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https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectbenyehuda/public_domain_dump/master/txt/p203/m47023.txt
ืืœื”ื™ ืื—ืคืฉ ื™ืžื•ืชื™
ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื‘ืŸ ื’ื™ืืช
2909247
ืืœื”ื™ ืื—ืคืฉ ื™ืžื•ืชื™ ื™ื•ืฆืจ ืœื™ื•ื”"ื› ืกื™ืžืŸ: ื"ื‘ ื›ืคื•ืœ (ื”ืื•ืช ืจื™ืฉ ื—ืกืจื”), ื™ืฆื—ืง ืคื˜ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืึฒื—ึทืคึผึตืฉื‚ ื™ึฐืžื•ึนืชึทื™ ืœึดืžึฐืฆึนื ื ึธื•ึตื”ื•ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืึธื›ึตืŸ ืึธืฅ ืœึดื‘ึผึดื™ ื•ึทื™ึผึดืงึถืจ ืžึดืงึฐืจึตื”ื•ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึตื™ืช ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ ื•ึฐื”ึดื ึผึตื” ื”ื•ึผื. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื‘ึผึดื™ื ื•ึนืชึดื™ ื‘ึฐืคึถืœึถื ืžึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึตื”ื•ึผ 5โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึฐืžึถื—ึฐืงึฐืจึตื™ ืฉื‚ึดื›ึฐืœึดื™ ืึถืžึฐืฆึธืึตื”ื•ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึดื™ ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ื”ึทื›ึผึนืœ ื”ื•ึผื. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื’ึผึธื“ึฐืœื•ึน ืจึธื ืžึดื‘ึผื•ึนื ื‘ึฐืžึถื—ึฐืงึธืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐืึทืชึผึธื” ืขึดืงึผึธืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ ืึถื“ึถืจ ื”ึทื™ึฐืงึธืจ. 10โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื“ึผึตืขื•ึนืช ืงึธืฆึฐืจื•ึผ ื•ึผืžึดื™ ื–ึถื” ืขื•ึนืฆึตืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื“ึผึทืขึทืช ื ึทืขึฒืœึตื™ืชึธ ื•ึทืชึผึดื‘ึผึธืฆึตืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึทืึฒืฉืึถืจ ื™ึธืฉืึธืจ ื‘ึผึฐืขึตื™ื ึตื™ ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึตื™ โ€‚ ื”ึฒืžื•ึนื ึตื™ ื—ึฒืคึตืฆึดื™ื ื‘ึผึฐื‘ึตื™ืชึฐืšึธ ืึถืชึฐืึทืฆึผึตืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึตืŸ ื”ื•ึนื“ึทืขึฐืชึผึธ ืœึฐืคึดื™ ื—ึฒืคึธืฆึถื™ืšึธ ื‘ึผึฐื”ึทืขึฒืฆึตืจ 15โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืงื•ึผื ื•ึฐื™ึธืจึทื“ึฐืชึผึธ ื‘ึตื™ืช ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื•ึทื™ึฐื™ึธ ืžึดื‘ึผึฐืฉื‚ึธืจึดื™ ืึถื—ึฑื–ึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐืึดื ื ึถืขึฑืœึธื ืžึตืจึฐืื•ึนืช ืขึตื™ืŸ ื›ึผึธืœ ื—ื•ึนื–ึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึฐื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ื”ึทื–ึผึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื–ึถื” ืœึฐืขึปื•ืžึผึทืช ื–ึถื” ืฉืึทืชึผึธื” ื•ึทื™ึผึดืžึผึธืฉืึตืšึฐ 20โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื–ึดื›ึฐืจึฐึธืš ืœึดื”ึฐื™ื•ึนืช ื“ึผื•ึนืจ ืœึฐื“ื•ึนืจ ืžื•ึนืฉืึตืšึฐ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ืื•ึนืจ ื•ึฐื‘ื•ึนืจึตื ื—ึนืฉืึถืšึฐ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื—ึทืฉืึฐืชึผึดื™ ื‘ึดืจึฐืื•ึนืชึดื™ ืžึฐืœึทืื›ึฐืชึผึดื™ ืžึฐืจึปื‘ึผึธื” ื•ึฐื™ื•ึนืžึดื™ ืงึธืฆึตืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื—ึถืœึฐืงึดื™ ืœึดื™ืงึผึทื— ืžึดื–ึผึฐืžึทืŸ ืžึตื™ืฆึตืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐืึทืฉืึฐืœึดื™ืšึฐ ืื•ึนืชื•ึน ื‘ึผึตื™ืช ื™ึฐื™ึธ ืึถืœ ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ. 25โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื˜ึดื ึผึปืคึตื™ ืขื•ึนืœึธื ื•ึทื”ึฒืชื•ึผืœึธื™ื• โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื˜ึธื‘ึฐืœื•ึน ื•ึฐื™ึดืฆึฐืจื•ึน ื‘ึผึฐืžึตื™ืžึตื™ ืฉืึธื•ึฐื ื•ึผื ึฐื—ึธืœึธื™ื• โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึดื™ ื‘ึธื˜ึทื— ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ื™ึดืฆึฐืจื•ึน ืขึธืœึธื™ื•. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื™ื•ึนื ื–ึถื” ื”ึตื›ึทื ึฐืชึผึธ ื•ึทืชึผึตื—ื•ึนืง โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ื•ึนื ื›ึผึฐืชึนื‘ ื–ึธืšึฐ ืœึฐื—ึทื™ึผึดื™ื ื•ึทืขึฒื•ึนื ึตื”ื•ึผ ืœึดืžึฐื—ึนืง 30โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ืขึธืžึธืœ ืขึฒืœึตื™ ื—ึนืง. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ื™ึตืฆึถืจ ืžึทื—ึฐืฉืึฐื‘ื•ึนืช ืžึตื‘ึดื™ืŸ ื•ึผืžึทื” ื‘ึผึธื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึดื™ ืžึดื™ ื‘ึดืœึฐืชึผื•ึน ื™ื•ึผื›ึทืœ ืœึฐื’ึทืœึผื•ึนืช ื˜ึฐืžื•ึผืŸ ืฆึฐืคื•ึผื ึตื™ ื—ึปื‘ึผึธื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆืจ ื™ึทื—ึทื“ ืœึดื‘ึผึธื. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืœึธืฉื‚ึตืืช ื›ึผึนื‘ึถื“ ื’ึผึตื™ื•ึน ืชึผึดื›ึผึทื ึฐืชึผึธ ืจื•ึผื—ึท 35โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืœึดื™ืฉื‚ึผึธื ืจื•ึผื—ึท ื”ึทืจึฐืจึตื™ ืขึธื•ึนืŸ ืกึธืจื•ึผื—ึท โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ื”ึธืจึดื™ื ื•ึผื‘ื•ึนืจึตื ืจื•ึผื—ึท. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืžื•ึนืฆึตื ื˜ึทืขึทื ืœึธืจื•ึผื—ึท ืžึดืงึผึนืฆึถืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืžึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึธื™ื• ื‘ึผึฐื™ึธื“ึธื™ื• ื›ึผึฐืงึธืฆึดื™ืจ ืœึฐืงื•ึนืฆึตืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐื›ึทื—ึนืžึถืจ ื‘ึผึฐื™ึทื“ ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ. 40โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื ึดื’ึผึทืฉื‚ ืึตื™ืšึฐ ืžึฐืจื•ึผื ื‘ึผึฐืึทืฃ ื™ึทื‘ึผึดื™ื˜ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื ื•ึนืฉืึถื” ื‘ึผื•ึน ืึตื™ืšึฐ ื ื•ึนืฉืึถื” ื™ึทื›ึฐื‘ึผึดื™ื“ ืขึทื‘ึฐื˜ึดื™ื˜ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึผื›ึฐืžื•ึน ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ื™ืจึฐืžึธืกึพื˜ึดื™ื˜. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืฉืื•ึนื˜ึถื” ื”ึฑืกึดื™ืชึธื”ื•ึผ ืœึดื‘ึผื•ึน โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืกึธืจ ื•ึฐื—ึธืจึตื“ ืœึฐืขึตื“ ืžึตืขึดื™ื“ ื‘ึผื•ึน 45โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ืจื•ึผื—ึท ืึธื“ึธื ื‘ึผึฐืงึดืจึฐื‘ึผื•ึน. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืขึนื ึถืฉื ืžึตืงึตืœ ื•ึฐืจื•ึผื—ึท ืึทืฃ ื‘ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืขึฒืœึตื™ ืขึฒื•ึนื ึดื™ ืฉืึถื‘ึถืจ ื™ึฐืงึทืฆึผึตืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึทืึฒืฉืึถืจ ื™ึดืฉืึฐื‘ึผึนืจ ืึถืช ื›ึผึฐืœึดื™ ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืคึผื•ึนื—ึฒื“ึดื™ื ืžึดื“ึผึดื™ืŸ ื‘ึผึทืฉื‚ึผึตืจ ืึถืชึฐื›ึถื 50โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืคึธืฆึนื” ืึถืคึฐืฆึถื” ื•ึผื‘ึฐื˜ื•ึนื‘ ืœึธื›ึถื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึดื ึผึตื” ืึธื ึนื›ึดื™ ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ืขึฒืœึตื™ื›ึถื. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืฆึดื“ึฐืงื•ึนืช ื”ื•ึนืจึธื ื‘ึผึฐื”ึดืชึฐืคึผึทื–ึฐืจึธื ืงึทื‘ึผึฐืฆึตื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืฆึดื‘ึฐืื•ึนืช ื—ื•ึนื‘ึธื ื‘ึผึฐื”ึดืชึฐืงึทื‘ึผึฐืฆึธื ืชึผึฐื ึทืึฒืฆึตื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐื›ึดื›ึฐืœึดื™ ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ืชึผึฐื ึทืคึผึฐืฆึตื. 55โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืงึทืฉื ื ึดื“ึผึธืฃ ืจื•ึผื—ึท ื™ึดืจึฐื“ึผึนืฃ ืึตื™ืšึฐ ื ื•ึนืฉืึตื‘ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืงึทืœ ืžึฐื”ึตืจึธื” ื”ึฒืคึธื›ื•ึน ืžึดืžึฐึธืงื•ึนื ื™ึตืฉืึตื‘ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึฐื—ึนืžึถืจ ื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตืจ ื™ึตื—ึธืฉืึตื‘. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืฉืึธื‘ึถื™ืšึธ ืชึผึฐืงึทื‘ึผึตืœ ื‘ึผึฐื™ื•ึนื ืฆื•ึนื ื™ึถืจึถืฅ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐื›ึธืชึฐื‘ึตื”ื•ึผ ืœึฐื—ึทื™ึผึดื™ื ื•ึฐืœึนื ืœึฐื—ึถืจึถืฅ 60โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึธืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ื”ึธืึธืจึถืฅ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ืชึผึฐื‘ึทืฉึผื‚ึตืจ ื—ึทื™ึผึธืชึฐืšึธ ื›ึผึดื™ ื ึดืจึฐืฆึธื” ืขึฒื•ึนื ึธื”ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ืชึผึดืจึฐืึถื” ืงึดืจึฐื™ึทืช ืžึถืœึถืšึฐ ืจึทื‘ ืชึผึดื‘ึผึธื ึถื” ืขึทืœ ืžึฐื›ื•ึนื ึธื”ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ึฐื™ึธ ื™ื•ึนืฆึตืจ ืื•ึนืชึธื”ึผ ืœึฐื”ึทื›ึดื™ื ึธื”ึผ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึทื™ โ€‚ ื™ึธืœึดื™ืฅ ืฆึถื“ึถืง ื—ึนืง ื”ื•ึนืจึดื™ื ืœึฐื‘ึธื ึดื™ื 65โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึฑื™ื•ึนืชึธื ื›ึผึทืฉืึผึถืžึถืฉื ืžึทื–ึฐื”ึดื™ืจึดื™ื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึทืžึตึผืึดื™ืจ ืœึธืึธืจึถืฅ ื•ึฐืœึทื“ึผึธืจึดื™ื. ืืช ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืœืขื™ืœ ื”ืคื™ืงื• ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื‘ืŸึพื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื”ื•ื ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื‘ืื”:https://benyehuda.org/read/47023
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https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectbenyehuda/public_domain_dump/master/txt/p203/m47024.txt
ืืœื”ื™ื ื›ื•ื ื ื”
ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื‘ืŸ ื’ื™ืืช
2909247
ืืœื”ื™ื ื›ื•ื ื ื” ืกื™ืžืŸ: ื™ืฆื—ืง ื’ื™ืืช ืฆ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ื›ึผื•ึนื ึฐื ึธื” ืึถืช ืึฒืฉืึถืจ ื ึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื™ื•ึนื ืจึดืืฉืื•ึนืŸ ืึดืชึผึธืšึฐ ื•ึผืœึฐืšึธ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึถืช ื‘ึผึดืจึฐื›ึผึธืชื•ึน ื™ึฐืฆึทื• ืื•ึนืชึฐืšึธ 5โ€‚ โ€‚ ื“ึผึธื‘ึนืง ืชึผึดื“ึฐื‘ึผึนืง ื‘ึผึทืžึฐืœึธืื›ึธื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึธืžึดื™ื ืชึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืฆึฐืœึทื— ื‘ึผึทืฉึผืึตื ึดื™ ื•ึฐืชึทืจึฐื•ึดื™ื—ึท โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื‘ึผึฐื›ึธืœ ืึฒืฉืึถืจ ืชึผึดืคึฐื ึถื” ื•ึฐืชึทืฉืึฐื’ึผึดื™ื—ึท 10โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ืขึดืžึผึฐืšึธ ื•ึผืžึทืฆึฐืœึดื™ื—ึท. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืึดื™ืฉื ื‘ึผึทืึฒืฉืึถืจ ื”ื•ึผื ืขื•ึนืฉื‚ึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื—ึปืงึผึตื™ ื˜ึทืจึฐืคึผึฐืšึธ ื•ึฐืœึทื—ึฐืžึฐืšึธ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืœึฐืšึธ ื™ึดื›ึผื•ึนื ื•ึผ ืžึตื™ืžึถื™ืšึธ 15โ€‚ โ€‚ ื•ึผื‘ึฐืฉึผืึฐืœึดื™ืฉืึดื™ ืึถืช ืฉืึฐืœื•ึนืžึถืšึธ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื™ึฐื”ึดื™ ื”ึธืึนื”ึถืœ ื•ึฐื”ึทืžึผึดื›ึฐืกึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืงึทื“ึผึตื ื™ื•ึนืฆึฐืจึธืšึฐ ื‘ึผึฐื˜ื•ึผื‘ ืžึดื‘ึฐื—ึทืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืžึทื”ึฒืœึทืœ ื‘ึผึธืจึฐื‘ึดื™ืขึดื™ ื•ึผื‘ึฐื—ึทืจ 20โ€‚ โ€‚ ื™ื•ึนื ืœึฐื™ื•ึนื ืœึถืึฑื—ึนื– ืžึดืกึฐื—ึธืจ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื—ึปืงึผื•ึนืชึธื™ื• ื—ึทื–ึผึตืง ื•ึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื’ึผึทื ื‘ึผึทื—ึฒืžึดืฉึผืึดื™ ืชึผึฐื”ึตื ืžื•ึนืฆึตื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืฉืึธืœื•ึนื ื”ึทื‘ึผึธื ื•ึฐื”ึทื™ึผื•ึนืฆึตื 25โ€‚ โ€‚ ื•ึผื‘ึฐื—ึถืกึถื“ ืึตืœ ื‘ึผึฐื˜ึทื— ื•ึผืคึฐืฆึตื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ื™ึดืจึฐืึถื” ืœื•ึน ื”ึทืฉึผื‚ึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื•ึฐืขึธืฉื‚ึดื™ืชึธ ื›ึผึธืœ ืžึฐืœึทืื›ึฐืชึผึถืšึธ 30โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ืขึดืžึผึฐืšึธ ื•ึฐืชึทื—ึฐืชึผึถื™ืšึธ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืขึทืžึผึดื™ื ื™ึดืคึผึฐืœื•ึผ ื•ึฐืชึดืชึฐื ึทืฉึผื‚ึตื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืื•ึนืจ ืคึผึธื ึถื™ืšึธ ื‘ึผึฐื™ื•ึนื ืฉืึทื‘ึผึธืช โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื ึฐืฉื‚ึธื ืขึธืœึตื™ื ื•ึผ ืึถืช ืึทื”ึฒื‘ึทืช 35โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึฐืœื•ึผืœึธื” ืชึผึดื–ึฐื›ึผึนืจ ื•ึฐืชึดืฉึผื‚ึธื ื‘ึทืช. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื ึฐื“ึดื™ื‘ึดื™ื ื”ึฑื™ื•ึนืช ื ื•ึนืฉื‚ึตื โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืชึผึฐื‘ึทืœึผึถื” ื‘ึผึฐื˜ื•ึผื‘ ืฉืึฐื ื•ึนืชึตื™ื ื•ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื‘ึผึทื ึฐืขึดื™ืžึดื™ื ื›ึผึธืœ ื™ึฐืžื•ึนืชึตื™ื ื•ึผ 40โ€‚ โ€‚ ืขึทืœ ืึถืจึถืฅ ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึฑื™ื•ึนืชึตื ื•ึผ. โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ืชึผึทื—ึทืช ืฆึตืœ ื›ึผึฐื ึธืคึตื™ืšึธ ื ึถื”ึฑืกึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ โ€‚ ื›ึผึธืœ ืฉืึตืฉืึถืช ื™ึฐืžึตื™ ื”ึทืžึผึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึถื”. ืืช ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืœืขื™ืœ ื”ืคื™ืงื• ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื‘ืŸึพื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื”ื•ื ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื‘ืื”:https://benyehuda.org/read/47024
47,025
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectbenyehuda/public_domain_dump/master/txt/p203/m47025.txt
ืžื•ื—ืจืš: ืกื™ืžืŸ: ื™ืฆื—ืง
ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื‘ืŸ ื’ื™ืืช
2909247
ืžื•ื—ืจืš: ืกื™ืžืŸ: ื™ืฆื—ืง ืฆื โ€‚ โ€‚ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ื›ึผึธืœ ืฆึฐื‘ึธื ืขื•ึนืœึธื โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึธืจื•ึผืšึฐ ืฉืึถืึธืžึทืจ ื•ึฐื”ึธื™ึธื” ื”ึธืขื•ึนืœึธื. โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ื•ึนื“ื•ึผ ืฆึธืžึฐืึธื” ื ึทืคึฐืฉืึดื™ ืœึฐืึตืœ ื—ึทื™ ื•ึฐื˜ื•ึผื‘ื•ึน โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึธืึตืœ ืึฒืฉืึถืจ ืฉื‚ึธื ืขึธื‘ึดื™ื ืจึฐื›ื•ึผื‘ื•ึน 5โ€‚ โ€‚ ื•ึฐืชึธืœึธื” ืื•ึนืชึธื ื•ึฐื—ึธืŸ ืขึทืœ ื›ึผึฐืจื•ึผื‘ื•ึน โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึผื‘ึธืจึธื ื—ึทื™ึผื•ึนืช ื•ึฐืฆึธึธื‘ึธื ืœึฐื›ึปืœึผึธื. โ€‚ โ€‚ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ื›ึผึธืœ ืฆึฐื‘ึธื ืขื•ึนืœึธื โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึธืจื•ึผืšึฐ ืฉืึถืึธืžึทืจ ื•ึฐื”ึธื™ึธื” ื”ึธืขื•ึนืœึธื. โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึธืจื•ึผืšึฐ ื—ึทื™ ื”ึธืขื•ึนืœึธืžึดื™ื ืึตื™ืŸ ืœื•ึน ืขึถืจึถืšึฐ 10โ€‚ โ€‚ ื™ึธื—ึดื™ื“ ืึฒืฉืึถืจ ืœื•ึน ืชึดื›ึฐืจึทืข ื›ึผึธืœ ื‘ึผึถืจึถืšึฐ โ€‚ โ€‚ืžึดืžึผึฐืšึธ ื™ึฐืจึตืึดื™ื ื•ึผื‘ึดืœึฐื‘ึธื‘ึธื ืžึนืจึถืšึฐ. โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึผื‘ึฐืšึธ ื ึดืฉืึฐืขึธื ึดื™ื ืœึธืชึตืช ืึธื›ึฐืœึธื. โ€‚ โ€‚ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ื›ึผึธืœ ืฆึฐื‘ึธื ืขื•ึนืœึธื โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึธืจื•ึผืšึฐ ืฉืึถืึธืžึทืจ ื•ึฐื”ึธื™ึธื” ื”ึธืขื•ึนืœึธื. 15โ€‚ โ€‚ ืงื•ึผืžึธื” ืคึฐื“ึตื” ืขึธื ื‘ึผึฐื—ึทื™ึผึตื™ื”ึถื ืงึธืฆื•ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐื”ึทืฆึฐืžึตืช ืื•ึนื™ึฐื‘ึดื™ื ืึฒืฉืึถืจ ืคึผึดื™ื”ึถื ืคึผึธืฆื•ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐื—ึนืŸ ืขึทืœ ืขึฒื“ึธืชึถืšึธ ืึทื—ึฒืจึถื™ืšึธ ืจึธืฆื•ึผ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐืึธื– ื™ื•ึนื“ื•ึผืšึธ ืขึทืžึผึดื™ื ื›ึผึปืœึผึธื. โ€‚ โ€‚ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ื›ึผึนืœ ืฆึฐื‘ึธื ืขื•ึนืœึธื 20โ€‚ โ€‚ ื‘ึผึธืจื•ึผืšึฐ ืฉืึถืึธืžึทืจ ื•ึฐื”ึธื™ึธื” ื”ึธืขื•ึนืœึธื. ืืช ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืœืขื™ืœ ื”ืคื™ืงื• ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื‘ืŸึพื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื”ื•ื ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื‘ืื”:https://benyehuda.org/read/47025
