see you're all in te same place and it's really good until we've turned down this one invitation to do something quite important and someone tags union event somewhere else that's not so great something of photo and it's not a good photostat has a really serious consequence a lot of training teachers particularly in the use phone pictures of them drinking not drinking underage just drinking when there's live in the twenties have been enough to impact on their employment potential because that's an image that their employers don't want to have of them sometimes it is much less important that is like you haven't got me at the right side i don't like that picture that picture is not very flattering that matches to though you have to respect fule's witches andwe 're still trying to figure out this etechetabout what we tg what we share how auditional footprints are constructed and how we are constructing by other people every day again when we did research for students eleven percent of peple said they had been tagged in an unwanted way in a photograph eleven per cent as a huge number and gain the mouth seriousness potentially there are some professional bodies in things that from the moment that you start university omens from before that your presence online actually is part of your professional identity student nurses arrived from the day they start university to consider themselves a professional is how the pose to present themselves on line that's a really big ask i have to say so that's tf tat you're sharing now the stuff that you share every dy can have long time consequenceshe thing is though i'm standing a bit scary and i love social media i am on all of the social media if you google m you will find me all over the place i totally love these things they are creative fantastic tools they are like a big giant yawn shop for iromans a huge set of things that it be creative and wonderful and create marvellous things i am not going to dissuade you from setting stuff up thae can be really good things about being present online again without students in the research sixteen percent of them had had approaches for jobs for volunteering opportunities because of having presence online i had professional portunities because i hae pick cooking pictures it can be really fantastic to build up your network it is a really positive thing as long as yore being deliberative and think bout what you're doing because once something is out there it's really had to get it back the thinks of hands they grow they network you end up with this big tangle of things if yu and to take back a post you might delete it i one place it might av been copied to someone else if you want to i removed you might have to ask your friends to kind of forget it was ever there and to remove a screenshot of it as well it's not that easy to take stuff back once it's out that is not impossible the stuff that posted on owseteenager online just about young enough to expose the poniestnager that has disappeared and some of her unpolite about some of this i really miss but you have to assume stuff was decorand a little bit and trying to put it back it is difficult so i want you to think ten years ahead it's twenty-twenty-six i have noted what state the world is in especially for th last few weeks thighed is twenty-twenty-six what does the digital footprint stuff that you are leaving now say about youi it saying the right things is that history of you as we will all have a history of recorded in lots of different places what does that say about you what you want it to and whe you post something next time i want you to think about tatianthis thing that i'm sharing this post is comment it might be silly it doesn't be serious having a personality is ninety percent of wat social medians about being fun and lively is fine but i only think about what are you created you creating sm in beautiful and complex like the selsea glass sculpture you can't see everything may be different audiecy different things but interesting and complex and a brilliant presentation of you that's what we need to think about when you think making additional footprint for the future and i want to think about that when oure thinking about how you deal with stuff that you don't want to say online forever just to be thinking about the long term view of it it might be femoral it might sacrum forever but always be thinking how do i make my digital footprints say the right thing about me and how can i make that a choice that i've taken cotrol off thank you eetieement
the composer holier itoiai hatton and jane amenas james and i'm experimental particle physics in what that means is that i get together wth a few thousands of my closest colleagues and we take the smallest possible things in nature and we accelerate them up to the highest possible speed and we slam them into each other to see what happens reason we did this is because we'relooking for things that mankind has never seen before very fundamental physical scales and so i'm here to share with you what someone called a dark photon is but to do so i need to set a litle bit of historical context unsuccessful click leaving i need to set a little itof historical context and flashback to eighteen ninety four when eminent physicist albert michaelson said the following he stood in front of audience fat the universe of chicago and he said the following the more important fundamental laws and facts of physical science have all bee discovered and these are now so firmly established at the possibility of their ever being supplanted in consequence of new discoveries is exceedingly remote a couple of decades previous electricity of magnetism had been shown to be two parts of the same force electromagnetism and this was considered such a gigantic rake rough the time that there was a prevalent attitude amongst a lot of physics that this was petymutuetand the rest were some minor details but sometimes i wonder if people like this michaelson need to because we've got to get the nobel but i wonder sometimes if people sayings like with such defendive authority just so they can ensure their place in history as like grand historical straiten so that we look back a hundred years later and mrvel at how completely wrong they were a different albert nineteen o-five special relativity nineteen fifteen general relativity and in their early decades of the nineteen hundred quantum mechanics and the thy ned to put quantum mechanics together with relativity led to something called quantum field theory and anyone of these things by themselves required such a complete paradise shifter understanding of nature as very basic scales that it's hard to imagine how michaelson could have been more wrong in his pronounces a quantum field theory that we ame up with was a language that llowed us to understand is amazing interplay between theory and experiment in paricle physics and physics twentieth century that culminated in a thing that we call the standard model of particle physics and it is essentially a list f all the particles the fundamental particles we know and the ways that they interact and its nicely summarized in this diagram from movie particle fever it doesn't have any significance beyond its just a really nice way to put it down on slide and essentially have two basic classes of particles you have the outer ring which is matter particles and there are a cork in the electron and they have the inner ring which which populated by the so-called force carrying particles or gauge bosons and so this it's an amazing most shockingly successful experimental theros that i actually earns that name the standard model capital s capital mandata a few ears may have perked up when i said that word bows none here heard the higgs bows onohaven't heard of the higgs boson perhaps you know by its more sensationalist name the kane particles are the god particle physicists don't care much for that name because it obscures the truly awsome nature of this particle but nonetheless in july of two thousand twelve skis may toed the collaboration to the experiments at the large adron collider atlas the one that i work on and see mass a complimentary experiments the large hadron collider at cern near geneva announced the discovery with his brand new particle the the higgs boson is its culms discovers amazing triumph with a culmination of decades of work by thousands of physicists and it really was it really was a fantastic triumph was the last remaining piece of the