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Global sea level data shows that sea level rise has been increasing since 1880 while future sea level rise predictions are based on physics, not statistics.
As climate research into past and present sea levels leads to improved computer models, projections have consistently increased.
Sea level rise
Weather is chaotic because air is light, it has low friction and viscosity, it expands strongly when in contact with hot surfaces and it conducts heat poorly.
A hot surface warms the air above it causing it to expand and lower the density and the resulting surface air pressure.
"Global warming is mostly due to heat production by human industry since the 1800s, from nuclear power and fossil fuels, better termed hydrocarbons, – coal, oil, natural gas.
The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal, oil, and natural gas, with additional contributions coming from deforestation, changes in land use, soil erosion and agriculture (including livestock).
Greenhouse gas
Like countless other organ­isms, we move and adapt when the environment changes.
Living organisms undergo metabolism, maintain homeostasis, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations.
Natural environment
“The IPCC reports also don’t fully account for the albedo effect (less ice means less reflected and more absorbed sunlight, hence more warming); more cloud cover (which traps heat); or the dieback of forests and other flora (which extract carbon from the atmosphere).
If cloud cover increases, more sunlight will be reflected back into space, cooling the planet.
Global warming
Not only was 2016 the warmest year on record, but eight of the 12 months that make up the year — from January through September, with the exception of June — were the warmest on record for those respective months.
It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six often termed "winter months" and "summer months".
In their worst-case scenario, the sea level could rise by six feet by the end of this century, and the pace could pick up drastically in the 22nd century.
A number of later studies have concluded that a global sea level rise of 200 to 270 cm (6.6 to 8.9 ft) this century is "physically plausible".
Sea level rise
Global warming is increasing the risk of heatwaves.
The effects of global warming include rising sea levels, regional changes in precipitation, more frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, and expansion of deserts.
Global warming
The extreme cycles of dry and wet weather appear to have been intensifying over the last three decades.
The western side of the equatorial Pacific is characterized by warm, wet, low-pressure weather as the collected moisture is dumped in the form of typhoons and thunderstorms.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
The planet's average surface temperature has risen about 1.62 degrees Fahrenheit (0.9 degrees Celsius) since the late 19th century, a change driven largely by increased carbon dioxide and other human-made emissions into the atmosphere.
An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Ice age
Some scientists believe that solar activity is more likely to influence today’s climate than carbon dioxide, and Dr Soon has compiled data showing temperature in America, Canada and Mexico rises and falls in line with solar activity.
The 2007 Fourth Assessment Report compiled by the IPCC (AR4) noted that "changes in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, land cover and solar radiation alter the energy balance of the climate system", and concluded that "increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations is very likely to have caused most of the increases in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century".
Greenhouse gas
There is no statistical evidence that global warming is intensifying[…] droughts
Overall, higher temperatures bring more rain and snowfall, but for some regions droughts and wildfires increase instead.
Global warming
The latest measurements involve the use of satellite gravimetry, estimating the mass of terrain beneath by detecting slight changes in gravity as a satellite passes overhead.
Twin satellites took detailed measurements of Earth's gravity field anomalies from its launch in March 2002 to the end of its science mission in October 2017.
according, again, to the official figures—during this past 10 years, if anything, mean global temperature, average world temperature, has slightly declined.
The global temperature kept climbing during the decade.
2000s (decade)
For example, we have a lower understanding of the effect of aerosols while we have a high understanding of the warming effect of carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is of greatest concern because it exerts a larger overall warming influence than all of these other gases combined and because it has a long atmospheric lifetime (hundreds to thousands of years).
Carbon dioxide
Overall, about 90% of the global warming occurs after the CO2 increase.
The sharp acceleration in CO 2 emissions since 2000 to more than a 3% increase per year (more than 2 ppm per year) from 1.1% per year during the 1990s is attributable to the lapse of formerly declining trends in carbon intensity of both developing and developed nations.
Greenhouse gas
carbon dioxide has had a minuscule effect on global climate.
