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Clearly, other factors besides atmospheric carbon influence earth temperatures and global warming."
In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.
Global warming
Water vapor is the most powerful greenhouse gas.
Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest because it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.
Atmospheric methane
Evidence is building that net cloud feedback is likely positive and unlikely to be strongly negative.
Other analyses have found that the iris effect is a positive feedback rather than the negative feedback proposed by Lindzen.
Global warming controversy
But there is also good data showing sea levels
Sea level rise since 1990 was underestimated in older models, but now agrees well with observations.
Global warming
If global warming caused the 2014 Queensland heat wave, why wasn’t it as severe as the 1972 Queensland heat wave?”
Since the 1950s, droughts and heat waves have appeared simultaneously with increasing frequency.
Global warming
Satellite measurements of infrared spectra over the past 40 years observe less energy escaping to space at the wavelengths associated with CO2.
They measure radiances in various wavelength bands.
Satellite temperature measurements
Global warming' and 'climate change' mean different things and have both been used for decades.
Global warming and climate change are often used interchangeably.
Global warming
When you read Phil Jones' actual words, you see he's saying there is a warming trend
He said there had probably been no global warming since the 1940s, and "Satellite data show no appreciable warming of the global atmosphere since 1979.
Hockey stick controversy
The bushfires in Australia were caused by arsonists and a series of lightning strikes, not 'climate change'.
The fires would have been caused by both natural phenomenon and human hands.
Bushfires in Australia
no one really knows if last year 2016 was a global temperature record.
In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.
Global warming
Severe storms, floods and agricultural losses may cost a great deal of money, but such extreme weather events—and their resulting costs—are dramatically declining as the Earth modestly warms.
In economic terms, they can cost many billions of dollars: a drought in the United States in 1988 caused over $40 billion in losses, exceeding the economic totals of Hurricane Andrew, the Great Flood of 1993, and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.
Severe weather
‘With levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere consistently breaking new records, the influence of human activities on the climate system has become more and more evident,’ said Taalas.
It is likely that anthropogenic (i.e., human-induced) warming, such as that due to elevated greenhouse gas levels, has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems.
Greenhouse gas
Carbon dioxide is a trace gas.”
It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere as a trace gas.
Carbon dioxide
Worst-case global heating scenarios may need to be revised upwards in light of a better understanding of the role of clouds, scientists have said.
For these reasons the role of tropospheric clouds in regulating weather and climate remains a leading source of uncertainty in global warming projections.
'Gore claims the snowcap atop Africa's Mt. Kilimanjaro is shrinking and that global warming is to blame.
There are currently 11 small glaciers, which are shrinking rapidly, and will likely be gone forever by 2050, due to global warming[citation needed].
Mount Kenya
[O]ne of the previously fastest shrinking glaciers in the world is growing again, calling into question the narrative that rapid climate change [...]
Such preface is then followed with the question, as in: [...] personal letter delivery is at an all-time low...
Begging the question
More than 500 scientists and professionals in climate and related fields have sent a 'European Climate Declaration' to the Secretary-General of the United Nations
It was signed by 15,364 scientists from 184 countries, what made it the letter with the most signatures of scientists in history In November 2019, more than 11,000 scientists from 153 countries published a letter in which they warn about big threats to sustainability from climate change if big changes in policies will not happen.
Growers regularly pump CO2 into greenhouses, raising levels to three times that of the natural environment, to produce stronger, greener, healthier plants.”
Plants can grow as much as 50 percent faster in concentrations of 1,000 ppm CO 2 when compared with ambient conditions, though this assumes no change in climate and no limitation on other nutrients.
Carbon dioxide
Each of the six major past ice ages began when the atmospheric carbon dioxide content was far higher than at present.
It decomposes and turns into carbon dioxide (CO 2), which is released into the atmosphere.
Research has found a human influence on the climate of the past several decades ...
This report explicitly endorses the IPCC view of attribution of recent climate change as representing the view of the scientific community: The changes observed over the last several decades are likely mostly due to human activities, but we cannot rule out that some significant part of these changes is also a reflection of natural variability.
Scientific consensus on climate change
The CERN CLOUD experiment only tested one-third of one out of four requirements necessary to blame global warming on cosmic rays, and two of the other requirements have already failed.
This result does not support the hypothesis that cosmic rays significantly affect climate, although a CERN press release states that neither does it "rule out a role for cosmic radiation" in climate.
CLOUD experiment
The heat extremes were especially pervasive in the Arctic, with temperatures in the fall running 20 to 30 degrees Fahrenheit above normal across large stretches of the Arctic Ocean.
