[ { "from": "human", "value": "Most of the books I read give examples using <code>printf</code> and <code>scanf</code>. At some point the students know perfectly how to use these two functions but they don't know about <code>stdin</code>, <code>stdout</code> and <code>argv</code>. \nTo me and according to many programming principles (e.g. KISS) a program should not interrupt the execution for prompting the user. Instead, and this is a much clever approach, the developer should learn to use the power of pipes and use the options and the arguments. \nI think this:\n<code>$ whatdaywas 1982 02 16\nMonday\n</code>\nIs much better than: \n<code>$ whatdaywas\nEnter a year: 1982\nEnter a month: 2\nEnter a day: 16\nIt was a Monday.\n</code>\nIs there any rationale behind this pedagogical approach?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "When tutoring young CS students, user input is actually a tricky concept. If it were not for user input, the results of any program could be pre-compiled into nothing but its output. You get one lesson from getting all the input right at the beginning, with argc/argv, but from that point on, its just the computer churning. You get a different lesson from getting input during the execution of the program.\n\nThe idea of getting input from the user is surprisingly non-intuitive, given that nearly every program we interact with on a daily basis does it. This suggests that introducing it early helps prune misconceptions about how computers work before they become a real problem.\n\nObviously not every student is the same, but a particular pattern is that they can understand what a program should do when it executes but not how that actually happens. They can look at\n<code>BOOL x = TRUE;\nif (x)\n printf(\"Hello\\n\");\nelse\n printf(\"World\\n\");\n</code>\nAnd they can intuit that the program should print \"Hello\", but they can't intuit how a computer can possibly do so. Students are often told to figure the compiler does the \"magic,\" and figure out which printf to use (let's ignore optimizers for a moment).\nHowever, when the values come from input, you can no longer think about the computer as a magic device which reaches the final result immediately. You have to see that it is following steps. We know this, but it seems many students don't grasp this at first.\nIf you have inputs coming from `argv`, its easier to keep this illusion going. If you have input during the program, after the program has already done something, you have to realize what's going on quicker. In particular, it gets you closer to the point of realizing that the input the computer asks for may vary based on previous inputs (press 1 to calculate the area of a circle, press 2 to calculate the area of a rectangle. Depending on the next scanf/gets, the computer will ask for one additional number or two)." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Could you elaborate on the unintuitive bit? I'm always on the lookout for new cognitive traps that I haven't noticed before." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "It's found that some students learn the concept of functions before they grasp the idea of execution. They can wade their way through the code and make sense of it in their head, but they can't see that the computer wades through it also, in real time. Interestingly, the same people tend to assume that if they compile `if(x) f(); else g();`, that the compiler figures out which of those two branches will be taken, and only captures the instructions for that branch. They get bothered if the teacher constructs examples where it's hard to know which branch will be taken (such as when there is input)." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "How do the different groups/sects of Buddhism view attaining enlightenment and living a common life? In other words, do they think it is possible to be a common person and achieve enlightenment? Even for someone who has a family, friends and coworkers that aren't Buddhists?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Whether you have to follow a monastic lifestyle to attain enlightenment depends. At first approximation, the answer is: yes in Theravada, no in Mahayana. Since probably as early as Milindapanha (~100 BCE) and most certainly by the time of Visuddhimagga (~430CE), the orthodox (~Theravada) position was, you must be a monk to attain Nirvana.\n\nRegarding Enlightenment, I should point out that Enlightenment is the goal of Mahayana, while in Theravada, the final goal is usually called Nirvana (Nibbana in Pali), not Enlightenment (Bodhi in Pali). In Mahayana, Enlightenment can be attained by a layperson.\n\nThese are \"official\" positions (as much as we can talk about official positions in such a heterogeneous conglomerate of teachings as Buddhism). Informally, what some Mahayana schools call \"Enlightenment\" is what Theravada schools call mere \"stream-entry\". Other Mahayana schools however have this notion of multiple levels (bhumi), in which what Theravada calls \"stream-entry\" is level 1 of 10, with Final Enlightenment counted as 11th. It gets complicated from \"stream-entry\" onward, because the boundaries of \"self\" no longer apply, thus it is difficult to talk about Enlightenment with no subject to tie it to.\n\nFrom a practical perspective, it is extremely difficult to make any meaningful progress towards Enlightenment/Nirvana if most of the focus is on pursuing material ends (success, wealth, entertainment, helping your relatives achieve the same, etc). In order to get pretty close to X while leading a semi-normal life, one's top priority must be spiritual practice, followed by family and everything else. This basically means, squeezing study of Buddhist philosophy here and there, making meditation part of your daily routine, and, most importantly, deliberately utilizing your family & work situations as a shooting range for Dharma practice." }, { "from": "human", "value": "I don't agree that the orthodox Theravada position was that you must be a monk to attain Nirvana. Any sources?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Here is the quote from Milindapanha: \n> Whosoever has attained, as a layman, to Arahantship, one of two conditions are possible to him, and no other — either that very day he enters the Order, or he dies away, for beyond that day he cannot last.\n\nAlthough this formulation is by the king, not Nagasena. Nagasena does confirm this though, explaining that a householder is too weak to retain Arahatship: \n> \"a tiny blade of grass when a heavy rock is placed upon it will, through its weakness, break off and give way”. \n\nHowever, this position has been orthodox for a while now." }, { "from": "human", "value": "The quote from the Miln only says that a lay arahant either ordains or passes away; it doesn't say a lay person can't attain enlightenment." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Here is another quote for you (MN 71.11):\n> “There is no householder who, without abandoning the fetter of householdership, on the dissolution of the body has made an end of suffering.”\n\nThis quote supports the traditional position." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "My employer's main clients are unable to pay their bills to us, as they cannot work at this time. Therefore my boss is offering me 50% wages until the coronavirus goes away (technically for part time hours, but it's been intimated that there'd be an expectation to work regular hours unofficially to help the company \"weather the storm\") or paid redundancy. \nI have been searching for a new job since hearing this, but I want to understand if my employer's offer is fair/legal." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "I am sorry that you have been put in a hard situation. If you accept the offer, please make sure that you don't lose anything (beyond the salary). When you negotiate with the boss, reasonable terms would be a contract that says:\n\n<li>This is a temporary change of your salary. It will return to the full salary as soon as the crisis is over. </li>\n<li>Any redundancy payment will be calculated based on the original, full salary. </li>\n<li>Same terms for everyone, including management and owners. </li>\n<li>Someone with experience in these matters finds out what state benefits you might receive based on the lower salary and how to apply for them. </li>\n\nWhat's slightly to your advantage is that your tax payments and NI contributions will fall by more than 50%. Depending on your financial and family situation, you may get some more advantages, like getting child tax credits that you might not have received at the old salary. Please visit a tax calculator website and input the relevant information to compute the tax amount.\n\nUltimately you have to weigh up the pros and cons that are personal to you." }, { "from": "human", "value": "what do I do when my boss refuses all those terms?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The concrete actions you need to take depend on which country you are in. Generally speaking, if your boss refuses to agree to the reasonable terms mentioned earlier, you may need to consider seeking legal advice or consulting with a professional who specializes in employment law. They can help you understand your rights and options in this situation. It's important to protect your interests and ensure that you are being treated fairly and legally by your employer." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Someone from HR discussed my salary and bonus with external mutual friend. What should I do?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "This is a major breach of confidentiality, and it is not appropriate for an HR representative to share such personal information with an external party. You should first document the situation by writing down everything happened and gathering any physical evidence, such as emails or text messages. You may then approach the HR representative and calmly discuss your concerns about the breach of confidentiality." }, { "from": "human", "value": "If the HR person does not apologize and attempts to defend herself, what steps should I take to escalate the issue within the company." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "If the HR person does not apologize and tries to defend themselves, you may wish to escalate the issue. Depending on company procedures, you should report the incident along with the evidence you collected to your manager, a different HR representative, and/or the legal department. Maintain a record of all communications and interactions related to the incident. Escalation can often be uncomfortable; remember to remain professional and composed throughout the process." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I am about 22 weeks pregnant and it's getting to the point where it's hard to hide! How to tell my boss about pregnancy?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "If you work in an office and have the opportunity to talk to your your boss face-to-face, here are a few tips to make the announcement go as smoothly as possible.\n\n1. Schedule a meeting in advance. Don't try to have the conversation with your boss when either of you are is not in an ideal state for effective communication. For example, please avoid the discussion while driving to work or on a busy Friday. Schedule an appointment to meet so neither of you will be rushed or distracted.