standard model puzzle to be pluged in and so you might think that when once this was plugged in we all can have turned to each other and said wow isn't this great fnally a hundred and twenty years later we finally reached michaelson dreamed of end of physics is what we said to each other absolutely nt we know for a fact that the santarmodel is not a compleepitcher it is amazingly successful but it cannot be the completpicture of nature at its fundamental scales erben theory an express and also we've learned our historical less not to say things like we know that this interplay between their experiment and these aazing paradintrests that happened in the twentieth century also went over to oter related fields of physics and so we know for the fact that the standard models in cmplete but its its so experimentally successful that any new thing that comes has to build a planet it still has to be true at the end of day so the barrier that we face now in partice physics is not the same one that was in eighteen ninety the one that michaelson is position whethr we should even bother to keep searching for new physics the barrier face now is slightly different the question of how to keep searching for new physics and i'll give you a flavor of what i mean by showing you an arabis an aerial view of the large hadron collider so this is a twenty-seven kilometer around tunnel on the border of france and switzerland a hundred metres under the ground but to make it more local this what will look like around lore manhattan sat the lice collect two beams of protons at the highest energies mankind is ever used in a chalierxperiment thirteen terror electron volts so this give you a sense of scale we have these two beams the place where we focus them together and cliethem with build a big detector there so this gives your sense of the scope of some of these experiments and to get up to higher energies the higher energies where the new revolutionary physics may be hiding we to build bigger machines and so this is the next generation of machines they're planned to be something like a hundred kilometers around collide particles at a hundred terra electron bots what is that it is that the only direction we can go and absolutely has to happen and this this being planned and this is absolutely the tigneeds to be done but is that the only direction we can go the answer is no and this is where someting called dark photon comes in this gamma is the symbol we often use for a photon dust means dark so is s were the dark photon comes before we talk about dark photon probably familiarize ourselves with the regular photon so the regular photon you know quite well it's tamaependent on how you look as eiter a wave or a particle has properties of both and the photon is the particle manifestation of litanwhen your camera takes a photo please if you have cameras tke them out and take a photo of me posing like your camera will take thereon your camera with with that photo is is collecting a few billion photons when you're standing outside at noon the square meter around you is absorbing something like a thousand billion billion photons a second very bright and coherent photons make up blazers and some of the demophotons we know are those that have been travlling for fourteen billion years from a fraction of a second after the big bang and are just now arriving to be collected and studied by astronomers the most energetic photons we know of come from astrophysical sources like hypernovethe least energetic know of are the ones that carry the soft rock hits of the seventies via am radio you're very familiar with regular photons or at least you think you are because as a particle physics we have a entslightly different way of thinking about photons in addition to all these things it's also a special type of force carrying particle and to give you an apreciation of what i mean by that i have to take a brief foray into cliterphysics and into quantum field theory but i promise it will not be painful because you arrete basically know wat a collision is so your no what microscopic collisions are so if you take two billiard balls they smack together and fly apart great in physics we like to keep track of things as they evolve in time so we antlookat this same collision on the billiard table as it evolves in times at one at some point of time the balls ar faced far apart they get closer together they smack togther and fly apart and we draw lines to this and this gives us a trajectory of this collision as it happened in sacetimethese billiard balls are to petty slow and they're they're pretty large so if we want to go to the very very smallest fundamental scales the smallest uncuttable particle scales and if we want to go up to the highest energy highest highest speeds possible at almost the speed of light the rules change because quantum field theory takes over there and you can't think of collisions in the same ways instead of billy alls let's collide another particle that you know quite well and thy ill use qute a bit in colliderphysics the electron electron and its antiparticle deposit on as time goes on they get closer together something happens and then electron depositor on come of theother side ok would that something happens can be as as a collision and it can take a few forms one of them they can pass right by each other is not very interesting one thing they can do is they can actually annihilate and create a new particle according to very strict rules of quantum field theory this particle can be split into other particles another thig that can do though is they can get close enough to each other so that they feel each other i feel they feel a force much like one planet can be said to feel the gravitational force o another one as they go around each other these dielectronoposito on can be said to feel the electromagnetic force between particle leve that means directually exchanging another type of photons type of particle a special type of particle force carrying particle and for electromaticsm this is the photon each one of forces has a force carrying partile associated with it but is that all of them the answer is no this development of the standard model in the twentieth century led us to understand that there wre other fundamental forces that we had missed before and one ofthe is called the strong force this was discovered and this is the one that hold cork bounded to protons and neutrons and hence keeps your body from flying apart and keeps the sidewalk from from dissolving underneath your feet and its force care is called the gluonappropriate name ton of te other forces we found called weak force and the weak force you probably best known is responsible for radioactive decay in its kind of an oddbalx that has three different force carrying partil associated with w plus minus and zbozons but is that all of themthe answers that we don't know there actually could be other fundamental forces out there but because so many people as physical forces because so many people had been working on this for so long so many clever people and so many much fiber than i and so many experiments performed we have narrowed down the possible way that we could have missed new forces and hence new force carrying particles to a very few one way is if the particles are supermassive and want to be my mass is not the typical you know like a massive bouncer at a bar type colloquial sense mass the particle level is a very as an intrinsic property of a particle and so so what i mean by if you remember elmsquare this indicates an equivalence between energy and mass and so often measure we often express the masses of fundamental particles in terms of energy so you'll see the gigaelectron bolt here and so the proton snataforce carrie burns a particle you know quite well the proton has a massive about one gig electron the newly discovered higgs particle has a mass aout a hundred twenty five times that and then the most massive fundamental particle we know of is the oppor and it has a massive about a hundred seventy-two times that for reference the w z force carriers have masses closer to the higgs and the electron has a supersmall mass one way we could have missed a new force force carrying particles as if they're just supermassive we haven't built a large enough collider with enough energy to get up there like i said we build a larger collider to get higher energies to find the new particles vsaid that cost money that's not where you've go and get the