Since the Industrial Revolution anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming.
Carbon dioxide
Arctic summer sea ice has shrunk by an area equal to Western Australia, and might be all gone in a decade.
There is a large variance in predictions of Arctic sea ice loss, with models showing near-complete to complete loss in September from 2040 to some time well beyond 2100.
Greenland's ice loss is accelerating & will add metres of sea level rise in upcoming centuries.
"A tipping point in refreezing accelerates mass loss of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps".
Sea level rise
In April the extent of Arctic sea ice was back to where it was in April 13 years ago
The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway between the North Sea and the Greenland Sea, adjoining the Barents Sea to the northeast.
Norwegian Sea
When you account for all of the costs associated with burning coal and other fossil fuels, like air pollution and health effects, in reality they are significantly more expensive than most renewable energy sources.
It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and improve public health, reduce premature mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that amount to several hundred billion dollars annually only in the United States.
Renewable energy
There is no single continuous satellite measurement of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI).
The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment/Total Irradiance Measurement (SORCE/TIM) TSI values are lower than prior measurements by the Earth Radiometer Budget Experiment (ERBE) on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), VIRGO on the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) and the ACRIM instruments on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and ACRIMSAT.
Solar irradiance
The ­atmospheric residency time of carbon dioxide is five years
The atmospheric lifetime of CO 2 is estimated of the order of 30–95 years.
Greenhouse gas
Melting permafrost can release not just CO2, but also methane, a much stronger heat-trapping gas.
The consequence is thawing soil, which may be weaker, and release of methane, which contributes to an increased rate of global warming as part of a feedback loop.
Climate change isn't increasing extreme weather damage costs.
Many analyses, such as that of the Stern Review presented to the British Government, have predicted reductions by several percent of world gross domestic product due to climate related costs such as dealing with increased extreme weather events and stresses to low-lying areas due to sea level rises.
Economic impacts of climate change
Consequently, the total amount of Arctic sea ice in 2008 and 2009 are the lowest on record.
From 2008 to 2011, Arctic sea ice minimum extent was higher than 2007, but it did not return to the levels of previous years.
Climate change in the Arctic
It appears, for the entire tropics, the observed outgoing radiation fluxes increase with the increase in sea surface temperatures (SSTs).
All these effects can combine to produce a dramatic drop in sea surface temperature over a large area in just a few days.
Tropical cyclone
“Federal scientists have documented a sharp jump in this nuisance flooding — often called ‘sunny-day flooding’ — along both the East Coast and the Gulf Coast in recent years.
The area is vulnerable to hurricanes as well as floods and severe thunderstorms.
Gulf Coast of the United States
Global sea level rise surged between November 2014 and February 2016, with the El Niño event helping the oceans rise by 15mm.
This in turn caused sea-levels to rise 20 metres.
Sea level rise
You're going to have an increase in the amount of ice in Antarctica because of global warming.
These include the large-scale singularities such as the melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets, and changes to the AMOC.
Effects of global warming
if we halved today’s atmospheric carbon dioxide content, all life would die.
The lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, making animal life impossible.
'To suddenly label CO2 as a "pollutant" is a disservice to a gas that has played an enormous role in the development and sustainability of all life on this wonderful Earth.
As is stated in Article 2 of the Convention, this requires that greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are stabilized in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion.
Climate change mitigation
Global surface temperatures have continued to rise steadily beneath short-term natural cooling effects, and the rise in global heat content has not slowed at all.
Throughout this period ocean heat storage continued to progress steadily upwards, and in subsequent years surface temperatures have spiked upwards.
Global warming
When life is considered, ocean acidification is often found to be a non-problem, or even a benefit.
"Rising levels of acids in seas may endanger marine life, says study".
Ocean acidification
A key study published in the Journal of Climate this year by Bjorn Stevens of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, found that the cooling impact of sulfate emissions has held back global warming less than thought till now
This phrase next appeared in a November 1957 report in The Hammond Times which described Roger Revelle's research into the effects of increasing human-caused CO 2 emissions on the greenhouse effect: "a large scale global warming, with radical climate changes may result".
