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"Phytoplasmas are insect-vectored bacteria that cause disease in a wide range of plant species. The increasing availability of molecular DNA analyses, expertise and additional methods in recent years has led to a proliferation of discoveries of phytoplasma-plant host associations and in the numbers of taxonomic groupings for phytoplasmas. The widespread use of common names based on the diseases with which they are associated, as well as separate phenetic and taxonomic systems for classifying phytoplasmas based on variation at the 16S rRNA-encoding gene, complicates interpretation of the literature. We explore this issue and related trends through a focus on Australian pathosystems, providing the first comprehensive compilation of information for this continent, covering the phytoplasmas, host plants, vectors and diseases. Of the 33 16Sr groups reported internationally, only groups I, II, III, X, XI and XII have been recorded in Australia and this highlights the need for ongoing biosecurity measures to prevent the introduction of additional pathogen groups. Many of the phytoplasmas reported in Australia have not been sufficiently well studied to assign them to 16Sr groups so it is likely that unrecognized groups and sub-groups are present. Wide host plant ranges are apparent among well studied phytoplasmas, with multiple crop and non-crop species infected by some. Disease management is further complicated by the fact that putative vectors have been identified for few phytoplasmas, especially in Australia. Despite rapid progress in recent years using molecular approaches, phytoplasmas remain the least well studied group of plant pathogens, making them a "crouching tiger" disease threat. "
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"Background: (-)-alpha-Bisabolol, also known as levomenol, is an unsaturated sesquiterpene alcohol that has mainly been used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products due to its anti-inflammatory and skin-soothing properties. (-)-alpha-Bisabolol is currently manufactured mainly by steam-distillation of the essential oils extracted from the Brazilian candeia tree that is under threat because its natural habitat is constantly shrinking. Therefore, microbial production of (-)-alpha-bisabolol plays a key role in the development of its sustainable production from renewable feedstock. Results: Here, we created an Escherichia coli strain producing (-)-alpha-bisabolol at high titer and developed an in situ extraction method of (-)-alpha-bisabolol, using natural vegetable oils. We expressed a recently identified (-)-alpha-bisabolol synthase isolated from German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) (titer: 3 mg/L), converted the acetyl-CoA to mevalonate, using the biosynthetic mevalonate pathway (12.8 mg/L), and overexpressed farnesyl diphosphate synthase to efficiently supply the (-)-alpha-bisabolol precursor farnesyl diphosphate. Combinatorial expression of the exogenous mevalonate pathway and farnesyl diphosphate synthase enabled a dramatic increase in (-)-alpha-bisabolol production in the shake flask culture (80 mg/L) and 5 L bioreactor culture (342 mg/L) of engineered E. coli harboring (-)-alpha-bisabolol synthase. Fed-batch fermentation using a 50 L fermenter was conducted after optimizing culture conditions, resulting in efficient (-)-alpha-bisabolol production with a titer of 9.1 g/L. Moreover, a green, downstream extraction process using vegetable oils was developed for in situ extraction of (-)-alpha-bisabolol during fermentation and showed high yield recovery (>98%). Conclusions: The engineered E. coli strains and economically viable extraction process developed in this study will serve as promising platforms for further development of microbial production of (-)-alpha-bisabolol at large scale. "
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"A universal feature of the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is the association with intracellular membranes. Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) replication in plants occurs in vesicles derived from the mitochondrial outer membrane. The product encoded by CIRV ORF1, p36, is required for targeting the virus replication complex to the outer mitochondrial membrane both in plant and yeast cells. Here the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a model host to study the effect of CIRV p36 on cell survival and death. It was shown that p36 does not promote cell death, but decreases cell growth rate. In addition, p36 changed the nature of acetic acid-induced cell death in yeast by increasing the number of cells dying by necrosis with concomitant decrease of the number of cells dying by programmed cell death, as judged by measurements of phosphatidylserine externalization. The tight association of p36 to membranes was not affected by acetic acid treatment, thus confirming the peculiar and independent interaction of CIRV p36 with mitochondria in yeast. This work proved yeast as an invaluable model organism to study both the mitochondrial determinants of the type of cell death in response to stress and the molecular pathogenesis of (+)RNA viruses. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. "
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"1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and dichloromethane (DCM) are possible causative agents associated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma in employees working in printing plant in Osaka, Japan. However, few reports have demonstrated an association between these agents and cholangiocarcinoma in rodent carcinogenicity studies. Moreover, the combined effects of these compounds have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo mutagenicity of 1,2-DCP and DCM, alone or combined, in the livers of gpt delta rats. Six-week-old male F344 gpt delta rats were treated with 1,2-DCP, DCM or 1,2-DCP+DCM by oral administration for 4weeks at the dose (200mgkg(-1) body weight 1,2-DCP and 500mgkg(-1) body weight DCM) used in the carcinogenesis study performed by the National Toxicology Program. In vivo mutagenicity was analyzed by gpt mutation/Spi(-) assays in the livers of rats. In addition, gene and protein expression of CYP2E1 and GSTT1, the major enzymes responsible for the genotoxic effects of 1,2-DCP and DCM, were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Gpt and Spi(-) mutation frequencies were not increased by 1,2-DCP and/or DCM in any group. Additionally, there were no significant changes in the gene and protein expression of CYP2E1 and GSTT1 in any group. These results indicated that 1,2-DCP, DCM and 1,2-DCP+DCM had no significant impact on mutagenicity in the livers of gpt delta rats under our experimental conditions. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. "
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"This paper presents the simulation results of a linear, fully integrated, two-stage digitally programmable 130 nm CMOS power amplifier (PA) operating at 2.4 GHz. Its power stage is composed of a set of amplifying cells which can be enabled or disabled independently by a digital control circuit. All seven operational modes are univocal in terms of 1 dB output compression point (OCP1dB), saturated output power (P-SAT) and power gain at 2.4 GHz. The lowest power mode achieves an 8.1 dBm P-SAT, a 13.5 dB power gain and consumes 171 mW DC power (P-DC) at an OCP1dB of 6 dBm, whereas the highest power mode reaches an 18.9 dBm P-SAT and a 21.1 dB power gain and consumes 415 mW P-DC at an OCP1dB of 18.2 dBm. "
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"The glycogen branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18), which catalyses the formation of alpha-1,6-glycosidic branch points in glycogen structure, is often used to enhance the nutritional value and quality of food and beverages. In order to be applicable in industries, enzymes that are stable and active at high temperature are much desired. Using genome mining, the nucleotide sequence of the branching enzyme gene (glgB) was extracted from the Geobacillus mahadia Geo-05 genome sequence provided by the Malaysia Genome Institute. The size of the gene is 2013 bp, and the theoretical molecular weight of the protein is 78.43 kDa. The gene sequence was then used to predict the thermostability, function and the three dimensional structure of the enzyme. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli to verify the predicted result experimentally. The purified enzyme was used to study the effect of temperature and pH on enzyme activity and stability, and the inhibitory effect by metal ion on enzyme activity. This thermostable glycogen branching enzyme was found to be most active at 55 degrees C, and the half-life at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C was 24 h and 5 h, respectively. From this research, a thermostable glycogen branching enzyme was successfully isolated from Geobacillus mahadia Geo-05 by genome mining together with molecular biology technique. "
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"The microbial populations in the activated sludge of two Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were identified and quantified using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons over a 2-year period. Their dynamics over time were compared to Danish WWTPs (data collected in previous studies by Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University). The bacterial communities in Polish and Danish WWTPs were similar to each other, but the microbial diversity in Polish WWTPs was lower. The dominant genera in Polish WWTPs were more abundant than in Danish WWTPs; 30 of them constituted more than half the of activated sludge community. Polish WWTPs showed a higher abundance of bacteria involved in nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal (Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), while polyphosphate-acculumating bacteria were the dominant bacterial group in Danish plants. The microbial community structures in the examined Polish WWTPs were relatively similar to each other and showed strong seasonal variations which are not normally observed in Danish WWTPs. "
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"Background: Broad-range 16S rRNA PCR can be used for the detection and identification of bacteria from clinical specimens in patients for whom there is a high suspicion of infection and cultures are negative. The aims of this study were (1) to compare 16S rRNA PCR results with microbiolog ical culture results, (2) to assess the utility of 16S rRNA PCR with regard to antimicrobial therapy, and (3) to compare the yield of 16S rRNA PCR for different types of clinical specimen and to perform a cost analysis of the test. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on different clinical specimens which had 16S performed over 3 years (2012-2015). Standard microbiological cultures were performed on appropriate media, as per the laboratory protocol. Patient clinical and microbiological data were obtained from the electronic medical records and laboratory information system, respectively. 16S rRNA PCR was performed in a reference laboratory using a validated method for amplification and sequencing. The outcomes assessed were the performance of 16S rRNA PCR, change of antimicrobials (rationalization, cessation, or addition), and duration of therapy. Concordance of 16S rRNA PCR with bacterial cultures was also determined for tissue specimens. Results: Thirty-two patients were included in the study, for whom an equal number of specimens (n = 32) were sent for 16S rRNA PCR. 16S rRNA PCR could identify an organism in 10 of 32 cases (31.2%), of which seven were culture-positive and three were culture-negative. The sensitivity was 58% (confidence interval (CI) 28.59-83.5%) and specificity was 85% (CI 61.13-96%), with a positive predictive value of 70% (CI 35.3-91.9%) and negative predictive value of 77.2% (CI 54.17-91.3%). Antimicrobial therapy was rationalized after 16S rRNA PCR results in five patients (15.6%) and was ceased in four based on negative results (12.5%). Overall the 16S rRNA PCR result had an impact on antimicrobial therapy in 28% of patients (9/32). The highest concordance of 16S rRNA PCR with bacterial culture was found for heart valve tissue (80%), followed by joint fluid/tissue (50%). Conclusions: Despite the low diagnostic yield, results of 16S rRNA PCR can still have a significant impact on patient management due to rationalization or cessation of the antimicrobial therapy. The yield of 16S rRNA PCR was highest for heart valves. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. "
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"Brinjal little leaf (BLL) is a widespread disease of phytoplasma etiology in India that induces severe economic losses. Surveys were conducted in eight brinjalgrowing states of India during July 2014 to September 2015 and eighteen BLL samples showing little leaf, phyllody and witches' broom symptoms were collected for phytoplasma identification. Presence of phytoplasmas was confirmed in all the eighteen BLL samples using polymerase chain reaction with phytoplasma-specific primer pairs (P1/P6, R16F2n/R16R2). Pair wise sequence comparison and phylogenetic relationship of 16S rRNA gene sequences of BLL phytoplasma strains confirmed that sixteen out of eighteen BLL strains belonged to clover proliferation phytoplasma (16SrVI) group and two BLL strains (GKP-A and GKP-B) from Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, were classified under 16SrII group. Further virtual RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA sequences allowed finer classification of BLL strains into 16SrII-D and 16SrVI-D subgroups. BLL phytoplasma strains belonging to 16SrVI-D subgroup were found as the most widespread phytoplasma strains associated with BLL disease in India. 16SrVI-D subgroup phytoplasma association with two symptomatic weed species viz. Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa at Noida, Uttar Pradesh and Portulaca oleracea at IARI fields, New Delhi was also confirmed by nested PCR assays with similar set of phytoplasma-specific primers, pairwise 16S rDNA sequence comparison, phylogeny and virtual RFLP analysis. Out of five identified leafhopper species from BLL-infected fields at Noida, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, only Hishimonas phycitis was identified as carrier and natural vector of 16SrVI-D subgroup of phytoplasmas by nested PCR assays, sequence comparison, phylogeny, virtual RFLP analysis and transmission assays. "
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"Surveys for the Cote d'Ivoire lethal yellowing (CILY) phytoplasma were conducted in eight severely CILY-affected villages of Grand-Lahou in 2015. Leaves, inflorescences and trunk borings were collected from coconut palms showing CILY symptoms and from symptomless trees. Total DNA was extracted from these samples and tested by nested polymerase chain reaction/RFLP and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein (rp) and the translocation protein (secA) genes. The CILY phytoplasma was detected in 82.9% of the symptom-bearing palms collected from all the surveyed villages and from all the plant parts. Trunk borings were recommended as the most suitable plant tissue type for sampling. Results indicate that the CILY phytoplasma may have a westward spread to other coconut-growing areas of Grand-Lahou. CILY phytoplasma strains infecting coconut palms in the western region of Grand-Lahou exhibited unique single nucleotide polymorphisms on the rp sequence compared to the strains from the eastern region. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphisms on the SecA sequence distinguished the CILY phytoplasma from the Cape St. Paul Wilt Disease phytoplasma in Ghana, and the Lethal Yellowing phytoplasma in Mozambique. "