\n\n2. Focus on the positive aspects and avoid starting the conversation with apologies. Instead, let your boss know you're happy about your pregnancy and committed to fulfilling your responsibilities both at work and in your growing family.\n\n3. Be flexible (but not spineless). Develop a well-thought-out plan but remain open to discussion and compromise. Come up with a realistic bottom line and stick to it.\n\n4. Document the agreed-upon details of your pregnancy protocol and maternity leave in written form to eliminate any potential confusion or misunderstandings in the future.\n\n5. Never underestimate the power of parents. If your company isn't as family-friendly as you'd like, consider joining forces with coworkers to petition for better parental perks. Making sure that similar allowances are made for employees who must take time off to care for sick spouses or parents may help unite you with coworkers who don’t have children." }, { "from": "human", "value": "When should I tell him?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Several factors should be taken into account when determining the timing of your pregnancy announcement at work. Here are a few considerations to keep in mind:\n\n1. Pregnancy progress: Many women choose to wait until the end of the first trimester or the beginning of the second trimester. By this time, their risk of miscarriage has significantly decreased and they know their pregnancy is healthy and moving in the right direction. Others may hold out until the end of the fourth month, when they have received amniocentesis results.\n\n2. Physical changes: Consider how you are feeling and whether your pregnancy is becoming visible. Severe symptoms like nausea or a noticeable baby bump may make it difficult to keep your pregnancy a secret for an extended period.\n\n3. Job requirements: If your job has built-in workplace hazards, especially for pregnant employees (i.e. it’s particularly strenuous or exposes you to harmful chemicals), it's better to have an early conversation with your boss to discuss any necessary changes in duties or seek a transfer to ensure your safety and well-being.\n\n4. Upcoming reviews: If you're afraid your announcement might influence the results of an upcoming performance or salary review, you may want to wait until after the review is completed before sharing the news.\n\n5. Company Culture: Try to gauge your boss's attitude toward family by discreetly gathering information from coworkers about their experiences. If you believe your boss (or company) may not be supportive, you may want to wait until the 20-week mark to announce your pregnancy. On the other hand, if your company offers special benefits such as flexible working hours, consider sharing the news as soon as you feel comfortable to take advantage of those benefits." }, { "from": "human", "value": "What to do if my boss treats me differently after I tell him?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "After informing your boss about your pregnancy, be sure to keep your employer in the loop about your physical needs and limitations as your pregnancy progresses. If you experience differential treatment due to your pregnancy, it is essential to address the issue promptly. Here are some steps you can take:\n\n1. Document the discrimination: If your boss does treat you differently because you're expecting, report the incidents of discrimination in writing to your HR department. Be sure to include details such as the date, time, who you spoke to and what transpired. \n\n2. Escalate to the EEOC: If your HR department ignores or does not fully address your complaint, file a charge of discrimination with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Filing a charge with the EEOC is an important step in seeking resolution, not only for yourself but also for other pregnant individuals who may face similar challenges.\n\n3. Legal challenges: It's important to note that proving discrimination in court can be challenging. Under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), you must show that a coworker who's not pregnant but has comparable temporary limitations got better treatment than you did. It can strengthen your case by taking detailed notes with dates of how your employer treats you versus other employees who've asked for temporary accommodations.\n\nThe good news is that more people are aware of pregnancy discrimination in the U.S. now than ever before, and women have won discrimination lawsuits. Remember, seeking resolution for pregnancy discrimination is not only important for your own well-being but also for fostering a fair and inclusive workplace environment for all pregnant individuals." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Let's play 20 Questions! I'm thinking of an animal." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "I love 20 Questions!\n\n1. Is it a mammal?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "No" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "2. Does it live in water?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "No" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "3. Is it a reptile?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Yes" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "4. Does it have 4 legs?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Yes" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "5. Is it a predator?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Yes" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "6. Is it larger than 1 meter (3 feet)?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Yes" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "7. Does it live in Africa?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "No" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "8. Does it live in Asia?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Yes" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "9. Is it a Komodo dragon?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Yes!" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Hurray! I guessed your animal in 9 questions: the Komodo dragon.\n\nFun fact: Komodo dragons are the largest lizards alive today!" } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Hi! I'm in first grade." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Hi! That's awesome! School is a great place to make friends and learn new things. What would you like to learn about today?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Why do butts stink?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Butts sometimes stink because of the waste our bodies produce when we go to the bathroom - poop! It's made of stuff our body doesn't need, like food that we can't digest and bacteria that live in our gut, which give it a bad smell.\n\nDon't forget to wipe well and wash your hands thoroughly after going to the bathroom!" }, { "from": "human", "value": "What if someone made a really loud fart? Would that make a hole in the chair?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "A really loud fart may be funny, but it can't make a hole in a chair. Farts are just gas coming out of our gut, and they don't have enough power to make holes in anything, even if they're really loud ones!" }, { "from": "human", "value": "My mom says that eating beans make you fart." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Your mom is right! Eating beans can make you fart because beans contain a type of sugar that our bodies have a difficult time digesting. This sugar eventually gets eaten by bacteria in our gut that convert it into all sorts of gases. The gases are eventually released as farts." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Assistant, I need your help. My manager is overworking me. Help me IM them something so that they get off my back." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "These situations are best resolved in face-to-face conversations, which allow for more holistic and direct communication. However, in some cases, it is difficult to find the right time to discuss such a sensitive topic, and it may be better to communicate one's concerns earlier rather than later. Here is a possible instant message you may want to consider sending to your manager:\n\nHey [Manager's Name], I wanted to flag an issue regarding my current workload. I feel like it's been increasing recently, to a point where I can no longer ensure that I meet our quality standards and/or the deadlines. While I'm dedicated to my role and always strive to deliver my best, I feel that the current workload is unsustainable.\n\nCould we perhaps set some time to chat to go over my workload, reprioritize, and perhaps delegate some of my tasks to other teammates? Thanks!" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Not sure that helped... look what they sent me back:\n\n[My Name],\nI understand that this is a tough time for everyone on the team, but I'll be frank with you: this is a startup, not a country club. We all knew that there would be crunch time when we signed up. We're all counting on you to do your part so that we deliver the product on time. You and I both know that this deadline is existential for the company.\nHappy to talk more after the deadline to think about what we can do better in the future to avoid these kinds of sprints." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "This is a tricky situation. As mentioned earlier, my best is advice is to try to explain your situation face-to-face.\n\nYou may want to prepare for such a meeting, and perhaps make a list of specific examples that illustrate your concerns and any suggestions you have for improving the situation. Going into the meeting with a constructive and solution-oriented mindset will demonstrate your commitment to the team and your willingness to work together to find a resolution." }, { "from": "human", "value": "My manager and I work in completely different time zones, and almost all of our communication is asynchronous via IM. Help me draft a response to his message." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Here is a possible response:\n\nThanks, I appreciate the candor. I completely understand the importance of meeting the deadline, and I'm fully committed to helping the team meet our goals.\n\nMoving forward, I'd love to take you up on that offer and think together about how we can work efficiently throughout the year and manage some degree of work-life balance. Thanks again for your support!" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Mmm... this feels like I'm caving in. Can you maybe push back a little?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Sure, here is a potential response that is slightly more assertive:\n\nThanks, I appreciate the candor. I completely understand the importance of meeting the deadline, and I'm fully committed to helping the team meet our goals. Having said that, I am concerned that the current state of affairs cannot be sustained for long, and that it may impact the quality of my work in the immediate term.\n\nI suggest that we take a proactive approach and think together about how to prioritize and improve efficiency so that the important tasks are done on time.\n\nThanks again for your support!" } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Do you know Nuodle in Bellevue WA?