money that take it cost money to get up there and so is tht the only way no another one of the very very few ways we could amisse physical forces would have missed them so far is it they have a very small mass smaller thathe mass of the proton and if they interact very very slightly with our everyday electromagnetic word or everyday world and you might tink makenesense because it is said that to get to the higher higher masses we ned more money so haven't we covered the broke end of the spectrum alreadyhe answer comes from a fact that from very very slightly interacting thing so what i mean by is the most important force won forces that we owe the most important force force n terms of physics in terms of experiment is electromaticism because it's the only one we can do anything directly with terms of instruments some new physics effect doesn't eventually result in an electromagnetic interaction we won't now about its if nature had for instance conspired to hide some new force from force carrying particle that had a very very small mass and that o interacted really really slightly with our erelectromagnetic world so slight a we never seen it before i would have escaped the detection of all the previous experiments this is by contrast to the regular photon we call it the dark photons he's be a new force carrier so okay you might be thinking that's all well and good man but this is like a staff n the dark you have any external motivation bond it might exist i mean a lot of things might exist as a god question i like the hat yu think and the answer is yes there's a lot of motivation one thing it's because this dark actually has something to do with dark matter so we like to ok at hubblephotographs so take your favourite spiral galaxy count up the stuff you can see that gives me the amount of luminous matter in the galaxy ploy your favorite textbook on gravity and take that number and put it into the eqation that tells you how fast a star should be moving as a function of how far away from the center of the galaxy it is youll get this prediction now our local astronomer and get her to measure those speeds of these particles they're totally off from the predction this means it has to be more stuff there than what we can see in i it's not luminous it's dark that's where dark matter is word dark matter comes from canalgodantyo local astrophysicist and asks her to show you the energy budget of the universe she'll tell you that there's overfleakdown of all that stuff that exists in the universe shall it is over five times as much dark matter as there is regular matter now godey local particle theorists and ask her what dark matter is she'll tell you we don't know we have a lot of ideas though so experimental and there are a lot of people looking for dark matter direct direct detection necessary caderphysices like me other direct detection dark matter experiments excuse me they have seen some weird things and so i don ave time erbout just to tell you get the dark matter experiment experimental into the room with a particle theories get them to talk together and compare notes and work work it out eventually the particle theatres will turn to and she'll say ye no if there were a low mass if there were a new force carrying particles that had a mass a little less than the mass proton and if i interacted really really slightly with her everyday world this would explain a lot of the dark matter crazinss that she seenarkmatter experimentalist and then unosparticle goes a cliterpieis you go that's a dark photon i might be able to create that the clyde experiment so partially because of its relationship to dark matter partially for other reasons the dont have time to go into partially just because this field of dark photon searching has heated up quite a bit in the last few years so this is a state of things as like two thousand eight and that white space completely unexplored and that's exactly wher a dark photon should live if it's got help explain these darkmatter anomalies now flash forward to today six years later this is a state of things those though shaded regions re exclusions places where dark dark cotton can't live lines are a planned experiments to take place in the net year what changed some theorists in fact natalya too phillip schuster rubenesseg and james borgen pointed out the weekend indeed look in this space for dark photon do so on cheap they made some calculi made the observatwe can use existing fixed target facilities that were built for other particle physical purposes to look for this dark photon and so were all the experimentalist rubber hands together and say yes this is good we can do this and so these experiments are all over the world there in russia there germany the italy california there actually three experiments taking place that are planned to happen at a facility in virginia called thomas jefferson national accelerator facility jefferson laban focused briefly on one called apex is that the one that i work on jefferson led by contrast to the allied shorwell two beams of protons at really high energies like terra electron volts at jeffersn lab it's one beam electrons that you get up to the gig electron volts gvenelectron goes into an experimental halloonce it goes into experimental hall this as well ooks like for apex the beam comes in over my head i goes into this target enclosure where you hold a chunk of metal fixed so what happens we the electrons encounter umpchunk of metal and on less look at he diagrams the collectiochunk of metal is a dense collection of atoms with large nucleowhen an electron comana gets close to ucleaus they feel each other and they exchange a photon then as the electron bends around the nucleus it spits off anothe photon which splits into a couple of particles the weekend detect case detect those particles we calculate the mass of the particle they came from an we've ben those up and overwhelmingly it's just a ackground noise shape this smooth background shape but occasionally if a dark photon exists you'll creat a dark photon instead very very rarely and so you ihal mass so you're loing for a tiny bump on top f the smooth background thing so we did this for the apex expeiment in july of two thousand ten who reheld a teston apron concept test rum in an ideal world we would have seen sometng like this you now how to work too hard to convince somebody that is like a bump that's in fact simulation and what we saw was this and if you think that doesn'took like anything you write that was just a background spectrum and in fact the thing we'd be looking for would be a much subtler effect led closer to one on the right than the left but so we did not see dark photon otherwise you would have heard about it but we did rule out a small space where one can live prove the feasibility of the experiment which will happen sometime in a couple of years i said other experiments are looking too so this dark photon races on soso finally what is a dark photon a dark photo would be a new force carrying prticle much like the regular photon is the force carryng particle of electromagnetism it's dark because it interacts so slightly with our everyday electromagnetic world that effectively been hidden from all previous experiments and because it could help explain some the odd astrophysical results related to dark matter it's because it interacts so slightly with our everyday world we need to perform specialized experiments but had existing facilities to look for a tiny dark coat on signal on top of a huge backgroundscuse it's potentially revolutionary because it will would be the unabiguous evidence of a fundamental particle not predicted by the wildly successful standard model that we know and love but i mean i know the crowd here little bit after spending the whole you know what what will this do for you what would you get if we found a dark photon soon be able to don't take dark photos with your phone possibly probably not and you may be on th wrong person asked the because i'm an experimentalist not a product developmental mini looked for a dark photon because am interested in the funamental open questions of physics like what is dark matter and more importantly loked for a dark foot on gas look at this plot i think not wonder what's there muc like winger hiking you look at a hill and i wonder what could be in that next hidden valley we pushed the limits of human knowledge because we er curious that being said i do now that simple pushing of te limits of human knowledge for curiosity sake by my particle physics has led eventually to such things as cat-skins pet scans major events in a power the worldwide web noted what the discovery of dark photon will be beyond expanding our understanding of the universe the rest of it will be up to you so at the end of the day though is it possible that everything one of these experiments could come up completely emptyyes absolutely i mean these were experiments because he periments and in particle physics there's no such thing as failure because even if you don't find something you've still gained an important piece of information about nature the only failure is to stop searching thank you i eeeeee
