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is in a great company is not therefore not solitary. When, therefore, we have lost a brother or a son or a friend on whom we were wont to rest, we say that we are left solitary, and oftentimes we say it in Rome, with such a crowd meeting us and so many dwelling about us, and, it may be, having a multitude of slaves. For the solitary man, in his conception, meaneth to be thought helpless, and laid open to those who wish him harm. Therefore when we are on a journey we then, above all, say that we are solitary when we are fallen among thieves; for that which taketh away solitude is not the sight of a man, but of a faithful and pious and serviceable man. For if to be solitary it sufficeth to be alone, then say that Zeus is solitary in the conflagration,[1] and bewails himself. _Woe is me! I have neither Hera nor Athene nor Apollo_, nor, in short, either brother or son or descendant or kinsman. And so some say he doth when alone in the conflagration. For they comprehend not the life of a man who is alone, setting out from a certain natural principle, that we are by nature social, and inclined to love each other, and pleased to be in the company of other men. But none the less is it needful that one find the means to this also, to be able to suffice to himself, and to be his own companion. For as Zeus is his own companion, and is content with himself, and considereth his own government, what it is, and is occupied in designs worthy of himself; thus should we be able to converse with ourselves, and feel no need of others, nor want means to pass the time; but to observe the divine government, and the relation of ourselves with other things; to consider how we stood formerly towards the events that befall us, and how we stand now; what things they are that still afflict us; how these, too, may be healed, how removed; and if aught should need perfecting, to perfect it according to the reason of the case. 2. Ye see now how that Caesar seemeth to have given us a great peace; how there are no longer wars nor battles nor bands of robbers nor of pirates, but a man may travel at every season, and sail from east to west. But can he give us peace from fever? or from shipwreck? or from fire? or earthquake? or lightning? ay, or from love? _He cannot._ Or from grief? _He cannot._ Or from envy? _He cannot._ Briefly, then, he cannot secure us from any of such things. But the word of the philosophers doth promise us peace even from these things. And what saith it? _If ye will hearken unto me, O men, wheresoever ye be, whatsoever ye do, ye shall not grieve, ye shall not be wroth, ye shall not be compelled or hindered, but ye shall live untroubled and free from every ill._ Whosoever hath this peace, which Caesar never proclaimed (for how could he proclaim it?), but which God proclaimed through His word, shall he not suffice to himself when he may be alone? for he beholdeth and considereth, _Now can no evil happen to me; for me there is no robber, no earthquake; all things are full of peace, full of calm; for me no way, no city, no assembly, no neighbor, no associate hath any hurt_. He is supplied by one, whose part that is, with food, by another with raiment, by another with senses, by another with natural conceptions. And when it may be that the necessary things are no longer supplied, that is the signal for retreat: the door is opened, and God saith to thee, _Depart_. ----"Whither?" To nothing dreadful, but to the place from whence thou camest--to things friendly and akin to thee, to the elements of Being. Whatever in thee was fire shall go to fire; of earth, to earth; of air, to air; of water, to water;[2] no Hades, nor Acheron, nor Coeytus, nor Phlegethon, but all things are full of Gods and Powers.[3] Whoso hath these things to think on, and seeth the sun and the moon and the stars, and rejoiceth in the earth and the sea, he is no more solitary than he is helpless. ----"What, then, if one come and find me alone and slay me?" Fool! not thee, but thy wretched body. 3. Thou art a little soul bearing up a corpse. 4. What solitude, then, is there any longer, what lack? Why do we make ourselves worse than children, which, when they are left alone, what do they?--they take shells and sand and build up somewhat, and then throw it down, and again build up something else, and so they never lack pastime. And shall I, if ye sail away from me, sit down and weep for that I am left alone and solitary? Shall I have no shells nor sand? But children do these things through their folly, and we through our wisdom are made unhappy. CHAPTER X. AGAINST THE CONTENTIOUS AND REVENGEFUL. 1. To suppose that we shall become contemptible in the eyes of others, unless in some way we inflict an injury on those who first showed hostility to us, is the character of most ignoble and thoughtless men. For thus we say, that a man is to be despised according to his inability to do hurt; but much rather is he to be despised according to his inability to do good. 2. The wise and good man neither strives with any himself, nor in the measure of his power will he allow another to strive. And in this, as in all other things, the life of Socrates is set before us as an example; who did not only himself fly all contention, but also forbade it to others. See in Xenophon's _Symposium_ how many quarrels he ended; and, again, how he bore with Thrasymachus, and how with Polus and with Callicles; and how he endured his wife, and how his son, which opposed him with sophistical arguments. For he remembered very well that no man can command the ruling faculty of another. 3. How, then, is there yet any place for contention in one so minded? For what event can amaze him? what appear strange to him? Doth he not look for even worse and more grievous things at the hands of evil men than do befall him? Doth he not count everything for gain which is short of the extreme of injury? Hath such a one reviled thee? Much thanks to him that he did not strike thee. _But he did also strike me._ Much thanks that he did not wound thee. _But he did also wound me._ Much thanks that he did not slay thee. For when did he learn, or from whom, that he was a tame animal, and affectionate to others, and that to the wrongdoer the wrong-doing itself is a heavy injury? For since he hath not learned these things, nor believes them, wherefore should he not follow that which appears to be his advantage? Thy neighbor hath flung stones! Hast thou, then, sinned in aught? But he has broken things in the house? And art thou a household vessel? Nay--but a Will. 4. What, then, hath been given thee for this occasion? To a wolf it were given to bite--to fling more stones. But if thou seek what is becoming for a man, look into thy stores, see what faculties thou hast come here furnished withal. Hast thou the nature of a wild beast? the temper of revenge? 5. When is a horse in wretched case? When he is bereaved of his natural faculties; not when he cannot crow, but when he cannot run. When is a dog? Not when he cannot fly, but when he cannot track. Is not a man, then, also thus wretched, not when he cannot strangle lions or embrace statues[1]--for to this he came endowed with no faculties by Nature--but when he hath lost his honesty, his faithfulness? Surely we should meet together and lament over such a man; so great are the evils into which he hath fallen. Not, indeed,
not in Holinshed. It has been transferred from his account of the witches' hailing of Macbeth and Banquo. Not unusually for Shakespeare, this casts a less than happily legitimate light upon the denouement. Doubt is reinforced by the fact that, like the witches' greeting of Macbeth as Thane of Cawdor, Macduffe's entitling of Malcolme is premature, prophetic, in that it precedes a decision of the thanes. In a very _Macbeth_ way, Macduffe pressures the nobles by anticipation into delivering what he wants, saying that he already hears what is in their minds (again, in a minor key, like Macbeth's ambition educed by the witches). This is the cue which prompts the thanes to a chorus of salutation: _[Macduffe.]_ Behold where stands Th'Vsurpers cursed head: the time is free: I see thee compast with thy Kingdomes Pearle, That speake my salutation in their minds: Whose voyces I desire alowd with mine. Haile King of Scotland. _All_. Haile King of Scotland. _Flourish_. (V.vii. TLN 2506-12) Those with an ear for irony will hear the insubstantiality of 'voyces' (like the 'Voyces' of election that Coriolanus scornfully calls for). Those with an eye for it will be struck by the way the witches' 'All haile' (a phrase with overtones of betrayal elsewhere in Shakespeare) returns to the page through a Folio speech prefix (' _All_. Haile King of Scotland'). It is in the hands of directors whether the flourish sounds from the tiring house unannounced, as the play's endorsement, as it were, of Malcolme's new title, or whether Macduffe signals the trumpeters, to orchestrate this relatively benign coup or assertion of heritable principles. What it remains for criticism to do is to analyse the connection between the hailing of the witches and that of the nobles. To undertake this task is to return to the topic of offices and titles highlighted by _The Valiant Scot_. *** * *** That the word _hail_ occurs far more often in _Macbeth_ than in any other play by Shakespeare cannot be entirely explained by the freedom with which the witches use it in Act I and the thanes echo them in Act V. Hardly has the action begun than Malcolme greets the bleeding sergeant with a 'Haile, braue friend' (I.ii. TLN 23). There is no doubt, however, that the witches give hailing prominence: _Mac_. Speake if you can: what are you? _1_. All haile _Macbeth_ , haile to thee _Thane_ of Glamis. _2_. All haile _Macbeth_ , haile to thee _Thane_ of Cawdor. _3_. All haile _Macbeth_ , that shalt be King hereafter. (I.iii. TLN 147-50) Requesting a greeting for himself (a curious gambit), Banquo is rewarded with a similar, yet developing, refrain, as 'Hayle' repeated by each of the witches turns into riddling doublets: _3_. Thou shalt get Kings, though thou be none: So all haile _Macbeth, and Banquo_. _1. Banquo, and Macbeth, all_ haile. (I.iii. TLN 167-9) By means of these repetitions, _hail_ gains cumulative weight, yet it also evolves in significance. The process starts as the witches use 'haile' not only as a greeting but as an imperative to one another to hail their visitors and then as a description of what they are doing. As one witch hails she hails another to join her in hailing; and if uttering the word binds them together, as their broken, choric utterances repeatedly do, so does its semantic field, since 'all haile' could mean 'all whole'. As figures of inversion--a Shakespearean anti-masque--the witches parody in their three-in-oneness the constitutional theology of the Jacobean threefold monarchy. _Hail_ implies 'whole' because it also means, especially in northern usage, 'health'--being sound and whole in body. At the start of a play preoccupied with insanity and disease, the witches mockingly wish upon Macbeth and Banquo all the health they set out to subvert with the bad medicine they brew up in what they say as well as their cauldron. This is one reason why their greeting sounds like a charm. Another is that the weird sisters wish the travellers 'luck'--an archaic meaning of _hail_ , as it is of weird (i.e. 'wayward/weyard'). Wholeness can be projected upon Macbeth and Banquo because they are, like those who greet them--Jacobean versions of the three fates--joined in their 'lot' or 'destiny'. The ambiguity of welcome is underwritten by the slipperiness of the word. Macbeth has another question: Stay you imperfect Speakers, tell me more: By _Sinells_ death, I know I am _Thane_ of Glamis, But how, of Cawdor? the _Thane_ of Cawdor liues A prosperous Gentleman: And to be King, Stands not within the prospect of beleefe, No more then to be Cawdor. Say from whence You owe this strange Intelligence, or why Vpon this blasted Heath you stop our way With such Prophetique greeting? (I.iii. TLN 170-8) The play's concern with how fathers relate to sons has led critics to make much of Macbeth's lack of an heir. Yet the role registered in his name (Mac-, 'son of') is also striking, since he has come to lack a father. By that death he inherits the title Thane of Glamis. Did Cawdor not have a son? (How many children had Lady Cawdor?) Perhaps the treachery imputed to the father has been punished in his heir. Perhaps the lack of an heir made the Thanedom ripe for redistribution. Either way, _Macbeth_ starts with a heritable title being allocated by order of the king. In this the play, like _The Valiant Scot_ , is potently of its period. It is a strategy that Duncan will revisit, obscured from the sight of most modern commentators because passed off as not allocation at all, but inheritance, when he settles the estate of kingship, over which by Scottish custom he has no particular rights, upon his firstborn, Malcolme. Before that, Macbeth receives official news of his own promotion. Giving _hail_ another twist, Rosse tells him how reports of his success in battle came 'thick as hail' to Duncan. Heralds announcing success approached the king with so many greetings (hailings), one upon another, that there was a blizzard of welcomes mixed with welcome reports. Because of this, Macbeth is to be not just thanked and heralded into the king's presence but _greeted._ This is a more handsome reward than it sounds because the greeting includes a title (we often hail a named addressee), and the anticipated form of that title (Cawdor) makes what Rosse obscurely says about this being 'earnest of a greater Honor' provocative because it is bound to put Macbeth in mind of the royal title that has been prophesied: And for an earnest of a greater Honor, He bad me, from him, call thee _Thane_ of Cawdor: In which addition, haile most worthy _Thane_ , For it is thine. (I.iii. TLN 209-12) Rosse's hailing is as insidious as that of the witches. When Shakespeare's contemporary, Simon Forman, made notes on a performance that he had seen of _Macbeth_ he remembered from the next phase of the play the 'kindly wellcome' that Duncan gave to Macbeth and Banquo; and it is indeed remarkable how elaborately Macbeth is welcomed. Duncan lavishes upon him the sort of fulsome greeting--'Thou art so farre before, | That swiftest Wing of Recompense is slow, | To ouertake thee', and so forth (I.iv. TLN 299-301)--that seventeenth-century conduct-book writers, such as the Scotsman John Cleland, warn against. After fewer words of welcome to Banquo, marked as warmer by a physical embrace, Duncan seizes the chance to capitalize on the victories that Macbeth has won him: Sonnes, Kinsmen, _Thanes_ , And you whose places are the nearest, know, We will establish our Estate vpon Our eldest, _Malcolme_ , whom we name hereafter, The Prince of Cumberland: which Honor must Not vnaccompanied, inuest him onely, But signes of Noblenesse, like Starres, shall shine On all deseruers. (I.iv. TLN 322-9) Favouring Malcolme with estate, name, and honour, Duncan