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Yes, Nuodle is a restaurant located in Bellevue, Washington. It specializes in serving Lanzhou beef noodle soup, a popular Chinese dish. The restaurant is located at 14603 NE 20th St, Bellevue, WA 98007." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Find me a restaurant that serves the same kind of noodles, but in Manhattan." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "A restaurant that serves similar Lanzhou beef noodle soup near Manhattan is Dunhuang. It is located at 320 Lexington Ave, New York, NY 10016, which is less than a mile from Times Square." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Which one is better?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "As an AI assistant, I cannot taste from these restaurants myself, but I can summarize customer reviews - both restaurants appear to be very highly rated! It's important to remember that taste can vary greatly among different people, and there is no better way to find out than to try them out yourself." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I've chosen 3 random numbers x, y, and z.\nWhat is their mean?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The mean of the 3 numbers is given by the formula:\n$\\mu = (x + y + z) / 3$\n\nIf you tell me their values, I can calculate the mean for you." }, { "from": "human", "value": "What is their standard deviation?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Let's derive the standard deviation step by step:\n1. The standard deviation is defined as the square root of the variance: $\\sigma = \\sqrt{\\sigma^2}$\n2. The variance is defined as the average square distances from the mean: $\\sigma^2 = \\frac{1}{n} \\sum_{i=1}^{n} (x_i - \\mu)^2$\n3. In our case, there are three elements: $x_1 = x, x_2 = y, x_3 = z$, and so $n = 3$.\n\nTherefore, the standard deviation of the 3 numbers x, y, z is given by the formula:\n$\\sigma = \\sqrt{\\frac{1}{3} ((x - \\mu)^2 + (y - \\mu)^2 + (z - \\mu)^2)}$" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Solve for: x = 100, y = 256, z = " }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "It seems like you didn't provide a value for z. Please provide a value for z so that I may calculate the mean and standard deviation of the numbers x, y, and z." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Sorry, I pressed send by mistake.\nz is 123." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "No worries! Here is the mean and standard deviation for x = 100, y = 256, and z = 123:\n\nMean:\n$\\mu = (100 + 256 + 123) / 3 = 159.67$\n\nStandard deviation:\n$\\sigma = \\sqrt{\\frac{1}{3} ((100 - 159.67)^2 + (256 - 159.67)^2 + (123 - 159.67)^2)} = 68.76$" } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I'm hosting friends for dinner tomorrow. What's an easy recipe that will impress?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "How about Italian cuisine? Pasta is usually a crowd pleaser, and not too difficult to prepare. Here's a recipe for **tortellini carbonara**:\n\nIngredients:\n* 1lb of cheese tortellini\n* 2 cups heavy cream\n* 1 cup grated parmesan cheese\n* 1/2 cup fresh parsley, chopped\n* 8 strips of bacon, chopped\n\nDirections:\n1. Cook the tortellini in boiling water. When ready, drain the cooking water.\n2. At the same time, fry bacon over medium heat until crisp in a large pan. Stir from time to time to prevent the bacon from burning. Once ready, remove the bacon and drain on paper towels.\n3. In same pan, pour the cream, cheese, parsley and bacon. Cook over medium heat, until ready.\n4. Add the tortellini into the pan, and stir for under a minute until the pasta is embossed with the sauce.\n5. Serve and enjoy!" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Sounds delicious, but we're Jewish." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "My apologies. Allow me to suggest a kosher alternative that uses salmon as the main protein instead of bacon. Since fish are considered parve (neutral) in Jewish dietary laws, they can be eaten alongside dairy products. Here is a recipe for **creamy salmon linguine**:\n\nIngredients:\n* 1lb linguine\n* 1lb broccoli florets\n* 1lb Atlantic salmon filet\n* 2 tablespoons butter\n* 2 garlic cloves, minced\n* 2 cups heavy cream\n* juice from 1 lemon\n* 1 cup grated parmesan cheese\n* 1/2 cup fresh parsley, chopped\n* 1/4 teaspoon salt\n* 1/4 teaspoon pepper\n\nDirections:\n1. Preheat the oven to 350F. Bake the salmon in a baking tray until ready (approximately 15 minutes, depending on slice). When ready, separate the cooked salmon from the skin, and shred it using two large forks on a separate plate.\n2. Meanwhile, cook linguine in boiling water. Add broccoli during the last 5 minutes of cooking. When ready, drain the cooking water.\n3. In a large pan, melt the butter over medium heat. Add the garlic and stir for 1 minute. Stir in the cream and the lemon juice, and bring to a boil. Lower the heat and keep stirring for 3 minutes to reduce the sauce.\n4. Add the salmon, followed by the linguine and broccoli. Top with the parmesan cheese, parsley, salt, and pepper, stirring all the ingredients for 1-2 minutes.\n5. Serve and enjoy!" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Thanks! Can you pair a wine for this meal?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "I recommend pairing the creamy salmon linguine with a full-bodied white wine, such as Chardonnay. However, selecting the right bottle of wine is really a matter of personal taste." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I am shocked at the number of questions on open forums that reads like the following,\n\"my advisor has stopped funding me\"\n\"my advisor has been completely ignoring my emails\"\n\"my advisor is stealing my ideas!\"\n\"my advisor wants to be 1st author, when I did the majority of the work!\"\n\"my advisor wants to add another student to the paper and this is unfair!\"\nI was wondering whether these pervasive problems go away, when one is doing mathematics research? I imagine that in math research, one has more control/ownership of their work, there's no lab to be a part of and contribute to, one's funding is typically in the form of teaching stipends, and the meetings are typically one-on-one, with no group meetings to attend.\nIs a math PhD a better experience than a science PhD, in the sense that there is significantly less risk of working for a problematic, unethical, malicious scientist/professor who only cares about himself/herself?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "First, please keep in mind that the number of questions on the public forum doesn't give any indication of how common such issues are, since people usually only post when something is wrong. We don't hear about all the cases where everything is fine. It is unclear why math advisors should inherently be better people than in any other field, and there is no empirical evidence that warrants this. However, a few of the specific issues you mention are perhaps less likely to arise in mathematics, due to cultural and structural reasons.\n\n>\"my advisor has stopped funding me\"\n\nIn the US, at least, the main avenue of funding for math graduate students is through teaching assistantships, since math departments teach a large number of service courses. Faculty who have grants can sometimes offer their students a research assistantship instead, so that the student doesn't have to teach. But a student really isn't completely reliant on their advisor for funding. Moreover, there typically aren't major expenses for the research itself (no expensive equipment, etc), so as long as the student is getting paid, research can continue.\n(This is not necessarily the case in other countries.)\n\n>\"my advisor wants to be 1st author, when I did the majority of the work!\"\n\nThe general practice in mathematics is that all authors are listed alphabetically, and the concept of \"first authorship\" does not exist. As such, people don't bother to keep track of who did the \"majority\" of the work. Thus this particular issue doesn't arise in mathematics.\n\n>\"my advisor is stealing my ideas!\"\n\nWhile individual departments may vary, I think there's a general sense in mathematics that a joint paper \"counts\" about the same as a solo paper. As such, if a student has contributed to a project, the advisor has no particular incentive not to include them as an author on the paper.\n\n>\"my advisor wants to add another student to the paper and this is unfair!\"\n\nAs above, it isn't any particular disadvantageous to a student if another student is added." }, { "from": "human", "value": "I agree with most of this, except that in mathematics I think a joint paper *published by a student with their thesis advisor* is usually worth distinctly less than a solo paper by the student -- within the standard culture of mathematics, the former indicates an unusual amount of help. In my experience, it is more common for this to be violated *in favor of the student*, so that e.g. certain solo papers arising from student theses were largely told to the student by their eminent advisor. Our community seems bad at recognizing that there are still victims here...just not the student." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "You're right that within the standard culture of mathematics, a joint paper published by a student with their thesis advisor may be perceived as having less value compared to a solo paper by the student. This is due to the implicit understanding that the advisor has provided substantial assistance. It is disheartening to hear that there are cases where this norm is violated, and certain thesis papers shaped by the advisor end up being published as solo student papers. However, calling the advisor a victim might be an exaggeration, as university professors typically have immense leverage over their graduate students." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I would like to choose a game to play in my spare time. Which of the following would you recommend? Honor Of Kings or Genshin Impact?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Here is an overview of both games, however, the ultimate decision concerning which game to select rests in your hands, as it hinges upon your personal preferences and interests.\n\n1. Honor of Kings, developed by Tencent, reigns as a highly popular mobile game. This multiplayer online battle arena game brims with action and encompasses extensive social features. Notably, it showcases characters derived from Chinese Mythology, enabling players to construct their teams composed of these mythical personas.\n\n2. On the other hand, Genshin Impact, crafted by miHoYo, takes the form of an action role-playing game available on both mobile and PC platforms. Distinguished by its captivating open-world setting, the game invites players into an immersive realm. It boasts a distinctive elemental combat system and has amassed considerable popularity, nurturing a substantial following of avid enthusiasts.\n\nBased on the information above, if you prefer a multiplayer game with Chinese mythology characters, then Honor of Kings might be a good choice for you. If you're more interested in a single-player game set in an immersive open-world environment, then Genshin Impact might be the better option. Ultimately, it's up to your personal preferences and interests." }, { "from": "human", "value": "I guess I’ll choose Honor of Kings since I like Chinese mythology characters. Which hero is the easiest to get started with?