as edison and hamme name is marcus baler a the mcfee professor of engineering it at my tea and i am also a member of the centre for computational signs and engineering in the schwartzman college of computing in this to i'll be talking about the nexus of materialized sound and sonfied material well on be talking about how vibrations sound and matter interact and how we can use music to design new and better materials we think about biologicl structures such as a spider web we can see the very detailed very intricate very complex structures if we look in a spider web in this case a three dimensional spider where there are many internal structures they go really from the macro scale all waynoanoscale reno flying inside the wobstructure and we can see that this eb has very complex architectural features as we are closer we see more more of those architectural features emerge and become visible we go even closer we can look inside each of the circle filaments we can recognize that each circle of itself consists f a hierarchical structure this hyracucal structure ranges from the molecular scale the individual protein molecules which are assembled adam by adam to form secondary structures to form tertiary structures to form bundles or proteins ultimately forming filamens assembling into bundles of filamensand fibres then forming the filaments the silk iber that you can see in the web so you can see that the web structure really has a structure that goes from the maro scale all the way down to the nano scale how are these materials built while these materials are built in nature by encoding structural information through the genetic sequence usually encoded by the letters encode information about how proteins are built proteins are built from primary sequences these genetic information letters forming sequences of amino acids forming secondary structures such as alphahelisads or better sheets and these in turn form more complicated structures such as collagen in bones spiders consisting of beta-sheet and alpha helix mixtures to also more complex structures like viruses what you see in this light in this picture here is the pathogen of covenant which has the spike protein sticking out on the surface which gives this virus its name the coronavirus or crowns this coronavirus is encoded by sequences of amino assets and quoted by letters of rna or diana to naticinformatin this ternetic information provides the building plan for how this virus is actually builtjust like te viruses built from the bottom up forming hirachical structures across defen length scales and time scales we know that in engineering we might be able to use such an approach as well thinking about an architectural system like the athletouer you cn also recognize that this system has features as well the girl from the macro altheway down to nano scale even though engineers have been using hierarchical principles foran extended period of time we have not yet been able to tun simultaneously molecular scale all the way to te microscopic level one other feature that is really interesting is a unifying fthe on feature across different manifestations of matter that is the equivalent of vibrations to matter to sound the universlity of waves and vibrations is something we see in molecules we can recognize at the quantum-mechanical level we can describe matter as collections of waves we can also see that sound is an overlaying of signwaves harmonic waves to create more compicated sound structures and we can also see that spiders for instant use waves as a way of communicating and understanding the environment waves sound vibration are universal and we can use perhaps vibrations unsound as a way of defining material models optimizing materials and even inventing and highly new materials by using reparationshere we show how we can evolve the way horace systems are builtthinking about a spider spider uses vibration as ave sensing the environment communicating with other spiders sensing threat detecting prey and many other thingsthey use the signals they collect process it n their brain and make decisions make decisions about how to build the web just like an autonomous weedy printer they build webs by assembling materials in space depositing materials in space repairing the web and interacting with other spiders forming a autonomous material system a smart material system nd intelligent material system humans operated on very similar way when humans build things hen we create a painting play an instrument we sense the environment we make decisions about what to do next tool to use in thinking out wood carving what kind of action to do next to create a certain pattern playing an instrument we decide on what key to play next depending what we hear these kind of processes are very similar what the spider does the question is can we incorporate some of those feedback mechanisms some of these autonomous ways of reating materials of creating matter through sensing processing information in no networks in creating new things from it can we utilize those and impleent those and technological solutions to create maturest static but materia alive that can iteractwith the environment in innovated from novel waysin fact one way to do that is to trnslate matter because matter has equivalenes to vibrations into sound and se soundless a way of designing new matter the way we do this is we have a material composition of material struture we can understand that as a set of vibrations we can compute the set of vibrations magalinto audible sound and manipulate the sound we can make new sound we can change the sound and we can then use a reverse translation to move sund back into matter by doing this we dissolve the designproblem which really consists of assembling a set of building blocks canal-like lego building blocks into structures in the case of sound a building blocks are signed waves or insruments or melodies or keys on a piano we can assemble complex pieces of structure complex pieces of sound complex melodies simultaneously play intersecting interweaving and create rally complicated designs in sound which then we can trnslate back into material so the question is what kind of material with a certain composition like for bach or beethoven may be represent can we utilize this idea in designing entighly new aterials that nature has not yet invented can we come up with engineering solutions to sustainable materials that we cannot otherwise obtainsound is the relly elegant way of capturing multiple levels in the material organization recall the spider web it has many if in structures recall we were going from the big lrge-scale into the web and we can recognize from the beginnin the architectural levels structural details all way down to the molecular scales and the individual atoms and make up the amino assets which are the building blocks of proteins these amino assets to proteins to assemblies of proteins to filaments fibers to the entire web architecture is a really complicated puzzle by using sound we can hear simultaneously all these different levels each level contributes a particular type of frequency spectrum by listening to it our ear or brain can process the information and we can design new hierarchical structure just like music we think about matter and molecules let's take a closer look if you open a chemistry textbook most likely you find a drawing of a molecule like enzian in this case these kind of models change over time but i ould say they're all wrong because these pictures in a textbook are static they look like static drawings when in fact molecules are continuously moving they're vibrating and oval the time these vibrations and movements is acually what defines the structure of these molecules each molecule has a unique fingerprint of sound just like