Find a Grief Support Group Virtual Grief Support Groups and Resources HopeHealth is committed to provide you with the support you need. To ensure safety during the pandemic, we are offering our grief support groups virtually to anyone in our community who needs support. We invite you to join any of our many specialty and general groups for adults, children and healthcare providers. See our comprehensive offering here. Looking for helpful tips to guide you on your grief journey? View our grief support blogs or read through our grief support readings library. If you have any questions, please reach out to us at (888) 528-9077. Looking for general, dementia-specific, or veteran caregiver support groups? Click here to access our caregiver support groups. Remote Grief Support During COVID-19 If you are coping with grief, we are here for you. Join us for one of our virtual grief support groups held through Zoom by following the details below. If you have any questions, please reach out to us at (888) 528-9077. General Grief Support Group - Thursdays and Fridays This is a general grief support group open to anyone who has lost a loved one and is in need of support. To participate, please register by emailing CenterforHopeandHealing@HopeHealthCo.org. Upon registration you will receive the password. All meetings are password protected. Click here to access the group on Thursdays from 5:30 – 7 p.m. E.T. Click here to access the group on Fridays from 10:00 - 11:30 a.m. ET. Grupo de apoio ao luto em português e crioulo Liderado por um facilitador especialmente treinado, este grupo oferece um ambiente seguro, confidencial e de apoio para pessoas que estão passando por luto relacionado à perda. Para participar, registe-se mandando um e-mail para CenterforHopeandHealing@HopeHealthCo.org. No ato do registo vai receber uma senha. Todas as reuniões são protegidas por senha "password". Mensalmente - 3ª quinta-feira, das 16h às 17h30 Loss of Spouse or Life Partner – Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays The loss of a spouse or life partner can be a devastating experience leaving you feeling isolated from the world at large, but you are not alone. Join others who have experienced a similar grief experience for mutual support and comfort. Tuesdays 4:00 – 5:30 p.m. ET January 11, 18, 25; February 1, 8, 15, 22 March 1, 8, 15, 22, 29; April 5, 12, 19, 26 Tuesdays 5:30 – 7:00 p.m. ET (This group is currently full.) January 4, 11, 18, 25, February 1, 8 March 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, April 5 Wednesdays 3:00 – 4:30 p.m. ET January 12, 19, 26; February 2, 9, 16 March 9, 16, 23, 30; April 6, 13 Thursdays 3:00 – 4:30 p.m. ET January 6, 13, 20, 27; February 3, 10 March 3, 10, 17, 24, 31; April 7 Thursdays 5:30 - 7:00 p.m. ET Loss of Parent – Tuesdays and Wednesdays This group is for anyone experiencing the loss of a parent. Click here to access the group weekly on Wednesday from 4:30 - 6:00 p.m. ET Session 1: January 19, 26, February 2, 9, 16, 23 Session2: March 16, 23, 30, April 6, 13, 20 Loss of Child - Mondays (Biweekly) This group is for anyone experiencing the loss of a child. Click here to access our Loss of Child Group Biweekly on Mondays 4:00-5:30 p.m. January 10, 24; February 14, 28; March 14, 28; April 11, 25 Loss of Sibling Support Group - Monthly This group is for anyone experiencing the loss of a sibling. Click here to access our Loss of Sibling Support Group monthly on Wednesdays 6:30-8:00 p.m. ET January 26, February 23, March 30, April 27 Losing a Loved One to Dementia/Alzheimer's Disease - Monthly A supportive setting for those who have experienced the unique and challenging role of caregiver for a loved one with dementia and are now grieving the difficult loss of that person. Third Monday of the Month from 3:00 - 4:30 p.m. ET Losing a Loved One to COVID-19: Comfort and Support - Wednesdays (Biweekly) Grief research suggests that suffering personal losses can be particularly challenging when experienced in times of broader social stress. Loss of a loved one to COVID-19 can bring about complicated grief—a type of bereavement that is unusually difficult and long-lasting. From the sudden way the world changed, to the unanticipated decline in health of our loved ones, to the inability to hold memorials to honor them in their death all contribute to this unimaginable grief. Join our experienced grief support group facilitators for a time of sharing, healing, and comfort each week as we continue to grieve together. Click here to access the group biweekly on Wednesdays from 4:30-6:00 p.m. ET through Zoom January 12, 26; February 9, 23; March 2, 16, 30; April 13, 27 Children's Grief Support Group - First Tuesday of the Month This bi-weekly virtual group is for children aged 6-12 years old who have experienced the loss of a loved one. In this group, children will connect through art-focused activities facilitated by a grief counselor. Mindfulness techniques will be introduced and space for discussion will be provided. This group is password protected. Please email Diane Labmert, grief counselor, at DLambert@HopeHealthCo.org to obtain the password. First Tuesday of the month from 3:30 - 4:30 p.m. ET through Zoom. January 4, February 1, March 1, April 5 Teens Grief Support Group - Second Tuesday of the Month This bi-weekly virtual group is for teens aged 13-17 years old who have experienced the loss of a loved one. In this group, teens will have the opportunity to connect through art-focused and mindfulness techniques facilitated by a grief counselor. A safe space is created for teens to discuss their grief and how that grief may be compounded by COVID-19. This group is password protected. Please email Diane Lambert, grief counselor, at DLambert@HopeHealthCo.org to obtain the password. Click here to access the group every second Tuesday of the month from 3:30 - 4:30 p.m. ET through Zoom January 11, February 8, March 8, April 12 Mindfulness Meditation for Grief and Healing - Wednesdays Mindfulness meditation is a practice that engages posture, everyday movement, the breath and mindful, focused awareness. In practicing together, participants can foster a deeper sense of the present moment, reduce stress and anxiety and find deeper meaning after the death of a loved one. Click here to access the group on Wednesdays from 3:00 - 4:30 p.m. ET through Zoom Soulful Signs - Tuesdays and Fridays (Biweekly) This gathering explores the continued relationships with loved ones who have passed. This group includes a supportive and non-judgmental discussion about ways in which loved ones are communicating with us along with helpful tips and guidance to stay connected to them. For some, maintaining and nurturing these relationships are instrumental in healing from the pain of loss. Tuesdays (biweekly) 5:30 - 7:00 p.m. ET January 11, 25; February 8, 22; March 8, 22 Fridays (biweekly) 10:00 - 11:30 a.m. ET January 7, 21; February 4, 18; March 4, 18 LGBTQ+ Grief Support Group - Fourth Monday of the Month Led by a specially trained facilitator, this group provides a safe, confidential and supportive setting for individuals experiencing grief related to loss. Click here to access this group every fourth Monday of the month from 5:30 – 7:00 p.m ET through Zoom Emotional Support And Coping with Cumulative Loss for Professional Caregivers - Mondays and Wednesdays The unprecedented public health crisis brought on by COVID-19 is impacting every aspect of daily life, but the emotional and physical toll on healthcare professionals in particular is daunting. Please join HopeHealth support group facilitators and your peers in the healthcare work force as we gather to provide comfort, emotional support, and resources that will help you to cope with the ongoing stressors and cumulative losses you are experiencing during this difficult time. Taking time to turn your caregiving inward while providing care for others helps create balance of mind, body, and spirit when it is needed most. Click here to access the group on Mondays biweekly from 8:00 - 9:00 a.m. ET through Zoom January 3, 17, 31; February 14, 28; March 7, 21;
Nagorno-Karabakh: If There Is No Peace, There Is a Threat of War Browsing through the archives on my laptop, I found my one year old take on the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. I can admit that the situation on the ground hasn't changed dramatically and my article is still reflecting the grave realities we face. Unfortunately South Caucasus is rich not only with natural resources but also with numerous protracted conflicts, and the conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh region is among them. The ceasefire agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijan has been concluded on May 5, 1994, but no substantial progress has been made so far. The main international mediator – OSCE Minsk Group composed of representatives of Russia, France and the U.S. – has failed to bring any positive changes into the resolution of the conflict. The Madrid Principles of the resolution of the conflict adopted by both Armenian and Azerbaijani leadership in December 2007 have brought a light of hope but the following "war" over details disappointed many. At first sight, it seems that the main bone of contention is whether the referendum defining the final legal status of the region should be conducted prior or after the return of the IDPs, who are of Azerbaijani-origin, because that would determine whether the region will remain as a part of Azerbaijan or proclaim independence. However, after many years of fruitless negotiations it becomes obvious that Armenia is very reluctant to return to Azerbaijani control not only the Nagorno-Karabakh region itself, but also the occupied territories surrounding the region. Armenian leadership is not yet ready to take such a bold decision; it not only lacks political capital to spend but also legitimacy among Armenian population. Any concession of land to the Azerbaijani side could result in the loss of power and political turmoil. Moreover, one should not forget that the current president of Armenia, Serzh Sargsyan, is originally coming from the Nagorno-Karabakh region and is said to be one of the founders of the Nagorno-Karabakh armed forces. Politics of demonization of Armenians in Azerbaijan is another argument at hand which prevents any attempts to reconcile both sides. Armenian side has serious concerns that those Armenians, living in the Karabkh region, will be simply wiped out of their living places or turned to be second glass citizens of Azerbaijan. Meanwhile, Armenia has adopted a "fence sitting" approach waiting for the more favourable international environment to come for self-determination of the people of Nagorno-Karabakh (read: without return of IDPs). Therefore it would be naïve to hope that a breakthrough in negotiations could be achieved by 2013, when the Armenian presidential elections are going to take place. While both presidents at the OSCE summit in Astana signed a joint statement reaffirming their "commitment to seek a final settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict based upon the principles and norms of the international law", it still should not be considered as a safety net to avoid the breakout of the military actions. Azerbaijani leadership is well aware of the situation and is trying to push Minsk Group mediators to put more pressure on Armenia while keeping military option as a last resort but the more frequent statements made by both politicians and military on the possibility of use of force to return back the occupied territories indicate that the patience is gradually running out. In its latest report[1] the International Crisis Group has warned on a possibility of the resumption of military hostilities between Armenia and Azerbaijan. The situation has deteriorated over the past year, the cease-fire violations became more frequent and the causality figures increased. Unlike it is in Georgia, there is no so-called 24/7 working "hot line" among the parties to the conflict which could prevent the escalation of the conflict. Therefore any serious skirmish could easily spiralout of control and lead to the outbreak of war which could have far more grave consequences for the region than the Russia-Georgia war in August 2008. In August 2010 Russia and Armenia signed the 5th Protocol to the Treaty on Russia's military base on the Armenian territories concluded in 1995. The Protocol envisaged that the Russian military base (located in the Northern city of Gyumri) will not only serve for the protection of the national interests of the Russian Federation, but will also ensure security of the host country, that is, Armenia, and provide modern weapons and equipment to Armenian armed forces. For those who have been following the developments in the region, there is nothing new in this document as Russia has long been providing armaments to Armenia. Moreover, both Armenia and Russia are parties to the Collective Security Treaty which envisages that an aggression against one of the state parties is an aggression against all. What is important here that the latest document is just one more explicit proof of Russia's biased position in the regulation of the conflict as well as to the fact that the key to the resolution of the conflict lies in Kremlin. These developments led to the conclusion of the Agreement on Strategic Partnership and Mutual Support between Azerbaijan and Turkey, which pledges that both countries will support each other in a case of aggression and enhance military cooperation. The agreement shows an increasing fatigue, and even frustration with the current state of the negotiation process in Azerbaijan. The country has increased its military spending up to more than $ 3 billion, which is even more than the whole state budget of Armenia. The current growth in oil prices will lead to more fortune and more military spending, but this will not last forever. Azerbaijan's budget is heavily dependent on oil revenues. And as some pundits[2] predict that at the current rate of extraction Azerbaijani oil reserves may be depleted by 2019, but the oil boom will end in 2013. Less cash would mean fewer chances to regain Nagorno-Karabakh by force. Azerbaijani diplomats tend to complain that foreigners come to Azerbaijan to get something profitable out of this country – Russians seek for obedience, Europeans seek for oil and gas, Iranians seek for an opportunity to export Islamic revolution, Americans seek for dominance and support Europeans in their quest for energy resources – and nobody cares of Azerbaijan's top national priority – restoration of the territorial integrity. The only partner for Azerbaijan which not only takes but also delivers is Turkey. But the frustration of the current negotiation format, explicit military and economic support of Russia to Armenia and looming descent in oil production might push Azerbaijani leadership to opt for the military solution, which would plunge the region into chaos. The current format of the conflict mediation process is ineffective as it very much depends on the domestic situation. The upcoming presidential elections (scheduled for the first half of 2012) in all three countries represented in the OSCE Minsk Group – U.S., France and Russia – mean less focus on the resolution of the conflict. Moreover, due to a large presence of Armenian diaspora Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict often becomes an issue of domestic politics like it is in the U.S. or France. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh has largely been out of view for the European Union which has left the resolution of the conflict to the OSCE. In words of the President of European Commission Barroso, the EU is ready to provide assistance for rehabilitation in case a conflict settlement is reached.[3] But again there is a smell of gunpowder in the air, and again the EU is reluctant to step in. If the EU is not yet ready to make bold political decisions, it should invest more into reconciliation between two sides financially supporting non-profit organisations working in this field. Two generations have been brought up not speaking to each other. Azerbaijanis