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"Advances in sequencing technologies continue to provide unprecedented opportunities to characterize microbial communities. For example, the Pacific Biosciences Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) platform has emerged as a unique approach harnessing DNA polymerase activity to sequence template molecules, enabling long reads at low costs. With the aim to simultaneously classify and enumerate in situ microbial populations, we developed a quantitative SMRT (qSMRT) approach that involves the addition of exogenous standards to quantify ribosomal amplicons derived from environmental samples. The V7-9 regions of 18S SSU rDNA were targeted and quantified from protistan community samples collected in the Ross Sea during the Austral summer of 2011. We used three standards of different length and optimized conditions to obtain accurate quantitative retrieval across the range of expected amplicon sizes, a necessary criterion for analyzing taxonomically diverse 18S rDNA molecules from natural environments. The ability to concurrently identify and quantify microorganisms in their natural environment makes qSMRT a powerful, rapid and cost-effective approach for defining ecosystem diversity and function. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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"1A6/DRIM is a nucleolar protein with a nucleolar targeting sequence in its 3'-terminus. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that human 1A6/ DRIM shares 23% identity and 43% similarity with yeast Utp20, which has been reported as a component of U3 snoRNA protein complex and has been implicated in 18S rRNA processing. In the present study, we found, by utilizing RT-PCR with RNA extracted from anti-1A6/DRIM inummoprecipitates and Northern blotting, that 1A6/DRIM is associated with U3 snoRNA. Pulse-chase labeling assays showed that silencing of 1A6/DRIM expression in HeLa cells resulted in a delayed 18S rRNA processing. Furthermore, immunoprecipitations revealed that 1A6/DRIM was also associated with fibrillarin, another U3 RNP component in HeLa cells. These results indicate that 1A6/DRIM is involved in 18S rRNA processing and is the bona fide mammalian Utp20. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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"Aims: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic condition associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Previous studies have shown that negative symptoms represent the most specific clinical characteristic of psychosis in 22q11.2DS and are strongly associated with outcome. However, the psychological mechanisms associated with these symptoms in this population are poorly understood. In accordance with recent conceptualizations in the field of schizophrenia, the present study aims at investigating whether negative symptoms are associated with the presence of negative performance beliefs and cognitive deficits. Methods: Thirty-five participants with 22q11.2DS and 24 typically developing individuals aged between 11 and 24 years were included in the study. Self-reported schizotypal symptoms (cognitive-perceptual, paranoid, negative and disorganization symptoms) and dysfunctional beliefs (negative performance beliefs and need for approval) were assessed. Measures of processing speed, verbal memory, working memory, executive functioning and face recognition-were also extracted from a broad cognitive evaluation protocol. Results: Adolescents with 22q11.2DS reported significantly higher score on the negative dimension of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire than controls, even when controlling for the influence of anxiety/depression and intellectual functioning. Negative and paranoid symptoms were associated with the severity of negative performance beliefs and lower face recognition abilities. Mediation analyses revealed that negative performance beliefs significantly mediated the association between face recognition and negative/paranoid symptoms. Conclusions: These findings suggest that negative performance beliefs and basic social cognitive mechanisms are associated with negative and paranoid symptoms in individuals with 22q11.2DS. Implications for intervention are discussed in this article. "
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"Background: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with a 25-fold increase in schizophrenia. Both individuals with 22q11.2DS and those with schizophrenia present with social cognitive deficits, which are putatively subserved by a network of brain regions that are involved in the processing of social cognitive information. This study used two-tensor tractography to examine the white matter tracts believed to underlie the social brain network in a group of 57 young adults with 22q11.2DS compared to 30 unaffected controls. Results: Results indicated that relative to controls, participants with 22q11.2DS showed significant differences in several DTI metrics within the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum bundle, thalamo-frontal tract, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In addition, participants with 22q11.2DS showed significant differences in scores on measures of social cognition, including the Social Responsiveness Scale and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Further analyses among individuals with 22q11.2DS demonstrated an association between DTI metrics and positive and negative symptoms of psychosis, as well as differentiation between individuals with 22q11.2DS and overt psychosis, relative to those with positive prodromal symptoms or no psychosis. Conclusions: Findings suggest that white matter disruption, specifically disrupted axonal coherence in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, may be a biomarker for social cognitive difficulties and psychosis in individuals with 22q11.2DS. "
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"Through the comprehensive analysis of the genomic DNA sequence of human chromosome 22, we identified a novel gene of 702 kb encoding a big protein of 2481 amino acid residues, and named it as TPRBK (TPR containing big gene cloned at Keio). A novel protein TPRBK possesses 25 units of the TPR motif, which has been known to associate with a diverse range of biological functions. Orthologous genes of human TPRBK were found widely in animal species, from insecta to mammal, but not found in plants, fungi and nematoda. Northern blotting and RT-PCR analyses revealed that TPRBK gene is expressed ubiquitously in the human and mouse fetal tissues and various cell lines of human, monkey and mouse. lmmunofluorescent staining of the synchronized monkey COS-7 cells with several relevant antibodies indicated that TPRBK changes its subcellular localization during the cell cycle: at interphase TPRBK locates on the centrosomes, during mitosis it translocates from spindle poles to mitotic spindles then to spindle midzone, and through a period of cytokinesis it stays on the midbody. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and immunofluorescent staining with adequate antibodies revealed that TPRBK binds to Aurora B. and those proteins together translocate throughout mitosis and cytokinesis. Treatments of cells with two drugs (Blebbistatin and Y-27632), that are known to inhibit the contractility of actin-myosin, disturbed the proper intracellular localization of TPRBK. Moreover, the knockdown of TPRBK expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed the bundling of spindle midzone microtubules and disrupted the midbody formation, arresting the cells at G(2) + M phase. These observations indicated that a novel big protein TPRBK is essential for the formation and integrity of the midbody, hence we postulated that TPRBK plays a critical role in the progress of mitosis and cytokinesis during mammalian cell cycle. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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"Graphene and other two-dimensional materials have received considerable attention regarding their potential applications in nano-electronics. Here, we report top-gate nonvolatile memory field-effect transistors (FETs) with different layers of MoSe2 nanosheets channel gated by ferroelectric film. The conventional gate dielectric of FETs was replaced by a ferroelectric thin film that provides a ferroelectric polarization electric field, and therefore defined as an Fe-FET where the poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) was used as the gate dielectric. Among the devices with MoSe2 channels of different thicknesses, the device with a single layer of MoSe2 exhibited a large hysteresis of electronic transport with an over 10(5) write/erase ratio, and displayed excellent retention and endurance performance. The possible mechanism of the device's good properties was qualitatively analyzed using band theory. Additionally, a comprehensive study comparing the memory properties of MoSe2 channels of different thicknesses is presented. Increasing the numbers of MoSe2 layers was found to cause a reduced memory window. However, MoSe2 thickness of 5 nm yielded a write/erase ratio of more than 10(3). The results indicate that, based on a Fe-FET structure, the combination of two-dimensional semiconductors and organic ferroelectric gate dielectrics shows good promise for future applications in nonvolatile ferroelectric memory. "
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"Relationships between the abundance of potential geosmin- and 2-methylisoborneol-producing (2-MIB) cyanobacteria and bacteria, and concentrations of the two taste and odour compounds (T&Os) were examined in a 7 day incubation of natural water from the surface and bottom of three reservoirs in southeast Queensland, Australia. Only a single known T&O-producing cyanobacterium (Geitlerinema spp.) was detected by microscopy at low density, and only in one reservoir. Densities of potential T&O-producing Streptomyces (determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay) were highest in the bottom water and varied from 0.7 x 10(3) to 775 x 10(3) cells L-1. Geosmin ranged from 6 to 59 ng L-1 (with the highest concentrations in the bottom water), while 2-MIB varied from 6 to 47 ng L-1 (with the highest concentration in surface water). Concentrations of both compounds declined during the incubation under both light and dark conditions. Presence of the geosmin synthase gene, geoA, in cyanobacteria and Streptomyces was examined by different PCR approaches. Cloning of PCR products from amplification of geoA showed a high similarity to geoA in cyanobacteria, but not to streptomycetes. Our results demonstrate that more research on the ecology and molecular biology of T&O producers is required to better understand the dynamics of T&Os and to monitor emerging T&O episodes. "
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"We have carried out animal toxicity tests of chemicals for a chemical safety program implemented by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry of Japan. Here, we tested 1-tert-butoxy-4-chlorobenzene in a combined repeat-dose and developmental and reproductive toxicity test. The test chemical was administered daily by gavage to 9-week-old Crl:CD (SD) rats at doses of 0, 20, 100, and 500 mg/kg/d. Males were treated for 42 d beginning 14 d before mating. Females were treated from 14 d before mating to day 4 of lactation. Decreased spontaneous locomotion, decreased respiratory rate, and incomplete eyelid opening were observed at 500 mg/kg/d (both sexes), but resolved within 30 min of administration, suggesting central nervous system depression. No notable changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, functional battery tests, or blood test. Increased liver weight with centrilobular or diffuse hepatocyte hypertrophy was observed at 100 and 500 mg/kg/d (both sexes). There were no biochemical or histopathological changes related to hepatotoxicity. Increased kidney weight with basophilic tubules, tubule dilatation, and increased hyaline droplets were observed in males dosed at 100 and 500 mg/kg/d. Immunohistochemical staining indicated alpha(2u)-globulin nephropathy, a male rat-specific toxicity. Although kidney weight was also increased in females dosed at 500 mg/kg/d, it was not considered to be an adverse effect because there were no histopathological changes. Pup weights on postnatal day 0 were decreased at 500 mg/kg/d and still decreased on postnatal day 4. Our data indicated the no-observed-adverse-effect-level for repeated-dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity for 1-tert-butoxy-4-chlorobenzene was 100 mg/kg/d. "
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"The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) plays a mandatory role in the action of most opioid drugs, such as morphine, fentanyl, and heroin. it has been revealed that a deficiency in the MOR gene (Oprm 1) or a difference in the 3' noncoding region of the gene markedly affects the sensitivity of mice to opioids. As the 3' noncoding region of the human OPRM1 gene had not yet been characterized, in the present study we conducted 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'RACE)-PCR and identified the 3' end of the human MOR-1 mRNA, the most abundant transcript among OPRM1 gene transcripts. The poly(A) signal was located at 13612-13617 nucleotides downstream from the stop codon in the OPRM1 gene. Reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that the region from the stop codon to the poly(A) signal was transcribed. In the 3' UTR, we identified 33 AU-rich regions and more than 300 putative transcription factor-binding sites. Furthermore, we compared the 3' noncoding regions of the human and mouse OPRM1/Oprm1] genes and found apparent homology. In Northern blotting with mouse brain mRNAs, a same-size band was detected by a probe for the MOR-1 coding region and by a probe for a mouse genome region corresponding to the human MOR-1 3'UTR. Since 3'UTRs affect gene expression, the present characterization of the 3' noncoding region in the human OPRM1 gene should lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying OPRM1 gene regulation and individual differences in sensitivity to opioids. Published by Elsevier B.V. "
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"An integrated electronic-photonic phase-locked loop (PLL) modulates the frequency of a tunable laser for use in frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) lidar 3D imaging. The proposed lidar can perform 180k range measurements per second. The rms depth precision is 8 mu m at distances of +/- 5 cm from the range baseline. The range window is 1.4 m, with a precision of 4.2 mm at the edges of the window. Optical circuitry, including input light couplers, waveguides, and photodiodes, is realized on a 3 mm x 3 mm silicon-photonic chip. The 0.18-mu m CMOS ASIC of the same area comprises the frontend transimpedance amplifier, analog electro-optical PLL, and digital control circuitry consuming 1.7 mA from a 1.8 V supply and 14.1 mA from a 5-V supply. The latter includes 12.5-mA bias current for the distributed Bragg reflector section of the tunable laser. The two chips are integrated using through-silicon-vias implemented in the silicon-photonic chip. "
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"3D printing has shown promise for neural regeneration by providing customized nerve scaffolds to structurally support and bridge the defect gap as well as deliver cells or various bioactive substances. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) exhibits positive effects on rehabiliation of degenerative nerves and neural disorders. With this in mind, we postulate that 3D printed neural scaffold coupling with LLLT will generate a new strategy to repair neural degeneration. To achieve this goal, we applied red laser light to stimualte neural stem cells on 3D printed scaffolds and investigated the subsequent cell response with respect to cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we show that cell prolifeartion rate and intracellular reactive oxgen species synthesis were significantly increased after 15 s laser stimulation follwed by 1 d culture. Over culturing time of 14 d in vitro, the laser stimulation promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells, while the glial differentiation was suppressed based on results of both immunocytochemistry studies and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. These findings suggest that integration of 3D printing and LLLT might provide a powerful methodology for neural tissue engineering. "
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"With the advances of stem cell research, development of intelligent biomaterials and three-dimensional biofabrication strategies, highly mimicked tissue or organs can be engineered. Among all the biofabrication approaches, bioprinting based on inkjet printing technology has the promises to deliver and create biomimicked tissue with high throughput, digital control, and the capacity of single cell manipulation. Therefore, this enabling technology has great potential in regenerative medicine and translational applications. The most current advances in organ and tissue bioprinting based on the thermal inkjet printing technology are described in this review, including vasculature, muscle, cartilage, and bone. In addition, the benign side effect of bioprinting to the printed mammalian cells can be utilized for gene or drug delivery, which can be achieved conveniently during precise cell placement for tissue construction. With layer-by-layer assembly, three-dimensional tissues with complex structures can be printed using converted medical images. Therefore, bioprinting based on thermal inkjet is so far the most optimal solution to engineer vascular system to the thick and complex tissues. Collectively, bioprinting has great potential and broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The future advances of bioprinting include the integration of different printing mechanisms to engineer biphasic or triphasic tissues with optimized scaffolds and further understanding of stem cell biology. "