you can hear hear the vibrations of a guitar you can hear the vibrations creating or recall musicin a similarway vibrations of may also have a unique sound ad we can make it audible by transposing the frequencies into audible range so that brain can process the information what you hear here is the sounding of a complex protein structure a iiite an epeetethe protein is vibrating all the time it's continuously moving these movements and motions can be made in audible sound just like playing multiple guitars multiple instruments and multiple structures in musical composition by having a model of a protein in soud who can begin to understand the protein better have another way of understanding structure we quickly process information we can understand questions like mutations we can understand how proteins might change their folding geoetry as mutations happen we can understand how diseases might be treated by developing antibodies or drugs that bind to the protein all these aspects can be very easily done and heard in sound space one discovery made recently is that eah of the amino assets the twenty natural building blocks for lpro-teins calamine assets have a unique sound they have a unique fingerprint in other words they have a unique key on a piano they all sound different what you hear now is the sound of each of the twenty amente acid going from begining to the end these are the sounds of life these sounds can e utilized to build models or proteins in faculty here now is the musical representation of the spike protein of covid nineteens pathogen teend adobe tebthis is a very large protein with about three thousand amino acids because the protein is so big and has such a complicated folding geometry the musical composition that results from this protein to reflect its structure s very long in fact is about one hour and fifty minutes long the protein itself is hierarchical in nature it has primary sequence as we've talked about before encoded by the genetic information of the virus again there are thirty thousand basic levels information in the genetic code of the virus three thousand of these encode this particular protein then we have secondary structures like otheriiseason better sheets and manum coils and other structures as well thes are then folded into complex dramatries the resulting music is a very complicated piece because we have many inimelodies weaving into another creating what we call in music counterpointcounterpoint is a concept introduced and used very heavily by on sebastian back for instance couple hundred years ago so he has already utilized some of the structural features we find in proteinsby using sound or music as a way of modelling proteins we can build pairpowerfur coding models that we can use in artificial intelligence applications in fact in reason work we have used proteins to build data sets to represent thousands and hundreds of our hours of music that reflect these proteins and train artificial know networks to listen to them these ais can then generate newmuic based on what they have learnt these new musical compositions can then once generated be translated back into proteins because we have a unique mapping between the protein sound and the genetic information so we can go protein from material to sound through the understading of the equivalence of waves and matter we can use waves or sound as a way of creating new sound editing sound manipulating the sound coming up with new design solutions not only by human but also using as and we can use the new sound translating that back into materials we can materialize sound this axis of matter and sound is very exciting because it allows us to use different techniques to solve various design problems in the case of kobe nineteen one of the design problems werter of course is to think about ways of creating ntibodies molecules or proteins that can bind to the protein in the virus more strongly tha the protein combined to the human cell what here now is one of these proteins that we have generalled using airanged medioland you can see in the picture how this protein looks like this is a protein that nature has not yet invented no how do we create this we listen to many diferent kinds of coronavirus spike proteins different species different evolutionary stages of the cornovais not only the current covenantin but many other quabies we then let the method generate new music that reflects the innate structures in these particular type of proteins which spike proteins in viruses and the resulting piece is a composition that reflects a protein gemetry point sequence that has something to do with his coronavirus spike proteins but has not yet been found in nature this kind of composition as kind of sequence might infect hold the key tone antibody because it matches the types of sequences we find in the protein in the genetic information hey you can hear a piano composition that reflects the moment of inection this is a protein structure that resembles the moment when the virus spike poteen attaches to he human celloeven the opoodoring the attachment process the protein changes its orientation slightly and you can hear this attachment in a slide change in the spectrum of frequencies and vibrations and you can make it audible hough music so music here provides a microscope into world of molecular motions in the world of infection detachment and the interaction of the virus ultimately with the human body vibrations could also be seen in other manifestations for instance and surface waves water waves in lake is a very common phenomenon in fact this phenomena of having sun shining on a lake or in water bodies having waves creating surface waves in the water and seeing the glittering of this resulting product is something that's been very important in human evolution humans use these glittering concepts as a way of finding watr-not only humans many animals as well it's a way of detecting water by using surface waves so e ave been try nose whether we can think about using the deeper structures of water waves surface waves generated not nly by wind loading or other environmental influences but also generating those through the mechanical signatures of vibrations encoded in the proteins so have created an experimental set up or we can excite water through the innate vibrations in the protei and make them visible you can then see at the microscopic level with your eyes how these protein excite water and what kind of unique patterns they form turns out different protein states different vibrations we can see the different patterns formed with our eyes from the moleculous scale it provides yet another way of vsualizing nanoscopic elements nanoscopic events manoscopic features not only without ears like in music but also using our eyes by looking at wave wave patterns these wave panents can distort reality as shown here in this animation you can see how we have used a camera to film the surface of a wave and watching the refection of the environment in this case trees and brushes in a snowy landscapebecause there's a slight windloading on this water body there are slight surface waves and the surface waves distort the image recorded by the camera so even though you can recognize the image as a slide distortion this distortion the inceptionism of creating a divine image based on an environmental inflence is something weller to explore and see whether we can use a similar concept to see how reality might be distoted or changed by visualizing protein vibrations in ater imaging water waves generate by potin vibratons is in fact a powerful way of detecting proteins we have done here as we have selected a number of dfferent proteins and visualized them in water waves and water surface waves and then train the nurnetwork against thousands of images for each of these proteins what hanuner can learn through the training process is what are the wave patterns that associated with each of the protein structures this is how it looks like for one of examples you can see that as a really interesting innate pattern that is formigon the surface because of protein vibrations so these mechnicaperations of the proteins are causing these surface wgs which in turn create very interesting panes that can be picked up with her eyes over the high speed camera each protein has a unique spectrum vibrations as i mentioned earlier you could hear that n the music i've played here is a graphical visual representation of the same idea you can see this