Metric: bleu
Hosted in S3


BLEU (bilingual evaluation understudy) is an algorithm for evaluating the quality of text which has been machine-translated from one natural language to another. Quality is considered to be the correspondence between a machine's output and that of a human: "the closer a machine translation is to a professional human translation, the better it is" – this is the central idea behind BLEU. BLEU was one of the first metrics to claim a high correlation with human judgements of quality, and remains one of the most popular automated and inexpensive metrics. Scores are calculated for individual translated segments—generally sentences—by comparing them with a set of good quality reference translations. Those scores are then averaged over the whole corpus to reach an estimate of the translation's overall quality. Intelligibility or grammatical correctness are not taken into account[citation needed]. BLEU's output is always a number between 0 and 1. This value indicates how similar the candidate text is to the reference texts, with values closer to 1 representing more similar texts. Few human translations will attain a score of 1, since this would indicate that the candidate is identical to one of the reference translations. For this reason, it is not necessary to attain a score of 1. Because there are more opportunities to match, adding additional reference translations will increase the BLEU score.

How to load this metric directly with the datasets library:

					from datasets import load_metric
					metric = load_metric("bleu")


    author = {Kishore Papineni and Salim Roukos and Todd Ward and Wei-jing Zhu},
    title = {BLEU: a Method for Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation},
    booktitle = {},
    year = {2002},
    pages = {311--318}
    title = "{ORANGE}: a Method for Evaluating Automatic Evaluation Metrics for Machine Translation",
    author = "Lin, Chin-Yew  and
      Och, Franz Josef",
    booktitle = "{COLING} 2004: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics",
    month = "aug 23{--}aug 27",
    year = "2004",
    address = "Geneva, Switzerland",
    publisher = "COLING",
    url = "",
    pages = "501--507",