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"3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) was a novel hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme that may be involved in cyanide degradation and in thiosulfate biosynthesis. Over recent years, considerable attention has been focused on the biochemistry and molecular biology of H2S-synthesizing enzyme. In contrast, there have been few concerted attempts to investigate the changes in the expression of the H2S-synthesizing enzymes with disease states. To investigate the changes of 3-MST after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its possible role, mice TBI model was established by controlled cortical impact system, and the expression and cellular localization of 3-MST after TBI was investigated in the present study. Western blot analysis revealed that 3-MST was present in normal mice brain cortex. It gradually increased, reached a peak on the first day after TBI, and then reached a valley on the third day. Importantly, 3-MST was colocalized with neuron. In addition, Western blot detection showed that the first day post injury was also the autophagic peak indicated by the elevated expression of LC3. Importantly, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that injury-induced expression of 3-MST was partly colabeled by LC3. However, there was no colocalization of 3-MST with propidium iodide (cell death marker) and LC3 positive cells were partly colocalized with propidium iodide. These data suggested that 3-MST was mainly located in living neurons and may be implicated in the autophagy of neuron and involved in the pathophysiology of brain after TBI. "
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"Oxidative stress is closely involved in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to examine the effect of anti-oxidant DHM (dihydromyricetin) on 3NP (3-nitropropionic acid) -induced behavioral deficits of experimental rats and striatal histopathological injury by using behavioral, imaging, biochemistry, histochemistry and molecular biology technologies. The experimental results showed that both motor dysfunctions and learning and memory impairments induced by 3NP were significantly reduced after DHM treatment. 3NP-induced striatal metabolic abnormality was also remarkably improved by DHM treatment, showed as the increased glucose metabolism in PET/CT scan, decreased MDA (malondialdehyde) and increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity in enzyme histochemical staining. In addition, the cell apoptosis was evidently detected in the striatum of the 3NP group, while in the 3NP + DHM group, the number of apoptotic cells was remarkably reduced. 3NP treatment obviously induced down-regulation of Bcl-2, and up-regulations of Bax and Cleaved Caspase-3, while these changes were significantly reversed by DHM treatment. The present results suggested that DHM showed its protective effect by anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis mechanisms. "
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"The 45 degrees beam splitting mirror plays a vital role on image quality in the Holographic system, in order to study the influence of environment temperature variation on the 45 degrees beam splitting mirror in the Holographic system, finite element analysis method is used to simulate the anti-three through seven mirror deformation at 27 degrees C, 28 degrees C and 29 degrees C temperature in theory. A new real-time monitoring and displaying photoelectric system for ambient temperature and beam splitting mirror distortion detection is designed to provide real-time temperature change and deformation detection, which is made up of laser speckle interferometer, chip temperature sensor, two-operational amplifier, MCU and LED indicator. And the out-plane displacement value measured in the experiment under the condition of temperature correspondingly are 406nm, 420nm and 427 nm. Finally, the relation equation of temperature and mirror deformation is established by the method of exponential equation fitting, which will provide preliminary theoretical and experimental reference for further research. "
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"A thermotolerant bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus with an ability to produce extracellular -mannanase was isolated from a soil sample. Bacterium produced 45U/mL -mannanase at 50 degrees C. The culture conditions for high-level production of -mannanase were optimized. Optimized MS medium [wheat bran 2% (w/v), ammonium sulfate 0.3% (w/v), yeast extract, and peptone (0.025% each) pH 6.5] was inoculated with 2% of 16H old culture. The culture was incubated at 50 degrees C for 48H resulting in 24-folds higher -mannanase production (1,100 +/- 50U/mL). Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity of the crude enzyme was 6.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme demonstrated 65% relative enzyme activity at 37 degrees C. The hydrolytic activity of the crude enzymatic preparation was assessed on various agro residues. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis showed that the enzyme activity to saccharify heteromannans resulted in production of a mixture of manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) and enzyme exhibited classic endo-activity. To evaluate the possible prebiotic potential of the MOS thus obtained, initial screening for their ability to support the growth of probiotics was carried out by the pure culture method. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus sp. responded positively to the addition of enzymatically derived oligosaccharides and their numbers increased significantly. (C) 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. "
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"Serotonin N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (SHT) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of feruloylserotonin (FS) and 4-coumaroylserotonin (CS). These serotonin derivatives show strong antioxidant activity, making them valuable for both nutritional and pharmacological use in humans. Ectopic expression of SHT under the control of the endosperm specific-glutelin and prolamin promoters from rice was produced via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. SHT expression was confirmed by Southern blot analysis, followed by Northern blotting and SHT enzyme activity analyses using total RNA and protein, respectively, extracted from transgenic seeds. The glutelin A3 (GluA3) promoter produced low SHT mRNA expression in rice seeds, whereas the prolamin promoter expressed high levels of SHT mRNA. In spite of the ectopic expression of SHT in rice seeds, both transgenic genotypes accumulated levels of serotonin derivatives similar to those found in wild-type rice. Furthermore, our data suggest that serotonin, rather than phenylpropanid-CoAs, is the rate-limiting substrate in the biosynthesis of serotonin derivatives in SHT-overexpressing transgenic rice seeds. "
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"A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1 x 16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analog signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power. Published by Elsevier B.V. "
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"Silicon RF power amplifiers (PAs) are in various RF front end modules (FEMs) today for handset and WLAN applications. Even though III-V semiconductor-based RF PAs can still offer superior frequency and breakdown performance with higher POUT and power-added-efficiency (PAE) and faster time-to-market, silicon-based RF PAs do have the advantages in offering higher monolithic integration with added functionalities (e.g., on-chip digital control and selection on power level, modulation, frequency band, matching, predistortion, etc.), which can translate to lower cost and smaller sizes attractive for broadband multi-mode multi-band handset transmitters. Therefore, some key techniques for designing high-efficiency 4G/5G/WLAN broadband wireless silicon PAs will be discussed. "
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"Although gain of chromosome 5p is one of the most frequent DNA copy-number imbalances in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the genes that drive its selection remain poorly understood. In a previous cross-sectional clinical study, we showed that the microRNA processor Drosha (located on chromosome 5p) demonstrates frequent copy-number gain and overexpression in cervical SCC, associated with altered microRNA profiles. Here, we have conducted gene depletion/overexpression experiments to demonstrate the functional significance of up-regulated Drosha in cervical SCC cells. Drosha depletion by RNA interference (RNAi) produced significant, specific reductions in cell motility/invasiveness in vitro, with a silent RNAi-resistant Drosha mutation providing phenotype rescue. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering following global profiling of 319 microRNAs in 18 cervical SCC cell line specimens generated two groups according to Drosha expression levels. Altering Drosha levels in individual SCC lines changed the group into which the cells clustered, with gene depletion effects being rescued by the RNAi-resistant mutation. Forty-five microRNAs showed significant differential expression between the groups, including four of 14 that were differentially expressed in association with Drosha levels in clinical samples. miR-31 up-regulation in Drosha-overexpressing samples/cell lines was the highest-ranked change (by adjusted p value) in both analyses, an observation validated by northern blotting. These functional data support the role of Drosha as an oncogene in cervical SCC, by affecting expression of cancer-associated microRNAs that have the potential to regulate numerous protein-coding genes. Copyright (C) 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. "
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"Aim: An RNA-seq analysis recently identified a 236-nucleotide transcript upstream from malS in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here, we investigated its molecular characteristics and function. Materials & methods: RACE and northern blotting were used to determine the molecular characteristics of the sequence, and mutagenesis, microarray, immunoblotting and an invasion assay were used to investigate the functions of the transcript. Results: The transcript was identified as the malS 5'-untranslated region (UTR), which could influence the expression of the flagellar and SPI-1 genes and the invasion of HeLa cells by S. Typhi. Deletion of bax increased the expression of the invasion genes and the invasive capacity of S. Typhi, whereas the expression of the malS 5'-UTR reduced the expression of bax. Conclusion: The malS 5'-UTR reduces the expression of bax and increases the invasive capacity of S. Typhi. "
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"This paper presents the design of a compact 60-GHz phase shifter that provides a 5-bit digital phase control and 360 degrees phase range for beam-forming systems. The phase shifter is designed using the proposed cross-coupled bridged T-type topology and switched-varactor reflective-type topology. The topologies are analyzed using a small-signal equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, the design equations are derived and investigated. To validate the theoretical analysis, 60-GHz 5-bit 360 degrees phase shifters are designed in a commercial 65-nm CMOS technology. The fabricated 360 degrees phase shifter features good performance of 32 phase states from 57 to 64 GHz with an rms phase error of 4.4 degrees, a total insertion loss of 14.3 +/- 2 dB, an rms gain error of 0.5 dB, P-1 dB of better than 9.5 dBm, and the power consumption of almost zero. To the best of our knowledge, the designed 360 degrees phase shifter with the size of 0.094 mm(2) is the smallest 5-bit passive phase shifter at frequencies around 60 GHz. "
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"By differential high-throughput RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) we have identified "product RNAs" (pRNAs) as short as 8-12 nucleotides that are synthesized by Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase (RNAP) in vivo using the regulatory 6S-1 RNA as template. The dRNA-seq data were confirmed by in vitro transcription experiments and northern blotting. In our libraries, we were unable to detect statistically meaningful numbers of reads potentially representing pRNAs derived from 6S-2 RNA. However, pRNAs could be synthesized in vitro from 6S-2 RNA as template by the B. subtilis sigma(A) RNAP. 6S-1 pRNA levels are low during exponential, increase in stationary and burst during outgrowth from stationary phase, demonstrating that pRNA synthesis is a conserved regulatory mechanism, but a more dynamic and fine-tuning process than previously thought. Most pRNAs have a length of 8-15 nt, very few up to 24 nt. The average length of pRNAs tended to increase from stationary to outgrowth conditions. Synthesis of pRNA is initiated at C40 of 6S-1 RNA and U41 of 6S-2 RNA, yielding pRNAs with a 5'-terminal G or A residue, respectively. A B. subtilis 6S-1 RNA mutant strain encoding a pRNA with a 5'-terminal A residue showed the same relative distribution of similar to 14-nt pRNAs between the different growth states, but generally displayed lower pRNA levels than the reference strain encoding wild-type 6S-1 RNA. A similar to two-fold lower affinity of the C40U mutant 6S-1 RNA towards sigma(A) RNAP may have contributed to this reduction in pRNA levels. We infer that 6S-1 pRNA synthesis, although evolutionarily optimized for initiation with a + 1G residue, is not primarily regulated at the transcription initiation level via growth phase-dependent variations in the cellular GTP pool. "
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"The "central dogma" of molecular biology describes how information contained in DNA is transformed into RNA and finally into proteins. In order for proteins to maintain their functionality in both the parent cell and subsequent generations, it is essential that the information encoded in DNA and RNA remains unaltered. DNA and RNA are constantly exposed to damaging agents, which can modify nucleic acids and change the information they encode. While much is known about how cells respond to damaged DNA, the importance of protecting RNA has only become appreciated over the past decade. Modification of the nucleobase through oxidation and alkylation has long been known to affect its base-pairing properties during DNA replication. Similarly, recent studies have begun to highlight some of the unwanted consequences of chemical damage on mRNA decoding during translation. Oxidation and alkylation of mRNA appear to have drastic effects on the speed and fidelity of protein synthesis. As some mRNAs can persist for days in certain tissues, it is not surprising that it has recently emerged that mRNA-surveillance and RNA-repair pathways have evolved to clear or correct damaged mRNA. "
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"A cDNA clone of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. encoding auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1), one of the putative receptors of auxin, was isolated, and the seasonal expression of ABP1 in relation to IAA and ABA annual variation was investigated by different technical approaches including RT-PCR, real-time PCR, northern blotting, western blotting, and immunolocalization. In the cambial region, ABP1 expression at both the protein and the mRNA level was found to be high, low, and remarkably scarce in the active, quiescent, and resting stages, respectively, during cambium periodicity. The signal abundance of ABP1 follows the opposite pattern to ABA accumulation and correlates with auxin responsiveness of the cambial tissues, suggesting a role for ABP1 in mediating auxin-dependent regulation of cambial activation in the activity-dormancy cycle. This paper attempts to explain why IAA would 'boost' the reactivation of a quiescent cambium, and not that of a resting cambium. Results also show that ABP1 expression is improved by IAA, while inhibited by ABA. "