Global warming
Surface measurements find more downward infrared radiation warming the planet's surface.
This heat, in the form of infrared radiation, gets absorbed and emitted by these gases in the atmosphere, thus warming the lower atmosphere and the surface.
Global warming
U.S. Sen. Ron Johnson voted to let oil and gas companies emit "unlimited carbon pollution into our air"
For emissions trading where greenhouse gases are regulated, one emissions permit is considered equivalent to one metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.
Emissions trading
Since rock weathering reduces atmospheric CO2, this again reinforces the scientific fact that CO2 is a strong driver of climate.
With current global warming, weathering is increasing, demonstrating significant feedbacks between climate and Earth surface.
Climate change feedback
‘We don’t expect record years every year, but the ongoing long-term warming trend is clear.’”
Using the long-term temperature trends for the earth scientists and statisticians conclude that it continues to warm through time.
Global warming controversy
As it happens, the writer of that October 2009 e-mail—Kevin Trenberth, a lead author of the warmist bible, the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report—told Congress two years ago that evidence for manmade warming is "unequivocal.
In October 2009, the leaders of 18 US scientific societies and organizations sent an open letter to the United States Senate reaffirming the scientific consensus that climate change is occurring and is primarily caused by human activities.
Scientific consensus on climate change
“Sea level rise, which was occurring long before humans could be blamed, has not accelerated and still amounts to only 1 inch every ten years.
"Antarctica ice melt has accelerated by 280% in the last 4 decades".
Sea level rise
“The most famous of these studies, published in 2010 by Paul Kench and Arthur Webb of the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission in Fiji, showed that of 27 Pacific islands, 14% lost area.
Paul Kench at the University of Auckland in New Zealand and Arthur Webb at the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission in Fiji released a study in 2010 on the dynamic response of atolls and reef islands in the central Pacific.
Maximum warming occurs over the surface during winter while less surface warming is found in summer when heat is being used to melt sea ice.
While snow and ice act to insulate the surface from large energy losses in winter, they also act to retard warming in the spring and summer because of the large amount of energy required to melt ice (the latent heat of fusion, 3.34 x 105 J/kg at 0 °C).
The error was incorrect citation, failing to mention the peer-reviewed papers where the data came from.
Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity.
Scientific journal
Currently, Florida is one of only five states in the nation that prohibit citizens from buying electricity from companies that will put solar panels on your home or business.
Developers in Florida have announced the addition of solar panels on all new homes in several subdivisions.
Solar power in Florida
“Catherine Senior, head of understanding climate change at the Met Office Hadley Centre, said more studies and more data were needed to fully understand the role of clouds and aerosols.
The statement stresses that the scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action, and explicitly endorsed the IPCC consensus.
Scientific consensus on climate change
Forget what global warming activists would lead you to believe—2015 was not even close to the hottest year on record.
This is much colder than the conditions that actually exist at the Earth's surface (the global mean surface temperature is about 14 °C).
Global warming
“Even if we meet the Paris goals of two degrees warming, cities like Karachi and Kolkata will become close to uninhabitable, annually encountering deadly heat waves like those that crippled them in 2015.
The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C, recognizing that this would substantially reduce the risks and impacts of climate change.
Paris Agreement
"Global warming is mostly due to heat production by human industry since the 1800s, from nuclear power and fossil fuels, better termed hydrocarbons, – coal, oil, natural gas.
Burning hydrocarbons as fuel, producing carbon dioxide and water, is a major contributor to anthropogenic global warming.
the U.S. is shattering high temperature records far more frequently than it is shattering low temperature records.
The lowest recorded temperature was 27 °F (−3 °C) on December 11, 1932.
San Francisco
First, they concur with the believers that the Earth has been warming since the end of a Little Ice Age around 1850.