barchar the fingered of two different proteins in the left hand side its potin cost six one seven which is the situatin when the kovenantin pathogen is bound to the human cllontheright and side you see a potent cost six eighteen it's the case when the varus is not attached to the human cell so right handside not infected left-hand infected this protein is a very particularly important aspect of understanding the infection process of cobeninteen into the human body we've trained a new netork against many different proteins and detected the surface waves we can do another experiment now and film or record photos of surface waves associate with different proteins and use a no network to classify what kind of protein has casti surface wavesinfactr method works will you well you can see on the left hand side is a protein called one o seven m this protein is shaded in a bownish color and you can see in this bartha the highest probabilty of prediction for this scenario is the brown color which in fact reflects this particular protein one ocean mit byfathe highest probability so the model is perfectly to predict the structure adding go through this tacgraph and see that every single case the highest prediction by far reflects the actual protein that is causing the vibration so the method is able to y just looking at the pictures of the surface waves immediately detected what is the underlying protein causing thes vibrations let's look at the metal part six and seventeen and six eighteen other proteins shown before thes are the infection stages when the molecular interaction begins between the covenant kimpathogen and the human body six-month seventeen is the attached stage six meighteen is detached state and even though the structure is ver similar as only a very bay-slight molecular change very sligt change in the vibrational spectrum as you have seen on the previous picture the method is able to pick up the differences very well the highest probability in six-am-eighteen is a light blue which reflects that particular structure so it's able to predict that six-seventeen is a greenish color in te same idea the highest probability is for this particular structure the method can ally distinguish many different classes of proteins small back but can also describe very subtle differences in vibrational spectra very subtle differences in protin folding states through these surface waves we can use this method to develop an approach called protein inceptionism we can try to see whether we can find patterns that are found in these surface waves in water generated by the proteins in other images taken off mountain landscape may be taken off lakes taking off anything we can seewith our eyes would take a photo and identify whether we can see some of those innete features that are seen in these protein vibrations impacting on surface waves also in other systems where and how do we recognize molecular vibrations in other everyday objects reuse the deep dream algorithm to do that and apply the neal network with trained against all these arious protein vibrations he can picture here his is how the vibrational spectrum looks like embedded realized in this water wave surface structure if we apply the protein inception algorithm to that it will in fact recognize all these different patterns which are unique to this particular protein and that's how the new let work works the inner layers determine features that are unique to that particular protein and which protein has been creating the vibrations we can use some image processing to see these features itle more clearly and this picture here shows how the prcessing of this results in these bagatelacu structures are those i the unique fingerprints or structures that are actually causing these particular resonances in the network the resonance is in the not work generated by the protein inception algorithm really is a powerful way of viualizing how certain features can be magnified and made more visible amplified resonate in these images just like resonances happen in musical instruments like a guitar he becase resonance as an image generated ultimately by the molecular vibrationsnow we look at another situation where we have water waves in a river you can see this as the original picture and these waves are now not caste by proteins these waves infarcaled flowing water of rand you can see how the algorithm picks up certain features in these waterways which again do not occur because of proteins but have similar features as the one seen in protein cost water waves ain with some processing of the images you can see that as a certain parenaemerges these are all the areas spagadilike structures where the algorithm detects resonances of the inner detailed structure that are caused by these protein vibrations supporting vibrations are also seen in iversthis is an example of a coastal landscape we have three elements we have the water we have rocs and we have air and in fact the algorithm detects these features protein vibrations in all three animals some of them in the water waves which is not surprising because both of them are water waves we also see some of these ideas being resembled in rocks some of the feature some other patterns in rocks resemble those seen in the proteins and we can also see a few of those being picked up in the sky and gayish analysis using the image processing and you can see where on the image we can pick up the features that are natural that are innate to the protein migrations matter as sound and sound as matter in fact we have seen that we think about the representation of material we can think of it as a collection of vibrations we can make it audible we can also make the vibrations visible in other states of matter like in liquids in waterstance as surface waves and we can utilize various ways of manipulating matter of creating new materials by either creating new sound or using sound as a way of detecting information in existing musical compositions you can ask the question what kind of material did beethoven create by analyzing the compositions he made we can also see protein vibrations or the features of protin vibrations the unique signatures of vibrational spectrum in other forms using the protein inception algorithm with being able to so that these vibrations can be seen not only in water wavs there can be seen in other states of matthan be seen landscapes that can be seen in plants that can be seen in the sky and snow and any other elements thank you so much for your atten
do but i'd like to strt by asking you to imagine yourself in the following scenario you are a high school senior or the parens of a high school senior and you are interested in a potential college and so you arrange for a campus visit and you go on a campus tour and everything looks great and the people are friendly but after a few minutes something strange starts to dawn on you that this campus has a really horrible smoking habit everybody you see is smoking outside everybody smells like cigarette smoke in fact agoa have lunch in a dining hall and students are actually bragging about how much they smoke one student says yesterday i smoked three packs all by myself and another student says nice i did that last week high five and you think to yourself well this is pretty strange it is otherwise grea school but they have a sort of a weird bad habit and they're oddly celebrational about it so i'm not sure i want to go hereso imagine you go o a second campus tour look at a second college and it's very similar to the first the campus looks really beautiful people are friendly except this college has a bad junk food habit everybody who sees eating junk food there's junk food wrappers everywhere there's nothing nutritious to eat in the dining hall and again people are bragging about how much they're eating so one student says last night i had a whole pizza by myself and another student says nice i did the same thing last week high fivesoif these two scenarios sound a little far fetched imagine a third scenario is you go visit another college and again it looks really great the people are friendly except at this college everybody ooks tired you see people falling asleep at their computers you visit a class and people are dozing off in class and just looks generally like everyone could use a great napo what's crazy to me about this is that i've never seen a campus ful of people who are all smokers or a campus full of people who were all sleep deprived campus ful