BertGeneration

Overview

The BertGeneration model is a BERT model that can be leveraged for sequence-to-sequence tasks using EncoderDecoderModel as proposed in Leveraging Pre-trained Checkpoints for Sequence Generation Tasks by Sascha Rothe, Shashi Narayan, Aliaksei Severyn.

The abstract from the paper is the following:

Unsupervised pre-training of large neural models has recently revolutionized Natural Language Processing. By warm-starting from the publicly released checkpoints, NLP practitioners have pushed the state-of-the-art on multiple benchmarks while saving significant amounts of compute time. So far the focus has been mainly on the Natural Language Understanding tasks. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of pre-trained checkpoints for Sequence Generation. We developed a Transformer-based sequence-to-sequence model that is compatible with publicly available pre-trained BERT, GPT-2 and RoBERTa checkpoints and conducted an extensive empirical study on the utility of initializing our model, both encoder and decoder, with these checkpoints. Our models result in new state-of-the-art results on Machine Translation, Text Summarization, Sentence Splitting, and Sentence Fusion.

Usage:

  • The model can be used in combination with the EncoderDecoderModel to leverage two bert pretrained bert checkpoints for subsequent fine-tuning.

# leverage checkpoints for Bert2Bert model...
encoder = BertGenerationEncoder.from_pretrained("bert-large-uncased", bos_token_id=101, eos_token_id=102)  # use BERT's cls token as BOS token and sep token as EOS token
decoder = BertGenerationDecoder.from_pretrained("bert-large-uncased", add_cross_attention=True, is_decoder=True, bos_token_id=101, eos_token_id=102)  # add cross attention layers and use BERT's cls token as BOS token and sep token as EOS token
bert2bert = EncoderDecoderModel(encoder=encoder, decoder=decoder)

# create tokenizer...
tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained("bert-large-uncased")

input_ids = tokenizer('This is a long article to summarize', add_special_tokens=False, return_tensors="pt").input_ids
labels = tokenizer('This is a short summary', return_tensors="pt").input_ids

# train...
loss = bert2bert(input_ids=input_ids, decoder_input_ids=labels, labels=labels, return_dict=True).loss
loss.backward()
# instantiate sentence fusion model
sentence_fuser = EncoderDecoderModel.from_pretrained("google/roberta2roberta_L-24_discofuse")
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained("google/roberta2roberta_L-24_discofuse")

input_ids = tokenizer('This is the first sentence. This is the second sentence.', add_special_tokens=False, return_tensors="pt").input_ids

outputs = sentence_fuser.generate(input_ids)

print(tokenizer.decode(outputs[0]))

Tips:

  • BertGenerationEncoder and BertGenerationDecoder should be used in combination with EncoderDecoder.

  • For summarization, sentence splitting, sentence fusion and translation, no special tokens are required for the input. Therefore, no EOS token should be added to the end of the input.

The original code can be found here.

BertGenerationConfig

class transformers.BertGenerationConfig(vocab_size=50358, hidden_size=1024, num_hidden_layers=24, num_attention_heads=16, intermediate_size=4096, hidden_act='gelu', hidden_dropout_prob=0.1, attention_probs_dropout_prob=0.1, max_position_embeddings=512, initializer_range=0.02, layer_norm_eps=1e-12, pad_token_id=0, bos_token_id=2, eos_token_id=1, gradient_checkpointing=False, **kwargs)[source]

This is the configuration class to store the configuration of a BertGenerationPreTrainedModel. It is used to instantiate a BertGenerationConfig model according to the specified arguments, defining the model architecture.

Configuration objects inherit from PretrainedConfig and can be used to control the model outputs. Read the documentation from PretrainedConfig for more information.

Parameters
  • vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 50358) – Vocabulary size of the BertGeneration model. Defines the different tokens that can be represented by the inputs_ids passed to the forward method of BertGeneration.