In the North Atlantic, sediments accumulated since the end of the last ice age, nearly 12,000 years ago, show regular increases in the amount of coarse sediment grains deposited from icebergs melting in the now open ocean, indicating a series of 1–2 °C (2–4 °F) cooling events recurring every 1,500 years or so.
Little Ice Age
The rapid changes in the climate may have profound consequences for humans and other species… Severe drought caused food shortages for millions of people in Ethiopia, with a lack of rainfall resulting in “intense and widespread” forest fires in Indonesia that belched out a vast quantity of greenhouse gas
The ensuing government suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a huge refugee problem.
If the CO2 effect was saturated, adding more CO2 should add no additional greenhouse effect.
Increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone have correspondingly strengthened their absorption and emission of infrared radiation, causing the rise in average global temperature since the mid-20th century.
Carbon dioxide
Antarctica is too cold to lose ice.
Offshore, temperatures are also low enough that ice is formed from seawater through most of the year.
“Typically, in such an attribution study, scientists will use sets of climate models — one set including the factors that drive human global warming and the other including purely “natural” factors — and see if an event like the one in question is more likely to occur in the first set of models.
The clear message from fingerprint studies is that the observed warming over the last half-century cannot be explained by natural factors, and is instead caused primarily by human factors.
Attribution of recent climate change
The human contribution to global warming was about 0.01°C.
Before the Industrial Revolution, naturally occurring amounts of greenhouse gases caused the air near the surface to be warmer by about 33 °C (59 °F) than it would be in their absence.
Global warming
Losing tropical forests is not somehow cheaper than putting up wind farms in the US or Sahara.”
An ambitious proposal for China is the Aerially Delivered Re-forestation and Erosion Control System and the proposed Sahara Forest Project coupled with the Seawater Greenhouse.
Top Scientist Hal Lewis Resigns Over Climate Change Corruption
"President Obama Honors Nation's Top Scientists and Innovators".
Arthur D. Levinson
NASA Finds Antarctica is Gaining Ice,
"Mass gains of the Antarctic ice sheet exceed losses".
CO2 limits won't cool the planet.
As the temperature rises closer to the value the white daisies like, the white daisies outreproduce the black daisies, leading to a larger percentage of white surface, and more sunlight is reflected, reducing the heat input and eventually cooling the planet.
Gaia hypothesis
"The Keeling curve, which is widely used to show the increase in CO2 emissions, is based on data from the top of Mount Mauna Loa in Hawaii.
Charles David Keeling, of Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, was the first person to make frequent regular measurements of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at the South Pole, and on Mauna Loa, Hawaii from March 1958 onwards.
Keeling Curve
Now scientists are telling us that Mars is experiencing its own planetary warming: Martian warming.
They tend to occur when Mars is closest to the Sun, and have been shown to increase the global temperature.
By regulating the Earth’s cloud cover, the Sun can turn the temperature up and down. ...
If cloud cover increases, more sunlight will be reflected back into space, cooling the planet.
Global warming
The argument that solving the global warming problem by reducing human greenhouse gas emissions is "too hard" generally stems from the belief that (i) our technology is not sufficiently advanced to achieve significant emissions reductions,
At the core of most proposals is the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through reducing energy waste and switching to low-carbon power sources of energy.
Climate change mitigation
[…] Killing 30 million bats every year in response to dubious claims that global warming might once in a great while kill 100,000 bats makes no sense.”
In addition, climatic changes are estimated to cause over 150,000 deaths annually.
Effects of global warming on humans
“[T]he 1079 emails and 72 documents seem indeed evidence of a scandal involving most of the most prominent scientists pushing the man-made warming theory - a scandal that is one of the greatest in modern science.
In blogs, talk radio and other new media, we are told that the warnings about future global warming issued by the national science academies, scientific societies, and governments of all the leading nations are not only mistaken, but based on a hoax, indeed a conspiracy that must involve thousands of respected researchers.