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"The monkey is an important experimental model in the pharmacological evaluation of new drugs. We isolated monkey multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) cDNA to examine expression profiles among various tissues and measured ATPase activity to assess substrate specificity. The amino acid sequence encoded by monkey MRP2 cDNA was very similar (96% identity) to the reported human MRP2 cDNA (GenBank accession no. NM_000392). The tissue distribution of MRP2 in monkeys was partially different from that in humans. We found relatively high expression of MRP2 in the monkey kidney and small intestine using Northern blotting. Substrate specificity was compared between human and monkey MRP2. The affinity of 17 beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide), methotrexate, vinblastine, and probenecid to monkey MRP2 was higher than that to human MRP2. Functional and expression differences between human and monkey MRP2 should be incorporated into the evaluation of candidate drugs. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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"Introduction: Most disseminated cancers remain fatal despite the availability of a variety of conventional and novel treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and biologically targeted therapy. A major factor responsible for the failure of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The overexpression of various ABC transporters in cancer cells can efficiently remove the anticancer drug from the cell, thus causing the drug to lose its effect.Areas covered: In this review, we summarised the ongoing research related to the mechanism, function, and regulation of ABC transporters. We integrated our current knowledge at different levels from molecular biology to clinical trials. We also discussed potential therapeutic strategies of targeting ABC transporters to reverse MDR in cancer cells.Expert opinion: Involvement of various ABC transporters to cancer MDR lays the foundation for developing tailored therapies that can overcome MDR. An ideal MDR reversal agent should have broad-spectrum ABC-transporter inhibitory activity, be potent, have good pharmacokinetics, have no trans-stimulation effects, and have low or no toxicity. Alternatively, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems containing both the cytotoxic drug and reversing agent may represent a useful approach to reversing MDR with minimal off-target toxicity. "
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"PurposeDespite being the third most common ABCA4 variant observed in patients with Stargardt disease, the functional effect of the intronic ABCA4 variant c.5461-10T>C is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular effect of this variant. MethodsFibroblast samples from patients carrying the ABCA4 variant c.5461-10T>C were analysed by isolating total RNA, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers spanning the variant. For detection of ABCA4 protein, fibroblast samples were lysed and analysed by SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting using a monoclonal ABCA4 antibody. ResultsThe ABCA4 variant c.5461-10T>C causes a splicing defect resulting in the reduction of full-length mRNA in fibroblasts from patients and the presence of alternatively spliced mRNAs where exon 39-40 is skipped. A reduced level of full-length ABCA4 protein is observed compared to controls not carrying the variant. ConclusionsThis study describes the functional effect and the molecular mechanism of the pathogenic ABCA4 variant c.5461-10T>C. The variant is functionally important as it leads to splicing defects and a reduced level of ABCA4 protein. "
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"Objective/Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have already been identified as key players in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the current data remain inconclusive. In this study, the expression of MMPs at mRNA and protein levels were investigated in relation to the degradation of collagen I and collagen III. Methods: Tissue samples were obtained from 40 patients with AAA undergoing open aortic repair, and from five healthy controls during kidney transplantation. Expression of MMPs 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, and 12, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1, and TIMP2 were measured at the mRNA level using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. At the protein level, MMPs, collagen I, and collagen III, and their degradation products carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (CTX)-I and CTX-III, were quantified via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, immunohistochemistry and gelatine zymography were performed. Results: In AAA, significantly enhanced mRNA expression was observed for MMPs 3, 9, and 12 compared with controls (p <= .001). MMPs 3, 9, and 12 correlated significantly with macrophages (p = .007, p = .018, and p = .015, respectively), and synthetic smooth muscle cells with MMPs 1, 2, and 9 (p = .020, p = .018, and p = .027, respectively). At the protein level, MMPs 8, 9, and 12 were significantly elevated in AAA (p = .006, p = .0004, and p < .001, respectively). No significant correlation between mRNA and protein was observed for any MMP. AAA contained significantly reduced intact collagen I (twofold; p = .002), whereas collagen III was increased (4.6 fold; p < .001). Regarding degraded collagen I and III relative to intact collagens, observations were inverse (1.4 fold increase for CTX-1 [p < .001]; fivefold decrease for CTX-III [p = .004]). MMPs 8, 9, and 12 correlated with collagen I (p = .019, p < .001, and p = 0.003, respectively), collagen III (p = .015, p < .001, and p < .001, respectively), and degraded collagen I (p = .012, p = .049, and p = .001, respectively). Conclusion: No significant relationship was found between mRNA and protein and MMP levels. MMPs 9 and 12 were overexpressed in AAA at the mRNA and protein level, and MMP-8 at the protein level. MMP-2 was detected in synthetic SMCs. Collagen I and III showed inverse behaviour in AAA. In particular, MMPs 8, 9, and;12 appear to be associated with collagen I, collagen III, and their degradation products. (C) 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. "
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"Purpose of review One of the most important challenges in the intestinal ( ITx) and multivisceral transplant ( MVTx) is to achieve a successful abdominal wall closure. Recent findings A tension-free primary closure should be our aim. In most of the cases, we need to perform a component separation technique, alone or combined, to the use of a synthetic mesh. If those options are not feasible, the abdominal wall composite vascularized allograft transplant ( AW-CVA) utilizing direct orthotopic vascularization can be considered. The nonvascularized abdominal rectus fascia has also become an alternative method used worldwide, proving to be simple and well tolerated procedure. Furthermore, the use of the AW has been recently proposed as a new tool for a sentinel monitoring of the intestinal or pancreas allograft. Summary There are different validated options for abdominal wall closure following intestinal transplantation. The long-term benefits of transplanting the abdominal wall, full or partial thickness and vascularized or nonvascularised, were shown. New developments might help to expand their applications in different areas such as reconstructive surgery and immunology. "
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"The Arabidopsis thaliana late embryogenesis abundant gene AtEm6 is required for normal seed development and for buffering the rate of dehydration during the latter stages of seed maturation. However, its function in salt stress tolerance is not fully understood. In this investigation, cell suspension cultures of three plant species rice (Oryza sativa L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and white pine (Pinus strobes L.) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring pBI-AtEm6. Integration of the AtEm6 gene into the genome of rice, cotton, and white pine has been confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and northern blotting analyses. Three transgenic cell lines from each of O. sativa, G. hirsutum, and P. strobus were used to analyze salt stress tolerance conferred by the overexpression of the AtEm6 gene. Our results demonstrated that expression of the AtEm6 gene enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic cell lines. A decrease in lipid peroxidation and an increment in antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities were observed in the transgenic cell lines, compared to the non- transgenic control. In rice, AtEM6 increased expression of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase genes OsCPK6, OsCPK9, OsCPK10, OsCPK19, OsCPK25, and OsCPK26 under treatment of salt. These results suggested that overexpression of the AtEM6 gene in transgenic cell lines improved salt stress tolerance by regulating expression of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase genes. Overexpression of the AtEM6 gene could be an alternative choice for engineering plant abiotic stress tolerance. "
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"A novel gene, named NgAOX1a, was isolated from Nicotiana glutinosa by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR). The full-length cDNA of NgAOX1a was 1448 bp, including a 1062-bp ORF (open reading frame), a 124 bp 5' UTR (untranslated region) and a 262 bp 3' UTR. The ORF encodes a 353-amino-acid protein which contains two conserved cysteine residues, four iron-binding motifs, five alpha-helix regions and six conserved histidine residues. The phylogenetic tree showed that NgAOX1a belongs to the AQX1 (alternative oxidase 1)-type group. Alignment analysis showed that NgAOX1a shares a high similarity with other known AOXs. Four exons and three introns were detected in the genomic DNA sequence, and Southern-blotting analysis suggested that NgAOX1a is a single-copy gene. A series of putative cis-acting elements were examined in the 5'-flanking region of NgAOX1a. Northern-blotting analysis showed that the transcript levels of NgAOX1a can be markedly accumulated when tobacco seedlings are treated with various abiotic stimuli, such as exogenous signalling molecules for plant defence response, salicylic acid and H2O2, and the exogenous TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle metabolite citrate. However, it could be suppressed by abiotic stress, such as CoCl2, an inhibitor of ethylene, which indicates that the expression of NgAOX1a may be regulated by ethylene. In addition, NgAOX1a can also be strongly induced by three viral pathogens, tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and potato virus Y. These results indicate that NgAOX1a may be involved in multi-signal transduction pathways and may play an important role in defence response. "
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"To identify genes expression in Chenopodium album exposed to NaCl stress and screen ESTs related to salt stress, a subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) library of C. album under salt stress was constructed in the present study. Random EST sequencing produced 825 high-quality ESTs with GenBank ID GE746311-GE747007, which had 301 bp of average size and were clustered into 88 contigs and 550 singletons. They were classified into 12 categories according to their function annotations. 635 ESTs (76.97%) showed similarities to gene sequences in the non-redundancy database, while 190 ESTs (23.03%) showed low or no similarities. The transcriptional profiles of 56 ESTs randomly selected from 347 unknown or novel ESTs of SSH library under varying NaCl concentration and at different time points were analyzed. The results indicated that a high proportion of tested ESTs were activated by salt stress. Four in 56 ESTs responded to NaCl were also enhanced in expression level when exposed to ABA and PEG stresses. The above four ESTs were validated by northern blotting which was consistent with the results of RT-PCR. The results suggested that genes corresponded to these ESTs might be involved in stress response or regulation. The complete sequences and detailed function of these ESTs need to be further studied. "
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"Phosphorylation of protein kinases has profound effects on their activity and interaction with other proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation was reported to be involved in various physiological processes in plants; however, no typical receptor tyrosine kinase has been isolated from plants thus far. Dual-specificity kinases are potentially responsible for the phosphorylation of both tyrosine and serine/threonine of target proteins. A cDNA clone encoding a putative dual-specificity protein kinase was isolated by screening the cDNA GAL4 activation domain (AD) fusion library of soybean (Glycine max L.), and its entire length was obtained using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The predicted polypeptide of 330 amino acid residues, designated as GmSTY1, contains all 11 conserved subdomains, which share common characteristics with both the serine/ threonine and tyrosine protein kinases reported thus far. In addition, three potential N-linked glycosylation sites (NXS/T), as well as phosphorylation motifs (SXXXS/T), were observed, suggesting that GmSTY1 may be post-translationally modified. Furthermore, a potential N-myristoylation motif (MGARCSK) was found, suggesting that the GmSTY1 protein could associate with membranes in vivo. Southern blotting analysis revealed a single-copy of GmSTY1 in the genome. Northern blotting analysis showed that this gene was upregulated by drought and salt treatment in a time-dependent manner; however, exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) could not significantly affect the mRNA accumulation of GmSTY1. Interestingly, the transcript of this gene was remarkably downregulated by cold treatment during the early stages of the response, but upregulated later. These results indicate that the protein kinase was possibly regulated by abiotic stresses in an ABA-independent pathway. "
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"Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signalling modules that transduce extracellular signalling to a range of cellular responses. Plant MAPK cascades have been implicated in development and stress response. In this study, we isolated a novel group C MAPKK gene, ZmMKK4, from maize. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the ZmMKK4 transcript expression was up-regulated by cold, high salt and exogenous H(2)O(2), but down-regulated by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expression of ZmMKK4 in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to cold and salt stresses by increased germination rate, lateral root numbers, plant survival rate, chlorophyll, proline and soluble sugar contents, and antioxidant enzyme [peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT)] activities compared with control plants. Furthermore, ZmMKK4 enhanced a 37 kDa kinase activity after cold and salt stresses. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of stress-responsive transcription factors and functional genes were higher in ZmMKK4-over-expressing plants than in control plants. In addition, ZmMKK4 protein is localized in the nucleus. Taken together, these results indicate that ZmMKK4 is a positive regulator of salt and cold tolerance in plants. "
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"Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. is commonly known as colocynth. The fruit pulp of colocynth has medicinal properties while the seeds have nutritive qualities. C. colosynthis is resistant to high temperatures and grows in the desert regions of North Africa, the Middle East and Western Asia. C. colocynthis likely carries genes of interest that could be explored for inducing abiotic stress resistance in transgenic plants. Although the tissue culture and molecular biology of this species have been explored, the latter has been primarily used to resolve taxonomic relationships with other members of the Citrullus genus and curcubits. Genetic mining of the plant is scarce while genetic transformation protocols are also rare. The aim of the present review is to present a brief overview of the biotechnological perspectives of C. colocynthis. "
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"Purpose of review This review provides an update and summary of recent neuropsychological findings in epilepsy focusing on three major clinical topics among the many developments in the field. We will critically outline the current state with regard to cognition in new-onset epilepsies, social cognition in epilepsy, and the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery and the cognitive outcomes of superselective surgical procedures. Recent findings Current studies indicate that neuropsychological impairments are prevalent already at the onset of epilepsy and even before, social cognition (i.e., emotion recognition and theory of mind) is impaired in different epilepsy populations, the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery is mostly characterized by a stable or even improved cognitive status, and superselective epilepsy surgeries are associated with a promising neuropsychological outcome. Summary The high prevalence of cognitive deficits around epilepsy onset challenges the assumption that epilepsy is the major cause of cognitive problems and calls for early neuropsychological diagnostics. Social cognition seems to be a relevant domain that is not yet routinely considered in epilepsy. The cognitive long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery is mostly positive. Stereotactic thermocoagulation and gamma knife surgery appear to be cognitively safe procedures. "