Newslinks for Tuesday 22nd December 2020 Coronavirus 1) Mass Covid testing of lorry drivers could reopen ports "Boris Johnson is drawing up contingency plans to test all lorry drivers taking goods across the Channel in order to bring an end to the disruption at Britain's ports. Ministers are understood to be preparing "infrastructure" to allow thousands of truckers to be tested for Covid-19 after France insisted hauliers should be cleared as negative before entering the country. On Monday night, Mr Johnson made a personal appeal to Emmanuel Macron, the French president, to reopen the French border after ports were closed in response to the news that a newly-discovered mutant coronavirus strain was "out of control" in London and the South-East. The Prime Minister told a Downing Street press conference he believed the risk of freight drivers passing on the new and highly infectious strain of Covid was very low." – Daily Telegraph Johnson appeals to French president but freight ban remains – The Guardian Chaos at ports could last until Christmas Eve – The Times Macron's lorry ban is utterly pointless. Ambrose Evans-Pritchard – Daily Telegraph MPs ETC: Johnson on Macron: "We both understand each other's positions". His statement. Full text. Coronavirus 2) PM under pressure to impose new national lockdown "Boris Johnson is facing intense pressure to impose another national lockdown within days, as more than 40 countries banned arrivals from the UK in an effort to keep out a new fast-spreading variant of coronavirus. Government scientific advisers warned that inaction could cost tens of thousands of lives and risk an "economic, human and social disaster", with the new strain spreading across the UK and overseas. Ministers urged people to avoid panic-buying food as France failed to lift its ban on freight and passengers from the UK on Monday despite a personal appeal from the prime minister, who asked Emmanuel Macron to put aside his "anxiety" over the new strain of Covid-19." – The Guardian Mutant virus strain 'is everywhere', says adviser – The Times Tier 4 restrictions set to spread across country, Vallance warns – Daily Telegraph More areas of England set to enter tier 4 in race to curb new strain – FT Whitty says hospital cases could match April peak by New Year – Daily Mail Foreign experts scoff at British response to mutant virus – The Times Regional response All arrivals to Greater Manchester and West Midlands from Tier 4 and Wales asked to self-isolate – Sky News January school closures considered – Daily Telegraph New Covid variant in UK: spreading Christmas fear? – The Guardian 'Captain of a rudderless ship': Tory media turn on Johnson – The Guardian Inside story of how PM forced into action – The Times A nation on the brink, Editorial – The Guardian National emergency, Editorial – The Times Failed cycle of lockdowns is precisely why Parliament must step in, Adam Afriyie – Daily Telegraph Britain is being punished for alerting world to new crisis, Tom Harwood – Daily Telegraph How a string of failures by the government helped Covid to mutate, Anthony Costello – The Guardian Our leaders are trapped in an echo chamber, Claire Fox – Daily Telegraph Travel chaos, U-turns and a cancelled Christmas: it's Johnson's worst week, Polly Toynbee – The Guardian ToryDiary: T.I.N.A Video: WATCH: "There's no reason to think this new variant of the virus is any more dangerous" – Johnson ToryDiary: The case for "doing a Sweden" runs out of steam Coronavirus 3) William Hague: Ministers cannot afford to mess up vaccination plan now "It is understandable that Boris Johnson's decision to ask much of the country to abandon their plans for Christmas with almost no notice has been subject to intense criticism. Some people think it should have happened earlier, others that it is not necessary at all, still others that some kind of conspiracy to achieve a tighter lockdown without parliamentary approval is afoot. The Government may have made many mistakes in the handling of the pandemic, but most people who read the minutes of the expert committee NERVTAG that met on Friday would agree with this latest decision of an obviously reluctant Prime Minister." – Daily Telegraph Comment: Allie Renison: Pregnant and breastfeeding women deserve choice over whether they have the Coronavirus vaccine Comment: Raghib Ali: Christmas is going to be tough, but there is finally light at the end of the Covid-19 tunnel Coronavirus 4) Government 'operated illegal buy British policy' for test kits "The government was operating an illegal "buy British" policy when it signed contracts with a small UK firm to supply Covid antibody tests, claim lawyers who have filed a case against the health secretary. The Good Law Project said there were a number of other companies in a better position to supply antibody tests in June and August, when the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) agreed deals worth up to £80m with Abingdon Health without going out to tender. The government had also agreed a deal to share in the profits the company made, the lawyers say. The government was determined to get a British test, following the fiasco of the purchase by the health secretary, Matt Hancock, of 3.5m Chinese antibody tests in March with orders for a further 17.5m." – The Guardian Coronavirus 5) Biden given vaccine on live TV "President-elect Joe Biden received the first dose of his COVID-19 vaccine in Delaware on Monday, posing for the cameras as a local nurse administrated the shot. 'There is nothing to worry about,' he said as he reassured the public the vaccine was safe. Biden also gave credit to President Donald Trump's administration for its roll out of the cure. About 24 million people are expected to be given the first round of shots. The president-elect thanked the medical staff and urged Americans to follow coronavirus restrictions during the upcoming holiday period, including wearing face masks and practicing social distancing." – Daily Mail Hopes of Brexit breakthrough after UK fishing offer "Downing Street has made a major counter-offer on fishing access for EU fleets in British waters to break the Brexit trade talks deadlock, raising hopes of a deal before Christmas. After a difficult period of negotiations, with both sides seemingly entrenched, the UK's chief Brexit negotiator, David Frost, is understood to have tabled a proposal that could unlock the troubled talks. According to EU sources, the British demand for a 60% reduction in the catch by value in British waters had been reduced to 35%, far closer to the 25% reduction that Frost's EU counterpart, Michel Barnier, had said he would be prepared to accept. Boris Johnson has also accepted a five-year phase-in period for the new arrangements, with a compromise also likely on the application of tariffs or export bans on goods where fishing access changes after the phase-in period, it is understood." – The Guardian Britain offers 'cash-for-quotas' fishing deal – The Times EU and UK edge towards Brexit compromise on fisheries – FT MPs told to be ready to vote on possible Brexit deal next week – Daily Telegraph PM dismisses sell-out claims – Daily Express Ministers fear £6bn cost of Rashford hat-trick "On the day of the government spending review last month, Marcus Rashford tweeted: "@RishiSunak is the Universal Credit uplift going to be taken away in April?" The England and Manchester United footballer made clear what he thought of the chancellor's plan to remove £20 a week from up to six million of the country's poorest households. "I'm really concerned that families are constantly counting down the days until help is taken away from them," he told his four million followers. "Children cannot be living to deadlines. We have to stabilise these households. 2.5 million will be unemployed in spring." – The Times Plans to decriminalise non-payment of TV licence 'shelved by Government' "Ministers had proposed viewers who refuse to cough up £157.50 should no longer face a criminal record. But such
example in section \ref{example}, $C_h$ may indeed converge to infinity as the thickness of $S^h$ (that is $\|g_1^h + g_2^h\|_{L^\infty(S)}$) converges to $0$. Our goal is to investigate the behaviour of $C_h$ in two frameworks, relating to the following hypotheses: \begin{itemize} \item[{\bf (H1)}] For some positive constants $C_1, C_2$ and $C_3$, and all small $h>0$ there holds: $$C_1 h\leq g_i^h(x)\leq C_2 h, \qquad |\nabla g_i^h(x)|\leq C_3 h \qquad \forall x\in S, \quad i=1,2. $$ \item[{\bf (H2)}] For some smooth positive functions $g_1, g_2:S\longrightarrow \mathbf{R}$, there holds: $$\frac{1}{h} g_i^h \to g_i \quad {\mbox{ in }} \mathcal{C}^1(S) \quad {\mbox{ as }} h\to 0, \qquad i=1,2. $$ \end{itemize} Notice that clearly {\bf (H2)} implies {\bf (H1)} with, for example: $C_1 = 2\max \{g_i(x); ~x\in S, ~i=1,2\}$, $C_2 = 1/2\min \{g_i(x); ~x\in S, ~i=1,2\}$, $C_3 = \max_i \|\nabla g_i\|_{L^\infty (S)} +1$. \medskip Before stating our main results, we need to recall the notion of a Killing vector field. The Lie algebra of smooth Killing vector fields on $S$ will be denoted by $\mathcal{I}(S)$. That is, $v\in \mathcal{I}(S)$ if and only if: \begin{itemize} \item[(i)] $v:S\longrightarrow \mathbf{R}^n$ is smooth and $v(x)\in T_x(S)$ for every $x\in S$, \item[(ii)] $\begin{displaystyle}\frac{\partial v}{\partial \tau} (x) \cdot \tau = 0 \end{displaystyle}$ for every $x\in S$ and every $\tau\in T_x S$. \end{itemize} Condition (ii) implies that \begin{equation}\label{kill} \frac{\partial v}{\partial \tau}(x) \cdot \eta + \frac{\partial v}{\partial \eta}(x)\cdot \tau = 0 \qquad \forall \tau,\eta\in T_xS \quad \forall x\in S. \end{equation} Recall that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal generators of isometries on $S$, in the sense that if $\Phi$ is the flow generated by $v$: $$ \frac{\mbox{d}}{\mbox{d}s} \Phi (s,x) = v(\Phi(s,x)), \qquad \Phi(0,x) = x,$$ then for every fixed $s$ the map $S\ni x\mapsto \Phi(s,x)\in S$ is an isometry. It is known that the linear space $\mathcal{I}(S)$ has finite dimension \cite{KN, Peterson}. We recall this fact in Appendix C. \medskip Given positive smooth functions $g_1, g_2:S\longrightarrow \mathbf{R}$, define: $$\mathcal{I}_{g_1, g_2}(S) = \left\{v\in\mathcal{I}(S); ~~ v(x)\cdot\nabla(g_1+g_2)(x) = 0 \quad \mbox{ for all } x\in S\right\}.$$ \medskip Our main results are the following: \begin{theorem}\label{th1} Assume {\bf (H1)} and let $\alpha<1$ be any constant. Then, for all $h>0$ sufficiently small and all $u\in W^{1,2}(S^h, \mathbf{R}^n)$ satisfying one of the following tangency conditions: $$ u\cdot \vec n^h=0 ~~~ \mbox{ on } \partial^+ S^h=\{x+g_2^h(x)\vec n(x); ~x\in S\},$$ or: $$ u\cdot \vec n^h=0 ~~~ \mbox{ on } \partial^- S^h=\{x-g_1^h(x)\vec n(x); ~x\in S\},$$ together with: \begin{equation}\label{f1} \left|\int_{S^h} u(z) v(\pi(z)) ~\mathrm{d}z\right| \leq \alpha \|u\|_{L^2(S^h)} \cdot \|v\pi\|_{L^2(S^h)} \qquad \forall v\in\mathcal{I}(S), \end{equation} there holds: \begin{equation}\label{korn} \|u\|_{W^{1,2}(S^h)} \leq C \|D(u)\|_{L^2(S^h)}, \end{equation} where $C$ is independent of $u$ and of $h$. \end{theorem} \begin{theorem}\label{th2} Assume {\bf (H2)} and let $\alpha<1$ be any constant. Then for all $h>0$ sufficiently small and all $u\in W^{1,2}(S^h, \mathbf{R}^n)$ satisfying $ u\cdot \vec n^h=0$ on $\partial S^h$ and: \begin{equation}\label{f2} \left|\int_{S^h} u(z) v(\pi(z)) ~\mathrm{d}z\right| \leq \alpha \|u\|_{L^2(S^h)} \cdot \|v\pi\|_{L^2(S^h)} \qquad \forall v\in\mathcal{I}_{g_1, g_2}(S), \end{equation} there holds (\ref{korn}) with $C$ independent of $u$ and of $h$. \end{theorem} The example constructed in section \ref{example} shows that conditions (\ref{f1}) (or (\ref{f2})) are necessary for the bound (\ref{korn}). In particular, any Killing field $v$ on $S$ can be extended to a vector field $v^h$ on $S^h$, satisfying the boundary condition and such that $\|\nabla v^h\|_{L^2(S^h)}^2 \geq Ch$ but $\|D(v^h)\|_{L^2(S^h)}^2\leq Ch^3$. Hence, if one naively assumes that $u$ satisfies the angle condition only with the space of generators of appropriate rotations on $S$, rather than the whole $\mathcal{I}(S)$, the constant $C_h$ has a blow-up rate of at least $h^{-1}$, as $h\to 0$. The following theorem shows that this is the actual blow-up rate, under the abovementioned conditions. More precisely, define: $$\mathcal{R}(S) = \big\{v:S\longrightarrow\mathbf{R}^n; ~~ v(x) = Ax+b, ~ A\in so(n), ~b\in\mathbf{R}^n, ~ v\cdot \vec n=0 \mbox{ on } S\big\} \subset \mathcal{I(S)},$$ $$\mathcal{R}_{g_1, g_2}(S) = \big\{v\in\mathcal{R}(S); ~~ v(x)\cdot \nabla(g_1 + g_2)(x) \mbox{ for all } x\in S\big\}\subset \mathcal{I}_{g_1, g_2}(S).