Climatic Research Unit email controversy
Or the news from Antarctica this past May, when a crack in an ice shelf grew 11 miles in six days, then kept going; the break now has just three miles to go — by the time you read this, it may already have met the open water, where it will drop into the sea one of the biggest icebergs ever, a process known poetically as ‘calving.’
The ice was being held back by a "thread" of ice about 6 km (4 mi) wide, prior to its collapse on 5 April 2009.
Whatever is driving increases in winter Arctic temperatures is not heat coming out of the Arctic Ocean, which is covered with insulating ice.'
Much of the Arctic Ocean is covered by sea ice that varies in extent and thickness seasonally.
Arctic Ocean
Stress from unusually warm ocean water heated by man-made climate change and the natural El Niño climate pattern caused the die-off.
The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean.
El Niño
While urban areas are undoubtedly warmer than surrounding rural areas, this has had little to no impact on warming trends.
On the other hand, one 1999 comparison between urban and rural areas proposed that urban heat island effects have little influence on global mean temperature trends.
Urban heat island
It was the post war industrialization that caused the rapid rise in global CO2 emissions, but by 1945 when this began, the Earth was already in a cooling phase that started around 1942 and continued until 1975.
An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Ice age
Human additions of CO2 are in the margin of error of current measurements and the gradual increase in CO2 is mainly from oceans degassing as the planet slowly emerges from the last ice age.
More recently, anthropogenic activities have steadily increased the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere; about 30–40% of the added CO2 is absorbed by the oceans, forming carbonic acid and lowering the pH (now below 8.1) through a process called ocean acidification.
Human-produced carbon might be one of the factors [of climate change], but there’s simply no evidence that it is a significant one.
While ‘climate change’ can be due to natural forces or human activity, there is now substantial evidence to indicate that human activity – and specifically increased greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions – is a key factor in the pace and extent of global temperature increases.
Scientific consensus on climate change
The lack of any sunspots suggests the current solar minimum is one of the 'deepest' in 100 years.
At solar-cycle minimum, the toroidal field is, correspondingly, at minimum strength, sunspots are relatively rare, and the poloidal field is at its maximum strength.
The warming causes the oceans to release CO2.
These feedbacks can change the role of the oceans in taking up atmospheric CO 2 making it very difficult to predict how the ocean carbon cycle will operate in the future.
Global warming
“Even if you could calculate some sort of meaningful global temperature statistic, the figure would be unimportant.
The latter is particularly important because optical instruments containing gravity-reference leveling devices are commonly used to make geodetic measurements.
Figure of the Earth
A recent essay in Scientific American argued that scientists “tend to underestimate the severity of threats and the rapidity with which they might unfold” and said one of the reasons was “the perceived need for consensus.”
After the conference, they signed in the presence of Stephen Hawking, the 'Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness', which summarizes the most important findings of the survey: "We decided to reach a consensus and make a statement directed to the public that is not scientific.
I would not agree that carbon dioxide is a primary contributor to the global warming that we see.
The global warming observed over the past 50 years is due primarily to human-induced emissions of heat-trapping gases.
Scientific consensus on climate change
“We almost take forests as a given but we lose forest every year, which means we are diminishing them as a carbon sink.
Additionally, the amount of carbon released from harvesting is small compared to the amount of carbon lost each year to forest fires and other natural disturbances.
Carbon sink
Monsoons in China fail, the great rivers of Asia virtually dry up, and rainfall in central America falls by half.
Rainfall often shows a summer peak, especially where monsoons are well developed, as in Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Humid subtropical climate
The Business Council, the Minerals Council, the Australian Industry Group, the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, have all called for the [carbon] tax to be repealed.
The County Council repealed the fee in July 2012.
Carbon tax
When all forcings are combined, they show good correlation to global temperature throughout the 20th century including the mid-century cooling period.
The average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880; Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20 °C per decade.
20th century
More than 500 scientists and professionals in climate and related fields have sent a 'European Climate Declaration' to the Secretary-General of the United Nations
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is an international synthesis by over 1000 of the world's leading biological scientists that analyzes the state of the Earth's ecosystems and provides summaries and guidelines for decision-makers.