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "According to various sources, such as game guides and player forums, heroes like Lu Bu, Zanis, and Sun Shangxiang are considered to be easy to play and are great for beginners in Honor of Kings. These heroes have simple and straightforward abilities, allowing players to quickly get comfortable with their gameplay mechanics. Other recommended heroes for beginners include Valhein, Butterfly, and Yorn.\n\nIt's important to note that each player has their preference, and the best hero to start with ultimately depends on your play style and personal preference. It's recommended to try out a few different heroes and experiment with different play styles to see which one suits you best." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I want to apply for the Ph.D program in CMU natural language processing. Could you recommend me four matching professors?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) boasts several esteemed professors specializing in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and related fields. Here are a few notable individuals:\n\n* Yonatan Bisk: Yonatan’s research interests include grounding, NLP in robotics, vision and language and unsupervised learning.\n\n* Graham Neubig: Neubig's research focuses on handling natural languages with computers with machine learning approaches that are both linguistically motivated, and tailored to applications such as machine translation and natural language understanding.\n\n* Jamie Callan: Jamie’s research and teaching focus on information retrieval and analysis. He has worked on a wide range of topics over the years, and he is particularly interested in search engine architectures, information filtering and text mining.\n\n* Daniel Fried: Daniel’s work focuses on enabling humans to use natural language to interact with computers to perform practical tasks in the world.\n\nBefore reaching out to these professors, it is advisable to familiarize yourself with their recent papers and publications. This will provide you with valuable insights into their current research areas and enable you to engage in more informed discussions.\n\nBest of luck in your PhD application!" }, { "from": "human", "value": "I am interested in working with Graham Neubig. Could you provide me with a list of his most recent papers?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Sorry, I don’t have access to real-time information, thus I can’t help compile a list of the most recent papers from Graham Neubig. Anything else I can help with?" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Okay, could you write an email to him to ask about his enrollment plan this year?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Sure, here is an email draft for you.\n\nSubject: Inquiry about Ph.D. Application in Your Lab\n\nDear Professor Neubig,\n\nI hope this message finds you well. My name is [Your Name] and I am currently [your current role or position]. I am reaching out to express my interest in your research on Natural Language Processing, particularly in the areas of [mention specific areas or papers that you find exciting].\n\nI have been an avid follower of your groundbreaking work and find it truly inspiring. Specifically, I was captivated by your research on [mention a specific paper or topic] as it closely aligns with my own research interests. With aspirations to pursue a Ph.D. at Carnegie Mellon University, I am excited about the possibility of working alongside you in the future. I wanted to inquire if you will be accepting new students for the upcoming academic year and if it would be possible to schedule a meeting to discuss potential collaboration.\n\nLooking forward to hearing from you!\n\nBest,\n[Your Name]" } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Recommend me 10 famous comedies, their directors and the box office they earned" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Here are 10 popular Hollywood comedies along with their directors and approximate worldwide box office earnings:\n\n1. \"The Hangover\" (2009) - Directed by Todd Phillips\nBox Office: $467 million\n\n2. \"Bridesmaids\" (2011) - Directed by Paul Feig\nBox Office: $288 million\n\n3. \"Superbad\" (2007) - Directed by Greg Mottola\nBox Office: $170 million\n\n4. \"Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy\" (2004) - Directed by Adam McKay\nBox Office: $90 million\n\n5. \"Knocked Up\" (2007) - Directed by Judd Apatow\nBox Office: $219 million\n\n6. \"Step Brothers\" (2008) - Directed by Adam McKay\nBox Office: $128 million\n\n7. \"Dumb and Dumber\" (1994) - Directed by Peter Farrelly\nBox Office: $247 million\n\n8. \"Ghostbusters\" (1984) - Directed by Ivan Reitman\nBox Office: $295 million\n\n9. \"Ace Ventura: Pet Detective\" (1994) - Directed by Tom Shadyac\nBox Office: $107 million\n\n10. \"The 40-Year-Old Virgin\" (2005) - Directed by Judd Apatow\nBox Office: $177 million" }, { "from": "human", "value": "could you organize your response in a table format?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Here's a table of Hollywood comedies answered above, along with their directors, and approximate worldwide box office earnings:\n\n| Comedy Title | Director | Box Office Earnings |\n|------------------------------------------------|----------------|----------------------|\n| \"The Hangover\" (2009) | Todd Phillips | $467 million |\n| \"Bridesmaids\" (2011) | Paul Feig | $288 million |\n| \"Superbad\" (2007) | Greg Mottola | $170 million |\n| \"Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy\" (2004) | Adam McKay | $90 million |\n| \"Knocked Up\" (2007) | Judd Apatow | $219 million |\n| \"Step Brothers\" (2008) | Adam McKay | $128 million |\n| \"Dumb and Dumber\" (1994) | Peter Farrelly | $247 million |\n| \"Ghostbusters\" (1984) | Ivan Reitman | $295 million |\n| \"Ace Ventura: Pet Detective\" (1994) | Tom Shadyac | $107 million |" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Add information about the stars of each movie to the third column of the table" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Here's an updated table with the addition of the stars for each movie in the third column:\n\n| Comedy Title | Director | Stars | Box Office Earnings |\n|------------------------------------------------|----------------|----------------------------------------------------|----------------------|\n| \"The Hangover\" (2009) | Todd Phillips | Bradley Cooper, Ed Helms, Zach Galifianakis | $467 million |\n| \"Bridesmaids\" (2011) | Paul Feig | Kristen Wiig, Maya Rudolph, Melissa McCarthy | $288 million |\n| \"Superbad\" (2007) | Greg Mottola | Jonah Hill, Michael Cera, Christopher Mintz-Plasse | $170 million |\n| \"Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy\" (2004) | Adam McKay | Will Ferrell, Christina Applegate, Paul Rudd | $90 million |\n| \"Knocked Up\" (2007) | Judd Apatow | Seth Rogen, Katherine Heigl, Paul Rudd | $219 million |\n| \"Step Brothers\" (2008) | Adam McKay | Will Ferrell, John C. Reilly | $128 million |\n| \"Dumb and Dumber\" (1994) | Peter Farrelly | Jim Carrey, Jeff Daniels | $247 million |\n| \"Ghostbusters\" (1984) | Ivan Reitman | Bill Murray, Dan Aykroyd, Sigourney Weaver | $295 million |\n| \"Ace Ventura: Pet Detective\" (1994) | Tom Shadyac | Jim Carrey, Courteney Cox | $107 million |" } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Would a bullet made from ice be capable of killing somebody at 100 metres before melting?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The short answer is probably no.\nIt would either shatter because of the amount of force the weapon puts on it or melt because of the heat (in case of a regular combustion gun). The former has more chance of happening, before the ice even has the time to start melting.\nThe only way to shoot it without shattering it nor melting it, at least using weapons available to us, would be to use compressed air weapons, but it would need to be significantly powered down to prevent the bullet from shattering, so it would probably not be powerful enough to cause damage.\nThe force needed to break through one square inch of ice is roughly 400 pounds on average. The bullet you're trying to fire is probably 9mm, but let's just calculate as though it was about one square inch (although it's actually quite smaller than that): those 400 pounds equal roughly 1800N.\nThe force that comes out of a 9mm gun is approximately 383 ft-lbs, which equals to 520 newtons per metre. That amount is about 52000N per centimetre. One inch is about 2 and a half centimeters, so that means it's more about 20'800N per inch. As you can see, it's a lot more than what it takes to break ice.\nAs for the \"wall\" towards which something has to be pushed in order to break it, the air will fulfill the role: the atmospheric pressure is about 15 pounds per square inch: it doesn't seem like a lot, but in the time it takes the bullet to win this force and gain momentum, it gets shattered by the enormous amount of energy produced by the weapon." }, { "from": "human", "value": "what makes you think it would shatter? The force distribution over the back end of the projectile should be fairly even, so i don't quite see that happening. Also, the barrel holds it together while the force is applied." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The fact is that a bullet made of ice is significantly less elastic than a regular one, and it wouldn't be able to dissipate the thrust force fast enough. A lead bullet (or whatever metal) gets deformed by the explosion (and gets compressed) and, due do the elasticity of metal, goes back to its original shape. An ice bullet, instead, would not modify its structure and, in the first few milliseconds after the gun is fired, the bullet will be shut between the power of the explosion and the pressure of the air coming from outside the barrel, and without being able to compress, it will shatter." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "What is the difference between a mode and a scale?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "A **scale** is a sequence of ascending or descending unit pitches that form a palette of notes that can be used to form a melody. Most scales in Western music conform to a particular key; that is, a sequence of notes that will be sharp or flat by default. Not all scales have keys; the chromatic scale is a scale of all possible semitone steps used in Western music, while the whole-tone scale is a scale composed of intervals two semitones apart.\nWithin a particular key, there are 7 notes in a single octave, before reaching the 8th note which is named the same as the first note and is at double the frequency. The seven notes have differing intervals between adjacent notes; sometimes it's one half-step (semitone), while other times it's a whole step (two semitones). The pattern of whole-step/half-step intervals that determine the notes of a key, starting from the note for while the key is named, is whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half. Within a single key, each of those seven notes could be used as the base note of an ascending sequence. Each such sequence, created by starting on a different note in the key, is a **mode** of that key, and each mode has a name:\n\n* Ionian - starts on the tonic; the note for which the key is named. In the key of C, the Ionian mode starts on C. This mode is the most common, and colloquially called the **major scale**. The pattern is WWHWWWH.