  • hidden_size (int, optional, defaults to 1024) – Dimensionality of the encoder layers and the pooler layer.

  • num_hidden_layers (int, optional, defaults to 24) – Number of hidden layers in the Transformer encoder.

  • num_attention_heads (int, optional, defaults to 16) – Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer encoder.

  • intermediate_size (int, optional, defaults to 3072) – Dimensionality of the “intermediate” (i.e., feed-forward) layer in the Transformer encoder.

  • hidden_act (str or function, optional, defaults to "gelu") – The non-linear activation function (function or string) in the encoder and pooler. If string, "gelu", "relu", "swish" and "gelu_new" are supported.

  • hidden_dropout_prob (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) – The dropout probabilitiy for all fully connected layers in the embeddings, encoder, and pooler.

  • attention_probs_dropout_prob (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) – The dropout ratio for the attention probabilities.

  • max_position_embeddings (int, optional, defaults to 512) – The maximum sequence length that this model might ever be used with. Typically set this to something large just in case (e.g., 512 or 1024 or 2048).

  • initializer_range (float, optional, defaults to 0.02) – The standard deviation of the truncated_normal_initializer for initializing all weight matrices.

  • layer_norm_eps (float, optional, defaults to 1e-12) – The epsilon used by the layer normalization layers.

  • gradient_checkpointing (bool, optional, defaults to False) – If True, use gradient checkpointing to save memory at the expense of slower backward pass.

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertGenerationConfig, BertGenerationEncoder

>>> # Initializing a BertGeneration config
>>> configuration = BertGenerationConfig()

>>> # Initializing a modelfrom the config
>>> model = BertGenerationEncoder(configuration)

>>> # Accessing the model configuration
>>> configuration = model.config

BertGenerationTokenizer

class transformers.BertGenerationTokenizer(vocab_file, bos_token='<s>', eos_token='</s>', unk_token='<unk>', pad_token='<pad>', sep_token='<::::>', **kwargs)[source]

Constructs a BertGenerationTokenizer tokenizer. Based on SentencePiece .

This tokenizer inherits from PreTrainedTokenizer which contains most of the methods. Users should refer to the superclass for more information regarding methods.

Parameters
  • vocab_file (string) – SentencePiece file (generally has a .spm extension) that contains the vocabulary necessary to instantiate a tokenizer.

  • eos_token (string, optional, defaults to "</s>") – The end of sequence token.

  • bos_token (string, optional, defaults to "<s>") – The begin of sequence token.

  • unk_token (string, optional, defaults to "<unk>") – The unknown token. A token that is not in the vocabulary cannot be converted to an ID and is set to be this token instead.

  • pad_token (string, optional, defaults to "<pad>") – The token used for padding, for example when batching sequences of different lengths.

convert_tokens_to_string(tokens)[source]

Converts a sequence of tokens (string) in a single string.

get_vocab()[source]

Returns the vocabulary as a dictionary of token to index.

tokenizer.get_vocab()[token] is equivalent to tokenizer.convert_tokens_to_ids(token) when token is in the vocab.

Returns

The vocabulary.

Return type

Dict[str, int]

save_vocabulary(save_directory)[source]

Save the sentencepiece vocabulary (copy original file) and special tokens file to a directory.

property vocab_size

Size of the base vocabulary (without the added tokens).

Type

int

BertGenerationEncoder

class transformers.BertGenerationEncoder(config)[source]

The bare BertGeneration model transformer outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top. This model is a PyTorch torch.nn.Module sub-class. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertGenerationConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The model can behave as an encoder (with only self-attention) as well as a decoder, in which case a layer of cross-attention is added between the self-attention layers, following the architecture described in Attention is all you need by Ashish Vaswani, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar, Jakob Uszkoreit, Llion Jones, Aidan N. Gomez, Lukasz Kaiser and Illia Polosukhin.