$$ \begin{theorem}\label{th_very_weak} Let $\alpha<1$ be any constant. Then, for all $h$ sufficiently small and all $u\in W^{1,2}(S^h, \mathbf{R}^n)$, there holds: \begin{equation}\label{very_weak} \|u\|_{W^{1,2}(S^h)} \leq Ch^{-1} \|D(u)\|_{L^2(S^h)}, \end{equation} in any of the following situations: \begin{itemize} \item[(i)] {\bf (H1)} holds, $u\cdot\vec n^h=0$ on $\partial^+ S^h$ or $u\cdot\vec n^h=0$ on $\partial^- S^h$, and: $$\left|\int_{S^h} u(z) v(\pi(z)) ~\mathrm{d}z\right| \leq \alpha \|u\|_{L^2(S^h)} \cdot \|v\pi\|_{L^2(S^h)} \qquad \forall v\in\mathcal{R}(S).$$ \item[(ii)] {\bf (H2)} holds, $u\cdot\vec n^h=0$ on $\partial S^h$, and: $$\left|\int_{S^h} u(z) v(\pi(z)) ~\mathrm{d}z\right| \leq \alpha \|u\|_{L^2(S^h)} \cdot \|v\pi\|_{L^2(S^h)} \qquad \forall v\in\mathcal{R}_{g_1, g_2}(S).$$ \end{itemize} \end{theorem} \noindent Notice that (i) is implied by the hypotheses of Theorem \ref{th1} and (ii) by the hypotheses of Theorem \ref{th2}, as the spaces $\mathcal{R}(S)$ and $\mathcal{R}_{g_1, g_2}(S)$ are contained in $\mathcal{I}(S)$ or $\mathcal{I}_{g_1,g_2}(S)$, respectively. The bound (\ref{very_weak}) was obtained also in \cite{KV2}, but in a different context of thin plates with clamped boundary conditions and rapidly varying thickness. \section{Remarks and an outline of proofs} \begin{remark} Conditions (\ref{f1}) and (\ref{f2}) may be understood in the following way: the cosine of the angle (in $L^2(S^h)$) between $u$ and its projection onto the linear space $W^h\subset L^2(S^h)$ of `trivial' extensions $v\pi$ of certain Killing fields $v\in\mathcal{I}(S)$ (or $v\in\mathcal{I}_{g_1, g_2}(S)$) should be smaller than $\alpha$. Equivalently, one considers vector fields $u\in W^{1,2}(S^h)$, which for a given constant $\beta\geq 1$ (related to $\alpha$ through: $\beta = (1-\alpha^2)^{-1/2}$) satisfy: \begin{equation}\label{dist_angle} \|u\|_{L^2(S^h)} \leq \beta \|u - v\pi\|_{L^2(S^h)} \qquad \forall v\in\mathcal{I}(S) \quad \mbox{ (or } \forall v\in\mathcal{I}_{g_1, g_2}(S) \mbox{)}. \end{equation} That is, the distance of $u$ from the space $W^h$ controls (uniformly) the full norm $\|u\|_{L^2(S^h)}$. By Theorems \ref{th1} and \ref{th2}, inside each closed cone around $(W^h)^\perp$, of fixed angle $\theta<\pi/2$ in $L^2(S^h)$, the bound (\ref{korn}) holds, with a constant $C$, that is uniform in $u$ and $h$. One could therefore argue that $W^h$ is the kernel for the uniform Korn-Poincar\'e inequality, in the same manner as the linear maps $Az+b$ with skew gradients $A\in so(n)$ constitute the kernel for the standard Korn inequality (\ref{ort_lin}), (\ref{korn_nonunif}). This is not exactly the case, as the uniform Korn inequality is true for the extensions $v\pi$ (see Remark \ref{rem_trivial_ext}). The role of the aforementioned kernel is played by the space $\widetilde{W}^h$ of other, 'smart' extensions $v^h$ of the Killing fields $v$ (see the formula (\ref{3_def})). Still, with $v\pi$ replaced by $v^h$ in (\ref{f1}) or (\ref{f2}), both Theorems \ref{th1} and \ref{th2} remain true. Indeed, notice that the spaces $W^h$ and $\widetilde{W}^h$ are asymptotically tangent at $h=0$: $$\|v\pi - v^h\|_{L^2(S^h)}\leq Ch \|v\pi\|_{L^2(S^h)} \qquad \forall v\in\mathcal{I}(S).$$ Hence, if $|\langle u,v^h\rangle_{L^2}|\leq \alpha \|u\|_{L^2}\cdot \|v^h\|_{L^2}$ for some $\alpha<1$, then $|\langle u,v\pi\rangle_{L^2}|\leq (\alpha+Ch) \|u\|_{L^2}\cdot \|v\pi\|_{L^2}$, and the angle conditions in main theorems hold, with another $\alpha<1$, when $h$ is sufficiently small. Thus, the fact that we chose to work with 'trivial' extensions, in $W^h$ (giving a simpler condition), instead of the real kernel $\widetilde{W}^h$, is not restrictive. In the particular case when $\partial S^h$ is parallel to $S$, say $g_i^h = h$, we have $$\vec n^h(x + g_2(x)\vec n(x)) = \vec n(x) \qquad \vec n^h(x - g_1(x)\vec n(x)) = -\vec n(x),$$ $$\mathcal{I}(S) = \mathcal{I}_{g_1, g_2}(S).$$ If $w\in\mathcal{R}_\partial (S^h)$ then $w_{|S}$ is tangent to $S$ and, as shown in Appendix A (Theorem \ref{lemma_rotations}) it generates a rotation on $S$. Actually, one has: $w = (w_{\mid S})^h\in\widetilde{W}^h$ and so by the preceding comment we see that the condition (\ref{ort_lin}) is asymptotically contained in (\ref{f1}) (or (\ref{f2})). \end{remark} \begin{remark} A natural question is whether $\mathcal{I}(S)$ may contain other vector fields than the restrictions of generators of rigid motions on the whole $\mathbf{R}^n$. This is clearly the case when $n=2$: any tangent vector field of constant length is a Killing field. The same question for higher dimensions and even for $n=3$ and general (nonconvex) hypersurfaces is, to our knowledge, still open. It is closely related to another open problem of whether the class of rotationally symmetric surfaces is closed under intrinsic isometries. A further related question is whether every intrinsic isometry on $S$ is actually a restriction of some isometry of $\mathbf{R}^3$. When $S$ is convex, it is well known that it is the case, while for non-convex surfaces it is false. The answer to the same question, formulated for $1$-parameter families of isometries is not known (see \cite{Spivak} vol. 5). \end{remark} \bigskip \noindent {\bf An outline of proofs of Theorems \ref{th1} and \ref{th2}.} The general strategy is as follows. Suppose that $D(u)$ is small. The main idea is to study the map $\bar{u}: S\longrightarrow\mathbf{R}^n$ which is obtained by averaging $u$ in the normal direction: $$\bar{u}(x) = \fint_{-g_1^h(x)}^{g_2^h(x)} u(x+t\vec n(x))~\mbox{d}t.$$ By the boundary condition, one has $\bar{u}\cdot\vec n\approx 0$, i.e. $\bar{u}$ is almost tangential to $S$. Moreover, $D(\bar{u})$ is essentially bounded by the average of $D(u)$. Hence if $D(u)$ is small, by Korn's inequality on surfaces, the field $\bar{u}$ must be close to a Killing field $v$. If $v$ is not small, we will
Skepticism and analysis surround every team as the second week of the season comes to an end. I guess I'm here to join the party–mainly for analysis, not for skepticism. It's easy to analyze halfway through the season, but only two weeks into the season seems a little rash, doesn't it? Is it appropriate to analyze, criticize, and skepticize (yes, made up word) already? I don't know the answer, but I think it's appropriate to offer some analysis because the Red Sox have made some easily preventable mistakes that have led to run scoring. And even though it's early on, there are some serious, and unfortunately controversial issues that need to be addressed. It may be the beginning of the season, but every game counts. These games count as much as they do in September. Each game is of vital importance as each team tries to avoid the obstacles on the road to the postseason. I don't agree with those who say, "It's the beginning of the season, they're just adjusting." That's what Spring Training is for. Ideally, teams should work out their kinks during Spring Training. Inevitably, obstacles will arise during the regular season, so I'm here to try and work those out. Let's tackle the obvious topic first: David Ortiz. I think he has felt under pressure to perform since the first game of the season. Because of the dismal numbers he put up last season, all reporters ever asked him about during the Spring was his rebound. It is easy to tell how insecure about this situation he is. He snapped at reporters the second day of the season; he got ejected from a game for arguing about a strike; and it is easy to spot the frustrated grimace on his face each time he strikes out. I don't blame him for feeling pressure, but I'm surprised about how much it's getting to him. I won't ignore the few hits that he has gotten: some have been solid contact, but others were pure luck. He even picked up the golden sombrero one game where he struck out four times: that's the problem. He strikes out, and for the most time, he strikes out looking. I'm no hitting guru, so I'm not here to talk mechanics. The fact of the matter is that having him in our lineup is ineffective, and at times, detrimental. So why does Terry Francona put him in the lineup day after day? I think that part of it comes from seniority. Maybe Terry Francona thinks that maybe Big Papi is just going to get out of his funk because of what he has done in the past. But this is the third year in a row that this has been going on. As much as it pains me to say this, he is done. I'm sure it will be tough to sit him, but it is necessary. It is important to put the best lineup out there, and putting Big Papi in there does not get the job done. I like the idea of platooning Mike Lowell and Jeremy Hermida at that spot. Hermida has proved himself to be a fantastic pickup coming off the bench for Jacoby Ellsbury while he is injured. I can see him hitting a lot of doubles off the Green Monster. Issue number two: The Bullpen. Last year, the bullpen was considered our strongest asset. This year, it has been one of the weakest. I don't think that the loss of Takashi Saito or Billy Wagner really affects that; however, the loss of Justin Masterson does. I'm sure you all know exactly what I'm going to say. Bring up Michael Bowden! We need a long-term middle relief pitcher; especially if our starters are done after the fifth inning because they throw 30 pitches in an inning or two. The Red Sox obviously expect to use him as a middle reliever, so what I don't understand is why they're still treating him as a starter in Pawtucket. I think that for a pitcher to be completely effective, they have to know their role (no matter how good they are). Just look how good Justin Masterson is doing with Cleveland now that they have explicitly deemed him a starter. I have no doubt that Bowden has the ability to flourish in either role, but he will be more effective once they tell him what his role actually is so that he doesn't have to keep switching. Ramon Ramirez has been struggling so far, so I really hope that he finds his stuff because he was the unsung hero of last year. Manny Delcarmen still struggles to be consistent, but he has the ability to go multiple innings, which is important. I prefer him over Scott Atchinson anyway. I think that Robert Manuel, now pitching in Pawtucket, could be really effective in the bullpen if he was given a chance. I know Daniel Bard is very good, but the Red Sox need to use him a little more sparingly. The poor guy has been used so much already this season. He has a wicked slider, but I'd like to see him add a changeup to his repertoire because the radar gun is almost always 90 mph or above, and having that speed constantly will almost surely lead to giving up more home runs. My final issue with the bullpen includes Victor Martinez as well. When it comes to Jonathan Papelbon, all he ever calls are fastballs. Papelbon also has a slider and a changeup in his arsenal, so I think that it's important that he incorporates those as well to avoid meltdowns. I'm sure you all remember his most infamous blown save, and all Victor Martinez called was fastball, after, fastball, after fastball. Neither Victor Martinez nor Jason Varitek have the ability to throw runners out, and every team knows it. Victor obviously needs to work on his mechanics considering all of his throws are high and to the right. This could create a serious problem. First of all, because the runners can steal so easily, the possibility of inning ending double plays are eliminated, which means that our pitchers will have to work longer, and that we might have to use our bullpen earlier. Also, pitching from the stretch is a tough thing for lots of pitchers. I especially noticed that with Clay Buchholz during the Spring, and even he has admitted that it's something he needs to work on. The pitchers obviously don't want the runners to steal, so they might feel added pressure to get the ball to the plate quicker. This situation could have disastrous consequences. It is important that the pitchers don't think about anything but hitting their spots. If this becomes a serious problem, the Red Sox do have some catching talent in the minors (with arms) in both Mark Wagner and Luis Exposito. Luis is definitely someone to get excited about, but he still needs some seasoning. Mark Wagner, on the other hand, is in Pawtucket, and I think he is ready to go. Some bats have been quiet (Big Papi), some have been loud (Dustin Pedroia), but the Red Sox have left so many runners on, but I think there is an easy solution that Terry Francona hasn't seen yet because he is an American League manager: small ball. Because the Red Sox focused on improving defense during the offseason, they aren't full of the 30-40 HR power bats. However, that's not to say that they aren't offensively sophisticated. They have the ability to score a lot of runs this season, but it won't come from lots of long balls. Rarely, if ever, do you see the Red Sox lay down a solid bunt. Perhaps the