of people who look tired and sleep tia campus full of people who are all eat junk food but a campus full of people who are all sleep deprived and tired describes every college and university i think that i've ever seen and actually most high schools at wells especially during later parts of the semester and what's interesting is that the effects of being sleep deprived all the time can be just as bad as smkingand just as bad as any too much junk food and yet lots of students would actually choose to go to college where everyone looks sleep deprived because it looks like it really hardworking college where people are very productive in achieving great things and so as a sleep researcher i've been fascinated by the biology and neuroscience of sleep for over a decade and i have a lab at williams ollege that studies mice we look at what happens in the brain body during sleep we look at how the neurons and bain control sleep but i have to say as a father as a teacher and as a colleague to a lot of hard working colleagues hardworking people newfound fascination for how we tolerate sleep deprivation is as a stand it's not just students in our schools it's really everywhere whenever i ride public transportation whether it's a bus or a subway i see people who just look exhausted and in fact ou can see people taking naps on their morning or afternoon commute and sneak them in and in our public life it's really not uncommon to see people dozing off and in general in repliprofessional lives people really just look i'm exhausted is even crazier than that to me which is that not only are people exhausted but some people choose to be sleep deprived and some people actually wear it as a badge of honor ihtcause in order to be sleep deprived you must be really hard working you must have a lot of important things to do and you must be very very productive or else why would yu be sleep deprived first place i've actually been a part of job committees where job applicants wll brag about the fact that they only get three or four hours of sleep at night actually just a couple months ago i was looking at facebook in one of these means that somehow just shows up in your feed for no reason i read i had tens f thousands of likes and said no one looks back on their life and remembers the nights they had plenty of sleepthe implication being that if you get plenty of sleep you'e somehow missing out on your life's greatest potential and in all the things that you could be doing and so tis is really interesting to me and i wonder actually if people would brag about the fact that they're not gttingenough sleep if they knew that the health benefits of getting sleep were just as important as the benefts of not smoking or the benefits of eating a good nutrition and nadia junk food sleep scientists have made so many great discoveries over the past ten years and i'm surprised that more people don't know about them so here's just a couple examples and you have to excuse me because i'm a biology professor so when you're sleeping your petruetary glance which sits right below your brain surges its production of growth mormon growth hormone is released much more when you're sleepingthan when you're awake and growth worn essentially causes threeeffects muscle growth bone growth and fat metabolism how many people would take a pill that caused muscle growth bone growth and fat metabolism if there is a company that sold this pill that would make billions of dollars and imagine most consumers would pay a lot for this and yet we get it for free when when we're sleeping and it's always odd to me when i see people working out at the gym and they spend hours a day at the gym they say they don't get enough sleep at night it's kind a funny thing to me you know that your muscles arent actually growing when you're working out or you're not losing weight when you're working out that all happens when you're sleeping and i don't think most people know that use another example is the cells in the biochemistry are the biochemicals that make up your immue system and circulate through your bloodstream they actually change when you're sleeping comparing to when you're awake and when you're sleeping they're particularly good at seeking out viruses bacteria and other microorganisms o stop infection in disease and this is why when you don't et enough sleep you're much more prone to getting sick and it's why when you're sick i'm the best thing you can do is to get a good night sleep and so in addition to these health benefits of sleep people who don't get enough sleep are at a hire risk for high blood pressue heart disease diabetes obmpsychologically people at a much higher risk for anxiety and depression we all know that when ou are sleep deprived you lose focus you lose the ability to pay attention an has been asked to estimated by the ntionalsleep foundation that over sixty billion dollars is lost in the united states annuaannully just to unproductive workers because theyre sleep deprived all of this is really important but i think it also i something that well know everybody in this room knows to be true which is that it really sucks to be sleep deprived feels so awful to be sleep deprived and try to kep your eyelids open they're all sudden heavy things when when you're a speaker event like this where you do that he thing where you tryin to keep your head awake and you fall asleep for a second in some distant part of your brain is like not now not now youre trying to keep yourself awake and i know this just as well as anyone else this is the worst picture of me ever taken it's also the most ironic picture of me ever taken because i was so tired i fell asleep in the middle of the day because i had spent the entire night working on a talk about the benefits of sleep i did not do that last night so i know this just s well as everybody else i'm really awful to be sleep deprived but here's where there's good news because the good news is that the opposite is also true the opposite being that people who are chronically sleep deprived when they develop habit to get a regular amount of sleep i'm every single day they all of a sudden feel like years have been taken of their life they're suddenly alive and awake and have the energy of someone much younger and they just feel great and they wonder why they didn't do it before but he's also a lot of sleep science to back this up one of my colleagues ran lots of studies on varsity athletes at stanford university and he recruited varsity athletes for sleep studies in which they were essentially forced to get a good night sleep over several weeks and which he found was that compared to players who didn't take part in th sleep study everything about these athletes who slpt-in improved their speed improved their strength improved the number of mistakes and errors they made went way down their chances of getting to cussion went way down and they were generally much better at the sport same thing happens in the classroom when students are recruited for sleep studies where they get much more asleep their creativity increases their problem solving increases on their test scores increase and their grades increase and so it just seems that everything gets much better once somebody declares themelves that deringood night asleep every single night very consistently and the greatest paradox in this i hink is that the people who don't get enough sleep because they'd like to accomplish more during the day actually find that they're more productive when they get more sleep and not less productive because even though thy are not awake as long they are much more productive when they've gotten enough sleep and there's lots of measure studies on this that you're actually able to get more done when yo get a good night sleep not lessso why are we so bad at this if this is alltrue then why is a society are we not good at this and this is actually where i feel like the analogy between sleep deprivation junk food and smoking goes down it is because when people smoke or have junk food they're doing it for the short term award's immediately satisfying when people choose to do those things but there is nothing satisfying sleep deprivation like we've already talked about so why do people do it and i asked my colleagues this i survey students all the time and the same three answers come up again and gain and again one we have busy lives and we'd like to get more done two were stressed their stressing anxiety keeps us awake sometimes