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"microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in tissue development and the pathology of many diseases, however, the effects and roles of miRNAs in the development of semen abnormalities in infertile males have not yet been investigated. In this study, we analyzed and compared the miRNA expression profiles of abnormal semen from 86 infertile males with normal semen from 86 healthy males using an miRNA microarray. In total, 52 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the abnormal semen of infertile males and the normal semen of healthy males. The differential expression of selected miRNAs was validated by real time qRT-PCR and northern blotting: miR-574-5p, miR-297, miR-122, miR-1275, miR-373, miR-185 and miR-193b were upregulated (fold change >1.5, p<0.001) and miR-100, miR-512-3p, miR-16, miR-19b, miR-23b and miR-26a were downregulated (fold change <0.667, p<0.001) in the semen of infertile males with semen abnormalities. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into specific miRNAs that arc associated with semen abnormalities in infertile males. "
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"Background: Respiratory morbidity in Australian Indigenous children is higher than their non-Indigenous counterparts, irrespective of urban or remote residence. There are limited studies addressing acute respiratory illness (ARI) in urban Indigenous children, particularly those that address the upper airway microbiome and its relationship to disease. We aimed to describe the prevalence of upper airway viruses and bacteria in symptomatic and asymptomatic urban-based Australian Indigenous children aged less than 5 years. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of data collected at baseline in an ongoing prospective cohort study of urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children registered with a primary health care service in the northern suburbs of Brisbane, Australia. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data and bilateral anterior nasal swabs were collected on enrolment. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on nasal swabs to detect 17 respiratory viruses and 7 bacteria. The primary outcome was the prevalence of these microbes at enrolment. Logistic regression was performed to investigate differences in microbe prevalence between children with and without acute respiratory illness with cough as a symptom (ARIwC) at time of specimen collection. Results: Between February 2013 and October 2015, 164 children were enrolled. The median age at enrolment was 18. 0 months (IQR 7.2-34.3), 49.4% were boys and 56 children (34.2%) had ARIwC. Overall, 133/164 (81%) nasal swabs were positive for at least one organism; 131 (79.9%) for any bacteria, 59 (36.2%) for any virus and 57 (34.8%) for both viruses and bacteria. Co-detection of viruses and bacteria was more common in females than males (61.4% vs 38.6%, p = 0.044). No microbes, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with the presence of ARIwC. Conclusions: The prevalence of upper airways microbes in asymptomatic children is similar to non-Indigenous children with ARIwC from the same region. Determining the aetiology of ARIwC in this community is complicated by the high prevalence of multiple respiratory pathogens in the upper airways. "
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"We identified a Nodulin-related protein 1 (NRP1) encoded by At2g03440, which was previously reported to be RPS2 interacting protein in yeast-two-hybrid assay. Northern blotting showed that AtNRP1 expression was suppressed by heat stress (42A degrees C) and induced by low temperature (4A degrees C) treatment. Strong GUS staining was observed in the sites of meristematic tissues of pAtNRP1:: GUS transgenic plants, such as shoot apex and root tips, young leaf veins, stamens and stigmas of flowers, and abscission layers of young siliques. To study AtNRP1 biological functions, we have characterized both loss-of-function T-DNA insertion and transgenic overexpression plants for AtNRP1 in Arabidopsis. The T-DNA insertion mutants displayed no obvious difference as compared to wild-type Arabidopsis under heat stress, but the significant enhanced susceptibility to heat stress was revealed in two independent AtNRP1-overexpressing transgenic lines. Further study found that the decreased thermtolerance in AtNRP1-overexpressing lines accompanied significantly decreased accumulation of ABA after heat treatment, which was probably due to AtNRP1 playing a role in negative-feedback regulation of the ABA synthesis pathway. These results support the viewpoint that the application of ABA inhibits nodulation and nodulin-related gene expression and threaten adverse ambient temperature can impact the nodulin-related gene expression. "
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"Although a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in fruit ripening, many components in the ABA signalling pathway remain to be elucidated. Here, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis gene ABI1, named FaABI1, was isolated and characterized. The 1641bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 546 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were determined by homology analysis. Transcriptional analysis showed that the levels of FaABI1 mRNA expression declined rapidly during strawberry fruit development as evidenced by real-time PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptionPCR, and northern blotting analyses, suggesting that the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PP2C1 encoded by FaABI1 may be involved in fruit ripening as a negative regulator. The results of Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing and PBI121 vector-mediated overexpression suggested that the down- and up-regulation of FaABI1 mRNA expression levels in degreening strawberry fruit could promote and inhibit ripening, respectively. Furthermore, alteration of FaABI1 expression could differentially regulate the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, SnRK2, ABRE1, CHS, PG1, PL, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, and UFGT. Taken together, the data provide new evidence for an important role for ABA in regulating strawberry fruit ripening in the processes of which the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 serves as a negative regulator. Finally, a possible core mechanism underlying ABA perception and signalling transduction in strawberry fruit ripening is discussed. "
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"In this paper, the concept of multi-objective optimization is introduced in the automation of the placement task in analog integrated circuits layout design. To bridge the difficulties found on state-of-the-art works on fulfilling proximity constraints, here, cells are organized into proximity groups which implement the desired set of symmetry and proximity requirements. Then, an innovative archived-based multi-objective simulated annealing algorithm, operating over an absolute representation, is proposed to optimize the placement of each proximity group. In contrast to traditional single-objective placement approaches, the resulting Pareto fronts of placements, representing the tradeoffs between the optimization objectives of each group, are combined, bottom-up, through the design hierarchy, until a final front is obtained. This way, the problem's complexity is reduced, and split over multiple executions of the optimization kernel with less design variables, and also, analog designer becomes aware of the design tradeoffs. The proposed multi-objective and hierarchical methodology was implemented, and, experimental results prove that previous efforts on single-objective absolute representations are no match for the obtained floorplans. Furthermore, the obtained Pareto fronts contain the solutions found with the most recent published topological representations for the well-known Microelectronics Center of North Carolina benchmark sets, and, allowed an improvement of placement area up to 23% on a previously optimized folded cascode operational amplifier for the United Microelectronics Corporation 0.13 gm fabrication process. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. "
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"This study examined whether child abuse history in teen mothers impacts offspring externalizing problems indirectly, through its influence on attachment and maternal hostility. In a longitudinal sample of 112 teen mother-child dyads, mothers reported on their own abuse experiences, attachment and maternal hostility were assessed via direct observations, and externalizing problems were measured using maternal reports. Compared with mothers with no abuse history, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse were more likely to have an insecurely attached infant, which predicted higher externalizing problems in preschool, which in turn predicted subsequent increases in externalizing problems in Grade 3. Furthermore, relative to the no abuse history group, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse showed more hostility toward their child at preschool, which in turn predicted elevated externalizing problems in Grade 3. Mothers' history of either sexual or physical abuse alone did not have significant indirect effects on externalizing problems. Fostering secure attachment and reducing risk for maternal hostility might be important intervention goals for prevention programs involving at-risk mothers with abuse histories. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. "
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"Background This study assessed the knowledge of personal safety skills among children with developmental disabilities and their parents' perceptions of children's knowledge. Method This exploratory study examined the mental health records of 37 children with developmental disabilities referred for an abuse risk reduction group in a community mental health setting. Qualitative analysis of children's responses to questions about personal safety skills (knowledge related to physical development and personal safety, an appropriate and inappropriate touch and safety skills to respond to an inappropriate touch) indicated participants' varied and inconsistent levels of knowledge. Results Consistent with the literature, the results indicate risk factors for sexual abuse among children with developmental disabilities, including children's difficulty distinguishing between an appropriate and inappropriate touch and the lack of knowledge regarding appropriate venues for disclosing an inappropriate touch. Among parents, a lack of certainty regarding their children's knowledge and the ability to keep themselves safe was identified. Conclusion Results support the need for education about personal safety for children with developmental disabilities and their families. "
4
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"Introduction: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) are associated with increased risk of obstetric complications among pregnant survivors of trauma, abuse and interpersonal violence, but little is known about how PTS affects women's actual experiences of obstetric care. This study investigated the rate at which abuse history was detected by obstetricians, whether abuse survivors experienced more invasive exams than is typically indicated for routine obstetric care, and whether psychological distress was associated with abuse survivors' sense of self-efficacy when communicating their obstetric care needs.Methods: Forty-one pregnant abuse survivors completed questionnaires about abuse history, current psychological distress and self-efficacy for communicating obstetric care needs and preferences. Electronic medical records (EMRs) were reviewed to examine frequency of invasive prenatal obstetric procedures (e.g. removal of clothing for external genital examination, pelvic exams and procedures) and to examine the detection rate of abuse histories during the initial obstetric visit.Results: The majority of participants (83%) reported at least one past incident of violent physical or sexual assault. Obstetricians detected abuse histories in less than one quarter of cases. Nearly half of participants (46%) received invasive exams for non-routine reasons. PTS and depression symptoms were associated with lower self-efficacy in communicating obstetric care preferences.Discussion: Women most at risk for experiencing distress during their obstetric visits and/or undergoing potentially distressing procedures may also be the least likely to communicate their distress to obstetricians. Results are discussed with implications for improving screening for abuse screening and distress symptoms as well as need for trauma-sensitive obstetric practices. "
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"This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style. "
4
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"Background: Alterations in gray matter development represent a potential pathway through which childhood abuse is associated with psychopathology. Several prior studies find reduced volume and thickness of prefrontal (PFC) and temporal cortex regions in abused compared with nonabused adolescents, although most prior research is based on adults and volume-based measures. This study tests the hypothesis that child abuse, independent of parental education, predicts reduced cortical thickness in prefrontal and temporal cortices as well as reduced gray mater volume (GMV) in subcortical regions during adolescence. Methods: Structural MRI scans were obtained from 21 adolescents exposed to physical and/or sexual abuse and 37 nonabused adolescents (ages 13-20). Abuse was operationalized using dichotomous and continuous measures. We examined associations between abuse and brain structure in several a priori-defined regions, controlling for parental education, age, sex, race, and total brain volume for subcortical GMV. Significance was evaluated at p < .05 with a false discovery rate correction. Results: Child abuse exposure and severity were associated with reduced thickness in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), left temporal pole, and bilateral inferior, right middle, and right superior temporal gyri. Neither abuse measure predicted cortical surface area or subcortical GMV. Bilateral PHG thickness was inversely related to externalizing symptoms. Conclusions: Child abuse, an experience characterized by a high degree of threat, is associated with reduced cortical thickness in ventromedial and ventrolateral PFC and medial and lateral temporal cortex in adolescence. Reduced PHG thickness may be a mediator linking abuse with externalizing psychopathology, although prospective research is needed to evaluate this possibility. "
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"The significant co-occurrence between men's violence against female partners and child abuse and neglect is well documented. It is less clear how child safety should be managed in family violence research with their mothers. This issue is salient to isafe, a New Zealand-based Internet intervention study testing improvement in safety decisions and mental health outcomes for women experiencing intimate partner violence. This article discusses the legislative, professional, and ethical considerations that contribute to the development of the child safety protocols and discusses the development of the isafe protocol. Hypothetical scenarios of the application of the isafe protocol are used to illuminate the issues and provide a basis for future discussion. "
4
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"Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an available person prepared to listen. The aim of the study was to explore the ability of the school nurses to detect and support sexually abused children. It is a secondary analysis of focus group interviews with school nurses. Thematic analysis was performed. Results showed that the school nurses avoided addressing CSA due to arousal of strong emotions, ambivalence, and a complicated disclosure process. In order to detect CSA and support abused children, attentiveness of sexual abuse as a possible cause of physical and mental illhealth is crucial. "
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"The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. "