The Arctic Ocean is the mass of water positioned approximately above latitude 65° N. Arctic Sea Ice refers to the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by ice.
Arctic sea ice decline
As a result, the planet as a whole is becoming less reflective and absorbing more sunlight, which is accelerating global warming.
This effect results in the increased absorption of radiation that accelerates melting."
Global warming
more than 100 per cent of the warming over the past century is due to human actions.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said the likelihood was 90 percent to 99 percent that emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, spewed from tailpipes and smokestacks, were the dominant cause of the observed warming of the last 50 years.
Scientific consensus on climate change
During a state House debate on a jobs and energy bill this week, Democrats offered an amendment that would put the Legislature on record saying that climate change is real and that humans are causing it.
From 2008 to 2017, the Republican Party went from "debating how to combat human-caused climate change to arguing that it does not exist", according to The New York Times.
Republican Party (United States)
Protecting and restoring forests would reduce 18% of emissions by 2030
The report mentioned that this would require global net human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to fall by about 45% from 2010 levels by 2030, reaching "net zero" around 2050, through “rapid and far-reaching” transitions in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities.
Sustainable Development Goals
While urban areas are undoubtedly warmer than surrounding rural areas, this has had little to no impact on warming trends.
An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities.
Urban heat island
Droughts and floods have not changed since we’ve been using fossil fuels
However, other research suggests that there has been little change in drought over the past 60 years.
Effects of global warming
Solar panels drain the sun's energy.
Photovoltaic modules use light energy (photons) from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect.
Solar panel
The decline in tree-ring growth is openly discussed in papers and IPCC reports.
The Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) is a report by the IPCC which was published in 2000.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Global sea level rise surged between November 2014 and February 2016, with the El Niño event helping the oceans rise by 15mm.
As El Niño conditions started to develop during early 2014, sea levels in western Micronesia including in waters surrounding the island nations of Palau and Guam dropped by 6–9 feet (1.8–2.7 m).
2014–16 El Niño event
Arctic greening was recently cited, in a major report by the U.S. Geological Survey, as the central reason that the state of Alaska, despite worsening wildfires and more thaw of permafrost, might still be able to stow away more carbon than it loses over the course of the 21st century.”
A new study used field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing to account for thermokarst lakes, the authors concluded that, "..methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century."
Climate change in the Arctic
“Our analyses do not indicate acceleration in sea level in U.S. tide gauge records during the 20th century,” the study’s authors concluded.
Based on tide gauge data, the rate of global average sea level rise during the 20th century lies in the range 0.8 to 3.3 mm/yr, with an average rate of 1.8 mm/yr.
Past sea level
Martian climate is primarily driven by dust and albedo and there is little empirical evidence that Mars is showing long term warming.
Current research suggests that Mars is in a warm interglacial period which has lasted more than 100,000 years.
Climate of Mars
“…climate change will also reduce the number of cold days and cold spells.
Temperature-related changes include longer growing season, more heatwaves and fewer cold spells, thawing permafrost, earlier river ice break-up, earlier spring runoff, and earlier budding of trees.
Climate change in Canada
There's no empirical evidence for climate change.
... there is a strong, credible body of evidence, based on multiple lines of research, documenting that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities.
Climate change (general concept)
many of south Florida’s drainage systems and seawalls are no longer enough
As in the flatwoods, these soils are poorly drained for many purposes unless drainage systems are installed.
Lake Worth Beach, Florida
“Even if we meet the Paris goals of two degrees warming, cities like Karachi and Kolkata will become close to uninhabitable, annually encountering deadly heat waves like those that crippled them in 2015.
In 2015 all UN countries negotiated the Paris Agreement, which aims to keep climate change well below 2 °C.
Global warming
CO2 is not powerful in that sense, the only thing it does in the system is make the planet greener.
Captain Pollution is weakened when he is in contact with pure elements such as clean water or sunlight, while he gains power from contact with pollutants, being able to absorb pollutant and emit radioactive rays (and is later shown to gain limitless power when in contact with pollutants after his resurrection).
Captain Planet and the Planeteers
[Riebesell] is a world authority on the topic and has typically communicated cautiously about the effects of acidification.
Both are informed by chemical oceanography, which studies the behavior of elements and molecules within the oceans: particularly, at the moment, the ocean's role in the carbon cycle and carbon dioxide's role in the increasing acidification of seawater.
“[Sea ice] also helps regulate the planet’s temperature by influencing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean.
It plays an important role in supplying heat to the polar regions, and thus in sea ice regulation.