and thes lots of stressers in our life ad three on miss a very ew trend is that we're addicted to our gadgets at night we love looking at our smart phones tablets computers and there's all sorts of appsnow that just occupy our time before we go to bed there's email facebook twitter instagram not to mention youtube netflix and a long list of great ted to that we can see so so what do we do about all of this and this is where i actually get some insight from the mice that we study in our lab because it actually turns out that all animals need sleep all animals get the same benefit of sleep humans do but it's amazingly easy to keep a mouse awake it is asleep to private mouse you don't really have to do very much if you want to stress out a mouse a little bit you can ive him a new roommate and giving him a new roommate will keep him awake for a little while or you can move him to a different cage that he's not used to and the stress of going to a new home will keep him awake hours past his bedtime you might ask what is the mouse equivalent of watching youtbe or being addicted to email and it turns out it's actually able we can duplicate this as well with something it's putting up a paper towel in a mouse's cage we watt up a paper towel give it to the moue the mouse is entertained by this for hours it will explore the contours of paper towel li'l kick it around it'll play with it and i again it'll stay up hours past its bedtimeso the take home point from this think is that we're hardwired to need sleep but we're also hardwired to be sleep deprived at a moment's notice based on stressful things and exciting things happening in our lives and it actually turns out when the mouse is playing with the paper towel a surge of dopamine is being released in its brain and the same thing happens when we scroll on a smartphone every time you swipe up on facebook poor or an email or anything else we actllyget a little surge of dopamine in our brains and that surge of dopamine keeps us awakeso what o we do about all especially when we have a life that is much more complicated than that of a mouser towel is bad enough for a mouse but we have all these nice gadgets now that we didn't hve ten years ago to immediately give us all these thingsso its here where i feel like i have three ideas worth spreading and the first idea is that we need just completely embrace sleep as a cultor we need to treat this as healthy and no jo applicant should bragg about only getting three or four hours of sleep no student should high five another student in the dining hall for pointing all nighter and in general we should jut be much more sleep consciousness as a society i actually went to a doctor on a couple weeks ago anhshowed up at the doctor's office i had to check a little form about the healthy habits in my life and i was a long list and twas this like do have a smoke detector in my home do i wear my sea belt do i take a daily vitamin and i tought this was a great list but nowhere on the list was do i get si to eight hours asleep at night and i thought was very odd we need to treat health a sleep as a health issue just as much as smoking or just as much as eating a eating a balance diet number two is we need to relearn how to go to bed it's amazing you know who the best sleepers are in american society is actually our kids which is funny because it takes a while to get them to sleep but once they are asleep they actually sleep very soundly and they have a nice quantity and quality of sleep and i think that that's because we take the time to put them to bed prperlywebrush their teeth we give them some water we change their clothes and their pajamas we dim the lights we read them a story ad this whole thirty-minute forty minute process really prepares them for a great night of sleep and they sleep very soundly once they finally go to sleep can you imagne what it would be like to put our kids to sleep the same way that we put ourselves to sleep if we gave our kids right screens said play whatever you want for thirt minutes but maybe it'll turn into two hours our kids would never sleep and this would be really detrimental nd so we need to put ourselves to bed essentially the same way we need to just remember what we did when we were six years old and i think that this gets lost some time aroun high school we don't as parents put our high schoolers to be and some wear around the elementary school ages to high school ages people forget how to go to bed and we magically assume that we'll fall asleep after being worried and plain with our gadgets and so we need to dim the light'sdevelop a nice habit nighttime routine and we need to take anything that has a screen on it and push it away thirty or forty five minutes before we go to bed and try not to look at it until we wake up the next morningfinally kids are the best sleeers but if you ask adults who are the best sleepers out of the adult community what people find is that the best sleepers are the ones who embrace good wake habits as well o people who have good time management and productivity skills actually sleep better at night because they have such a well-balanced day and there are so many books written on the topic of productivity time management and lots of tips you ca find online but i tell students this can be something as easy as just knowing if you're a morning person or a nights what time of day are you most productive do your best work during a time of day what time of day are you least productive and do the mindless tasks that you js need a gun it done at that time of day i'm ask where you work best how you work best even dusty asing students these kinds of questions they discover the answers for themselves and everyone is different because really you get a good night's sleep not because sleep is fun but because if you get a good night to sleep it makes you have a better days wake it makes you more productive and more time efficient and you get more done but it's reciprocal if you have a betterdays wake and you get more done and you are more productive it actually causes you to have a better night sleep and this is sort of a reinforcing cycle and it works really great and i'm a little disappointed in myself that i didn't figure out these techniques into years in my life i studied studying sleep before i realized these good night sleep habits and these great de are productivity habits and when i think about that i actually try to get a little frusrated because when i was in school i ad sex education a nutrition education drug awareness resistance education but no one ever told me how to go to bed and none ever told me how i could get more done during a these are things i just picked up on my own and i think these are so valuable things that we could actually be teaching high school kids college kids and so just recently at williams college we actually taught our first course called the science of sleep and the art of productivity and i was really afraid that no one would sign up for this clss and in the end it turned out people were hungry for it college students overenrolled in theclass and we wound up letting a lot more people in we initially intended but it was amazing they loved learning about sleep habits they loved talking about how they could get more done during the day and it worked out really well and now what we're trying to do is take these messages and spread them across our campus and the community to try to embrace a culture of sleep that everyone is proud of because it's really true no one looks back o their life and remembers the nights they had plenty of sleep this is true but the opposite is also true nobody looks back on their life and remembers the time they were exhausted right and i'll hate this picture of me but the funny thing about this day is i don't remember a single thing about this day the only reason i remember this is because a picture was taken of me i remember the times i was awake and alert and i had a life of good experiences when i was awake not when i was exhausted and i choose to optimize those times now i choose to try to be awake as much as i can so can enjoy those great experiences with my family and with my friends so i think the take home message is to get a good night sleep not because it's fun but because it makes you so much happier during the day and this is what i wish for all of you i wish that everybody has a good night's sleep for a better days wake and a better days wake for a good night to sleep thank you i