47,026
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectbenyehuda/public_domain_dump/master/txt/p203/m47026.txt
ืื•ืคืŸ: ืกื™ืžืŸ: ื™ืฆื—ืง
ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื‘ืŸ ื’ื™ืืช
2909247
ืื•ืคืŸ: ืกื™ืžืŸ: ื™ืฆื—ืง ืฆื‘ โ€‚ โ€‚ืึฑืœึตื™ ืฉืึฐื—ึธืงึดื™ื / ื•ึฐืฉืื•ึนื›ึฐื ึตื™ ืึฒืจึธืงึดื™ื โ€‚ โ€‚ืœึฐื ื•ึนืจึธื ื•ึฐืงึธื“ื•ึนืฉื ืื•ึนืžึฐืจึดื™ื ืงึธื“ื•ึนืฉ ืงึธื“ื•ึนืฉื ืงึธื“ื•ึนืฉื โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚ื’ืžืืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ึดืจึฐืึตื™ ืึฑืœึนื”ึดื™ื ื ื•ึนืฆึฐืจึตื™ ืขึตื“ื•ึนืชึธื™ื• 5โ€‚ โ€‚ ืึทืจึฐื‘ึผึทืข ื‘ึผึฐื›ึธืœ ื™ื•ึนื ืžึฐืฉืึทืœึผึฐืฉืึดื™ื ืึถืช ืงึฐื“ึปื•ืฉืื•ึนืชึธื™ื• โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚ืœื ื•ืจืโ€ฆ โ€‚ โ€‚ืฆึดื‘ึฐืื•ึนืช ืžึฐืฉืึธืจึฐืชึธื™ื• ืขื•ึนืฉื‚ึตื™ ื“ึฐื‘ึธืจื•ึน โ€‚ โ€‚ืฉืื•ึนืึฒืœึดื™ื ืœึธื– ืœึฐืœึธื– ืึทื™ึผึตื” ื”ึฒื“ึธืจื•ึน โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚ืœื ื•ืจืโ€ฆ โ€‚ โ€‚ื—ึถื‘ึฐื™[ื™ื•ึนืŸ ืขึป]ื–ึผื•ึน ืœึถื”ึธื‘ึธื” ืชึฐืœึทื”ึตื˜ โ€‚ โ€‚ืžึทืœึฐืึธื›ึธื™ื• ืจื•ึผื—ื•ึนืช, ืžึฐืฉืึธืจึฐืชึธื™ื• ืึตืฉื ืœื•ึนื”ึตื˜ โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚ืœื ื•ืจืโ€ฆ 10โ€‚ โ€‚ ืงื•ึนืœ ื ื•ึนืฉื‚ึฐ[ืึดื™ื] ื‘ึผึฐื–ึดื™ืขึท, ืคึผึทื—ึทื“ ื•ึผืžื•ึนืจึธื โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึผื‘ึฐื ึทื—ึทืช ืจื•ึผื—ึท ื‘ึผึฐืฉึธืคึธื” ื‘ึฐืจื•ึผืจึธื” โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚โ€‚ โ€‚ืœื ื•ืจืโ€ฆ ืืช ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืœืขื™ืœ ื”ืคื™ืงื• ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื‘ืŸึพื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื”ื•ื ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื‘ืื”:https://benyehuda.org/read/47026
47,027
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectbenyehuda/public_domain_dump/master/txt/p203/m47027.txt
ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘: ืกื™ืžืŸ: ื™ืฆื—ืง
ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื‘ืŸ ื’ื™ืืช
2909247
ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘: ืกื™ืžืŸ: ื™ืฆื—ืง ืฆื’ โ€‚ โ€‚ืึตืœึถื™ืšึธ ืึถืงึฐืจึธื ืฆื•ึผืจ ืขึตื™ืŸ ื”ึทืงึผื•ึนืจึตื โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐื ื•ึนืจึฐืื•ึนืช ืจึธื ื™ึตืจึธื ื‘ึฐืžึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึธื™ื• ืœึทื›ึผึนืœ ืื•ึนืจึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ ื•ึผืžื•ึนืจึธื ืœึฐื›ึธืœ ื ื•ึนืจึธื ื‘ึผึฐืžึทืขึฒืžึทื“ ืชึผึฐืฉืึทืข ืขึถืฉื‚ึฐืจึตื”: โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ึทืขึทืŸ ืœึฐื›ึธืœ ื ึดืžึฐืฆึธื ืึทืชึผึฐ ืžึธืงื•ึนืจ ื•ึผืžื•ึนืฆึธื 5โ€‚ โ€‚ ื•ึผืžึตื‘ึดื™ืŸ ื‘ึผึดื™ืŸ ื•ึฐืขึตืฆึธื” ืจึทืง ืžึดืžึผึฐืšึธ ื™ึธืฆึธื โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึฐืฆึธืจึธื” ื•ึผื ึฐืึธืฆึธื” ื•ึฐื™ื•ึนื ื™ึธื’ื•ึนืŸ ืึถืžึฐืฆึธื: โ€‚ โ€‚ืฆึณืจึดื™ ืœึฐื›ึธืœ ืฆึดื™ืจ ื•ึผืžึทืจึฐืคึผึตื ืœึฐืžึดื™ ืชึทื—ึฐืคึผึนืฅ ืชึผึดืจึถืฅ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐืขึตืช ืึทืคึผึฐืšึธ ืชึผึดื›ึฐืคึผึถื” ื•ึฐืขึตืช ืชึผึดืฉืึฐื˜ึนืฃ ื‘ึผึฐื—ึถืจึถืฅ โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึธื—ึณืœึดื™ ืœึฐื”ึตืจึธืคึตื ืžึดืงึฐืฆึตื” ื”ึธืึธืจึถืฅ: 10โ€‚ โ€‚ ื—ึฒื–ึดื™ืชึดื™ืšึธ ื•ึฐื”ึดื ึผึตื” ืึถืช ื›ึผึนืœ ื•ึผืžึดืžึผึฐืšึธ ื›ึผึนืœ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐืฉืึทืจึฐืชึผึดื™ืšึธ ื‘ึผึฐืขึตื™ื ึตื™ ึพ ืึฑืžึถืช ืขึทืœ ื›ึผึนืœ ื™ึธื›ึนืœ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐืขึทืœ ื”ึทื—ึฐื™ื•ึนืช ื•ึผืฉืึฐื›ื•ึนืœ ื•ึฐืขึทืœ ื”ึทืฉื‚ึฐื›ึผึตืœ ื•ึผืกึฐื›ึนืœ: โ€‚ โ€‚ืงื•ึนืœึดื™ ืึถืœ ื”' ืึถืงึฐืจึธื ื•ึฐื™ึทืึฒื–ึดื™ืŸ ืœึดื™ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึผื›ึฐืžึดื“ึผึทืช ืฉืึธื ึดื™ ืžึดื“ึผึทืช ืžึทื”ึฒืœึธืœึดื™ 15โ€‚ โ€‚ ื•ึฐื™ื•ึนื ืชึผึดืชึผึดื™ ืคึธื ึทื™ ื‘ึผึทื”ึฒืจึดื™ืžึดื™ ืงื•ึนืœึดื™: ืืช ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืœืขื™ืœ ื”ืคื™ืงื• ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื‘ืŸึพื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื”ื•ื ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื‘ืื”:https://benyehuda.org/read/47027