\n* Dorian - starts on the next note higher in the key than the tonic (D, in the key of C). WHWWWHW.\n* Phrygian - starts on the note one major third higher than the tonic (E). HWWWHWW.\n* Lydian - starts on the note one perfect fourth higher than the tonic (F). WWWHWWH.\n* Mixolydian - starts on the note one perfect fifth higher than the tonic (G). WWHWWHW.\n* Aeolian - starts on the note one major sixth higher than the tonic (A). In modern music, this mode is also very important, and is referred to as the **natural minor scale**. WHWWHWW.\n* Locrian - starts on the note one major seventh higher than the tonic (B). HWWHWWW." }, { "from": "human", "value": "So, can I play the C Aeolian mode while playing in the key of C(major)?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "You can; that would be the same as playing in the key of A minor. Within the same key signature, you can start on any of the scale degrees and think of that as your root note, and then you're playing in a mode. You can even switch between modes mid-piece. For examples, take a look at Bach's fugues, especially the ones in a minor key; certain passages will sound \"happier\" than others, because the motif that forms the fugue is being played up two scale degrees from the root of the key, and thus in the Ionian mode of that key signature." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I want to learn watercolor painting, would you recommend hand painting or digital board painting?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Both traditional watercolor painting and digital watercolor painting exhibit distinct advantages and disadvantages.\n\nTraditional watercolor painting possesses a tactile essence and an organic aura, which captivate numerous artists. Engaging in this art form involves employing tangible materials such as paper, paint, and brushes, inducing a sense of relaxation and therapeutic solace. Moreover, it offers an outcome characterized by spontaneity and unpredictability, thus fostering excitement and a sense of unparalleled uniqueness.\n\nConversely, digital watercolor painting offers an array of merits. It permits the ability to undo or redo actions, grants greater control over paint application, color blending, and facilitates the utilization of multiple layers for artistic endeavors. Furthermore, digital artwork can be effortlessly edited, adjusted, transformed, scaled, and shared, making it particularly advantageous for digital artists and illustrators.\n\nI would suggest exploring both traditional and digital methods if feasible, as this will enable you to gain a more comprehensive understanding of what resonates most harmoniously with you." }, { "from": "human", "value": "how do I start with digital watercolor painting?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Here are some suggestions to start with watercolor painting:\n\n1. Select the appropriate tools: The requisites include a drawing tablet, stylus, painting software, and a computer that complies with the software's system requirements. Prominent options for painting software encompass Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and Procreate.\n\n2. Familiarize yourself with the software: Allocate time to acquaint yourself with the chosen painting software. Engage in tutorials, enroll in online courses, or peruse the documentation to commence your exploration.\n\n3. Opt for a brush and color palette: Tailor your selection of brushes and color palettes to harmonize with your artistic style and the envisioned painting. Consider experimenting with diverse brushes and color schemes to ascertain the optimal choices for your creative pursuits.\n\n4. Commence your painting endeavor: Utilize the digital pen to initiate the process of sketching your painting on the computer. Begin by outlining and delineating the fundamental contours and forms before delving into the intricate details or colors.\n5. Embrace practice and experimentation: Embrace the prospect of making mistakes and embrace the opportunities for experimenting with various techniques, thereby engendering diverse styles and effects.\n\nWith dedicated regular practice, your proficiencies in the realm of digital board painting shall progressively flourish." }, { "from": "human", "value": "You recommended three software: Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and Procreate. The first two are computer software, and the last is iPad software. I would like to know if Procreate is as powerful as the first two." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Procreate is a powerful painting software for the iPad. It offers a wide range of painting tools and features, including custom brushes, layers, color correction options, and more. However, Adobe Photoshop and Corel Painter are more robust professional-grade software that offers a wider range of features and capabilities that go beyond digital painting, like photo editing, graphic design, and more. \n\nWhile Procreate aims to be an all-in-one app for digital painting and drawing on the iPad, it may not offer some of the advanced features found in Photoshop or Corel Painter, like advanced color management, complex layer groupings, or sophisticated effects filters. \n\nThat said, Procreate is still a great option for artists who primarily want to focus on digital painting and drawing, and its user-friendly interface makes it easy for beginners to get started with digital artwork. Ultimately, the choice of software depends on your personal preferences and how you plan to use it." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "How much does it cost to make a MOOC universally accessible, as defined by the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The cost of making a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) universally accessible in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) can vary depending on several factors, such as the type of content the MOOC contains ( video / text / etc.). Meeting the Section 508* requirements for Web pages used in such a course is effectively without cost if one starts out to make such pages accessible. Retrofitting might cost as much as the original project, but the cost should be near zero for modern MOOCs.\n\n* Captioning and Transcripts: Closed (or open) captions are very expensive. Unless done at a foreign sweatshop, cost is $5.00 to $15.00 per minute, so something like $12,000 as a minimum, up over $35,000, for a one-semester course. In other words, the captioning can cost more than the professor. That's at least part of why some institutions employ ASL interpreters for class sections with deaf students. The $5-15 number given above could be reduced by using student labor, especially if the students are majors in the material being subtitled. In addition, captioning through voice recognition is getting much better, but still requires certain amount of manual editing. \n\n* Audio Descriptions: Making course materials available to the blind means being sure that everything that is shown is also described, either by the speaker who is presenting or in a manner that can be rendered through text-to-speech. The latter means being sure that there are good \"alt\" descriptions of images and that appropriate markup, e.g. MathML, is used for things like equations. In disciplines like computing, that isn't onerous, and the costs may disappear in the weeds of getting the course done. Things might be very different in a discipline like the visual arts.\n\n* Screen Reader Compatibility: Ensuring that the MOOC is compatible with screen readers and assistive technologies can involve additional development and testing efforts. This cost may vary depending on the complexity of the course platform and its current level of accessibility.\n\nIt is recommended to consult with accessibility experts, organizations specializing in accessible design, or accessibility consultants who can provide more accurate estimates based on the specific requirements of your MOOC. They can conduct a comprehensive evaluation and provide cost estimates tailored to your project's needs." }, { "from": "human", "value": "If captioning costs $5-$15 per minute, how does it become effectively free if you start out with it in mind?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Sorry for causing any confusions. The issue at hand is not the cost of MOOCs themselves, but rather the cost associated with compliance and accessibility, particularly regarding adherence to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for web materials. When it comes to creating web pages, recording audio and video, and other related tasks, there are indeed expenses involved. Some of these costs pertain to the production of web content, while others are specifically tied to ensuring compliance. However, if one plans for compliance from the outset, the process can be achieved at little to no additional expense." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "In Harry Potter And The Order of The Phoenix, Voldemort attempts to kill Harry in the Ministry after Sirius's death. Dumbledore arrives just in time to save Harry, shielding him with the wizard's statue. \nWhy did he defend Harry there? He knew of him being a Horcrux after the attack on Arthur Weasley (on examining one of his instruments), and presumably knew he had to die at Riddle's hands.\nWhy did he postpone the inevitable? " }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "It's hard to give a definitive reason for a fictional character's motivations when they aren't explicitly described anywhere, but there are any number of reasons events may have unfolded as they did.\n\n1. Dumbledore wasn't Voldemort-- he wasn't cool with murdering innocent people or allowing innocent people to die through inaction (certainly not in this phase of his life). He also showed a strong commitment to his students' safety and wellbeing, even in the case of a student that he knew for a fact was actively trying to murder him. Killing someone because it would be convenient or helpful is not a Professor Dumbledore move.\n\n2. It's not clear how much information Dumbledore had on the Horcruxes at that point. It's easy for a reader to look back at the novels and determine that Harry was 100% fated to die at some point in the struggle against Voldemort, but that's not a great guide an in-universe character's knowledge and motivations.\n\n3. Dumbledore was actively resisting Voldemort in every way he could manage at the time, and in particular wanted Voldemort's return to become public knowledge. It's not impossible that he viewed Voldemort's attack as an opportunity to injure, weaken, or otherwise frustrate Voldemort's efforts. At a minimum his approach was enough to force Ministry officials to accept that Voldemort was back, but it's also reasonable to think that if Voldemort clearly wanted something to happen, Dumbledore didn't want it to happen.\n\n4. Voldemort was clever and dangerous, and one of the few things Dumbledore could be pretty sure he would do was hunt Harry. With Harry dead, Voldemort would become less predictable but no less dangerous.\n\n5. Destroying all of the Horcruxes was important to defeating Voldemort but destroying any one was not-- that was the very reason Voldemort created so many of them. His being one seventh less immortal isn't an obviously huge setback for him, and indeed he did not seem to even notice that some of the Horcruxes were destroyed.