Author-choice Open Access Publishing By Phil Davis According to a study of 11 biological and medical journals that allow authors the choice of making their articles freely available from the publisher's website, few show any evidence of a citation advantage. For those that do, the effect appears to be diminishing over time. The study, "Author-choice open access publishing in the biological and medical literature," (a copy of the final manuscript is also available from the arXiv) analyzed over eleven thousand articles published in journals since 2003, sixteen hundred of these articles (15%) adopting the author-choice open access model. Oxford University Press journals make up 6 of the 11 journals analyzed in the study. Since open access publication fees can amount to several thousands of dollars, the author (ok that's me) goes on to determine the cost-benefit for each additional citation. While the cost-per-additional-citation was as low as about $400 (for PNAS), it approached $9,000 for the journal Development, published by the Company of Biologists. Considering the evidence that author-choice open access publishing may have little effect on article citations, it is worthwhile for authors to consider the cost of this form of publishing. If a citation advantage is the key motivation for authors to pay open access fees, then the cost/benefit of this decision can be quite expensive for some journals. This study is a follow-up to a controlled trial of open access publishing published in BMJ where articles were randomly selected for open access or traditional subscription-access. The authors reported no difference in citations in the first year. Since the current study observes the effect of author-choice open access, self-selection may play a role in explaining the results. As the author of this study, I hope that readers do not come away with the feeling that I'm advocating against an author-choice program. There may be many benefits to making scientific results freely available; however, scientists should understand that open access may not buy them more citations. Free dissemination of the scientific literature may speed up the transfer of knowledge to industry, enable scientists in poor and developing countries to access more information, and empower the general public. There are clearly many benefits to making one's research findings freely available to the general public – a citation advantage may not be one of them. Phil Davis @ScholarlyChickn Phil Davis is a publishing consultant specializing in the statistical analysis of citation, readership, publication and survey data. He has a Ph.D. in science communication from Cornell University (2010), extensive experience as a science librarian (1995-2006) and was trained as a life scientist. https://phil-davis.com/ View All Posts by Phil Davis 5 Thoughts on "Author-choice Open Access Publishing" Confirmation Bias and the Open Access Advantage: Some Methodological Suggestions for Davis's Citation Study Full text: http://openaccess.eprints.org/index.php?/archives/451-guid.html SUMMARY: Davis [2008] — http://arxiv.org/pdf/0808.2428v1 — analyzes citations from 2004-2007 in 11 biomedical journals. For 1,600 of the 11,000 articles (15%), their authors paid the publisher to make them Open Access (OA). The outcome, confirming previous studies (on both paid and unpaid OA), is a significant OA citation advantage, but a small one (21%, 4% of it correlated with other article variables such as number of authors, references, and pages). The author infers that the size of the OA advantage in this biomedical sample has been shrinking annually from 2004-2007, but the data suggest the opposite. In order to draw valid conclusions from these data, the following five further analyses are necessary: (1) The current analysis is based only on author-choice (paid) OA. Free OA self-archiving needs to be taken into account too, for the same journals and years, rather than being counted as non-OA, as in the current analysis. (2) The proportion of OA articles per journal per year needs to be reported and taken into account. (3) Estimates of journal and article quality and citability in the form of the Journal Impact Factor and the relation between the size of the OA Advantage and journal as well as article "citation-bracket" need to be taken into account. (4) The sample-size for the highest-impact, largest-sample journal analyzed, PNAS, is restricted and is excluded from some of the analyses. An analysis of the full PNAS dataset is needed, for the entire 2004-2007 period. (5) The analysis of the interaction between OA and time, 2004-2007, is based on retrospective data from a June 2008 total cumulative citation count. The analysis needs to be redone taking into account the dates of both the cited articles and the citing articles, otherwise article-age effects and any other real-time effects from 2004-2008 are confounded. The author proposes that an author self-selection bias for providing OA to higher-quality articles (the Quality Bias, QB) is the primary cause of the observed OA Advantage, but this study does not test or show anything at all about the causal role of QB (or of any of the other potential causal factors, such as Accessibility Advantage, AA, Competitive Advantage, CA, Download Advantage, DA, Early Advantage, EA, and Quality Advantage, QA). The author also suggests that paid OA is not worth the cost, per extra citation. This is probably true, but with OA self-archiving, both the OA and the extra citations are free. By Stevan Harnad Stevan, Our study focuses on estimating the effect of author-choice open access on article citations. The 11 journals were selected because they gathered sufficient paying open access submissions as to make a statistical analysis even potentially possible. Still, if the open access effect is small, a larger sample size is required to detect a signal amongst the noise, which is why I aggregated the 11 journals for subsequent analyses. PNAS contributed so many articles in the aggregate dataset (about a third) that I didn't want this one journal to dominate the results, hence the tables report the analyses with and without PNAS. Secondly, while aggregating the journals resulted in increased statistical power, we are combining articles published in different scientific fields (biology, medicine, bioinformatics, plant sciences, and multi-disciplinary sciences), which is why journal impact factors are not used as an explanatory variable. Please note that I did include the variable Journal as either a random variable (Table 2) or a fixed variable (Table S2), so journal-to-journal variation is being accounted for in the model. By Philip Davis RE: Harnad point #4 Because of the sheer number of articles published by PNAS, tracking the performance of each article was considered too onerous. As a result, I tracked the first and last 6-month cohort of articles (June-Dec 2004; and June-Dec 2006). By choosing the first and last cohort, I could estimate a temporal trend in the data. Please remember that PNAS was only one of the 11 journals analyzed in this study, and that Gunter Eysenbach's study (PLoS Biology, 2006) analyzed only a 6-month cohort in one journal (PNAS, June-Dec, 2006). Granted, a full dataset from PNAS would have been ideal, and I encourage Prof. Harnad to gather and share the intervening years if he feels that the missing data points would change significantly the results of this study. My sense is that they won't, but will challenge Prof. Harnad to prove me wrong. I think the scientific community may be slightly different then most other industries when it comes to an exchange of information. In most industries the life cycle's are such that even if a competitor finds your research immediately they are years behind. In some scientific studies we need to make sure the researchers and developers of new technology are adequately compensated for their break throughs. By Mark's cheap wine club Clare Hooper @clarehooperlup · I am finding these pieces so interesting! Chefs de Cuisine: Perspectives from Publishing's Top Table -- Steven Inchcoombe https://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2023/01/30/chefs-de-cuisine-perspectives-from-publishings-top-table-steven-inchcoombe/ via @scholarlykitchn MMU Library @mmulibrary · Have you noticed on online articles something called a DOI? Seen the green ORCiD logo next to an author name? They are examples of what are called Persistent Identifiers (or PIDs).
the kernel bandwidth are not needed. In the following experiments we focus on spatial averaging, although extension to spatiotemporal data is straightforward provided the metric is defined along the time axis. When working with a voxel grid the distance is the Euclidian distance taking into account the voxel size in millimeters, and when working on a cortical triangulation, the distance used is the geodesic distance computed on the folded cortical mantle. We now present results of a simulation study where standard averaging with Gaussian smoothing is compared to Kantorovich means. Simulation results are followed by experimental results obtained with fMRI data from 20 subjects and MEG data on a population of 16 subjects. \paragraph{Simulation setup.} In this experiment using on a triangulation of the cortex, we simulated signals of interest in two brain regions using the functional parcellation provided by the FreeSurfer software. We used regions Broadman area 45 (BA45) and the visual area MT. We simulated for a group of 100 subjects random positive signals in these two regions. For each subject and each region, the signal is focal at a random location with a random amplitude generated with a truncated Gaussian distribution (mean 5, std. dev. 1.). We use here focal signals to exemplify the effect of optimal transport. Such signals could correspond to dipolar activations derived from MEG/EEG using dipole fitting methods~\cite{scherg-etal:85} or sparse regression techniques~\cite{wipf-etal:07,gramfort-etal:2013}. Figure~\ref{fig:simu_results} presents the locations of the two regions (labels), the averages with and without Gaussian smoothing and the Kantorovich average. Gaussian smoothing leads to a highly blurred average which exceeds the extent of the regions of interest, while it also strongly reduces the amplitudes of the signals, potentially washing out the statistical effects. The peak amplitudes obtained with optimal transport are also higher and closer to the individual peak amplitudes. One can clearly observe the limitations of Gaussian smoothing, which furthermore requires to set the bandwidth of the kernel. The Kantorovich average nicely highlights two foci of signals at the group level. \begin{figure}[t!] \centering \includegraphics[width=0.6\linewidth]{fig1.pdf} \caption{Simulation results with focal random signals generated in areas/labels BA45 (yellow) and MT (red) in a group of 100 subjects. Data are defined on a surface with 10,024 vertices (FreeSurfer fsaverage 5). One shows the standard averaging referred to as \emph{Mean}, the averaging after Gaussian smoothing is referred to as \emph{Mean (S)} (mean after Gaussian smoothing with FWHM=8\,mm), and the Kantorovich mean (p=1). The result \emph{Mean} shows the focal signals with random positions in the labels delineated in green. The Kantorovich mean highlights clear foci of activations in the ROIs without smearing the activation as with Gaussian smoothing which furthermore significantly dampens the amplitudes.} \label{fig:simu_results} \end{figure} \paragraph{Results on fMRI data.} We used here fMRI data analyzed on a voxel grid. It corresponds to 20 subjects from the database described in~\cite{pinel2007}. We average here the standardized effect of interest induced by left hand button press. In Fig.~\ref{fig:fmri_grid_results}-a we show the Euclidian average without smoothing. In Fig.\ref{fig:fmri_grid_results}-b we report results obtained by classical averaging following Gaussian smoothing with FWHM of 8\,mm. Fig.\ref{fig:fmri_grid_results}-c shows the Kantorovich mean with constrained mass. One can observe that this barycenter highlights a clear active region without requiring any kernel smoothing. It also leads to a amplitude in the average standardized effect around 1.7 which is much higher than the 0.23 obtained when smoothing. \begin{figure}[t!] \centering \includegraphics[width=0.27\linewidth]{mean_fmri.pdf} \includegraphics[width=0.27\linewidth]{mean_s_fmri.pdf} \includegraphics[width=0.27\linewidth]{ot_fmri.pdf} \caption{Averaging of the standardized effect of interest on fMRI data. From left to right, a) the Euclidian mean without smoothing, b) the Euclidian mean with smoothing (FWHM=8\,mm), c) the Kantorovich mean with Euclidian ground metric and p=1. The later result highlights a clear foci of activations in the ROI without smearing the activation nor damping the amplitudes as much as the kernel smoothing.} \label{fig:fmri_grid_results} \end{figure} \paragraph{Results on MEG data.} We now evaluate the benefit of the proposed approach on experimental data. These data were acquired with a Neuromag VectorView system (Elekta Oy, Helsinki, Finland) with 306 sensors arranged in 102 triplets, each comprising two orthogonal planar gradiometers and one magnetometer. Subjects are presented with images containing faces of familiar (famous) or unfamiliar persons and so called ``scrambled'' faces. See~\cite{henson-etal:11} for more details. Dataset contains 16 subjects. For each one, event related fields (ERF) were obtained by averaging about 200 repetitions of recordings following stimuli presentations. Data were band pass filtered between 1 and 40\,Hz. Following standard MEG source localization pipelines~\cite{mne}, a noise covariance was estimated from prestimulus time intervals and used for source reconstruction with the cortically constrained dSPM method~\cite{dspm}. The values obtained with dSPM can be considered as F statistics, where high values are located in active regions. In Figure~\ref{fig:meg_results}, we present results at a single time point, 190\,ms after stimulus onset, which corresponds to the time instant where the dSPM amplitudes are maximum. Data correspond the visual presentation of \emph{famous faces}. In green, is the border of the primary visual cortex (V1) provided by the FreeSurfer functional atlas. One can observe that the Kantorovich barycenter yields a more focal average nicely positioned in the middle of the calcarine fissure where V1 is located. Such a strong activation in V1 is expected in such an experiment consisting of visual stimuli. To investigate more subtle cognitive effects, such as the response of the fusiform face area (FFA) reported about 170\,ms after stimulation in the literature~\cite{kanwisher-etal:97,henson-etal:11}, we report results obtained on contrasts of ERFs measured after famous faces presentations \emph{vs.} scrambled faces. As illustrated in Figure~\ref{fig:meg_results_ffa}, Kantorovich mean nicely delineates a focal source of activity in the ventral part of the cortex known as the fusiform gyrus. These results show that Kantorovich means provides focal activation at the population level despite the challenging problem of inter-subject anatomo-functional variability. They avoid the smearing of the signal or statistical effects of interests which naturally occur when data are spatially smoothed before standard averaging. Note again that here no smoothing parameter with FWHM in millimeters is manually specified. Their solution only depends on the metric naturally derived from the geometry of the cortical surface. With a cortical triangulation containing 10,024 vertices and 16 subjects the computation on a Tesla K40 GPU of one barycenter takes less than 1\,min. \begin{figure}[h!] \centering \includegraphics[width=0.33\linewidth]{test_meg_brain_L2_mean_white.png} \includegraphics[width=0.33\linewidth]{GradProj_test_meg_brain_ot_mean_p1_alpha00-5_white.png} \caption{Average of dSPM estimates derived from MEG ERF data on a group of 16 subjects stimulated with pictures of famous faces. From left to right: standard mean and Kantorovich mean. The left hemisphere is displayed in medial view. In green is the border of the primary visual cortex (V1) provided by FreeSurfer. One can observe that the Kantorovich mean has its peak amplitude within V1.} \label{fig:meg_results} \end{figure} \begin{figure}[h!] \centering \includegraphics[width=0.325\linewidth]{famous_scrambled_test_meg_brain_L2_mean_time_white_time000.png} \includegraphics[width=0.325\linewidth]{famous_scrambled_GradProj_test_meg_brain_ot_mean_p1_lambda60_alpha00-5_time_white_time000.png} \caption{Group averages (16 subjects) of dSPM estimates derived from MEG ERF data obtained by contrasting the famous faces stimulation with the scrambled faces. From left to right: standard mean and the Kantorovich mean. The right hemisphere is displayed in ventral view. Optimal transport results highlight a focal activity in the Fusiform gyrus known to be implicated in face processing~\cite{kanwisher-etal:97}.} \label{fig:meg_results_ffa} \end{figure} \section{Introduction} Computing the average of some observations may seem like a trivial problem, yet it remains an active topic of research in mathematics, statistics and applications such as medical imaging. The problem of atlas computation from images~\cite{Joshi2004S151}, or meshes \cite{Durrleman201435}, or the problem of group analysis from functional imaging data~\cite{thirion-etal:2007} are particularly relevant for this field. The challenge is that natural phenomena are usually described in terms of physical and temporal event locations, along with their intensity. While Euclidean averaging is standard and has some benefits such as low computation time, this procedure ignores the geometry of the space the observations belong to; the image of an average brain image obtained by Euclidean averaging of individual voxels does not yield the image of the brain of an average individual. Starting from observations defined on a regular or irregular grid, our aim is to provide a \emph{model-free} approach to \emph{average} them that only builds upon geometric arguments. An example of such data are functional MRI (fMRI) data defined on a voxel grid or a triangulated cortical surface. The approach aims to be intrinsically geometric in the sense that it \emph{only} requires the prior knowledge of a metric between the locations on the grid. The technique aims to be versatile in the sense that it can be applied to weighted samples taking values on a discretized space with no assumptions on the regularity of the metric. The approach