“Because CO₂ acts as a fertilizer, as much as half of all vegetated land is persistently greener today.
This ammonia is used as a feedstock for all other nitrogen fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2).
Temperatures cooled from about 1940 to 1975, and then they rose from about ’75 to about 2005 or so, and since then they’ve been flat or cooling.
A temperature of 450 ±80 pK in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) of sodium atoms was achieved in 2003 by researchers at MIT.
“The Northern Hemisphere jet stream […] flow is stronger when that temperature difference is large.
If two air masses of different temperatures or densities meet, the resulting pressure difference caused by the density difference (which ultimately causes wind) is highest within the transition zone.
Jet stream
There are a myriad of other radiative forcings that affect the planet's energy imbalance.
Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
Radiative forcing
Earth’s climate is now changing faster than at any point in the history of modern civilization, primarily as a result of human activities.
In order to constitute the Holocene as an extinction event, scientists must determine exactly when anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions began to measurably alter natural atmospheric levels on a global scale, and when these alterations caused changes to global climate.
Holocene extinction
As a result, the polar ice caps were quite likely more extensive than they had been since at least the 1920s.
There were extensive polar ice caps at intervals from 360 to 260 million years ago in South Africa during the Carboniferous and early Permian Periods.
Ice age
Forget what global warming activists would lead you to believe—2015 was not even close to the hottest year on record.
He tells Friedman that "you've got to recognize [that global warming] is going to be one of the most significant long-term challenges, if not the most significant long-term challenge, that this country faces and that the planet faces.
Years of Living Dangerously
“Global warming alarmists’ preferred electricity source – wind power – kills nearly 1 million bats every year (to say nothing of the more than 500,000 birds killed every year) in the United States alone.
His meta-analysis concluded that in 2012 in the United States, wind turbines resulted in the deaths of 888,000 bats and 573,000 birds, including 83,000 birds of prey.
Environmental impact of wind power
Different areas of science are understood with varying degrees of certainty.
Theories vary in the extent to which they have been tested and verified, as well as their acceptance in the scientific community.
“The chain of events that links the melting Arctic with weather to the south begins with rising global temperatures causing more sea ice to melt.
Surface temperature increases are greatest in the Arctic, which has contributed to the retreat of glaciers, permafrost, and sea ice.
Global warming
We're coming out of the Little Ice Age
This means that it is a very cold continent where water is mostly in the form of ice.
Theory, models and direct measurement confirm CO2 is currently the main driver of climate change.
In 1896, he published the first climate model of its kind, showing that halving of CO 2 could have produced the drop in temperature initiating the ice age.
Global warming
Last year, scientists published evidence that the conditions leading up to “stuck jet streams” are becoming more common, with warming in the Arctic seen as a likely culprit.
One of the study researchers noted, "The expectation is that with further sea ice decline, temperatures in the Arctic will continue to rise, and so will methane emissions from northern wetlands."
Arctic sea ice decline
While geologists have studied events in the past similar to what appears to be happening today, scientists are largely unsure of what lies ahead.
Although anoxic events have not happened for millions of years, the geological record shows that they happened many times in the past.
Anoxic event
Local and regional sea levels continue to exhibit typical natural variability—in some places rising and in others falling.
Local mean sea level (LMSL) is defined as the height of the sea with respect to a land benchmark, averaged over a period of time (such as a month or a year) long enough that fluctuations caused by waves and tides are smoothed out.
Sea level
An independent inquiry found CRU is a small research unit with limited resources and their rigour and honesty are not in doubt.
The "rigour and honesty" of the scientists at the Climatic Research Unit were found not to be in doubt.
Climatic Research Unit email controversy
” ‘You see, gas in America is incredibly cheap, because of fracking,’ he says.
In April 2008, the wholesale price was $10 per 1000 cubic feet ($10/million BTU).
Natural gas