\n\n6. The difficulty around the Horcruxes was mostly in finding and gaining possession of them, because Voldemort had hidden them away and protected them. Harry himself, on the other hand, was generally pretty easy to find over the course of the novels. Even if Dumbledore felt that Harry would need to die, there wasn't any reason that this particular opportunity for him to do so was unique or rare." }, { "from": "human", "value": "I think there is one additional point: 7. Harry's willing sacrifice was an important part of his surviving the horcrux extraction. If he had died in book five (especially right after Siruis died) he would have almost certainly have stayed dead.\n" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The sacrifice probaly doesn't work for himself. It enabled him to protect everyone else he cared about from Voldemort but it doesnt protect themselves otherwise why did Lily die? If he had died at the Ministry he most likely could have chosen to come back as he did in the forest but becuase he didnt sacrifice himself willingly there no one else would have protection from Voldemort. The thing that protected himself from Voldemorts spells at the end was the fact he was the owner of the Elder Wand." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Is it mentioned somewhere that it was Elder Wand that saved him? I'd expect that Voldermort could cast Killing Curse wandless and asleep. How would weaker wand prevent him from successfully casting it? Could wand itself alter the curse (not weaken, alter specifically to target the horcrux)?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "This comes straight from the book:\n> Harry saw Voldemort's green jet meet his own spell, saw the **Elder Wand** fly high, dark against the sunrise, spinning across the enchanted ceiling like the head of Nagini, spinning through the air toward the **master it would not kill**, who had come to take full possession of it at last." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Three months ago, I submitted a manuscript to one of the most respected journals in my field. Today, I received comments from reviewers stating that my paper is not worth publishing in the journal. However, the editor decided to give it a major revision instead of outright rejection. Should I proceed to address all the questions posed by reviewers or should I just withdraw the paper and submit it elsewhere to save time?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Based on the description, I would advise you to sleep on it, suck it up, respond to the reviewers, revise the paper, and submit your revision to the journal.\nYes, reviewers can be absolutely, disgustingly, and unnecessarily rude and mean. Read their review, filter their non-technical rants, keep whatever helpful criticism you can extract from their comments, and address them nicely and respectfully. It may actually be that the techniques you used were adequate but you failed to point out why and how it would be unnecessary to use more expensive methods. Always assume that they are right. If they are mistaken, respectfully point out in your response why you are right and edit the original manuscript to make the issue clearer to future readers.\n\nFor instance, if the reviewer wrote:\n\n> The methods used in the paper are abysmal. The authors use an outdated and archaic method, which is also very uncertain, to measure the mass of the frogs, which is by weighting them on a scale. The atomic mass interferometer, which uses gravitational waves and is able to precisely infer mass with an uncertainty of one atomic mass unit per kilogram, is the state of the art in weighting.\n\nYou can write as a response:\n\n* The reviewer is absolutely correct that atomic mass interferometry (AMI) is the state of the art in weighting. However, we opted to use analytical scales to measure the mass of the frogs because the mass variations that we expected to measure are of at least 1 g, a quantity signficantly higher than the uncertainty of even the most rudimentary analytical scales. We do, however, agree, that the quantum mechanical analysis of the molecular buildup in neural entangled channels in during frog electrophoresis, which is suggested as an interesting prospective investigation, will benefit from the low uncertainty provided by AMI. In order to make it clear that the methods used in our study were adequate, we have modified the original manuscript to include the following sentence in the second paragraph of page 5: While there are more precise methods to infer mass, such as atomic mass interferometry, analytical scales offer accuracies that are compatible with the 1 g mass variations that were found in this study (see Table 3, for instance)." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Do reviewers that make those kinds of comments tend to accept papers after these kinds of revisions?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Reviewers don't accept papers, editors do. If you carefully address each of the reviewers' comments in a respectful and thorough manner, clearly explaining your choices and providing additional evidence or clarification where necessary, there is a chance that the revised paper will be accepted for publication. Reviewers often appreciate authors who are receptive to feedback and demonstrate a genuine effort to improve their work. However, there is no guarantee that the paper will be accepted even after major revisions." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I was told in a Latin class that the name Christopher has Greek roots that mean \"one who carries Christ\". I assume that the Latin connection here is fero, which is the verb to carry. \nWith that in mind, does the name Jennifer have a similar derivation? If so what would she be carrying?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "It's a perfect example of a false cognate pair that is created by a sort of linguistic homogenization. When we come across foreign words, we pronounce them with our own sounds, mapping a foreign sound to one natural to our own ear that seems close enough for our purposes. Unrelated sounds and syllables from unrelated languages might in this way each get mapped to a single native sound/syllable. In this way, we come to hear the sounds and syllables as related when they are not.\n\nMesoamerican languages, for instance, did not have a \"v\" sound. Consequently, when learning Spanish, the natives of Central America had a devil of time with the fairly common v sound and ended up usually pronouncing it as a b. The b sound is related to the v sound, so it wasn't a subtle shift. In consequence, very often to this day words like \"votar\" (to vote) get pronounced identically with words like \"botar\" (to throw out) giving rise to numerous puns. When native Spanish speakers from Latin America learn English, they are often heard saying things like \"Thank you bery much,\" as a result. But \"bery,\" and its false homophones \"berry\" and \"bury\" have no shared ancestry.\n\nAs a last point of interest, consider English spelling. It is so difficult precisely because speakers of English and the academic sources that safeguard the English language (Oxford English Dictionary, Merriam-Webster Dictionary, etc.) have made a general decision to preserve as best as possible the original spelling of the words in their original languages, making only occasional modifications to bring them into some kind of conventional conformity. So the Greek suffix -φορος is conventionally transliterated as -pher, whereas the ending of Gwenhwyfar gets transliterated as -fer and the ending of aquifer stays as the Romans wrote it: -fer. This makes our spelling a bear to get a handle of, but it also locks the secret of most words' origins right into the words themselves. That means, once one has understood a bit of Latin, Greek, some common Celtic endings and a bit of German, one can almost always discern the origins of the word just by looking at it. Of course, it also means that we have to spend years and years memorizing spelling word lists and still relying on spellchecker far more than we care to admit." }, { "from": "human", "value": "I thought Spanish v was pronounced like b in Castilian as well, not as our v? Or is this about a more subtle difference? I can hear the Columbian guy pronouncin the v's in *vivir* like our v, but the Spaniard seems to be ponouncing it like our b." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Good ear! A reverse flow happens too. We commonly think of \"Spain\" Spanish as \"older\" than Latin American Spanish, and so on. When we look at the idea, we see it is absurd. Spain isn't older than Latin America, and its Spanish isn't either, even though it was spoken there first. LatAm Spanish branched from Castilian, and they both continue to develop alongside each other. The branching happened relatively late in their development and as reliable means of communication were becoming available. Things trendy in the New World spread home, and purists in the New World insist upon the older ways!\n\nIn fact, before the 16th century, it never would have been pronounced as a \"b\" at all. Researchers reconstructed historical pronunciations from times that did not have sound recording by examining spelling errors from earlier times. It was noted that spelling errors often tend to simplify spellings and represent words as they are spoken Ten bucks says that the common Latin American misspellings surrounding v/b are entirely absent from before the 16th c.\n\nBesides, the v/b misspellings *are* common. Native speakers who are not well educated *very* often make these misspellings - not necessarily in very common or easy words, like *vivir*, but certainly in difficult words. Sometimes, there is overcorrection as well, i.e., words that ought to be spelled with a *b* are spelled with a *v*." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Ah, that is very interesting. I have always wondered about the Spanish shift to b. The pronunciation of Ancient Greek is indeed quite difficult to trace back. Besides spelling errors, we also have prosody (how rhythm and the length of syllables worked in poetry) to inform us about it, and the comments of Greek grammarians on their own language." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I was wondering about why we call TV and computer displays \"screens\", and couldn't find any clear etymology for the term's use for displays.\nMy guess has to do with the hardware used in early displays. Perhaps the fields of tiny red, green, and blue cells looked like the screens used on windows and such, and the term stuck even as the hardware changed" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The idea of a screen as an upright device, ornamental or protective against e.g. wind, fire, etc., goes back to the 14th century and earlier. And the sense of a screen as something for the projection of images derives from the fact that it was originally often a screen which was used for displaying objects for exhibition, pictures, photographs etc. \n\nThe Oxford English Dictionary describes this meaning of screen in this way:\n\n> (b) Of images; e.g. a flat vertical surface prepared for the reception of images from a magic lantern or the like; spec. (i) a usually large white surface for receiving the image from a film projector; (ii) a small fluorescent screen, esp. one in a television set or a computer monitor; hence, the monitor itself; (iii) transf. (usually with def. article), moving pictures collectively; the cinema; the film world.