As a result, half of the people surveyed around the world last year said they thought climate change would make humanity extinct.
"Biologists think 50% of species will be facing extinction by the end of the century".
Human overpopulation
many scientists were surprised when other researchers subsequently found that ringed and bearded seals (the primary prey of polar bears) north of the Bering Strait especially thrived with a longer open-water season, which is particularly conducive to fishing
The polar bear is the most carnivorous member of the bear family, and throughout most of its range, its diet primarily consists of ringed (Pusa hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus).
Polar bear
Less than half of published scientists endorse global warming.
Scientists Reach 100% Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming.
Scientific consensus on climate change
He said: ‘We have had five warming cycles since about 900AD, each followed by a dramatic cooling cycle.’
This may have caused the initial cooling, and the 1452–53 eruption of Kuwae in Vanuatu triggered a second pulse of cooling.
Little Ice Age
Peer review process was corrupted
Multiple examples across several areas of science find that scientists elevated the importance of peer review for research that was questionable or corrupted.
Peer review
[The 1990 IPCC report said] that the Antarctic ice sheets were stable
He further stated that a lower limit on "dangerous anthropogenic interference" was set by the stability of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
James Hansen
The consequences of climate change become increasingly bad after each additional degree of warming, with the consequences of 2°C being quite damaging and the consequences of 4°C being potentially catastrophic.
Researchers have warned that current economic modeling may seriously underestimate the impact of potentially catastrophic climate change and point to the need for new models that give a more accurate picture of potential damages.
Effects of global warming
“Several of the papers note that the primary influence on warming appears to be solar activity.
(2009) found that the evidence showed that connections between solar variation and climate were more likely to be mediated by direct variation of insolation rather than cosmic rays, and concluded: "Hence within our assumptions, the effect of varying solar activity, either by direct solar irradiance or by varying cosmic ray rates, must be less than 0.07 °C since 1956, i.e.
Attribution of recent climate change
While the greenhouse effect is a natural occurence, too much warming has severe negative impacts on agriculture, health and environment.
Impacts include the direct effects of extreme weather, leading to injury and loss of life; and indirect effects, such as undernutrition brought on by crop failures.
Global warming
"NASA satellite data from the years 2000 through 2011 show the Earth's atmosphere is allowing far more heat to be released into space than alarmist computer models have predicted, reports a new study in the peer-reviewed science journal Remote Sensing.
A study released in 2009, combined historical weather station data with satellite measurements to deduce past temperatures over large regions of the continent, and these temperatures indicate an overall warming trend.
Global warming controversy
Severe storms, floods and agricultural losses may cost a great deal of money, but such extreme weather events—and their resulting costs—are dramatically declining as the Earth modestly warms.
Economic hardship due to a temporary decline in tourism, rebuilding costs, or food shortages leading to price increases is a common after-effect of severe flooding.
The long term trend from albedo is of cooling.
A layer of snowfall increases local albedo, reflecting away sunlight, leading to local cooling.
"The climate of this planet oscillates between periods of approximately 30 years of warming followed by approximately 30 years of cooling.
The transition from a warming climate into a cooling climate began at ~49 million years ago.
Note that computer models are just concatenations of calculations you could do on a hand-held calculator, so they are theoretical and cannot be part of any evidence."
In an effort to answer the first question, computability theory examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical models of computation.
Computer science
U.S. Sen. Ron Johnson voted to let oil and gas companies emit "unlimited carbon pollution into our air"
If every participant complies, the total pollution emitted will be at most equal to the sum of individual limits.
Emissions trading
Pluto's climate change over the last 14 years is likely a seasonal event.
Each planet therefore has seasons, changes to the climate over the course of its year.
Sea level rise due to climate change is not going to happen.
"The Oceans We Know Won't Survive Climate Change".
Sea level rise
Study finds low probability of both very low and very high climate sensitivities, and its lower estimate (as compared to the IPCC) is based on a new temperature reconstruction of the Last Glacial Maximum that may or may not withstand the test of time.
The TAR estimate for the climate sensitivity is 1.5 to 4.5 °C; and the average surface temperature is projected to increase by 1.4 to 5.8 Celsius degrees over the period 1990 to 2100, and the sea level is projected to rise by 0.1 to 0.9 metres over the same period.
IPCC Third Assessment Report
When CO2 levels were higher in the past, solar levels were also lower.
At times during the paleoclimate, carbon dioxide levels were two or three times greater than today.
Ice age
Scientists retracted claim that sea levels are rising.
Since at least the start of the 20th century, the average global sea level has been rising.