Bardo, a 1981 graduate of the Coast Guard Academy, had previously commanded the Cutters Courageous (WMEC 622), Neah Bay (WTGB 105), and Cape Wash (WPB 95310) as well as served as the Executive Officer of the Cutter Confidence (WMEC 619).345 Following the Change of Command, in the fall of 2004, Boutwell again participated in an Eastern Pacific Counterdrug Deployment. While patrolling approximately 80 miles south of El Salvador, Boutwell's embarked helicopter discovered a suspicious fishing vessel. The following day, on November 19th, Boutwell approached the Ecuadorian fishing vessel Kodiac, finding it abandoned and partially submerged. Once onboard, Boutwell's crew seized 2,100 kilograms of cocaine. On December 9th, Boutwell located a second partially submerged vessel. The 80-foot fishing vessel Jami was loaded with 108 bales of cocaine. Boutwell returned to Alameda just in time for the Holidays, arriving on December 21st.346,347 In mid February 2005, after a brief inport, Boutwell departed on a 90-day Counterdrug Deployment in the Eastern Pacific. While on patrol on March 29th, Boutwell, working with a U.S. Customs and Border Protection aircraft, located and intercepted the Ecuadorian fishing vessel Lesvos approximately 300 miles west of Mexico. Once on board, Boutwell's boarding team discovered and seized over 4,500 kilograms of cocaine, detaining the vessel's six-man crew. Over two weeks later, on April 17th, Boutwell and its HH-68 HITRON helicopter intercepted and boarded the Venezuelan-flagged fishing vessel Isis. During that boarding, Boutwell's law enforcement personnel discovered 141 bales containing over 3,200 kilograms of cocaine. The ship's 12-man crew was detained and their cargo seized. Apart from counter drug operations, Boutwell also participated in the rescue of a Mexican national 150 miles west of the Galapagos. The man, who had been adrift in his 28-foot fishing vessel Iris II for 23 days, was spotted waving a makeshift flag by Boutwell's lookout. The man was later brought aboard and treated for dehydration. On May 14th, Boutwell returned home to Alameda to offload more than 7,800 kilograms of cocaine.348,349 In late November, Boutwell again departed Alameda on a Counterdrug Deployment in the Eastern Pacific. 350 During the transit south, Boutwell stopped in San Diego to onload fuel as well as load supplies in support of Project Handclasp. The supplies, which were delivered to Tocumen, Panama, on December 31st, included medical supplies, hygiene products, school supplies, and toys for the local children. While in Tocumen, Boutwell crewmembers also assisted in painting classrooms and repairing electrical wiring at the Escuela Fuente de Amor.351 While patrolling on January 16th, Boutwell and its HITRON, working with the USS De Wert (FFG-45) and its embarked Law Enforcement Detachment 406, pursued and intercepted two go-fast vessels carrying a combined load of over 2,400 kilograms of cocaine, detaining their nine crewmembers.352,353 Four days later, Boutwell intercepted the 63-foot Columbian fishing vessel Angie Mar, employing warning shots from the embarked helicopter, as well as an entangling device from the small boat in order to stop the vessel.354 Upon boarding, Boutwell's law enforcement team seized nearly 2,300 kilograms of cocaine, detaining the vessel's 12 crewmembers. The crewmembers and contraband were later turned over to Columbian authorities. Boutwell returned home to Alameda on February 8th, having completed a highly successful 74-day patrol.355 On March 21st, following an 80-year relationship with the city, the Coast Guard officially designated Boutwell's homeport of Alameda as a "Coast Guard City." The designation was in recognition of the support Alameda provided to more than 2,600 active duty, reserve, and civilian employees stationed on Coast Guard Island. At the time, only five other cities had received this honorary distinction.356 In June 2006, Captain Peter J. Brown relieved Captain Bardo as Boutwell's Commanding Officer.357 Captain Brown, a 1985 graduate of the Coast Guard Academy, had been assigned to three previous afloat units and had recently been Commanding Officer of Tactical Law Enforcement Team South in Miami, Florida.358 Shortly after taking command, Captain Brown led Boutwell on a routine Counterdrug Deployment in the Eastern Pacific. During the deployment, on August 24th, Boutwell interdicted the sinking fishing vessel Mi Panchito which was carrying over 6,700 kilograms of cocaine.359,360 On September 12th, Boutwell, along with its embarked helicopter, interdicted a go-fast vessel approximately 120 miles west of Puerto Quetzal. After intercepting the vessel, Boutwell seized over 2,900 kilograms of cocaine and detained four suspected smugglers. Five days later, Boutwell teamed with its helicopter to interdict a second go-fast vessel approximately 460 miles northeast of the Galapagos Islands. During that seizure, Boutwell recovered 590 kilograms of cocaine and detained three suspected smugglers. 361,362 On October 17th, almost a month after its previous interdiction, Boutwell intercepted and boarded the Ecuadorian fishing vessel, Ludemar, finding and seizing 90 kilograms of cocaine.363 On November 30th, 2006, Boutwell was honored at a ceremony in Alameda for her tremendous success in counterdrug operations in the fall of 2006. During the ceremony, Boutwell received four cocaine interdiction stickers for seizing nearly 23,000 pounds of cocaine related to four different cases which included the apprehension of 16 suspected smugglers. The stickers were then affixed to the ship's bridge wings on either side of the pilothouse.364 In the early months of 2007, Boutwell departed on another Eastern Pacific Counterdrug deployment. During the patrol, in mid February, Boutwell participated in the rescue of five sea turtles which were caught in an abandoned fishing net. After releasing the turtles, Boutwell's crew proceeded to remove debris from the area to prevent any further impact on marine life.365 Beginning July 22nd, 2007, Boutwell embarked on a multinational Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fisheries enforcement patrol in the High Seas Drift Net (HSDN) High Threat Area with an embarked shiprider from the Peoples Republic of China366 and South Korean observers.367 The multinational effort included cooperation from Canada, China, Russia, and Japan under the authority of the North Pacific Coast Guard Forum. The Forum, which served as a venue to foster "multilateral cooperation through the sharing of information on matters related to combined operations, exchange of information, illegal drug trafficking, maritime security, fisheries enforcement, illegal migration, and maritime domain awareness," bolstered efforts in 2007 to enforce the United Nation General Assembly's 1991 resolution against high seas driftnet fishing in the Pacific. 368 As part of the North Pacific Coast Guard Forum, Boutwell visited Shanghai, China369 on August 16th370, joining the Coast Guard Pacific Area Commander, Vice Admiral Charles Wurster, to discuss joint operations.371 Boutwell departed Shanghai on August 20th.372 On August 28th, Boutwell moored in Yokosuka, Japan, to embark an officer from the China Fisheries Law Enforcement Command (CFLEC), who would assist in enforcing the United Nation's resolution on Chinese-flagged vessels.373 Six days later, Boutwell intercepted the Chinese fishing vessel Lu Rong Yu 6007 for illegal high seas driftnet fishing, turning the vessel over to Chinese authorities on September 13th. 374 On September 14th, Boutwell, with the help of her embarked helicopter, located and intercepted the Indonesian fishing vessel Fong Seng No. 818, which was rigged for illegal high seas drift net fishing. Upon counter-detecting the Coast Guard, the Fong Seng No. 818 began evasive maneuvers while attempting to hide her gear on deck. After intercepting the vessel, Boutwell determined its registry through Right of Approach questioning. Boutwell's efforts enabled the State Department to initiate a dialogue with the Government of Indonesia for prosecuting the Fong Seng No. 818. 375 During the patrol, from September 15th through the 21st, a meeting was held in Petropavlovsk Kamchatsky, Russia, known as the U.S. Coast Guard / Russian Northeast Border Guard Directorate Joint Working Group. As part of the meeting, Boutwell moored in Petropavlovsk for a mid-patrol break. Led by the Pacific Area Commander, Vice Admiral Charles Wurster, and the Seventeenth District Commander, Rear Admiral Arthur Brooks, Coast Guard representatives met with the Chief, Northeast Border Guard Directorate Lieutenant
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A lot of these certain character have been outlined just by Napoleon Slope with "Think Together with Increase Wealthy, inch and maybe they are since the case now as they simply have been previously. A few. Tell you ones slipups. We could end up mistaken, nevertheless As i don't believe I witnessed Spitzer get certain control with precisely what he or she is executed. He or she is claimed considerably incredibly elusive offers like, "I've arrived at get hold of my own lifetime the best way, inch nevertheless your dog do not ever ended up together with claimed that will he or she is ended up taking a nap using several a lot of women over time. Not surprisingly, it isn't really just some sort of golf slice with respectful cake this is straightforward to absorb, nevertheless truth be told there ever again, clients he or she is with challenges. The reality is, in a connection — should it be with all your wife or husband, and with all your clients — as soon as you've got executed an issue mistaken… that swiftest process your partner get across the idea, is usually by removing comprehensive control to your measures. And, people get at least one translucent check ups together with bills inside your enterprise solutions (which it's best to permit customers fully understand about), to check they don't come to pass ever again. Session: Comprehensive disclosure together with increasingly being altogether translucent inside your transactions, is a swiftest method to generate rely on. Fails to issue should you be within a innovative connection, and options all messed up
sum of money he had offered. By now everyone knew of the pretty but dubious girl who had tried to ensnare the son of one of their most respected families and lived all by herself like a savage in the woods. Her lover's father thought for a long time. Probably he would not have responded had he not caught that glimpse of her with Paul. He went to see her and found an accomplished, witty, and delightful young woman, with the most charming manners in the world. In short, he fell in love with her, as everyone did. He could not bring himself to refuse her, said he would speak to selected families on her behalf, but kept himself in face by asking for an undertaking that she would never contact any member of his family again. She replied with a quick and impatient scorn he had to see was genuine: 'I had assumed, monsieur, that you would have already understood that.' For four years she taught the daughters of a doctor, two lawyers, three chemists, and a prosperous shopkeeper. All of them begged her to move into the little town, 'where you will be more comfortable.' Meaning that they were uncomfortable because this girl, no matter how well-bred and clever, was living by herself a good three miles from Belles Rivières. She refused, delightfully but firmly, telling them about the great forests of Martinique, the flowers and the butterflies and the brilliant birds, where she had wandered, absolutely by herself. She could not be happy living in streets, she said, though the truth was she dreamed of the streets of Paris and how she could reach them without worsening her already bad position. If she was going to try her chances in the big city it should be now, while she was still young and pretty, but she still dreamed of Paul. That she had been bound to lose him she had very soon learned, and knew that if he came back from the army she could not have him. Living, as she insisted on doing, free but alone told everyone she was waiting for him, and everyone – father, mother, sisters, would be writing to tell him so. Far from enticing him to her, this would put him off, as all her instincts, and the worldly wisdom imparted by her mother, told her. But she could not leave the place. Freedom! Liberty! she often cried to herself, roaming about her forests. What did she look like at this time? How did she see her prospects? How did she strike the good people whose daughters she taught? How did they strike her? We know. We know it all. She drew self-portraits all her life, not because she had no other model, but because she was engaged in discovering her real, her hidden nature: we have a phrase for this search. She kept journals from the time she reached France. And there was her music, that would have told us everything even without her journals. The picture that emerges is not merely of an intelligent and attractive woman, but one who disturbed and challenged even when she did not intend to, who all her life fed malicious tongues, who always had men in love with her though she did not expect them to be or try to attract them. When she was accepted as tutor into these good houses, she behaved like a paragon of propriety, but she knew it would take only a small mistake to have the doors shut on her. She walked on a knife-edge, for above all, she had charm, that double-edged gift, arousing more expectations than it can ever fulfil. She certainly disappointed the young ladies she taught, who called her best friend and championed her to doubtful mothers and fathers, yet secretly hoped for more than her prudent advice: 'Do you really want to be like me?' she might sweetly enquire, when some over-protected daughter asked her aid in some minor rebellion. 