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"Abuse-related trauma remains a global health issue. However, there is paucity in nationwide reports. We aim to estimate the incidence of abuse-related trauma forward medical care and identify its characteristics and clinical course in Taiwan. Patients with trauma between 2005 and 2007 that occurred 3 months before or after a diagnosis of abuse were identified from a randomly sampled nationwide longitudinal health insurance database of 1 million beneficiaries. The patients' demographic data, injury pattern, and medical resource utilization were measured, stratified by age and sex, and compared using chi-square test. Risk factors of next trauma event were identified using Cox regression analysis. Ninety-three patients (65 females) were identified (mean age, 20.6 +/- 16.3 years), including 61.3% under 18 years of age. For the first trauma event, 68 patients (73.1%) visited the emergency room, 63 (67.7%) received intervention, and 14 (15.1%) needed hospital care. Seven (7.5%), all less than 11 years old, had intracranial hemorrhage and required intensive care. Thirty-three (35.5%) left with complications or sequelae, or required rehabilitation, but all survived. Of the 34 victims of sexual abuse, 32 were aged less than 18 years. Men received more mood stabilizers or antipsychotics (50.0% vs 10.7%, P = 0.030) and reeducative psychotherapy (25.0% vs 0, P = 0.044). Risk factors for a next trauma event were injury involving the extremities (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.27 [2.45-11.33]) and use of antibiotics (HR: 4.21 [1.45-12.24]) on the first trauma event. Abuse-related trauma has heterogeneous presentations among subgroups. Clinicians should be alert in providing timely diagnosis and individualized intervention. "
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"Purpose of review This review addresses some of the more salient articles in the field of child maltreatment published in 2015, with a goal of helping the general practitioner understand the evolution of research in the field of child abuse pediatrics (a board-certified specialty since 2009). Recent findings Researchers continue to refine the database for child abuse pediatrics. Several articles focus on the inconsistencies in approach to the evaluation of possible physical child abuse between hospitals and practitioners. Multiple researchers aim to develop a protocol that standardizes the response to findings of a sentinel injury, such as a rib fracture, abdominal trauma, or unexplained bruising in a nonambulatory infant. Professionals are also working to improve our understanding about the impact of trauma on children and how best to ameliorate its effects. Summary With solid, evidence-based literature published on various topics in the field of child abuse pediatrics, experts work to refine and unify the clinician's approach to the evaluation of possible physical abuse. "
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"When Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is suspected in a child, a dilated eye examination by an ophthalmologist is an essential part of the medical workup, as the presence and pattern of retinal hemorrhages can have a high positive predictive rate for abusive head injury. This article proposes to review the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, natural history, sequelae, and differential diagnosis of retinal hemorrhages and other ocular lesions associated with AHT. "
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"The frequency and severity of physical abuse influences children's outcomes, yet little theory-based research has explored what predicts its course. This study examined the potential role of social information processing (SIP) factors in the course of abuse. Mothers with histories of perpetrating physical abuse (N = 62) completed measures of SIP, and the frequency and severity of mother-perpetrated physical abuse were collected from Child Protection Services records. Poorer problem-solving capacities were significantly related to greater frequency of physical abuse. Hostile attributions toward children were positively associated with abuse severity. Controlling for demographics and co-occurrence of neglect, SIP factors together accounted for a significant proportion of variance in the frequency of physical abuse, but not severity. With the exception of unrealistic expectations, preliminary evidence supported a link between maternal SIP and the course of abuse perpetration. Future research directions and implications for intervention are discussed. "
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"Shaken baby syndrome is a term often used by the physicians and public to describe abusive trauma inflicted on infants and young children. Advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and the associated clinical spectrum of injury has lead us to modify our terminology and address it as "abusive trauma" (AT). Pediatric abusive head trauma is defined as an injury to the skull or intracranial contents of an infant or a young child (<5 y age) due to inflicted blunt impact and/or violent shaking. This chapter focuses on the imaging aspects of childhood abusive trauma along with a brief description of the mechanismand pathophysiology of abusive injury. The diagnosis of AT is not always obvious, and abusive injuries in many infants may remain unrecognized. Pediatricians should be cognizant of AT since pediatricians play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management and prevention of AT. "
4
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"This article reviews the evolution of the diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) since its discovery in 1832. The morphological, phenotypic and molecular characteristics of both nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL and classical HL are revised in the light of recent molecular information and possible impact on the identification of risk groups as well as the use of targeted therapies. The seminal contribution of Gianni Bonadonna to developing new treatment strategies for both advanced and early-stage HL is highlighted. "
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"An analytic design guide to design a three-stage cascade CMOS operational amplifier compensated by AC boosting frequency compensation (ACBC) method is presented in this paper. The procedure allows electrical parameters such as gain bandwidth (GBW) product or phase margin to be related to the value of circuit elements such as aspect ratio or biasing currents of transistors. The presented design guide is suited for pencil-and-paper design and yields accurate performance without unnecessary circuit constraint introduction. Simulation results using TSMC 0.18 mu m CMOS process verifies accuracy and robustness of proposed procedure. Various load capacitors and circuit conditions are simulated and, based on obtained results, the presented design guide is comprehensive and efficient since it leads us from frequency response parameters to aspect ratio of MOSFETs. "
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"Programmable AC power sources have been widely used to implement and support a wide range of Test Procedure Specifications (TPS's). Traditionally, these power sources use analog control circuits to provide key control and protection functions like load regulation, current limit and frequency conversion. While this is a proven design, it suffers from a number of drawbacks. With the advent of recent advances in DSP technologies, a full digital implementation of an AC power source design supporting high switching frequencies is now feasible. This paper discussed some of the advantages derived from an all-digital implementation of a programmable poser source and the benefits this provides for ATE system use. "
1
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"This paper describes a new calibration system developed at INMETRO to guarantee traceability of low-frequency alternating current (ac) voltage calibrations (<1 kHz) to a programmable Josephson ac waveform synthesizer. The automated full-synchronous system allows the synchronization of a commercial calibrator or signal synthesizer with a programmable Josephson voltage synthesizer system to be made by employing digital sampling and signal processing techniques, aided by adaptive digital control. It allows accurate determination of the spectral content of ac signals with minimum human intervention. System operation, measurement techniques, and data analysis are detailed. "
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"The voltage source converters (VSC) are the key power interfaces between the individual ac grids and dc grids in the hybrid power system. When the ac grid is unbalanced, the grid currents are distorted and the harmonic is induced. Meanwhile, the oscillations in the active and reactive power are also increased, which may damage these interfaces. In order to ensure the safety of the converters and the grid facility, a flexible control strategy is proposed for the ac/dc hybrid grid in this paper. At first, the current harmonic for the VSC is theoretically analyzed under unbalanced conditions. Furthermore, the methods to separate the positive- and negative-sequence components of the ac grid voltages are summed up and analyzed. Based on the theoretical analysis, different protected control methods are compared. A new control method, which can flexibly control oscillations of the active and reactive power by introducing a parameter k, has been proposed. The estimation of maximum current in each phase is discussed; meanwhile, the relationship between the voltage ripple on dc link and the parameter k is given. Finally, the validity and advantages of the proposed method are verified by the simulating and experimental results. "
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"Based on single-phase ac-ac converter with controllable phase and amplitude (ACCPA), a three-phase ACCPA without third harmonic trap was proposed for power transmission control in grid by adopting a symmetrical relationship of three phase. The three-phase ACCPA is comprised of two parts, which are used to adjust the phase and amplitude of three-phase output voltage, respectively, and continuously. Its front part is made up of three buck-type ac converters, and the back part is a three-phase boost-type ac converter. The operation principle of three-phase ACCPA, the adjustable ranges of the phase and amplitude of the front part, and the calculation formulas of control parameters under ideal conditions were studied and deduced in detail. Furthermore, the control accuracy of the phase angle was discussed for the three-phase ACCPA with digital control, and then, the method to select close-loop control parameters was obtained. The control strategy of three-phase ACCPA was presented and a prototype was fabricated. The experimental waveforms and testing results verified the correctness of the theoretical analysis and the feasibility of the control strategy. "
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"This article deals with the simulation of the power converter with voltage-source inverter and sine-filter. The repetitive control system was designed. The existing power converter has a control system which makes Fourier transform of the output voltage to inject these harmonics with opposite phase. The new proposed system based on repetitive controller which is much simpler and with smaller CPU load. The higher harmonics elimination works perfect and the power converter produces output voltage with less than 5% THD under linear or non-linear load. This paper describes the improved control system structure and its implementation in MATLAB Simulink environment. The advantages of the repetitive algorithm facing Fourier transform harmonic compensation are shown. The performance of the new control method is shown in simulation results. The algorithm is carried out in C language using MATLAB S-Function block so it is suitable for implementation in the real-time control systems. "
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"Various species of amoebas belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in many parts of the world. Some strains of these protozoans may exist as parasites and pose risks to human health as causative agents of serious human diseases. Currently in China there IS a lack of information about the distribution of Acanthamoeba strains in the environment. Accordingly, 261 environmental water samples taken from rivers, sewage, and pharmaceutical factory drains were collected in Qinghai Province, China. The material was filtered and then analysed with both LAMP and PCR assays. Of the samples examined, Acanthamoeba DNA was found in 32 (14.68%) samples with the use of LAMP; in 13 of these samples, DNA from this amoeba was also detected using PCR. Sequencing of selected positive samples confirmed that the PCR products were fragments of the Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene and that isolates represent the T4 genotype, known as the Most common strain related to AK cases. The results indicate that surface water, as well as water taken from sewage And pharmaceutical drains, may be a source of acanthamoebic strains potentially pathogenic for humans in China. It has been also demonstrated that LAMP assays is more sensitive than PCR and can be regarded as useful tool for screening the environment for Acanthamoeba spp. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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"Particle accelerators consist of an enormous number of components and many of them operate with pulse voltage or current. Such accelerator components require precise voltage or current to keep the beams very stable. For this reason, many pulse power supplies used for accelerators have own subsystems to improve their performances. One example is a power supply for the scanning magnets of a pencil beam proton therapy. They use not only high-voltage inverters for the high-speed ramping but also low-voltage inverters for the precise current control. However, the use of intelligent digital controllers possibly simplifies such precise power supplies. We propose a method for precise current control using a digital control system. Our previous work has successfully controlled the pulse current of power supplies for synchrotron main magnets. In the next step, we have modified our previous method for faster power supplies such as ones for scanning magnets. In addition, we developed a control board using a high-performance FPGA so that our method can be implemented in the board. In this paper, we describe the details of our proposed method, and the experiments using a small-scale power supply and the developed control board. "
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"This paper presents the design of a compact, wearable, rechargeable acceleration recorder to support long-term monitoring of ambulatory patients with motor disorders, and of software to display and analyze its output. The device consists of a microcontroller, operational amplifier, accelerometer, SD card, indicator LED, rechargeable battery, and associated minor components. It can operate for over a day without charging and can continuously collect data for three weeks without downloading to an outside system, as currently configured. With slight modifications, this period could be extended to several months. The accompanying software provides flexible visualization of the acceleration data over long periods, basic file operations and compression for easier archiving, annotation of segments of interest, and functions for calculation of various parameters and detection of immobility and vibration frequencies. Applications in analysis of gait and other movements are discussed. "
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"A high performance interface circuit of sigma-delta accelerometer with low harmonic distortion used many kinds of circuit processing techniques is presented in this work. Multi-bit, dynamic element matching, correlated-double-sampling and electrostatic force feedback linearization circuit are used simultaneously in order to achieve the design indicators. Because of the usage of multi-bit, the design to operational amplifier (OPA) becomes easier, and only a single-stage folded-cascode amplifier is used in the modulator, the OSR is only 64. It highly reduced the difficulty of circuit. The test results indicate that the chip area is only about 10mm(2) and the power dissipation is 10mW with a sampling frequency of 60 kHz. The dynamic range (DR) of the system can be lower than -130 dB, the SNR and SNDR reach to -120 dB and -110 dB respectively with a resolution about 17 bits when referred to 3g full scale DC acceleration under CMOS 0.5 mu m process. The dc nonlinearity of it is 0.2%. This paper realizes an approach which can both simplify the design of the interface circuit and improve the performance of it. "