Sea level rise
[…] Constant 24-7 media coverage of every significant storm worldwide just makes it seem that way.”
The severe and widespread damage the storm caused in the United States, as well as its unusual merger with a frontal system, resulted in the nicknaming of the hurricane "Superstorm Sandy" by the media, public officials, and several organizations, including U.S. government agencies.
Hurricane Sandy
While summer maximums have showed little trend, the annual average Arctic temperature has risen sharply in recent decades.
Summer temperatures (June, July, and August) average around the freezing point (0 °C (32 °F)).
North Pole
Maximum warming occurs over the surface during winter while less surface warming is found in summer when heat is being used to melt sea ice.
This low precipitation allows high-latitude snowfalls to melt during the summer.
Ice age
“[T]he 1079 emails and 72 documents seem indeed evidence of a scandal involving most of the most prominent scientists pushing the man-made warming theory - a scandal that is one of the greatest in modern science.
In this context, John Tierney of The New York Times wrote: "these researchers, some of the most prominent climate experts in Britain and America, seem so focused on winning the public-relations war that they exaggerate their certitude – and ultimately undermine their own cause".
Climatic Research Unit email controversy
Recent record-low water levels in Lake Michigan are evidence that global warming is leading to "the evaporation of our Great Lakes."
In 2013, record low water levels in the Great Lakes were attributed to climate change.
Great Lakes
The figure traditionally cited that suggests 97 per cent of climate scientists agree that global warming is man-made was also found to be flawed.
In the scientific literature, there is an overwhelming consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.
Global warming
Marine life has nothing whatsoever to fear from ocean acidification.”
Increasing acidity is thought to have a range of potentially harmful consequences for marine organisms such as depressing metabolic rates and immune responses in some organisms and causing coral bleaching.
Ocean acidification
The effects of enhanced CO2 on terrestrial plants are variable and complex and dependent on numerous factors.
Carbon fixation is a biochemical process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated by plants, algae and (cyanobacteria) into energy-rich organic molecules such as glucose, thus creating their own food by photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide
From 1970 until 1998 there was a warming period that raised temperatures by about 0.7 F that helped spawn the global warming alarmist movement.
An example of such an episode is the slower rate of surface temperature increase from 1998 to 2012, which was dubbed the global warming hiatus.
Global warming
Barack Obama told the U.S. Coast Guard Academy "that the number one threat to the military and the world today is global warming."
Some climate researchers and activists have characterized it as an existential threat to civilization.
Effects of global warming
Antarctic ice fluctuates wildly year to year, and the link to man-made global warming there is not clear, NASA ice expert Walt Meier said.
There is a scientific consensus linking human activities to global warming due to industrial carbon dioxide emissions.
Climate change is not making natural disasters worse
It assesses the effect that climate change has on the threat of natural disasters and how nations can better manage an expected change in the frequency of occurrence and intensity of severe weather patterns.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
There is ample evidence that Earth's average temperature has increased in the past 100 years and the decline of mid- and high-latitude glaciers is a major piece of evidence.
The history of the Himalayas broadly fits the long-term decrease in Earth's average temperature since the mid-Eocene, 40 million years ago.
Ice age
CO2 levels are measured by hundreds of stations scattered across 66 countries which all report the same rising trend.
Carbon dioxide mole fractions in the atmosphere have gone up by approximately 35 percent since the 1900s, rising from 280 parts per million by volume to 387 parts per million in 2009.
Greenhouse gas
unadjusted data suggests that temperatures in Australia have only increased by 0.3 degrees over the past century, not the 1 degree usually claimed
], inflation has typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%.
In 1977, PDO switched to a warm phase.
During a "warm", or "positive", phase, the west Pacific becomes cooler and part of the eastern ocean warms; during a "cool" or "negative" phase, the opposite pattern occurs.
Pacific decadal oscillation
Only very few peer-reviewed papers even go so far as to say that recent warming is chiefly anthropogenic.
The global warming observed over the past 50 years is due primarily to human-induced emissions of heat-trapping gases.
Scientific consensus on climate change
after a natural orbitally driven warming, atmospheric carbon dioxide content increases 800 years later
Along with the decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide reducing the global temperature, orbital factors in ice creation can be seen with 100,000-year and 400,000-year fluctuations in benthic oxygen isotope records.
And there is a lot of evidence that climate change is diminishing biodiversity, which can be seen in these alpine meadows as well.
Climate change has proven to affect biodiversity and evidence supporting the altering effects is widespread.