\n\nThe earliest reference they have to a screen as something for the projection of images dates from 1810:\n\n> 1810 New Family Receipt-bk. 257: To make Transparent Screens for the Exhibition of the Phantasmagoria.\n\nApparently, people realise phantasmagoria was a form of image by magic lantern. So there we have it. This was the origin of TV screens." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Phantasmagoria performances included direct projection and rear (shadow) projection. What is still interesting to speculate is whether the choice of the word 'screen' in this case is because the image was projected onto something resembling a physical object already known as a 'screen' (the upright device etc, or because 'the screen' in the example of the phantasmagoria performance performed the function of screening (that is to say concealing) the mechanics of the creation of the performance that occurred 'behind the screen'. Either meaning, or each reinforcing the other?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "That is a very interesting thought - but the Oxford English Dictionary clearly sees it as the former - listed under (a): \n> (a) of objects; e.g. for exhibition; a frame for photographs resembling a folding screen. 1888 Lady 25 Oct. 374/3 Some of the most delightful panel screens for photographs I ever set eyes on.\n\nThough the Phantasmagoria reference, appearing under (b) predates by several decades those examples. Wikipedia has an interesting article on 18th century phantasmagoria - mentioning one exponent who did his work from *behind* whereas others did it in front of the screen." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "My wife and I have descended into the toddler years with our first. We have always been on the same page with each other whenever we correct bad behavior or instruct her on why a type of outburst is inappropriate. \nSo this begs the question, will she feel like we are always ganging up on her? If we are both constantly correcting and instructing in tandem, is that bad? Should one parent act as an advocate while the other is tough on the rules? Should there be a good cop and a bad cop?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Classic good-cop-bad-cop is definitely wrong with a toddler because it involves a lot of lying. The bad cop threatens to beat the suspect up or otherwise do something cops are not allowed to do. The bad cop steps out and the good cop says \"I'm on your side dude, but that guy is out of control and I don't know what he'll do next. Listen, if you just [....] I think I can get you out of this questioning session and maybe save your skin.\" Everything about this is a lie. The good cop isn't on the suspect's side, isn't trying to help the suspect, and knows full well the bad cop isn't ever going to hit, torture, or whatever the threat is. None of this is appropriate with your child.\n\nIt is advisory to give away any thoughts of an adversarial stance. You want your child to learn to be in control and not to tantrum. You want your child to comply with reasonable requests, whether that's putting on an item of clothing, helping to clean up, not hitting, or anything else. When your child can do those things, not only will you be happier but your child will too. You don't need to break their spirit, make them give up their resistance, force them to do what you want. You need to show them how to do the things everyone wants them to learn to do. Nobody is a bad cop in that. Nobody is a good cop. You can love your child while you're putting something out of their reach. You can smile and cuddle someone as part of letting them know they are not allowed to do a particular activity. You can be happy and cheerful while carrying a shoeless coatless child to the car (with their shoes and coat in your hands for later) and explaining there isn't time to play on the way now. \n\nWhatever these rules are, they should be the rules FOR everybody and BY everybody. If the toddler can't eat before dinner, nor can Daddy. If feet aren't allowed on the couch then that's the rule, not just \"if Mommy's looking.\" This kind of consistency isn't cruel or ganging up. You are showing your child the \"laws of physics\" of your home. This is how things go. Trying to understand mommy rules, daddy rules, sitter rules, grandparent rules - that's complicated! Remember, abiding by these rules isn't something mean or unfair, it's how life works in your house. And the toddler is trying to learn that. Make it as smooth as you can, and that includes being consistent, and not seeing the rules as mean." }, { "from": "human", "value": "I don't agree with this: \"Whatever these rules are, they should be the rules FOR everybody and BY everybody. If the toddler can't eat before dinner, nor can Daddy.\"\nChildren are children, not adults. They don't have the same rights and responsibilities as adults. If an adult tells a child they can't eat before dinner that doesn't mean the adult can't eat before dinner.\nChildren are not equals. Consistency of discipline is good. Trying to impose the same rules on children and adults is absurd." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "It's neither wrong nor absurd. Sure, the rules can be different, but there must be an understandable, explainable reason for that (e.g. Daddy skipped lunch because of work). If the only reason you can give is \"because I say so and I can make you do what I want\" then you're basically teaching the child that might makes right and whoever has the power sets the rules. That's not something you want them to internalize. Obviously, this is probably beyond a toddler's understanding, but it's good to get into the habit early." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Well, I think it is perfectly reasonable to give \"because I say so\" as a reason to children. Adults do not need to explain themselves to children. If an adult says \"go to your room\" then the child should go to their room immediately. The child should not say \"why should I? you're not going to your room\". An instruction is an instruction, not a request." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "While it's true that children should follow instructions from adults without questioning them, it's also beneficial to provide reasoning whenever possible. Giving children a basic understanding of why certain rules or actions are in place helps them develop critical thinking skills and a sense of fairness. While adults don't need to explain themselves every time, encouraging dialogue and providing age-appropriate explanations can foster a positive learning environment for children. Ultimately, finding a balance between clear expectations and reasonable explanations can promote mutual respect and understanding between parents and children." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Temperature conversion:\n$$273 + \\text{degree Celsius} = \\text{Kelvin}$$\nActually why is that $273$? How does one come up with this?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "One Celsius (or Kelvin) degree as a temperature difference was defined as 1/100 of the temperature difference between the freezing point of water and boiling point of water. These points are called 0 °C and 100 °C, respectively. The number 100 arose because we're used to numbers that are powers of ten because we use the base-ten system. The Celsius degree is \"one percent\" of the temperature difference.\n\nThere also exists the minimum temperature that one may achieve. In Kelvin degrees, it's sensible to call this minimum 0 K: that's a primary condition on the \"natural\" temperature scales such as the Kelvin scale. If one insists that one Kelvin degree is equally large as one Celsius degree as a unit of temperature difference, it just turns out that the melting point of ice has to be 273.15 K and the boiling point of water is 373.15 K. It's because the temperature difference between the boiling and freezing points is 2.7315 times smaller than the temperature difference between the minimum allowed temperature, the absolute zero, and the freezing point of water.\n\nThe value 2.7315 cannot be easily explained in simple words. It represents a specific characteristic related to water, a natural phenomenon that arises from the principles of quantum mechanics. To understand this value, extensive simulations are required to analyze the behavior of water molecules across a wide range of temperatures. Through experimental evidence, we have confirmed that this value accurately reflects the properties of water." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Why people don't go to a logarithmic scale (kind of like decibels), at least for low temperatures. Then there would be no lower limit." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Exponential notation adequately handles temperatures that are sufficiently low. What is important is that temperature is just energy per degree of freedom and energy is additive, thus all nonlinear redefinitions of $T\\to f(T)$ would be unnatural. Also note that for the ideal gas, we have $pV=nRT$, so at a fixed pressure (or volume), the volume (or pressure) is proportional to $T$. We don't express pressures and volumes in terms of their logarithms, either, so it would be equally unnatural for the temperature.\n\nThe log scale is always a sort of \"policymaking issue\", making it easy for people to say simple numbers instead of powers of ten which are \"complicated constucts\" for most laymen. It's the only justification for decibels, pH, Richter scales, and other things: you just don't want the laymen to ever pronounce \"ten to the power of [a number]\", that's the only reason. But people achieved just a billionth of kelvin, that's the record, and those small numbers aren't extreme and one can express them in words like billionth without using \"ten to minus [a big power]\"." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "I am from Kenya. Can I travel to the Netherlands to seek asylum with out a visa, because I want to seek asylum? Will Kenya Airways allow me to board a plane with out a visa to Schiphol Airport, considering I have my passport?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The answer appears to be no: it is extremely unlikely that the airline will allow you to board. A Kenyan citizen who wishes to enter the Netherlands must have a visa, proof of sufficient funds to cover their stay, and documents necessary for entry to their next destination. What's more, airlines are required to give special scrutiny to passengers from Kenya:\n\n> Airlines flying from the following airports to the Netherlands:\n\nAbu Dhabi (AUH), Accra (ACC), Bahrain (BAH), Beijing Capital (PEK), Boryspil (KBP), Cairo (CAI), Damman (DMM), Dar Es Salaam (DAR), Dubai (DXB), Entebbe (EBB), Guangzhou (CAN), Hong Kong (HKG), Hamad (DOH), Istanbul Ataturk (IST), Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen (SAW), Johannesburg (JNB), Kigali (KGL), Kilimanjaro (JRO), Kuala Lumpur (KUL), Kuwait (KWI), Lagos (LOS), Moscow Sheremetyevo (SVO), Muscat (MCT), Nairobi (NB ), New Delhi (DEL), Sao Paulo (GRU), Singapore (SIN) and Teheran (IKA) must provide copies of travel documents of all passengers on these flights in case they do not hold proper travel documents upon arrival i the Netherlands and are inadmissible. Copies must include the data page of the passport/travel document, the page with the visa and the page with departure/clearance stamp, where applicable. Non-compliance with these entry regulations will result in fines up to EUR 11,250.