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"In this article we address the increasingly important yet understudied phenomenon of nonnative accentedness on decision making. In three experimental studies, we investigated whether messages about a company delivered in nonstandard-American-accented speech influenced choice. In Study 1, we found that individuals were more likely to choose a company or a product when a message was read in a standard American English accent than when the message was delivered with a Mandarin Chinese or a French accent. In Study 2, we found that expectations regarding company messages are violated when speakers have accents and that, in turn, expectation violations mediated the relationship between accent and choice. In Study 3, we replicated the findings of the effect of accent on choice using Indian and British accents. We also hypothesized and found support for a conditional indirect effects model such that implicit pro-American bias moderated the indirect relationship between accent and choice as mediated by expectation violations. Theoretical and practical implications of this topic of study are discussed. "
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"Acceptance is a key construct in both rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The objectives of this study were to assess and compare the properties of ACT acceptance with those of REBT acceptance in predicting emotions. A sample of 112 subjects, comprising different educational and occupational status, completed three measures of acceptance (REBT and ACT), two of mindfulness, as well as completing depression and anxiety scales. Both ACT acceptance as process and REBT acceptance could predict significant ACT acceptance as outcome. Mindfulness as a trait also predicted the level of ACT outcome acceptance as well as the level of REBT acceptance, but mindfulness as process predicted only ACT outcome acceptance. The results show that REBT acceptance, ACT acceptance and mindfulness can explain anxiety and depression in different ways. The results show that the difference between ACT acceptance and REBT acceptance primary concern the process of acceptance, most likely due to the underlying cognitive processing. The outcome acceptance and emotional level are similar in the two conditions. Future research should employ multiple cognitive measurements. "
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"Immigrant and refugee women from diverse ethnic backgrounds encounter multiple barriers in accessing mental healthcare in various settings. A systematic review on the prevalence of mental health disorders among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women in Australia documented the following barriers: logistical, language and communication, dissonance between participants and care providers and preference for alternative interventions. This article proposes recommendations for policies to better address the mental health needs of immigrant and refugee women. Key policy recommendations include: support for gender specific research, implementation and evaluation of transcultural policies, cultural responsiveness in service delivery, review of immigration and refugee claims policies and social integration of immigrants. "
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"OBJECTIVE: Cervical imaging practices are poorly understood in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We therefore sought to identify child-level and hospital-level factors associated with performance of cervical imaging of children with TBI from falls and abusive head trauma (AHT) and to describe across-hospital variation in cervical imaging performance. We hypothesized that imaging decisions would be influenced by hospital volume of young injured children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of children younger than 2 years of age with TBI from 2009 to 2013 in the Premier Perspective Database. After adjustment for observed patient characteristics, we evaluated variation in advanced cervical imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) in children with AHT and TBI from falls. RESULTS: Of 2347 children with TBI, 18.7% were from abuse and 57.1% were from falls. Fifteen percent of children with TBI underwent advanced cervical imaging. Moderate or severe head injuries were associated with increased odds of cervical imaging in AHT (odds ratio 7.10; 95% confidence interval 2.75, 18.35) and falls (odds ratio 2.25; 95% confidence interval 1.19, 4.27). There was no association between annual hospital volume of injured children and cervical imaging performance. The adjusted probability of imaging across hospitals ranged from 4.3% to 84.3% in AHT and 3.1 to 39.0% in TBI from falls (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight variation across hospitals in adjusted probability of cervical imaging in AHT (nearly 20-fold) and TBI from falls (over 10-fold) not explained by observed patient characteristics. This variation suggests opportunities for further research to inform imaging practices. "
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"ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to explore the preferred acculturation strategies adopted by Indian subcontinental adolescents living in Australia. The study also examined the demographic, ethnocultural, and psychological factors that could influence subcontinental migrant groups' attitudes towards acculturation and their acculturation strategies. MethodA cross-sectional design was used in which the dependent variables were the four acculturation strategies. Multivariate data analysis was conducted. Pearson's correlation, analysis of variance, and step-wise multiple regression analyses were performed to establish the relationships among the study variables. ResultsIntegration was the most preferred strategy and marginalisation was the least preferred strategy for all ethnic groups. Acculturation preferences are predicted partly by the adolescents' ethnicity, their ethnic identity, friendship choices, acculturative stress, sense of mastery (self-concept) and gender. The findings provide significant information on the acculturation practices of Indian subcontinental adolescents, including their ethnic identity search and commitment, their psychological well-being and their integration strategies. ConclusionsEducational institutions could benefit from increased awareness of the needs of these culturally diverse groups, especially if this information is incorporated into teacher training materials. The inclusion of intercultural relations courses in the academic curriculum would promote harmonious relations between culturally diverse ethnic groups. "
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"In order to improve the dynamic responses of multimode controlled primary-side regulation flyback converter, a novel digital control method is proposed in this paper. A new DAC sampling method, which can capture the output voltage during dynamic transition, is introduced. Based on it, a dynamic module which can monitor the variation of the output voltage to improve the dynamic performance is proposed. In a 5-V/1-A primary-side regulation flyback converter, the maximum undershoot voltage and overshoot voltage of the proposed control scheme in this study are 0.472 and 0.192 V, respectively. They are much lower compared to 1.296 and 0.584 V in the traditional control scheme. The maximum undershoot and overshoot recovery times are reduced from 10.86 to 1.29 ms and 126.3 to 53.68 ms, respectively. The proposed control scheme was then verified by a FPGA controlled prototype. "
1
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"This study proposes high-performance voltage controller design that employs a capacitor current control model for single-phase stand-alone inverters. The single-phase stand-alone inverter is analyzed via modeling, which is then used to design the controller. A design methodology is proposed to maximize the bandwidth of the feedback controller. Subsequently, to compensate for the problems caused by the bandwidth limitations of the controller, an error transfer function that includes the feedback controller is derived, and the stability of the repetitive control scheme is evaluated using the error transfer function. The digital repetitive controller is then implemented. The simulation and experimental results show that the performance of the proposed controller is high in a 1.5 kW single-phase stand-alone inverter prototype. "
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"This work presents a novel mixed-signal control scheme for a boost power factor correction (PFC) rectifier. The digital controller modulates the inductor peak current to produce a low-distortion ac line current in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) and continuous conduction mode (CCM), without the need for average current sensing. A lookup table (LUT) optimizes efficiency at low input currents, by allowing operation at 125-500-kHz DCM based on calculated thresholds. At high input currents, the converter operates at 1-MHz CCM for reduced inductor footprint. An analog off-time generator with a digital frequency locked loop facilitates CCM operation, eliminating the need for slope compensation in the current loop and reduces frequency variations. The LUT is programmed with an adaptive output voltage of 250/450 V for low/highmains line voltage (85-265Vrms) to optimize efficiency over a broad range of conditions. The 150-W PFC prototype operates up to 1 MHz with a peak efficiency of 95% and a total harmonic distortion of 5%. "
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"The theoretical and experimental analysis of a modified version of the SEPIC dc-dc converter used as preregulator operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) is presented in this paper. The proposed converter presents a low input current ripple operating in DCM, and the switch voltage is lower than the output voltage. The switch voltage reduction increases the converter reliability and a low drain-to-source on-resistance (RDSon) MOSFET can be used depending on the converter specification. Moreover, a digital control technique is applied to the proposed converter in order to reduce the third-harmonic input current distortion resultant of the operation in DCM. Finally, a 100-W prototype was developed operating with efficiency equal to 95.6%. "
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"In high-performance magnetic resonance imaging systems, the gradient driver is required to supply the gradient coil with a large current (>600 A) and a high voltage (>2000 V) to achieve a strong gradient field and a fast slew rate. In addition, extremely high fidelity for reproducing the current command from the central system is very critical to imaging quality. This paper presents the solutions for the different elements of the driver: 1) high-bandwidth (BW) power inverter; 2) ripple cancelation filter; 3) multioutput power supply (PS); and 4) digital control. A high-BW power inverter requires a stacked-bridges structure to achieve a high output ripple frequency with the existing commercial power semiconductor modules. The high voltage and the high frequency for large power modules can be obtained easier and with lower loss using the new silicon carbide devices. The control needs a digital implementation and a very fast processor. Digital control provides compensation and feedforward to improve the response. A capability improvement is obtained by reducing the switching frequency when large currents with a very low-frequency variation are needed. The control can handle it very well, but the filter has to be designed to eliminate more than one ripple frequency. Finally, many PS solutions have been used for multiple isolated outputs, but digital control compensation permits the use of much simpler unregulated PS and keeps the performance. A 2 MVA, 900 A/1200 V, platform has been built and fully tested. The experimental results proved the validity of the proposed structure and the modulation technique. "
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"Drug release belongs to the most challenging aspects of nanoparticles addressing molecular biology and medicine. Besides targeted delivery, obvious challenges are related to high drug load and continuous slow drug release. Based on our recently developed concept of inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles (IOH-NP), we here present [ZrO](2+)[AAP](2-) IOH-NPs containing the analgetic phosphate prodrug acetaminophen phosphate for drug release. [ZrO](2+)[AAP](2-) combines an uncomplex synthesis in water with a high prodrug load of 68 wt.%.[ZrO](2+)[AAP](2-) nanoparticles exhibit a diameter of 37(11) nm and can be readily obtained as colloidally highly stable suspension in water. The chemical composition is studied in detail based on infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. Moreover, the release of acetaminophen from [ZrO](2+)[AAP](2-) is studied by means of model experiments indicating the carbon content of the nanoparticles and, in alternative, the fluorescence of labeled nanoparticles. Both data show a continuous release of 80 wt.% of the analgetic acetaminophen on a time scale up to 48 h. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. "
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"We have reported that orally administrated acetate contributed to suppression of lipogenesis in the liver and to reduction of lipid accumulation in the adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acetate on skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. Treatment with acetate showed a higher rate of oxygen consumption and a smaller size of lipid droplets in white adipose and brown adipose tissues. An analysis by Northern blotting revealed that the transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in the abdominal muscle of the OLETF rats were increased by acetate treatment, while the transcripts of lipolytic genes increased in the white adipose and brown adipose tissues. It is possible that acetate has effects on lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscles and the adipose tissues, and has functions that work against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes. "
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"Acetate has been found to have an inhibitory effect on the activity of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) in cultured hepatocytes, this being a transcription factor that regulates several genes required for the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral administration of acetate would contribute to reducing lypogenic genes and protecting against obesity. We orally injected 5.2mg/kg BW of acetate to obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. The treatment with acetate showed a marked reduction in lipid accumulation in the adipose tissue, protection against accumulation of fat in the liver, and improved glucose tolerance. An analysis by Northern blotting revealed that the transcripts of several lipogenic genes in the liver of OLETF rats were decreased by the acetate treatment. On the basis of those results, it was indicated that acetate was a potential compound to improve obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes. "
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"Research was carried out for the appraisal of toxic and anti-enzymetic action of acetone extracts of Datura inoxia and Azadirachta indica against Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius in the grain research training and storage management cell of department of entomology and in protein molecular biology laboratory (PMBL) department of biochemistry (UAF) during the year 2014. Various dilution levels viz., 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% of both plants extracts were assessed against test insects. Toxic effect of plant extracts in T. castaneum, T. granarium and S. granarius was observed after an exposure period of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days while inhibition of different enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a-carboxylesterase (alpha-CE), beta-carboxylesterase (beta-CE), acid phosphatases (ACP) and alkaline phosphatases (ALP) were calculated spectrophotometrically in the survivors of toxicity assay. The results evidenced that both plant extracts had lethal effects against three stored grain insect species. Comparison of means of mortality in T. castaneum, T. granarium and S. granarius proved that A. indica extract was more effective, causing maximum 38.41, 24.35 and 28.56% mortality, respectively. D. inoxia resulted in 15.12, 13.52 and 14.07% maximum mortality in T. castaneum, T. granarium and S. granarius, respectively. The results also revealed significant inhibition of AChE, alpha-CE, beta-CE, ACP and ALP upon exposure to various concentrations of tested plants. Plant extract of A. indica proved more efficient for the inhibition of all test enzymes in three stored grain insect pests. The results suggest the ability of using these plants extracts for wheat flour and grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides. "
