# Datasets: lingjoor /databricks-dolly-15k-context-3k-rag

instruction
stringlengths
4
11.7k
context
stringlengths
1.25k
15.4k
response
stringlengths
1
26k
category
stringclasses
8 values
What is a graph?
Vertex (geometry) Polytope vertices are related to vertices of graphs, in that the 1-skeleton of a polytope is a graph, the vertices of which correspond to the vertices of the polytope, and in that a graph can be viewed as a 1-dimensional simplicial complex the vertices of which are the graph's vertices. Apex graph According to , a graph is edge-apex if there is some edge in the graph that can be deleted to make the graph planar. A graph is contraction-apex if there is some edge in the graph that can be contracted to make the graph planar. Dense graph In mathematics, a dense graph is a graph in which the number of edges is close to the maximal number of edges (where every pair of vertices is connected by one edge). The opposite, a graph with only a few edges, is a sparse graph. The distinction of what constitutes a dense or sparse graph is ill-defined, and depends on context. Graph factorization In graph theory, a factor of a graph G is a spanning subgraph, i.e., a subgraph that has the same vertex set as G. A k-factor of a graph is a spanning k-regular subgraph, and a k-factorization partitions the edges of the graph into disjoint k-factors. A graph G is said to be k-factorable if it admits a k-factorization. In particular, a 1-factor is a perfect matching, and a 1-factorization of a k-regular graph is an edge coloring with k colors. A 2-factor is a collection of cycles that spans all vertices of the graph. Quotient graph More formally, a quotient graph is a quotient object in the category of graphs. The category of graphs is concretizable – mapping a graph to its set of vertices makes it a concrete category – so its objects can be regarded as sets with additional structure, and a quotient graph corresponds to the graph induced on the quotient set V/R of its vertex set V. Further, there is a graph homomorphism (a quotient map) from a graph to a quotient graph, sending each vertex or edge to the equivalence class that it belongs to. Intuitively, this corresponds to gluing together (formally, identifying) vertices and edges of the graph. Trivially perfect graph In graph theory, a trivially perfect graph is a graph with the property that in each of its induced subgraphs the size of the maximum independent set equals the number of maximal cliques. Trivially perfect graphs were first studied by but were named by ; Golumbic writes that the name was chosen since it is trivial to show that such a graph is perfect. Trivially perfect graphs are also known as comparability graphs of trees, arborescent comparability graphs, and quasi-threshold graphs. Two-graph A two-graph is not a graph and should not be confused with other objects called 2-graphs in graph theory, such as 2-regular graphs. Graph polynomial In mathematics, a graph polynomial is a graph invariant whose values are polynomials. Invariants of this type are studied in algebraic graph theory. Dual-phase evolution In mathematical terms (graph theory), a graph formula_1 is a set of nodes formula_2 and a set of edges formula_3. Each edge formula_4 provides a link between a pair of nodes formula_5 and formula_6. A network is a graph in which values are assigned to the nodes and/or edges. Graph (discrete mathematics) A finite graph is a graph in which the vertex set and the edge set are finite sets. Otherwise, it is called an infinite graph.
Graph is a set on nodes that are connected via edges. Edges represent the relationships between the nodes and can have multiple properties like weight or sign. For example the weight of the edge can represent how strong are the relationships between the nodes A and B, while the sign might represent wether these relationships are positive or negative.
general_qa
What are common florals found in Zigalga National Park?