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https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectbenyehuda/public_domain_dump/master/txt/p203/m47028.txt
ืจื”ื•ื˜ื”
ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื‘ืŸ ื’ื™ืืช
2909247
ืจื”ื•ื˜ื” ืกื™ืžืŸ: ืืœืฃ ื‘ื™ืช (ื›ืคื•ืœ); ื™ืฆื—ืง ืฆื“ โ€‚ โ€‚ืึตืœึฐื›ึธื” ื•ึฐืึธืฉื•ึผื‘ึธื” ืึถืœ ืึดื™ืฉืึดื™ ื”ึธืจึดืืฉืื•ึนืŸ โ€‚ โ€‚ืึฒืฉืึถืจ ืžึตืึธื– ื ึฐืฆึธืจึทื ึผึดื™ ื›ึฐืึดื™ืฉืื•ึนืŸ โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึธื—ื•ึผืจ ื›ึผึธืึฒืจึธื–ึดื™ื ืชึผึฐื”ึดืœึผึธืชื•ึน ื‘ึผึฐื›ึธืœ ืœึธืฉืื•ึนืŸ โ€‚ โ€‚ื‘ึผึฐื–ึธื›ึฐืจึดื™ ื‘ื•ึน ืึตื™ื ึถื ึผื•ึผ ืžึทื ึดื™ื—ึท ืœึดื™ ืœึดื™ืฉืื•ึนืŸ. 5โ€‚ โ€‚ ื’ึผึฐืึธืœึทื ึผึดื™ ื‘ึผึดื–ึฐื“ื•ึนื ึทื™ ืžึดื‘ึผึตื™ืŸ ืงึฐื“ึตืฉืึดื™ื โ€‚ โ€‚ื’ึผึทื ื›ึผึฐืœึธืœึทื ึผึดื™ ื™ึนืคึดื™ ื•ึฐื›ึตืœึดื™ื ื—ึฒื“ึธืฉืึดื™ื โ€‚ โ€‚ื“ึผึดื‘ึผึตืจ ืคึผึดื™ ืึถืœ ืคึผึดื™ ืงึฐื“ึนืฉืึดื™ื. โ€‚ โ€‚ื“ึผึฐื‘ึธืงึทื ึผึดื™ ืึถืฆึฐืœื•ึน ื‘ึดื›ึฐืชึปื•ื‘ึผึธื” ื•ึฐืงึดื“ึผื•ึผืฉืึดื™ืŸ โ€‚ โ€‚ื”ึดืจึฐื‘ึผึธื” ืžึนื”ึทืจ ื•ึผืžึดืงึฐื ึถื” ื•ึฐืงึดื ึฐื™ึธืŸ 10โ€‚ โ€‚ ื”ึดื’ึฐื“ึผึดื™ืœ ื”ึทืฉึผื‚ึดืžึฐื—ึธื” ื‘ึผึฐื›ึธืœ ืขึดื ึฐื™ึธืŸ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึฐื’ึดื™ึผึตืจ ื•ึฐืฆึดื™ึผึตืจ ื•ึฐื›ึดื™ึผึตืจ ื‘ึผึตื™ืช ื—ึฒืชึธื ื•ึนืช ื•ึผื‘ึดื ึฐื™ึธืŸ โ€‚ โ€‚ื•ึผืžึธืกึทืจ ืœึฐืฉืึธืจึฐืชึตื ึดื™ ืขึฒืœึธืžื•ึนืช ืึตื™ืŸ ืžึดื ึฐื™ึธืŸ. โ€‚ โ€‚ื–ึถื‘ึทื— ื”ึตื›ึดื™ืŸ ื•ึฐืฉืึดืœึผึตื ื ึฐื“ึธืจึธื™ื• โ€‚ โ€‚ื–ึฐื‘ึธื“ึทื ึผึดื™ ื–ึถื‘ึถื“ ื˜ื•ึนื‘ ื‘ึผึทื—ึฒืกึธื“ึธื™ื• 15โ€‚ โ€‚ ื—ึฒืฆึตืจื•ึนืช ืงึฐื˜ื•ึผืจื•ึนืช ืชึผึดื›ึผึตืŸ ื‘ึผึทื—ึฒืฆึตืจึธื™ื• โ€‚ โ€‚ื—ึฒืชึธื ึดื™ ื”ึทืžึผึถืœึถืšึฐ ื”ึฑื‘ึดื™ืึทื ึดื™ ื—ึฒื“ึธืจึธื™ื•. โ€‚ โ€‚ื˜ึธื‘ึทืœึฐืชึดึผื™ ื•ึผื‘ึธืืชึดื™ ืึถืฆึฐืœื•ึน ื‘ึผึทืขึฒื“ึดื™ ืขึฒื“ึธื™ึดื™ื โ€‚ โ€‚ื˜ึทื”ึฒืจื•ึนืชึธื™ื• ื ึธืชึฐื ื•ึผ ืจึตื™ื—ึท ื“ึผื•ึผื“ึธืึดื™ื โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ึฐืฆื•ึผืขึดื™ ืขึธืœึธื” ื•ึฐืœึธืŸ ื‘ึผึตื™ืŸ ืฉืึธื“ึธื™ึดื 20โ€‚ โ€‚ ื™ึฐืžึดื™ื ื•ึน ืชึฐื—ึทื‘ึผึฐืงึตื ึดื™ ื—ึดื‘ึผื•ึผืง ื™ึธื“ึธื™ึดื. โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึดืžึฐืขึทื˜ ืจึถื’ึทืข ืึตื“ึทืข ื“ึผึธื‘ึธืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ื›ึผึฐื‘ื•ึนื“ื•ึน ื”ึตืžึดื™ืจ ื•ึฐื—ึนืง ืฉืึธื‘ึทืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ืœึทืคึฐืชึผึดื™ ื“ึถืจึถืšึฐ ื•ึฐืจื•ึผื—ึท ืœึนื ืœึฐื“ึธื‘ึธืจ โ€‚ โ€‚ืœึทืฆึฐืชึผึดื™ ื ึดืึทืฆึฐืชึผึดื™ ื•ึฐื“ื•ึนื“ึดื™ ื—ึธืžึทืง ืขึธื‘ึทืจ. 25โ€‚ โ€‚ ืžึตืขึทื™ ื”ึธืžื•ึผ ืœึฐื“ื•ึนื“ึดื™ ืึฒืฉืึถืจ ืงึธื ึธื ึดื™ โ€‚ โ€‚ืžึทื” ืœึผึดื™ื“ึดื™ื“ึดื™ ื‘ึผึธื˜ึตืœ ืึฒืฉืึถืจ ื”ึดืชึฐื ึธื ึดื™ โ€‚ โ€‚ื ึธืฉื‚ึธื ืจึทื’ึฐืœึธื™ื• ื•ึฐืœึนื ื—ึธื ึธื ึดื™ โ€‚ โ€‚ื ึธืก ื•ึฐืœึนื ืžึฐืฆึธืืชึดื™ื• ืงึฐืจึธืืชึดื™ื• ื•ึฐืœึนื ืขึธื ึธื ึดื™. โ€‚ โ€‚ืกื•ึผืจึธื” ืึฒื“ึนื ึดื™ ืกื•ึผืจึธื” ื—ึดื ึผึทื ึฐืชึผึดื™ ื›ึผึทืžึผึถื” 30โ€‚ โ€‚ ืกื•ึนื‘ ื•ืœึนื ืคึธื ึธื” ื”ื•ึนื—ึทืœึฐืชึผึดื™ ื–ึถื” ื›ึทืžึผึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ืขึธืœึธื™ื• ืœึดื‘ึผึดื™ ื›ึผึทื›ึผึดื ึผื•ึนืจ ื™ึถื”ึฑืžึถื” โ€‚ โ€‚ืขึตื™ื ึดื™ ื ึดื’ึฐืจึธื” ื•ึฐืœึนื ืชึดื“ึฐืžึถื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ืคึผึดืงึฐืคึผึตืง