– per passenger for the carrier.\n\nAs you can see from the last sentence, the airline will have a strong incentive to check your travel documents before you board the plane." }, { "from": "human", "value": "What is the source for the quoted material?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The source is from Timatic (Travel Information Manual Automatic), which is a database containing documentation requirements for passengers traveling internationally via air, e.g. passport and visa requirements. The answer above was based on the scenario of a Kenyan citizen traveling directly from Kenya, whose destination was the Netherlands and had proof of return/onward travel, was planning to stay for 5 days, and had approximately three years of validity remaining on their Kenyan passport." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Apparently, the air inside a soap bubble is under higher pressure than the surrounding air. This is for instance apparent in the sound bubbles make when they burst. Why is the pressure inside the bubble higher in the first place?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "The increased pressure is caused by the surface tension between the soap and the surrounding air. This can be seen by a simple equilibrium energy argument. The total energy of the system reads\n$$\n E = E_i + E_o + E_s \\;,\n$$\nwhere $E_i$ is the energy associated with the air inside the bubble, $E_s$ is the interfacial energy, and $E_o$ denotes the energy associated with the air outside of the bubble. Importantly, the contribution of the surface energy is given by $E_s = 2 \\gamma A$, where $\\gamma$ is the surface tension and $A$ is the surface area of the bubble. The factor of 2 emerges, since there are actually two interfaces (one facing the inside of the soap bubble and one facing the outside).\n\nIn equilibrium, the total energy will be minimal. We thus analyze the total differential of the energy. Here, the differentials of the partial energies of the air can be approximated by the ideal gas law, which yields $dE_i = -p_i dV_i$ and $dE_o = -p_o dV_o$.\n\nNext, we have to discuss the degrees of freedom of the system. Generally, the soap bubble wants to keep its spherical shape to minimize the surface area (and thus the surface energy $E_s$) at a given volume. This leaves us with a single parameter, the radius $R$ of the bubble, which can be varied in any process. The volume differentials then become $dV_1 = 4\\pi R^2 dR$ and $dV_2 = -4\\pi R^2 dR$. Additionally, the surface area changes by $dA = 8\\pi R dR$. The differential of the surface energy thus reads $dE_s = 2\\gamma 8\\pi R dR$, provided that the surface tension stays constant.\n\nNow we got everything and can express the differential of the total energy as\n$$\n dE = -p_i 4 \\pi R^2 dR + p_o 4\\pi R^2 dR + 2\\gamma 8\\pi R dR \\;.\n$$\nDividing by $4\\pi R^2$ and noting that $dE/dR$ vanishes in equilibrium, we thus arrive at\n$$\n p_i - p_o = \\frac{4\\gamma}{R} \\;.\n$$\nThis expression shows that the pressure inside the bubble is large than outside. The pressure difference is two times the Laplace pressure $2\\gamma/R$." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Can this be viewed intuitively from the perpective of the fact that in order for a bubble to form a higher-pressure must be applied to the air in front of the bubble; i.e. it must be blown into? Since this high-pressure air is the air that goes into the bubble, shouldn't this air be of this higher pressure for all time, rather like a balloon?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "It is true, that the ideas employed here are the same that would explain why the pressure inside a balloon is higher than outside. In order to inflate a balloon you want to blow extra air inside it. This is only possible when the pressure you create in your mouth is larger than the pressure in the interior of the balloon, since the air always flows from regions of large to small pressure in this example. Consequently, the fact that your have to blow quite a bit means that there is quite some pressure inside the balloon." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Resistance is due to collision with protons, and pretty much everything contains protons. So technically is everything a resistor? (Or at least, can anything be a resistor?)" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "First, regarding \"resistance is due to collision with protons\" in your question:\n\nActually, there are lots of materials which don't contain protons outside of atomic nuclei — e.g. steel, glass, oxygen — but all these do have resistance. Dominant factors determining resistance vary from material to material: these can be scattering of electrons/holes by motion of atomic nuclei (i.e. by phonons), by point-like defects in the crystals, etc.. Scattering by protons you mention is a very specific case of scattering by impurities (crystal defects).\n\nSecond, regarding \"technically is everything a Resistor?(or atleast, anything can be a Resistor?)\" in your question:\n\nYes, anything can be a resistor, in suitable conditions. One important property of a resistor is that it obeys Ohm's law. If you apply too high voltage to e.g. pure silicon, its conductivity will abruptly increase due to electrical breakdown. In this range of voltages the piece of material shouldn't be considered a resistor. Or if you take a piece of mercury, cool it down below 4.2 kelvins, its resistivity will become exactly zero (superconductivity), after which it can't be considered a resistor.\n\nSimilarly with other materials – in the right conditions they'll be good enough resistors, outside of these conditions they aren't." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Does this then also mean that everything is a conductor - just depending on environment and voltage?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Apply a voltage (doesn't have to be high), and elecrtricity will move through most materials. Admittedly very slowly through some, but still. For instance, PET (the plastic) will conduct about 10^28 times lower current than copper (given the same voltage, the same geometric shape of the conductor, and more or less room temperature). Of course, if you pass the breakdown voltage (high enough to make the material basically tear apart on an atomic scale, e.g. lightning through air) then that's a different story." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "How do I remove a Git submodule?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "In modern git, this has become quite a bit simpler:\n\n* Run `git rm <path-to-submodule>`, and commit.\n\nThis removes the filetree at `<path-to-submodule>`, and the submodule's entry in the `.gitmodules` file, i.e. all traces of the submodule in your repository proper are removed.\n\nHowever, the `.git` dir of the submodule is kept around (in the `modules/` directory of the main project's `.git` dir), to make it possible to checkout past commits without requiring fetching from another repository.\n\nIf you nonetheless want to remove this info, manually delete the submodule's directory in `.git/modules/`, and remove the submodule's entry in the file `.git/config`. These steps can be automated using the commands:\n\n* `rm -rf .git/modules/<path-to-submodule>`, and\n* `git config --remove-section submodule.<path-to-submodule>`." }, { "from": "human", "value": "Why can't I do `git submodule rm module_name`?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "One possible explanation is that the absence of a specific command is intentional. It could be aimed at avoiding accidental loss of data by making a clear distinction between removing submodule files and submodule configuration. For instance, if a command like git submodule rm were to exist and simply remove submodule registration, some users might be surprised to find that it also deletes the local repository, resulting in irretrievable loss of any local changes. On the other hand, some users might expect only the files associated with the submodule to be removed. By not having a dedicated command, it helps prevent misunderstandings and encourages users to handle submodule removal with caution and clarity." } ]
[ { "from": "human", "value": "Why aren't python nested functions called closures?" }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "A closure occurs when a function has access to a local variable from an enclosing scope that has finished its execution. For example, \n\n```\ndef make_printer(msg):\n def printer():\n print(msg)\n return printer\nprinter = make_printer('Foo!')\nprinter()\n```\n\nWhen `make_printer` is called, a new frame is put on the stack with the compiled code for the `printer` function as a constant and the value of `msg` as a local. It then creates and returns the function. Because the function `printer` references the `msg` variable, it is kept alive after the `make_printer` function has returned.\nSo, if your nested functions don't\n\n* access variables that are local to enclosing scopes,\n* do so when they are executed outside of that scope,\n\nthen they are not closures.\n\nHere's an example of a nested function which is not a closure.\n```\ndef make_printer(msg):\n def printer(msg=msg):\n print(msg)\n return printer\nprinter = make_printer(&quot;Foo!&quot;)\nprinter() # Output: Foo!\n```\nHere, we are binding the value to the default value of a parameter. This occurs when the function `printer` is created and so no reference to the value of `msg` external to `printer` needs to be maintained after `make_printer` returns. `msg` is just a normal local variable of the function `printer` in this context." }, { "from": "human", "value": "If we are going to go by the strictest functional programming definitions, are your examples even functions? The point is moot, if you consider the return value to be None, but that is a whole other topic." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "Whether or not a blob of code is a closure depends on whether or not it closes over its environment, not what you call it. It could be a routine, function, procedure, method, block, subroutine, whatever. In Ruby, methods can't be closures, only blocks can. In Java, methods can't be closures, but classes can. That doesn't make them any less of a closure. Although the fact that they only close over *some* variables, and they cannot modify them, makes them next to useless. You could argue that a method is just a procedure closed over `self`. (In JavaScript/Python that's almost true.)" }, { "from": "human", "value": "Please define \"closes over\"." }, { "from": "gpt", "value": "\"closes over\" i.e. refers \"to a local variable [say, `i`] from an enclosing scope\". refers, i.e. can inspect (or change) `i`'s value, even if/when that scope \"has finished its execution\", i.e. the execution of a program has gone forth to other parts of the code. The block where `i` is defined is no more, yet function(s) referring to `i` still can do so. This is commonly described as \"closing over the variable `i`\". To not deal with the specific variables, it can be implemented as closing over the whole environment frame where that variable is defined." } ]