Zigalga National Park Zigalga National Park () is located on the high Zigalga Ridge of the Southern Ural Mountains in Russia, on the transition between Europe and Siberia. Much of the territory is untouched by human activity and so supports Ice Age relict floral communities through all altitude zones - pine and birch forest, dark coniferous taiga, alpine meadows and mountain tundra. The park was officially created in 2019. The park is located in the Katav-Ivanovsky District of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Zigalga National Park Ziglalga National Park connects two large protected areas on the main ridge of the Southern Urals, with Zyuratkul National Park to the northeast, and the South Ural Nature Reserve to the southwest. The park includes headwaters of the Yuryuzan River and the Kutkurka River. The highest point is at Mount Poperechnaya () Bashkiriya National Park Bashkiriya National Park ( Bashkort:Башҡортостан милли паркы, Russian: Башкирия (национальный парк)), covers a large contiguous forest on the southern end of the Ural Mountains. The park is an important buffer between the industrialized flatlands to the west, and the mountainous and sparsely populated Shulgan-Tash nature reserve and Altyn-Solok (Golden Bee Tree) entomological reserve to the east and north. Bashkirya National Park lies between the Nugush River (and the popular recreational zone of the Nugush Reservoir), and the southern bend of the Belaya River. The park features deep river valley cuts in a karst topography. It is known for a natural bridge across the river Kuperlya. The park is situated across three districts (Meleuzovsky, Kurgachinsky and Burzyansky) of the Republic of Bashkortostan (also known as Bashkiriya). Gangotri National Park Gangotri National Park is a national park in Uttarkashi District of Uttarakhand in India, covering about . Its habitat consists of coniferous forests, alpine meadows and glaciers. Gaumukh at Gangotri glacier, the origin of river Ganga, is located inside the park. Gangotri National Park was established in 1989. Chelyabinsk Oblast Taganay National Park is located northeast of the city of Zlatoust, Chelyabinsk Oblast. Taganay National Park is a popular tourist destination in the Urals. The park contains mountain ranges, alpine meadows, stone outcrops and a several kilometer stone river, forests, woodlands and mountain tundra, ancient mineral mines and mountain rivers flowing both to Europe and Asia. Taganay National Park was established on March 5, 1991, the first in the Urals. Hustai National Park Hustai National Park (), located in the Khustai Mountains (, lit. Birch Mountains) of Töv Province (Aimag), is a national park of Mongolia. It is also known as Khustain Nuruu National Park. The Tuul River runs through the park. Yugyd Va National Park The natural boundary of the park in the east is the main ridge of the Ural mountains, in the north - the Kozhim River, in the west - the rivers Synja, Vangir and , in the south - the Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve. The territory of the park is part of the Prepolar-Ural physical-geographical area and is located in three zones - mountain, foothill and lowland, which were formed more than 200 million years ago. South Ural Nature Reserve South Ural Nature Reserve () (also Yuzhno-Uralsky) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) protecting mountain taiga ecosystems in the highest part of the Southern Ural Mountains. Several mountain ranges run through the territory: Mashak, Zigalga, Nara Kumardak and Yamantau. Mt. Yamantau reaches , and is the highest mountain in the Southern Urals. 90% of the reserve is situated in the Beloretsky District of Bashkortostan, the remainder is in Chelyabinsk Oblast. The regional city of Ufa is about 200 km to the northwest. Zigalga National Park The park is at the southern extremity of the Urals montane tundra and taiga ecoregion. It is closely surrounded on three sides by three other ecoregions: East European forest steppe to the west, West Siberian taiga to the northeast, and Kazakh forest steppe to the south. Zyuratkul National Park Zyuratkul National Park () is a Russian national park established in 1993 in the southern part of Satkinsky Raion (Chelyabinsk Oblast, Urals). The park lies about 30 km south of Satka and 200 km west of Chelyabinsk.