'Do what your parents say, and when you are married you can do as you like.' She had learned this from Stendhal's letters to his sister. In her journals she wrote she would rather be herself, 'an outcast', than any one of these privileged girls. When she was twenty-five she took a big step up the social ladder. She taught the two daughters of a Comte Rostand. The Rostands were the leading family in the area. They lived in a large and ancient château and sent a carriage for her twice a week. That was when she gave lessons in the dark hours as well as in the light, for before the carriage she had insisted that since she had to walk miles back and forth from her little house, she would teach in the town only in the day. This caused sarcastic comments. Everyone knew she wandered about all by herself at night in her forests. Yet she was too delicate to walk back in the dark from the town? And how about dancing by herself among the rocks, banging a tambourine, or something that looked like one – a primitive looking thing, probably from that primitive country she came from. Dancing naked – some claimed to have seen her. Did she? There is no mention of it in her journals – though when she began to keep a record, there were only notes and jottings, and only later did it develop into a running commentary on her life. There is, however, a drawing of a woman dancing in a setting of trees and rocks. A full moon. Naked. This drawing is so unlike anything else she did of herself it shocks. Interesting to watch when some fan of Julie's was handed a pile of her drawings. The face froze, there was an indrawn breath and – then – a laugh. The laugh was from shock. But how often is shock no more than a moment of half-expected revelation? A door opens (perhaps literally) onto a scene that is beautiful, or ugly, something ferocious or shocking – at any rate, the other side of the well-lit and ordered world we know: there it is, the truth. But why was there never mention of dancing in her journals? Perhaps it only happened once, and she got some kind of a scare. A pretty risky thing, to dance like that. She knew people spied on her. The gendarmes certainly did, but if one of them took a look through her uncurtained and unshuttered window – she hated feeling shut in, she said – he would see the proper young woman of the drawing rooms standing before her easel or playing her harp or writing at a small table under an oil lamp that showed the open book, her neatly ringed hand with the pen, her face, her bands of black hair, her bust smooth in a dress that went high to her throat, where there was a small white collar. The gendarmes would also report that there were many books. If they took a good look when she was out, down in the town, they would not now be able to report anything consistently seditious or troubling. For while she still loved Revolutions as a matter of principle – she would not have been able to think of herself as a serious person if she did not – her shelves now provided a more balanced diet. Montaigne sat by Madame Roland, Madame de Sévigné with _Énile. Clarissa_ – that novel whose influence on European literature had been and still was so strong – was in a pile with Rousseau's _Confessions_ , while Victor Hugo and Maupassant, Balzac and Zola,
get to make that call about him being in that position again. He will at least one more time, if he has his way about it. Mommy Dearest is going down! He follows her gaze, the smirk fading a movement as he sees their hands together, but then he's smirking again, "I have. I'm a damn hero. Heroes deserve ice-cream." He's insisting that he's ok and Callisto, to some measure, believes it. Any further confusion over the cause of Callisto's upset shall be put to ease with what the girl says next, "T'is a good thing that she is gone. Family dynamics are different with my ilk." The girl says quietly… well, obviously. "I shall not miss her, I do not grieve. I grieve for the others whom she has destroyed." Said pointedly, then she flits her gaze back up at him. "Any hurt I felt was due to what happened to you, Daxton." Not just the days after but the seconds, when he was shaking and disorientated. Orders or no orders, regardless of his intent in sending Callisto away… he did not deserve that. Callisto watches him, not hastening to move her hand away as the chains of the swing squeak slightly with the movement of her body. The puppy dog look, indeed, throws her off a bit.. not quite in a bad way but it's not making this 'holding off' thing easier! Callisto clears her throat gently. "You are a hero. You are my first hero, you see. I've not known of a hero before." Said frankly as she watches him, making to stand carefully. "I am sorry if I seemed.. aloof.. the past few days. I felt guilty." Daxton chuckles, "I'm a pretty tough nut to crack, Calli. I'm okay." He'll keep saying it until she stops worrying. He nods in the direction of down town, finally dropping her hand as he starts to walk. "Really? I figured you'd have met a billion heroes, all in shining armor or some crap." How old does he think she is again? "No need to feel guilty. WE won. It's a good thing." Well she has a good reserve of worry to exhaust, here. But mercifully, Callisto will eventually ease off… it's not of her nature, it seriously isn't, to fret. There's just something about Daxton and his nature, one moment a puppy dog smirk in seek of ice cream, the other breaking a supernatural creature's neck. Then— wait.. there is a distinct lack of something in her hand, when she finally stands up. Daxton has released her and Callisto, despite herself, feels strangely bereft. His words catch her still and with a strange expression, she will try to catch his attention again by reaching for his elbow before he moves fully away. Provided she manages to do so, she will try to pull the speedster in for a hug. It will be firmer than her typical ones! But when one expects her to babble on with more of the 'guilty' drivel she instead says with mock offense, though her tone still bears those anxious inflections: "I haven't known knights. How old do you think I am?" Daxton turns at the touch, but once he realizes what she's after his arms raise slightly and he hugs her back. "Oh…I don't know. King Arthur times?" He never said history was a strong suit. "You rode horses, right?" And created fire? Now she could punch him. But she won't. Regardless she gives the boy an earnest hug. Callisto, despite her past self, rather enjoys hugs.. even giving them. Especially this one. But then he goes and puts her back to when they baked on rocks and told time by sundial and she eases back, giving his chest a shove. "King. Arthur?" Callisto asks pointedly.. her expression is aghast but her gaze — which had become overbright when she eased in for the hug — is still shiny for some reason. It's bad enough to miss the mark by like, 5 years, re: the touchy question of discerning a woman's age. Imagine doing it by centuries! Luckily Callisto isn't quite so touchy. She narrows her eyes at him, face flushed and shoulders redder, "You are way off the mark. Try Lincoln and Roosevelt." The fey girl snarks out. "And.. I did ride horses. But it was a long time ago. I do miss it but know naught of whether or not I could find something similar around here…" Daxton knows what he's doing, her hands meet his firm chest and he playfully stumbles backwards with a laugh. "Lincoln?" He's still smiling, but his next question is a little more eeriest, "Were you here in the states?" Horse riding huh? "There's got to be stables near by. Have you looked?? Her by for a speedster is a lot further than for other people. She'll just pretend that she's not focusing on how firm that chest felt. Callisto's fists ball at her sides briefly then unfurl, though her sharp look softens with remembrance. She wasn't truly mad. "Not during the time of their service." The girl offers, "I was cloistered away in the North, with only books and the ability to look out. I had no choice but to feed my mind with knowledge of the world via books and word-of-mouth… t'was hard to do, with my lifestyle then." A gentle sigh as she sweeps the folds of her skirts with slender hands. "I enjoy history, and not just that which is written in any one part of the world. I had a lot of time to kill." Said simply, watching him. "My emergence into the United States is fairly… recent. The 1970s. I have… seen things, there." A soft look, hastily done away with. Talk of stables brightens Callisto's expression, "I have not. But perhaps I can look into it.. it has been a truly long time." Said as she looks at him again. Her brow furrows lightly; something seems to be eating at her, a question unasked. North? That's right, Iceland or New Zealand or wherever. "Ah…that' why you liked Hippie boy." This is said in teasing, any uncertainty he had about Brier is gone. He's starts walking again, intent of getting something to eat, but the he can feel her gaze and looks over, "What?" She does not supply much more insight on Brier, though perhaps some deeply buried, internal part of her psyche had been drawn to the new student. Petal, too, was blonde and of a similar nature back in the day.. though far older. It goes without saying that Callisto favors flower children.. but she just has this overall, pesky care for mortals in general. It hasn't been easy. The girl takes a deep breath, and looks down at her hands briefly. "What are we to do, Daxton?" Callisto asks with the tiniest bit of trepidation.. curses herself for feeling anxious. It's a newly-forged emotion, since the last 60 years or so. By her standards that's new. What are they to do? Regarding evil fey? The situation at hand? What does she mean!? "All you have done for me. I cannot help it, for it pushes me past the parameters of a friend. I am trying not to, trying to respect.. but t'is hard. Especially now." Callisto looks up. "Have we a chance? Or am I being foolish how much I am coming to care for you? What are we, exactly?" There it is! Daxton just wanted food and to make sure Callisto was ok. The tilted headed puppy dog look disappears into a frown and he glances away. "I…I don't know." It's honest, at least. "I don't want-" No, he stops with that thought, head shaking, "Rebecca did a number on me. I..I didn't
I know I have your vote. Everybody at this table has voted for themselves. You have seven minutes, and then we'll wrap up. Thank you very much for your presentation, and frankly, for the work your bank does around the world. Mr. Williamson and I are Maritimers. Certainly when I travel and see the Scotiabank sign, it makes me smile. I wish you still called it the Bank of Nova Scotia. It sounded better than Scotiabank. You've spent too much time in Toronto. You keep wanting to drop off the "Nova Scotia" part of it. I'm from the east coast too. In all seriousness, you have done and continue to do admirable work and you should be congratulated for that. You didn't have a chance to elaborate on the answer that you would have given the University of Ottawa students. When they ask you what microfinance or microcredit is, what's the four-sentence explanation? What are the thresholds? I'm curious to hear how you would define that to a group of university students. The segmentation for us is loans under $2,000 and revenues under $100,000 Canadian. Practically, what it means is it's a way for very unsophisticated business owners to provide for their families. As I mentioned, they don't have financial statements in almost all cases. When you move up into small business, you start to get a little more sophistication, a little more reporting. Perhaps I can pick up on a question that Mr. Dechert began with. He was absolutely correct on Haiti, that one of the challenges is that there is no viable land registry system. So if somebody is borrowing money and three people show up with what they pretend to be a deed to the same piece of property, it certainly is not reassuring for some banker. But other than the obvious property rights or land registry systems or personal property security or some kind of enforceable collateral provision, what are the other challenges you're having in terms of legal structures, for example, judicial corruption? I was in a country some years ago where the judges hadn't been paid for two years. They were living off tips, like workers in the service and hospitality sector. So that is a problem, surely, if one is trying to set up any kind of financial system. What other challenges have you had, other than property rights? Right, generally, in any of your operations? We always joke that we had a branch in Jamaica long before we had one in Toronto. We started as a bank that was financing trade between the east coast and the Caribbean. That's our history. That's our route. We have 120-plus years of experience in developing markets. Then about 30 years ago we had an opportunity to enter the Mexican market, and some visionary CEOs looked at doing that. We do a lot of homework and a lot of due diligence before we enter a market. Obviously we are looking at stability of political systems, level of corruption. All those kinds of things have to meet our criteria or we don't enter a market. After that, if we decide to enter a market, usually it's by acquisition. Then we look at the quality and culture of the company and whether it fits with our culture. If we don't end up with the same values and culture, regardless of whether the company is profitable or not, it's not going to be a good fit. There's an awful lot of due diligence that's done before we think about entering a market. In our case we've built an expertise in Latin America. There's been a long history in the Caribbean, and now we have a history in Latin America—from Mexico to Peru to Chile, to Colombia last year, Brazil, and Uruguay. We have a core competency in Spanish now. All of us in head office are learning Spanish as well. Over half of Scotiabank's employees speak Spanish as their first and usually only language, and we have some core competency in Latin American culture. I was asked at the university why we aren't in Africa, and it's that it takes a massive amount of time, energy, and management attention to learn a market and a culture. For us, it's been Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia, outside of Canada. Sorry. That was a long answer to your question. We were told that you're looking at expanding some of the microfinance activities of the bank. I would assume that you'd be looking at those criteria—political stability, etc.