It found the scientists' rigour and honesty are not in doubt, and their behaviour did not prejudice the IPCC's conclusions, though they did fail to display the proper degree of openness.
The Muir Russell report stated that the scientists' "rigor and honesty as scientists are not in doubt," that the investigators "did not find any evidence of behavior that might undermine the conclusions of the IPCC assessments," but that there had been "a consistent pattern of failing to display the proper degree of openness."
Global warming conspiracy theory
Though CRU neglected to provide an exact list of temperature stations, it could not have hid or tampered with data.
The difference between data analysis and data mining is that data analysis is used to test models and hypotheses on the dataset, e.g., analyzing the effectiveness of a marketing campaign, regardless of the amount of data; in contrast, data mining uses machine learning and statistical models to uncover clandestine or hidden patterns in a large volume of data.
Data mining
For decades horticulturalists have pumped carbon dioxide into glasshouses to increase yields.
Many commercial glass greenhouses or hothouses are high tech production facilities for vegetables, flowers or fruits.
“As it happens, Zika may also be a good model of the second worrying effect — disease mutation.
Genetic disorders are the result of deleterious mutations and can be due to spontaneous mutation in the affected individual, or can be inherited.
Wind is a finite resource and harnessing it would slow the winds down, which would cause the temperature to go up.
The furnaces were constructed on the path of the monsoon winds to exploit the wind power, to bring the temperatures inside up to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F).
"The IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report, 2007, carries in three places a graph in which the Hadley Center’s global mean surface temperature anomaly dataset from 1850-2005 is displayed with four arbitrarily-chosen trend-lines overlaid upon it.
Table SPM-2 lists recent trends along with certainty levels for the trend having actually occurred, for a human contribution to the trend, and for the trend occurring in the future.
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Thousands of coral atolls have "drowned" when unable to grow fast enough to survive at sea level.
When the volcano sinks back down into the sea, the coral continues to grow, keeping the reef at or above water level.
Water vapor in the stratosphere stopped global warming.
After an initial warming due to emissions of greenhouse gases, the atmosphere will hold more water.
Global warming
Using satellite data rather than tide-gauge data that is normally used to measure sea levels allows for more precise estimates of global sea level, since it provides measurements of the open ocean.
Tide gauges can only measure relative sea level, whilst satellites can also measure absolute sea level changes.
Sea level rise
temperatures were 6-10C above normal over most of France, Germany and northern Spain during the final days of the month, according to C3S.
March is transitional, the temperature often exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) during the day and 10.0 °C (50.0 °F) at night.
Although it has some very important and beneficial effects, CO2 meets the legal and encyclopedic definitions of a "pollutant", and human CO2 emissions pose a threat to public health and welfare.
On April 17, 2009, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formally announced that it had found that greenhouse gas (GHG) poses a threat to public health and the environment (EPA 2009a).
Emissions trading
The Conservatives' recent budget made no mention of climate change.
Cuts were also made to many essential programs, some so deep that they had to shut down entirely, including the monitoring of smoke stack emissions, food inspections, oil spills, water quality, and climate change.
Stephen Harper
” ‘You see, gas in America is incredibly cheap, because of fracking,’ he says.
The high pressure water breaks up or "fracks" the rock, which releases gas from the rock formation.
Natural gas
Different areas of science are understood with varying degrees of certainty.
This realization is the topic of intersubjective verifiability, as recounted, for example, by Max Born (1949, 1965) Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance, who points out that all knowledge, including natural or social science, is also subjective.
When the measuring equipment gets old and needs replacing, it often requires re-calibration.
ISO9000 and most other standards specify a maximum period of around 18 months to 2 years between re-calibration procedures, dependent on the level of load cell deterioration.
Load cell
These tidal floods are often just a foot or two deep, but they can stop traffic, swamp basements, damage cars, kill lawns and forests, and poison wells with salt.
Coastal salt marshes can be distinguished from terrestrial habitats by the daily tidal flow that occurs and continuously floods the area.
Salt marsh
In those days you couldn’t have seen across the street for all the carbon emissions and the crap coming out of the chimneys.'
Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires.
Air pollution
Postma's model contains many simple errors; in no way does Postma undermine the existence or necessity of the greenhouse effect.
Minimum description length Minimum message length – Formal information theory restatement of Occam's Razor Newton's flaming laser sword Philosophical razor – Principle or rule of thumb that allows one to eliminate unlikely explanations for a phenomenon Philosophy of science – The philosophical study of the assumptions, foundations, and implications of science Simplicity "Ockham's razor does not say that the more simple a hypothesis, the better."
Occam's razor