Zigalga National Park has the majority of its territory untouched by human activity and includes pine and birch forest, dark coniferous taiga, alpine meadows and mountain tundra.
closed_qa
Which is a species of fish? Banjo or Guitar
Banjo guitar The six-string banjo guitar should not be confused with the five-string banjo (played by Pete Seeger, Earl Scruggs and others), which retains re-entrant banjo tuning with a high-pitched short drone string going halfway up the neck. Banjo guitar Banjo guitar or banjitar or ganjo (Australia) is a six-string banjo tuned in the standard tuning of a six-string guitar (E2-A2-D3-G3-B3-E4) from lowest to highest strings. The six-string banjo was introduced in the late 19th century. Less widespread than four- and five-string banjos, it was reintroduced in the latter part of the twentieth century with the modern guitar-like tuning. Etropus microstomus Etropus microstomus, the smallmouth flounder, is a species of fish belonging to the family Paralichthyidae. Largescale mullet The largescale mullet (Planiliza macrolepis) is a species of fish in the family Mugilidae. It is found in the Indo-Pacific. Symphurus pusillus The northern tonguefish (Symphurus pusillus) is a species of fish belonging to the family Cynoglossidae. Mandolin-banjo Banjo hybrids normally take their names from the Banjo- prefix, and then the second half of the other instrument's name, such as banjocello, banjo guitar, and banjo ukulele which implies the banjolin is a sort of mandolin/banjo hybrid. In the advertisement, Farris did not mention where the name came from, but did say that it was fingered like the violin. So-iuy mullet The so-iuy mullet (Planiliza haematocheilus), also known as the haarder, redlip mullet or so-iny mullet, is a species of fish in the family Mugilidae. Zebra seahorse The zebra seahorse (Hippocampus zebra) is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to northern Australia. Black seasnail The black seasnail (Paraliparis bathybius) is a species of fish in the family Liparidae (snailfish). Acanthurus pyroferus Acanthurus pyroferus is a species of fish in the family Acanthuridae, the unicornfishes and tangs. Its common names include chocolate surgeonfish, mimic surgeonfish, orange-gilled surgeonfish, Pacific mimic surgeon, and yellowspot surgeon.
Banjo
classification
A bootloader is a program written in machine code that loads the operating system into RAM during the boot process.
closed_qa
Pedestrian crossings in the United Kingdom There are two common types of pedestrian signal in the UK: nearside and farside. Nearside signals are incorporated into the push button, while farside signals are located at the other end of the crossing, facing the pedestrian across the road. Both types are permitted, and highway authorities can install either as they wish, though not both at the same installation. Nan Bangs McKinnell Nan and Jim spent much of their married life traveling and creating together. The two are remembered as artistic partners with most of their work having been made collaboratively. The two traveled across America and the world, working at colleges and artist's colonies while developing their craft. In 1953, Nan and James attended a ceramics workshop at the Archie Bray Foundation and decided to stay and work there for several years. It was at the Bray where Nan began developing glazes. Nan's deep copper glaze is still widely used today. Her glaze-making also opened up an appreciation for the decorative side of ceramics. As Nan and Jim began working more collaboratively, Nan's decorative eye came out more. In their process, often one would throw a piece on the wheel and the other would decorate it, combining their two separate artistic eyes and influences. Nan was drawn to natural shapes and forms, drawing on flowers, leaves, insects, and other animals. Pong Nan Nan Yik-Pong, better known by his stage name Pong Nan (; born 15 May 1978), is a Cantopop musician, singer-songwriter and actor in Hong Kong of Hakka ancestry. Rocker (subculture) These motorcycles were lean, light and handled various road surfaces well. The most defining machine of the rocker heyday was the Triton, which was a custom motorcycle made of a Norton Featherbed frame and a Triumph twin-cylinder engine. It used the most common fast road bike engine combined with the best handling frame of its day. Other popular motorcycle brands included BSA, Royal Enfield and Matchless. Nan Bangs McKinnell In Seattle, Nan began working as a teacher once again, earning money to help support her family back in Nebraska. It wasn't long until Nan was applying for graduate school, and after a few years in Seattle, she was taking summer classes at the University of Washington where she started her art. While the men were away at war, Nan began teaching in an architectural drawing and design classes at the University. As she continued her own studies, Nan realized that painting and