—but also a regional context. Yes, exactly. It's the markets that we know. We wouldn't start a business in a new market, just because of all the things I've said. I have a final question. We were told, I think it was ten years ago, that there was a partnership or an effort—I think CIDA was a partner at that time, in Jamaica—around giving women entrepreneurs access to microcredit or microfinance. Is that something you're trying to pursue? In developing countries, financial literacy, as you said, is obviously a critical element. But if there are women entrepreneurs, or women who are interested either in their own family context or community context in developing some sort of business operation, surely that would be a pretty important thing to try to encourage. Are there other activities you're doing with CIDA or other partners, particularly around women entrepreneurs? The one in Jamaica that you mentioned...actually in working with CIDA last year we converted the four branches we had opened in that program into our traditional business model, which I think speaks to the success of the program. We don't target microfinance programs specifically for women. We target microfinance programs for the general public. A lot of business start-ups and micro-businesses are being started by women. We want to provide financing to anyone who wants to start up a business, which includes over 60% of the cases being women. So over 60% of the microfinance initiatives that you would be undertaking or initiating would be with women as applicants or partners. Ms. Hannam, thank you very much for taking the time. We apologize for cutting you a little bit short today. For the members, you have just over 20 minutes. I'll suspend the meeting and then we'll get back here for the minister right after we're done with the votes. Thank you once again for being here. Pursuant to Standing Order 84(1), the committee is examining the main estimates for 2012-13, as well as a study of the expenditure plans for the department for the fiscal year 2011-12. I want to welcome Mr. Patel, who is the assistant deputy minister and chief financial officer. Welcome, sir. We also have the deputy minister, Mr. Rosenberg. Thank you for being here, sir. We have Minister Baird and we have Minister Diane Ablonczy. Welcome. Mr. Baird, why don't I turn the floor over to you? I understand you have some opening remarks. Then we'll hear from Minister Ablonczy, and then we'll go through our questions. Welcome, sir. The floor is yours. I want to thank you for the opportunity to be with you this afternoon. I will keep my comments short and I will be pleased to answer any questions you may have after. It has now been almost a year since I took on my new responsibilities as foreign minister. I last appeared before you in December, and since then many situations around the world have changed, and changed dramatically. The situation in Syria is of great concern to us all. Canada acted swiftly in condemning the Assad regime's violent attacks against the Syrian people. We imposed a series of sanctions directed at Syria's rulers and their funding sources. We have also activated a voluntary evacuation of Canadians in Syria, where we have facilitated the departure of literally hundreds of Canadians. During that time, in the month or so to follow, our ambassador stayed in
Social anarchism For the journal, see Social Anarchism (journal). Social anarchism[1][2][3][4][5] is a non-state form of socialism[6] and is considered to be the branch of anarchism that sees individual freedom as being interrelated with mutual aid.[7] Social anarchist thought emphasizes community and social equality as complementary to autonomy and personal freedom through norms such as freedom of speech maintained in a decentralized federalism, balanced with freedom of interaction in thought as well as incorporating the concept of subsidiarity, namely "that one should not withdraw from individuals and commit to the community what they can accomplish by their own enterprise and industry" and that "[f]or every social activity ought of its very nature to furnish help to the members of the body social, [should] never destroy and absorb them", or simply the slogan "Do not take tools out of people's hands".[7][8] Social anarchism has also advocated that the conversion of a proportion of present-day and future productive private property be made into social property to offer individual empowerment through easier access to such as tools or parts, or a sharing of the commons while retaining respect for personal property.[9] Distributism is an approach. The term is used to describe the theory—contra individualist anarchism—that places an emphasis on the communitarian and cooperative aspects in anarchist theory while also opposing authoritarian forms of communitarianism associated with groupthink and collective conformity and instead favouring a reconciliation between individuality and sociality. For instance, illegitimate authority is removed through inspection and vigilance. While self-determination is asserted as is worker's self-management and education and empowerment emphasized, both individually and through interaction with the community, a do-it-yourself (DIY) mentality is combined with educational efforts within the social realm. Social anarchism is considered an umbrella term that includes—but it is not limited to—the post-capitalist economic models of anarcho-communism, collectivist anarchism and sometimes mutualism, or even non-state controlled federated guild socialist dual power industrial democracy and economic democracy or federated worker cooperatives in addition to workers' and consumers' councils, replacing much of the present state system yet still retaining basic rights as well as the trade union approach of anarcho-syndicalism, the social struggle strategies of platformism and specifism and the environmental philosophy of social ecology. The term social anarchism is often used interchangeably with libertarian socialism[10] or left-libertarianism[11] and emerged in the late 19th century as a distinction from individualist anarchism.[12] 2 Historical currents 2.1 Mutualism 2.2 Collectivist anarchism 2.3 Anarcho-communism 2.4 Anarcho-syndicalism 2.5 Platformism and specifism 3 Contemporary currents 3.1 Inclusive Democracy 3.2 Participism 3.3 Social ecology and Communalism Terms like anarcho-socialism or socialist anarchism can be used as synonymous for social anarchism, but this is rejected by most anarchists since they generally consider themselves socialists of the libertarian tradition and are seen as unnecessary and confusing when not used as synonymous for libertarian or stateless socialism vis-à-vis authoritarian or state socialism.[13][14][15][16] Anarchism has been historically identified with the socialist and anti-capitalist movement, with the main divide being between anti-market anarchists who support some form of decentralized economic planning and pro-market anarchists who support free-market socialism, therefore such terms are mainly used by anarcho-capitalism theorists and scholars who recognize anarcho-capitalism to differentiate between the two.[6][10][17] For similar reasons, anarchists also reject categorizations such as left[18] and right anarchism (anarcho-capitalism and national-anarchism),[19] seeing anarchism as a far-left ideology.[20] While most anarcho-capitalists theorists and scholars divide anarchism into social anarchism vis-à-vis individualist anarchism meaning socialism vs. capitalism, seeing the two as mutually exclusive although accepting all anarchist schools of thought under panarchy on the basis of voluntaryism, anarchist theorists and scholars opposing to anarcho-capitalism reject this, not seeing them as a struggle between socialism and capitalism or as mutually exclusive, but instead as complementary, with their differences mainly being based on the means to attain anarchy, rather than on their ends, arguing against certain anarcho-capitalist theorists and scholars who see individualist anarchism as pro-capitalist and reiterating that anarchism as a whole is socialist, meaning libertarian and anti-statist socialism. As an example, many anarcho-communists regard themselves as radically individualists,[21] seeing anarcho-communism as the best social system for the realization of individual freedom.[22] Notwithstanding the name, collectivist anarchism is also seen as a blend of individualism and collectivism.[23] Indeed, anarchism is generally considered an individualist philosophy, opposing all forms of authoritarian collectivism, but one which does see the individual or the community as complementary rather than mutually exclusive, with anarco-communism and social anarchism in particular most rejecting the individualist–collectivist dichotomy. Finally, social anarchism is a term used in the United States to refer to Murray Bookchin's circle and its omonymous journal.[2][24] To differentiate it from individualist anarchism, most anarchists generally prefer using social anarchism, a term used to characterize certain strides of anarchism vis-à-vis individualist anarchism, with the former focusing on the social aspect and generally being more organisational as well as supporting decentralised economic planning and the latter focusing on the individual and generally being more anti-organisational as well as supporting a free-market form of socialism, respectively, rather than seeing the two categories as mutually exclusive or as socialist vis-à-vis capitalism, leading to anarchism without adjectives.[25] For instance, mutualism, especially the theory of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, is seen as the middle or third category between social anarchism and individualist anarchism, although it is often considered part of social anarchism[26][27] and sometimes part of individualist anarchism.[28][29][30] Proudhon spoke of social individualism and described the mutualism and the freedom it pursued as the synthesis between communism and property.[31] Historical currents Main article: Mutualism Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Mutualism, originally developed by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, emerged from early 19th century socialism and is generally considered a market-oriented strand within the libertarian socialist tradition. Mutualists typically accept property rights, but with brief abandonment time periods. In a community in which mutuality property rules were upheld, a landowner would need to make (more or less) continuous use of his/her land; if he/she failed to do so, his/her ownership rights would be extinguished and the land could be homesteaded by someone else. A mutualist property regime is often described as one rooted in possession, occupancy-and-use, or usufruct.[32] Nevertheless, mutualism is also associated with the economic views of 19th century American individualist anarchists such as Benjamin Tucker and William Batchelder Greene.[33] Today, Kevin Carson is a contemporary mutualist and author of Studies in Mutualist Political Economy who describes this work as "an attempt to revive individualist anarchist political economy, to incorporate the useful developments of the last hundred years, and to make it relevant to the problems of the twenty-first century".[34] Collectivist anarchism Main article: Collectivist anarchism Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism[35][36] and referred to as revolutionary socialism or a form of such) is a revolutionary form of anarchism, commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin and James Guillaume.[37][38] It is a specific tendency, not to be confused with the broad category sometimes called collectivist or communitarian anarchism.[39] The tendency emerged from the most radical wing of mutualism during the late 1860s. Unlike mutualists, collectivist anarchists oppose all private ownership of the means of production, instead advocating that ownership be collectivized, being made the joint property of the commune (municipality). This was to be achieved through violent revolution, first starting with a small cohesive group through acts of armed insurrection, or propaganda by the deed, which would inspire the workers and peasants as a whole to revolt and forcibly collectivize the means of production.[37] However, collectivization was not to be extended to the distribution of income as workers would be paid according to time worked, rather than receiving goods being distributed "according to need" as in anarcho-communism. This position was criticised by later anarcho-communists as effectively "uphold[ing] the wages system".[40] Anarchist communist and collectivist ideas were not mutually exclusive. Although the collectivist anarchists advocated compensation for labor, some held out the possibility of a post-revolutionary transition to a communist system of distribution according to need, claiming that this would become more
On Test Cricket — Bade Ghulam Ali Khan. It's the morning after. Yesterday, the Indian cricket team managed to pull off its most famous Test match win ever, the recency effect of it notwithstanding. In the truest sense of the term, it was a fine Ocean 11's kind of heist which went right down to the wire, and not the tacky Dhoom type. The sun is just about getting ready to peep out of the clouds. While a whole host of things remain to be done, I am reluctant to start my workday given that I am still brimming with excitement over yesterday's win. And in this situation who wants to write yet another piece on what the government should do in the next budget. (For those who don't know me, I make a living out of writing on economics and finance)