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"Bacterial community analyses of samples from a pilot plant for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the lignite-mining district in Lusatia (East Germany) had previously demonstrated the dominance of two groups of acidophilic iron oxidizers: the novel candidate genus "Ferrovum" and a group comprising Gallionella-like strains. Since pure culture had proven difficult, previous studies have used genome analyses of co-cultures consisting of "Ferrovum" and a strain of the heterotrophic acidophile Acidiphilium in order to obtain insight into the life style of these novel bacteria. Here we report on attempts to undertake a similar study on Gallionella-like acidophiles from AMD. Isolates belonging to the family Gallionellaceae are still restricted to the microaerophilic and neutrophilic iron oxidizers Sideroxydans and Gallionella. Availability of genomic or metagenomic sequence data of acidophilic strains of these genera should, therefore, be relevant for defining adaptive strategies in pH homeostasis. This is particularly the case since complete genome sequences of the neutrophilic strains G. capsiferriformans ES-2 and S. lithotrophicus ES-1 permit the direct comparison of the metabolic capacity of neutrophilic and acidophilic members of the same genus and, thus, the detection of biochemical features that are specific to acidophilic strains to support life under acidic conditions. Isolation attempts undertaken in this study resulted in the microaerophilic enrichment culture ADE-12-1 which, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, consisted of at least three to four distinct Gallionellaceae strains that appear to be closely related to the neutrophilic iron oxidizer S. lithotrophicus ES-1. Key hypotheses inferred from the metabolic reconstruction of the metagenomic sequence data of these acidophilic Sideroxydans strains include the putative role of urea hydrolysis, formate oxidation and cyanophycin decarboxylation in pH homeostasis. "
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"In this study, laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized in poly(acrylamide-crotonic acid)/sodium alginate [P(AAm-CrA)/alginate], poly(acrylamide-crotonic acid)/K-carrageenan [(P(AAm-CrA)/K-car)], poly(acrylamide-citraconic acid)/sodium alginate (P(AAm-CA)/alginate), and poly(acrylamide-citraconic acid)/K-carrageenan (P(AAm-CA)/K-car) semi-interpenetrating network by entrapment method. Optimum pH and temperatures values were determined between 5.0-6.0 and 40-50 degrees C for free laccase (FL) and immobilized laccases, respectively. After 42 days of storage at 4 degrees C, FL and immobilized laccases retained their original activities in the range of 55%-73%. Percent decolorization of Acid Orange 52 by free enyzme and enyzmes immobilized in hydrogels was found between 63% and 39%. Percent decolorization of Acid Orange 52 in the presence of mediator by free enyzme was found 73% and enyzmes immobilized in hydrogels were found as 73%. (C) 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. "
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"c-Myc overexpression has been implicated in several malignancies including gastric cancer. Here, we report that acidified bile acids enhance tumor progression and telomerase activity in gastric cancer via c-Myc activation both in vivo and in vitro. c-Myc mRNA and protein levels were assessed in ten primary and five local recurrent gastric cancer samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. The gastric cancer cell line MGC803 was exposed to bile salts (100mol/L glycochenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid) in anacidmedium (pH 5.5) for 10min daily for 60weeks to develop an MGC803-resistant cell line. Control MGC803 cells were grown without acids or bile salts for 60weeks as a control. Cell morphology, proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis of MGC803-resistant cells were analyzed after 60weeks. To determine the involvement of c-Myc in tumor progression and telomere aging in MGC803-resistant cells, we generated xenografts in nude mice and measured xenograft volume and in vivo telomerase activity. The c-Myc and hTERT protein and mRNA levels were significantly higher in local recurrent gastric cancer samples than in primary gastric cancer samples. MGC803-resistant cells showed a marked phenotypic change under normal growth conditions with more clusters and acini, and exhibited increased cell viability and colony formation and decreased apoptosis in vitro. These phenotypic changes were found to be dependent on c-Myc activation using the c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4. MGC803-resistant cells also showed a c-Myc-dependent increase in xenograft growth and telomerase activity in vivo. In conclusion, these observations support the hypothesis that acidified bile acids enhance tumor progression and telomerase activity in gastric cancer and that these effects are dependent on c-Myc activity. These findings suggest that acidified bile acids play an important role in the malignant progression of local recurrent gastric cancer. "
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"Thermoelectric (TE) materials are important for the sustainable development because they enable the direct harvesting of low-quality heat into electricity. Among them, conducting polymers have attracted great attention arising from their advantages, such as flexibility, nontoxicity, easy availability, and intrinsically low thermal conductivity. In this work, a novel and facile method is reported to significantly enhance the TE property of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films through sequential post-treatments with common acids and bases. Compared with the as-prepared PEDOT:PSS, both the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities can be remarkably enhanced after the treatments. The oxidation level, which significantly impacts the TE property of the PEDOT:PSS films, can also be well tuned by controlling the experimental conditions during the base treatment. The optimal PEDOT:PSS films can have a Seebeck coefficient of 39.2 mu V K-1 and a conductivity of 2170 S cm(-1) at room temperature, and the corresponding power factor is 334 mu W (m(-1) K-2). The enhancement in the TE properties is attributed to the synergetic effect of high charge mobility by the acid treatment and the optimal oxidation level tuned by the base treatment. "
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"Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important cause of infection in burn patients. This study aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, determine the prevalence of oxacillinase and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) genes, and type the A. baumannii isolates obtained from burn patients. Methods: During a 1-year period, a total of 40 nonduplicated isolates of A. baumannii were obtained from burn patients who were hospitalized in the Taleghani Burn Hospital in Ahvaz, in the southwest of Iran. Testing for antimicrobial susceptibility was carried out by disk diffusion and E-test. To screen MBL production, a double disk synergy and MBL E-test were performed. The presence of bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-51-like) and bla(OXA-58-like), bla(VIM), bla(IMP) and bla(SPM), and bla(NDM) was sought by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR was carried out for determination of isolates clonality. Results: Overall, 92.5% of isolates were carbapenem-resistant. Polymyxin B, colistin, and ampicillin-sulbactam were the most effective agents in vitro, with a susceptibility rate of 100%, 97.5%, and 72.5%, respectively. According to the double disk synergy and E-test, 55.6% and 97.3% of isolates were MBL producers, respectively. Furthermore, 70% of isolates harbored bla(OXA-23-like) and 20% were positive for bla(OXA-24-like). However, no encoding genes were detected for bla(VIM), bla(IMP) and bla(SPM), bla(NDM), and bla(OXA-58-like). Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR revealed that carbapenem-resistant isolates belonged to four clones, including A, B, C, and D; the predominant clones were B and C. Conclusion: The rate of carbapenem resistance was high, and it appeared that bla(OXA-23-like) and bla(OXA-24-like) contributed to the carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii isolates. This result suggests that the two predominant clones of A. baumannii were spread among burn patients. In order to prevent future dissemination of resistant isolates among burn patients, an effective infection control plan is necessary. Copyright (C) 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. "
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"The aim of the present study was to investigate the resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii, which was induced by cefepime (FEP), cefoperazone-sulbactam (SCF), tazobactam (TZP), levofloxacin (LEV), amikacin (AK), imipenem (IPM), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), in vitro. Multi-step drug resistance selection of 16 A. baumannii strains was performed using seven antibacterial agents (FEP, TZP, CIP, AK, IPM, SCF, and LEV). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the agar dilution method. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the genotypes and the carrying rates of aac(3)-I, aac(6)-I, ant(3)-I, aph(3)-Via, OXA-23, OXA-24, AmpC, TEM-1, metallo--lactamase gene (IMP), armA, rmtA, rmtB, parC, gyrA and adeB. Expression of adeB was determined using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (Semi-qRT-PCR). Among the 16 strains, 15 strains with drug resistance (93.8%) were obtained following in vitro induction. Notable increases (8- to 128-fold) were noted in the MIC and different genotypes were showed in RAPD of the strains before and after performing the drug resistant test. PCR data revealed significant differences (P<0.05) between the carrying rates of resistant genes before and after drug induction, with the exception of rmtA, OXA-24, TEM-1, and IMP. Significant increases were demonstrated in the comparative adeB grayscale in strains that underwent drug induction when compared with the sensitive strains (55.69 +/- 43.11% vs. 10.08 +/- 26.35%; P=0.001). Findings of the present study suggest that the active efflux pump, adeB, has an important role in multidrug resistance of the A. baumannii induced by antibacterial agents in vitro. "
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"We characterized 72 isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems (50 Acinetobacter spp., 13 Proteus mirabilis, five Escherichia coli, one Morganella morganii, one Enterobacter cloacae, one Providencia rettgeri, and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from a hospital in Sofia, Bulgaria. Different -lactamase genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Bacterial strain typing was performed by enzymatic macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing as well as multilocus sequence typing for selected isolates. The majority of Acinetobacter baumannii (46/50) and one Acinetobacter pittii isolate harbored carbapenemase genes bla(OXA-23) or bla(OXA-72); two A. baumannii contained both genes. PFGE typing of all A. baumannii showed the presence of nine different clones belonging to eight sequence types ST350, ST208, ST436, ST437, ST449, ST231, ST502, and ST579. Molecular characterization of the remaining isolates confirmed the presence of one NDM-1-producing E. coli-ST101 clone (five isolates) and one P. mirabilis clone (13 isolates) with VIM-1 and CMY-99. Furthermore, NDM-1 was identified in P. rettgeri and M. morganii and VIM-2 in the P. aeruginosa isolate. The permanent introduction of OXA-23/72 carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii clones into the hospital and the repeated occurrence of one VIM-1-producing P. mirabilis and one NDM-1-producing E. coli-ST101 clone over a period of more than 1 year is of concern and requires intensified investigations. "
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"Background Acotiamide is widely used to improve symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) in multiple large-scale clinical studies, but there are few reports about the drug's mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acotiamide on gastric accommodation and gastric emptying, gastrointestinal symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in a placebo-controlled study. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Fifty Japanese FD patients were randomly assigned to either placebo (n = 25) or acotiamide 100 mg x 3/day for 2 weeks (n = 25). At baseline and at 2 weeks of treatment, we evaluated the patients' gastric motility using scintigraphy to determine the accommodation and emptying values, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS), HR-QOL (SF-8), and anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Results Four patients failed to complete the medication regimen and were omitted from analysis; data from 24 placebo patients and 22 acotiamide patients were analyzed. Acotiamide significantly increased gastric accommodation compared to the placebo (p = 0.04 vs. p = 0.08; respectively). Acotiamide significantly accelerated gastric emptying (50 % half-emptying time) (p = 0.02 vs. p = 0.59). Acotiamide significantly improved the total GSRS scores compared to placebo (p = 0.0007 vs. p = 0.14). HR-QOL did not differ significantly between the two groups, but acotiamide significantly improved the HADS anxiety score compared to placebo (p = 0.04 vs. p = 0.20). Conclusions Our placebo-controlled study demonstrated that acotiamide significantly increased both gastric accommodation and gastric emptying in Japanese FD patients. Acotiamide also improved the patients' dyspeptic symptoms and anxiety score. "
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"The objective of this study was to determine global gene expression in relation to Vestibular schwannomas (VS) growth rate and to identify signal transduction pathways and functional molecular networks associated with growth. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery determined tumor growth rate. Following tissue sampling during surgery, mRNA was extracted from 16 sporadic VS. Double stranded cDNA was synthesized from the mRNA and used as template for in vitro transcription reaction to synthesize biotin-labeled antisense cRNA, which was hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133A arrays and analyzed by dChip software. Differential gene expression was defined as a 1.5-fold difference between fast and slow growing tumors (>< 0.5 ccm/year), employing a p-value < 0.01. Deregulated transcripts were matched against established gene ontology. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used for identification of signal transduction pathways and functional molecular networks associated with tumor growth. In total 109 genes were deregulated in relation to tumor growth rate. Genes associated with apoptosis, growth and cell proliferation were deregulated. Gene ontology included regulation of the cell cycle, cell differentiation and proliferation, among other functions. Fourteen pathways were associated with tumor growth. Five functional molecular networks were generated. This first study on global gene expression in relation to vestibular schwannoma growth rate identified several genes, signal transduction pathways and functional networks associated with tumor progression. Specific genes involved in apoptosis, cell growth and proliferation were deregulated in fast growing tumors. Fourteen pathways were associated with tumor growth. Generated functional networks underlined the importance of the PI3K family, among others. "
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"This work presents a method to determine mechanical transfer functions from forces, acting on the stator teeth of an electrical machine, to surface velocities at sound radiating surfaces. The method allows an efficient analysis of drive trains in their target application and real environment. The determined transfer functions are used in a transient acoustic model for the simulation of electrical drive trains. The proposed model takes care of the nonlinear power electronics, the digital control and sensors, as well as of tolerance afflicted geometries of electrical machines and real and in tolerance deviating material properties. The model is validated by means of vibration measurements. The benefits of a closed simulation in time domain are declared. Exemplary applications of the proposed model are discussed and the potential of the acoustic evaluation during the design process of an electrical machine is illustrated. "
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