design were not her forte and took an introductory class in ceramic engineering and was drawn to clay as an artistic medium. Nan Qi (artist) Nan is a contemporary Chinese ink painter depicting a variety of themes, ranging from the human form to landscapes and abstract concentric ink dots, using Chinese in and xuan rice paper. During his training as a Chinese ink painter, Nan specialised in classical landscapes inspired by Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasty artists. Early experimentation with different brush strokes and techniques, varying the dilution of ink and wash, resulted in the distinctive ink “dabs” produced in his early works. During the mid-to-late 1990s, Nan began designing and printing the catalogues for his own exhibitions, and was inspired by the dot matrices used in printing. This gave rise to a progression from ink “dabs” to more and more dot-like brush strokes, culminating in his development of his signature “halo dot” brush stroke in 2004. At this point, the themes and content of Nan’s work were becoming solidly contemporary and modern, moving away from landscapes. Over the next ten years, Nan developed a completely unique repertoire of brush strokes and ink painting techniques, including the “halo dot”, the “Nan Qi Way” for controlling ink flow into highly absorbent rice paper, and the “3D ink” technique, which allows him to create three-dimensional optical illusions by hand. Sgùrr nan Clach Geala The most usual route of ascent approaches from the north starting at a parking spot on the A832 at grid reference and climbs the adjoining Munro of Meall a' Chrasgaidh before climbing Sgùrr nan Clach Geala. Most walkers will continue south from the summit to take in Sgùrr nan Each before returning to the starting point via the Allt Breabaig. 965 Angelica In the Bus–Binzel SMASS classification, Angelica is a Xc subtype, that transitions from the X-types to the carbonaceous C-type asteroids. 706 Hirundo In both the Bus–Binzel (SMASS-II) and the Bus–DeMeo classification, Hirundo is a carbonaceous C-type asteroid (Cgh). 66 Maja In the Tholen classification, Maja is a carbonaceous C-type asteroid, while in the SMASS classification it is a hydrated carbonaceous subtype (Ch).
classification
What is one-child policy?
The "one-child policy" was a Chinese population planning initiative that was implemented from 1980 to 2015 to curb population growth by limiting many families to only one child. It was part of a larger effort to control population growth that began in 1970 and ended in 2021, which included setting minimum ages for marriage and childbearing, imposing two-child limits on many couples, requiring minimum intervals between births, close monitoring, and imposing stiff fines for non-compliance. The policy had far-reaching social, cultural, economic, and demographic effects, although the extent to which the one-child restrictions contributed to the broader program has been a matter of debate.
closed_qa
How do i accept the change
Brainstorming In the laboratory, directed brainstorming has been found to almost triple the productivity of groups over electronic brainstorming. Brainstorming Following these two principles were his four general rules of brainstorming, established with intention to: Brainstorming Directed brainstorming is a variation of electronic brainstorming (described below). It can be done manually or with computers. Directed brainstorming works when the solution space (that is, the set of criteria for evaluating a good idea) is known prior to the session. If known, those criteria can be used to constrain the ideation process intentionally. Brainstorming Individual brainstorming is the use of brainstorming in solitary situations. It typically includes such techniques as free writing, free speaking, word association, and drawing a mind map, which is a visual note taking technique in which people diagram their thoughts. Individual brainstorming is a useful method in creative writing and has been shown to be superior to traditional group brainstorming. Nan Bangs McKinnell Nan and Jim spent much of their married life traveling and creating together. The two are remembered as artistic partners with most of their work having been made collaboratively. The two traveled across America and the world, working at colleges and artist's colonies while developing their craft. In 1953, Nan and James attended a ceramics workshop at the Archie Bray Foundation and decided to stay and work there for several years. It was at the Bray where Nan began developing glazes. Nan's deep copper glaze is still widely used today. Her glaze-making also opened up an appreciation for the decorative side of ceramics. As Nan and Jim began working more collaboratively, Nan's decorative eye came out more. In their process, often one would throw a piece on the wheel and the other would decorate it, combining their two separate artistic eyes and influences. Nan was drawn to natural shapes and forms, drawing on flowers, leaves, insects, and other animals. Computer supported brainstorming In computer supported brainstorming, team members contribute their ideas through electronic means either synchronously or asynchronously. The brainstorming software selected by the team mediates the individual interactions and helps to organize and shape the products of the brainstorming session. Computer supported brainstorming can be implemented using a wide variety of electronic technologies. Henri Barki Small Group Brainstorming and Idea Quality: Is Electronic Brainstorming the Most Effective Approach?