This model should be used when leveraging Bert or Roberta checkpoints for the EncoderDecoderModel class as described in Leveraging Pre-trained Checkpoints for Sequence Generation Tasks by Sascha Rothe, Shashi Narayan, and Aliaksei Severyn.

To behave as an decoder the model needs to be initialized with the is_decoder argument of the configuration set to True. To be used in a Seq2Seq model, the model needs to initialized with both is_decoder argument and add_cross_attention set to True; an encoder_hidden_states is then expected as an input to the forward pass.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, encoder_hidden_states=None, encoder_attention_mask=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]

The BertGenerationEncoder forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using transformers.BertGenerationTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]: 1 for tokens that are NOT MASKED, 0 for MASKED tokens.

    What are attention masks?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) – Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]: 1 indicates the head is not masked, 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – If set to True, the attentions tensors of all attention layers are returned. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – If set to True, the hidden states of all layers are returned. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – If set to True, the model will return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • encoder_hidden_states (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder.

  • encoder_attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) – Mask to avoid performing attention on the padding token indices of the encoder input. This mask is used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]: 1 for tokens that are NOT MASKED, 0 for MASKED tokens.

Returns

A BaseModelOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertGenerationConfig) and inputs.

  • last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) – Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

BaseModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertGenerationTokenizer, BertGenerationEncoder
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertGenerationTokenizer.from_pretrained('google/bert_for_seq_generation_L-24_bbc_encoder')
>>> model = BertGenerationEncoder.from_pretrained('google/bert_for_seq_generation_L-24_bbc_encoder', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state
get_input_embeddings()[source]

Returns the model’s input embeddings.

Returns

A torch module mapping vocabulary to hidden states.

Return type

nn.Module

set_input_embeddings(value)[source]

Set model’s input embeddings

Parameters

value (nn.Module) – A module mapping vocabulary to hidden states.

BertGenerationDecoder

class transformers.BertGenerationDecoder(config)[source]

BertGeneration Model with a language modeling head on top for CLM fine-tuning. This model is a PyTorch torch.nn.Module sub-class. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertGenerationConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, encoder_hidden_states=None, encoder_attention_mask=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]

The BertGenerationDecoder forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using transformers.BertGenerationTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]: 1 for tokens that are NOT MASKED, 0 for MASKED tokens.

    What are attention masks?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) – Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]: 1 indicates the head is not masked, 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – If set to True, the attentions tensors of all attention layers are returned. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – If set to True, the hidden states of all layers are returned. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) –

    If set to True, the model will return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

    encoder_hidden_states (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional):

    Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder.

    encoder_attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional):

    Mask to avoid performing attention on the padding token indices of the encoder input. This mask is used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]: 1 for tokens that are NOT MASKED, 0 for MASKED tokens.

    labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional):

    Labels for computing the left-to-right language modeling loss (next word prediction). Indices should be in [-100, 0, ..., config.vocab_size] (see input_ids docstring) Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size]

Returns

A CausalLMOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertGenerationConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Language modeling loss (for next-token prediction).

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) – Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertGenerationTokenizer, BertGenerationDecoder, BertGenerationConfig
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertGenerationTokenizer.from_pretrained('google/bert_for_seq_generation_L-24_bbc_encoder')
>>> config = BertGenerationConfig.from_pretrained("google/bert_for_seq_generation_L-24_bbc_encoder")
>>> config.is_decoder = True
>>> model = BertGenerationDecoder.from_pretrained('google/bert_for_seq_generation_L-24_bbc_encoder', config=config, return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> prediction_logits = outputs.logits

Return type

CausalLMOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

get_output_embeddings()[source]

Returns the model’s output embeddings.

Returns

A torch module mapping hidden states to vocabulary.

Return type

nn.Module

prepare_inputs_for_generation(input_ids, attention_mask=None, **model_kwargs)[source]

Implement in subclasses of PreTrainedModel for custom behavior to prepare inputs in the generate method.