<br> Brainstorming software Brainstorming software is computer software that is used for the development of creative ideas—brainstorming. Some formats or structures for this include flow charts, idea maps, word association and generative idea creation programs. Ideation is often associated with brainstorming software. Some of the earliest brainstorming software programs included Paramind and programs using Markov chains called Markov text generators. Brainstorming One of Osborn's key recommendations was for all the members of the brainstorming group to be provided with a clear statement of the problem to be addressed prior to the actual brainstorming session. He also explained that the guiding principle is that the problem should be simple and narrowed down to a single target. Here, brainstorming is not believed to be effective in complex problems because of a change in opinion over the desirability of restructuring such problems. While the process can address the problems in such a situation, tackling all of them may not be feasible. Brainstorming According to a meta-analysis comparing EBS to face-to-face brainstorming conducted by DeRosa and colleagues, EBS has been found to enhance both the production of non-redundant ideas and the quality of ideas produced. Despite the advantages demonstrated by EBS groups, EBS group members reported less satisfaction with the brainstorming process compared to face-to-face brainstorming group members.
Embrace the change and see the difference
brainstorming
What is a laser and who created it?
Real estate investment club Real estate investment clubs vary between those that focus on single family homes, and those that focus on commercial real estate. Real estate investment association A real estate investment association (REIA) is a trade organization for real estate investors. The purpose of a REIA is to provide networking opportunities, educational events, to advocate on behalf of the industry, REIAs range from small, informal groups to more organized and larger groups with hundreds or even thousands of members. Real estate investing Some real estate investment organizations, such as real estate investment trusts (REITs) and some pension funds and hedge funds, have large enough capital reserves and investment strategies to allow 100% equity in the properties that they purchase. This minimizes the risk which comes from leverage but also limits potential ROI. Australian real estate investment trust As of July 2012 the Australian public real estate sector consists of a total market capitalization of almost €72 billion, accounting for 9.36% of the global real estate investment trust (REIT) market capitalization. Real estate investing During the 1980s, real estate investment funds became increasingly involved in international real estate developed. This shift led to real estate becoming a global asset class. Investing in real estate in foreign countries often requires specialized knowledge of the real estate market in that country. As international real estate investment became increasingly common in the early 21st century, the availability and quality of information regarding international real estate markets increased. Housers Many of Housers' properties are in Barcelona and Madrid, which have been described as key investment hubs. Barcelona, in particular, was a hotspot of real estate investment during 2016. Investors United (School of Real Estate Investing) Education on real estate investment has traditionally been fractured into courses on single topics (e.g. lease options, flipping etc.). By contrast, Investors United' curriculum of 12 courses represent what its president, Ian Parrish, calls the full anatomy of real estate investing. Because the various areas of real estate investment are interrelated, the school encourages students to become familiar with each of them. All of the school's courses and instructional materials are available online, so that each student can learn at their own pace. Fundrise On December 3, 2015, Fundrise launched the Fundrise Real Estate Investment Trust, the world's first online real estate investment trust or eREIT with an initial offering of $50 million pursuant to Regulation A+. Brahma (company) Gulbir Singh Madan is the founder and Chairman of the Brahma Group. Madan leads the firm's investment and real estate development activities. Prior to founding Brahma, Madan managed real estate investments and developments within the US real estate market, serving as the general partner of a series of real estate partnerships. Madan has over 25 years of experience in real estate investment and development PGIM PGIM Real Estate is the global real estate investment arm of PGIM, with professionals in 32 cities around the world. The firm has consistently been the largest manager of worldwide institutional assets according to Pensions & Investments, an industry publication. Real estate investors depend on precise, accurate location intelligence for competitive insights about the markets and locations where they do business. Real estate investment teams use GIS to bring together location-specific data, mapping, and visualization technology. This enables them to provide the latest insights about real estate markets and their investments, now and in the future. Using thousands of global datasets, investors can quickly understand how their real estate investments are performing across town or around the world, quickly access precise local data about real estate assets, on any device, anywhere, anytime, including information on occupancy, building maintenance, property valuation, and more. Real estate companies and investors use GIS to research markets, identify new opportunities for growth and expansion, and manage their investments at the market and neighborhood levels. They can also use GIS to create professional digital and printed materials—such as 3D renderings and virtual walk-throughs—to help market investments across platforms. Real estate investors can use mobile data collection tools to gather property information directly from the field and analyze and share insights across their organizations in real time. Investors can leverage precise local knowledge about their assets across geographies. GIS maps and dashboards help investors see, in real-time, relevant data that can affect properties, and streamline investment management with access to all relevant data about every asset in any portfolio. general_qa What is the Masters? Chris Masters (writer) Chris Masters was born in Grafton, New South Wales. He is the fourth son of Charles Masters and the journalist and author Olga Masters and the brother of rugby league coach and journalist Roy Masters, film maker Quentin Masters, radio broadcaster Ian Masters and media producers Sue Masters and Deb Masters. 3D Masters Duncan Osbourn is the only 3D Masters competitor to have won in each of the Sportsman, Expert and Masters Classes. M.C. Mini Masters The name M.C. Mini Masters is an homage to the PGA's Masters tournament in Augusta, Georgia. While the winners of the PGA's Masters win the Green Jacket, the winners of the M.C. Mini Masters receive the Ugly Jacket. NSW TBA Masters (Tenpin Bowling) Where there are low numbers in qualifications for any finals in any divisions, the highest qualifying scorer automatically becomes the NSW State Masters champion of that division. Masters Champions from each year are then given automatic qualification and free entry into the Australian Masters Tournament. Masters swimming As in senior swimming, there are world records for masters swimming, but they can only be set in a sanctioned masters meet. Official list of Masters swimming records are available at the FINA website masters section. 2009 Masters Tournament This was the final Masters appearance for three-time champion Gary Player, and one-time champions Raymond Floyd and Fuzzy Zoeller. Amjad Zia In 2012 he was selected to represent the USA Masters over 45's team in the FIH inaugural Masters World Cup in Canterbury, England, and earned his first Masters cap against Australia. Later represented USA Masters over 50's in European Open in Northern Ireland (2013), 2nd FIH Masters World Cup in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (2014) and 3rd FIH Masters World cup in Canberra, Australia (2016). PSA Masters 2011 The Punj Lloyd PSA Masters 2011 is the men's edition of the 2012 PSA Masters, which is a PSA World Series event Platinum (Prize money:$165,000). The event took place in New Delhi in India from 12 December to 18 December. James Willstrop won his first PSA Masters trophy, beating Grégory Gaultier in the final. Masters' Cricket Carnival Ispahani Chittagong Masters: Azhar Hossain, (mentor), Akram Khan (cricketer) (captain), Minhajul Abedin, Enamul Haque Moni, Tareq Aziz Khan, Aftab Ahmed, Touhidul Hossain Shamol, Humayun Kabir, Anwar Hossain Monir, Jubair Ishtiak Ahmed, Fazle Rabbi Khan Rubel, Nurul Abedin Nobel, Afzal Khan, Fazle Hasan Khan and Mir Akter Uddin Ahmed. Masters (darts) The Masters (also known as the Ladbrokes Masters for sponsorship purposes) is a non-ranking PDC darts tournament which features the top 24 darts players according to the PDC Order of Merit as of 2021.