ื‘ึผึฐื›ึธื‘ื•ึนื“ ืœึฐืžื•ึนืจึตื“ ืขึฒื ึดื™ึผื•ึผืช โ€‚ โ€‚ืคึผึดืชึฐื—ึตื™ ื ึดื“ึผึธื” ืฉืึธื ื ึฐืงึดื™ื•ึผืช 35โ€‚ โ€‚ ืฆึฐื ึดื™ืคึธื” ืฆึฐื ึธืคึฐืชึฐื ึดื™ ื›ึผึทื“ึผื•ึผึผืจ ื‘ึผึทื—ึดื™ึผื•ึผืช โ€‚ โ€‚ืฆึฐืขึดื™ืจึธื” ืฆึฐืจื•ึผืจึธื” ืึทืœึฐืžึฐื ื•ึผืช ื—ึทื™ึผื•ึผืช. โ€‚ โ€‚ืงึทื•ึผึนื” ืงึดื•ึผึดื™ืชึดื™ ื™ื•ึนื ื ึถื—ึธืžึธื” โ€‚ โ€‚ืงึดืจึฐื‘ึทืช ื ึฐื˜ื•ึผืฉืึธื” ื‘ึผึฐืึทืฃ ื•ึผื‘ึฐื—ึตื™ืžึธื” โ€‚ โ€‚ืจึดืฉืึฐืคึตื™ ืึตืฉื ื”ึธื™ึธื” ืœึธื”ึผ ืœึฐื—ื•ึนืžึธื” 40โ€‚ โ€‚ ืจึทื—ึตื ืชึผึฐืจึทื—ึตื ืึถืช ืœึนื ืจื•ึผื—ึธืžึธื”. โ€‚ โ€‚ืฉืื•ึผื‘ึดื™ ืฉื•ึผื‘ึดื™ ื”ึทืฉึผืื•ึผืœึทืžึผึดื™ืช ืžึดื‘ึผึตื™ืŸ ืฉืื•ึนืกึธื™ึดืšึฐ โ€‚ โ€‚ืฉืื•ึผื‘ึดื™ ืฉืื•ึผื‘ึดื™ ื•ึฐื ึถื—ึฑืกึถื” ื‘ึธืšึฐ ื™ึนืืžึทืจ ืึฒื ึดื™ ื—ื•ึนืกึธื™ึดืšึฐ โ€‚ โ€‚ืชึผึธื‘ื•ึนืึดื™ ืžึดืœึผึฐื‘ึธื ื•ึนืŸ ื›ึผึทืœึผึธื” ืจึธืฆึดื™ืชึดื™ ืžึทืขึฒืฉื‚ึธื™ึดืšึฐ โ€‚ โ€‚ืชึผึธืขึดื™ืจ ืึทื”ึฒื‘ึธื” ื›ึผึดื™ ื‘ื•ึนืขึฒืœึทื™ึดืšึฐ ืขื•ึนืฉื‚ึธื™ึดืšึฐ. โ€‚ โ€‚ื™ึธื“ึนืขึท ืชึผึตื“ึทืข ืคึผึฐื ึตื™ ืฆึนืื ึถืšึธ โ€‚ โ€‚ืฆึดื™ึผื•ึนืŸ ืžึดื›ึฐืœึทืœ ื™ึนืคึดื™ ื”ึตื˜ึดื™ื‘ึธื” ื‘ึดืจึฐืฆื•ึนื ึถืšึธ โ€‚ โ€‚ื—ึทืกึฐื“ึฐืšึฐ ื™ึฐืจึทื ึผึตื ื•ึผ ืฆึดื“ึฐืงื•ึนืช ืคึผึดืจึฐื–ื•ึนื ึตืšึธ โ€‚ โ€‚ืงื•ึนืœึดื™ ืฉืึธืžึทืขึฐืชึผึธ ืึทืœ ืชึผึทืขึฐืœึตื ืึธื–ึฐื ึถืšึธ ืืช ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืœืขื™ืœ ื”ืคื™ืงื• ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื‘ืŸึพื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื”ื•ื ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื‘ืื”:https://benyehuda.org/read/47028
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https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectbenyehuda/public_domain_dump/master/txt/p2553/m47032.txt
ืกืคืจ ืžื—ืงืจื™ ืืจืฅ ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื•
ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื–ืื‘ ื‘ืŸ ืคื™ื ื—ืก ื”ื•ืจื‘ื™ืฅ
113809192
ืกืคืจ ืžื—ืงืจื™ ืืจืฅ ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ, ื”ื’ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช, ืชื•ืฆืื•ืช ื”ืื“ืžื”, ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ืขืชื™ืงื•ืชื™ื”, ืชื›ื•ื ืช ืขื“ื™ื” ื•ื›ืคืจื™ื” ื•ื—ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื‘ืคืจื˜ ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื™ืžื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ. ืขืค"ื™ ื‘ื—ื™ืจื™ ื”ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ึฐื”ึทืชึผึธืจึดื™ื. ื›ื™ ื”' ืืœื”ื™ืš ืžื‘ื™ืืš ืืœ ืืจืฅ ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืืจืฅ ื ื—ืœื™ ืžื™ื ืขื™ื ืช ื•ืชื”ืžืช ื™ืฆืื™ื ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื•ื‘ื”ืจ. ืืจืฅ ื—ื˜ื” ื•ืฉืขืจื” ื•ื’ืคืŸ ื•ืชืื ื” ื•ืจืžื•ืŸ ืืจืฅ ื–ื™ืช ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื“ื‘ืฉ. ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืœื ื‘ืžืกื›ื ืช ืชืื›ืœ ื‘ื” ืœื—ื ืœื ืชื—ืกืจ ื›ืœ ื‘ื” ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืื‘ื ื™ื” ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื•ืžื”ืจืจื™ื” ืชื—ืฆื‘ ื ื—ืฉืช. (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื—, ื–โ€“ื˜) ื“ื‘ืจ ืืœ ื”ืงื•ืจืื™ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืงื“ื ืฉื ื•ืช ืขื•ืœืžื™ื, ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ืกื” ื”ื—ืฉืš ืืจืฅ ื•ืขืจืคืœ ืœืื•ืžื™ื, ื‘ื˜ืจื ื”ืฉืœื™ื›ื• ืขืžื™ ื”ืชื‘ืœ ืžืขืœื™ื”ื ืืช ื—ึฒืชึปืœึตื™ื”ึถื ื•ื™ืฉืชื—ื•ื• ืขื•ื“ ืœืืœื™ืœื™ื ืึดืœึฐืžึดื™ื ื•ื‘ืื™ืžื™ื ื”ืชื”ื•ืœืœื•, ื•ื™ืชืžื›ืจื• ืœืชืขื ื•ื’ื•ืช ื‘ึฐืฉึธืจึดื™ื ื•ืœื›ืœ ืชื•ืขื‘ื” ื ึฐืžึดื‘ึฐื–ึธื” ื•ื™ืฉืืคื• ืœืจืฆื— ื•ื“ื, ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืื—ืช ืžึดืฆึฐืขึธืจึธื” ื‘ื™ืจื›ืชื™ ืืจืฅ ืืจื ื ื”ืจื™ื, ื‘ืื•ืจ ื›ืฉื“ื™ื, ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉืชืžืจื” ืขื•ื“ ื‘ืขืฆื ื˜ื”ืจืชื”, ื–ื›ื” ื•ื‘ืจื” ื›ืกืคื™ืจ ื”ืฉืžื™ื, ื”ื™ื ืžืฉืคื—ืช ืื‘ืจื”ื ืฆื•ืจ ืžื—ืฆื‘ื ื•. ื•ื‘ืจืื•ืช ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืช ื—ึถืœึฐืึทืช ืขืžื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื”ื™ื ื‘ึธื—ึฒืœึธื” ื ืคืฉื• ื‘ื ื•ื™ืฆื ืžืฉื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”' ืขื ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ืชื• ืœืœื›ืช ืืจืฆื” ื›ื ืขืŸ, ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื” ืขื•ื“ ื˜ืจื ืขื‘ืจื• ื—ื•ืง ื”ึตืคึตืจื• ื‘ืจื™ืช ืขื•ืœื ื›ืœื™ืœ, ื•ืขื•ืŸ ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ ืœื ืฉืœื ืื–. ืฉื ื›ืจืช ื”' ืืชื• ื‘ืจื™ืช ืขื•ืœื, ืœืืžืจ: โ€œืœื–ืจืขืš ื ืชืชื™ ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ืžื ื”ืจ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืขื“ ื”ื ื”ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื ื”ืจ ืคืจืชโ€. ื’ื ืœื‘ื ื™ื• ืื—ืจื™ื• ื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ื”' ื•ึทื™ึดืฉึธื‘ึทืข ื›ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ืœืื—ื–ืช ืขื•ืœื. ื•ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื˜ึดืคึฐื—ึธื” ื•ึฐืจึดื‘ึฐืชึธื” ืื•ืชื ื• ื›ืึตื ืจื—ืžื ื™ื” ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ืžืฉืš ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืึทืœึฐืคึทื™ึดื ืฉื ื”, ืžืŸ ื”ืขืช ืืฉืจ ืคืชื—ื” ืืช ืฉืขืจื™ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ืฆื‘ืื•ืชื™ื•, ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ ื”ื—ื™ืœ, ืขื“ ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ ืขึฒื ึธืงึตื™ึพื”ืจื•ื— ืฉืœ ื”ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื”ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื•ื”ืžื“ืจืฉื™ื. ื‘ืžืจื•ืฅ ื”ืชืงื•ืคื” ื”ืืจื•ื›ื” ื”ื–ืืช ื”ื™ืชื” ืœื ื• ืœื‘ืžืชึพื”ืžื—ื–ื” ืœื”ืžื•ืŸ ืžืขืฉื™ื ื›ื‘ื™ืจื™ื ื•ื ื”ื“ืจื™ื ืคื” ืขืœ ื‘ืžืช ืืจืฅึพื”ืคืœืื•ืช ื”ื–ืืช, ื ื’ืœื• ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื•ืขืฆื•ืžื™ื ืžื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื ื• ื•ื™ืฉื—ืงื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื—ื–ื” ื•ืžื—ื–ื” ืคืจืง ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืคืจืงื™ ื”ึทืชื•ึนืœึธื“ึธื”, ืคืขื ื—ื–ื• ืžื—ื–ื” ืžืจื ื™ืŸ ืœื‘, ืžื—ื–ื” ื ืขื™ื, ืžืื“ ื ื”ื“ืจ! ื•ืคืขื ื—ื–ื• ื—ื–ื™ื•ืŸึพืชื•ื’ื” ืืฉืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืชืฉื›ื•ืŸ ืขึฒื ึธื ึธื” ื”ึฒืจึทืช ืขึฒืฆึถื‘ึถืช ืžืจื”, ื›ื™ ืงืฅ ื”ืžื—ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ื”ืจื’ ื•ืื‘ื“ืŸ, ื›ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื—ืจื•ืฅ ื•ื ื—ืœื™ ื“ื. ื‘ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื ื•ืฆืจื• ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืžืงืจืื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ื”ืชื โ€œื›, ืกืคืจ ื”ืกืคืจื™ื! ืขื ื›ืœ ืžื—ื•ืœืœื™ื”ื, ืžื—ื ื” ืงื“ืฉ, ืžื—ื ื” ืืœื”ื™ื, ื—ื•ื–ื™ ืžื—ื–ื” ืฉื“ื™ ื•ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ ื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ, ืœื”ืงืช ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื ื•ืžืฉื•ืจืจื™ื ื ืืฆืœื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ื™ื• ื•ืืฉืจ ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœืื•ืจ ืขื•ืœื ืขื“ ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืขืœ ืขืคืจ ื™ืงื•ื. ื‘ื” ื ื•ืฆืจื• ื”ืžืฉื ื” ื•ื”ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ื™ืชื•ืช ื•ื”ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื”ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื•ื”ืžื“ืจืฉื™ื โ€“ ืžืงื•ืจื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื”ืžืกื•ืจื”, ื”ื”ืœื›ื” ื”ืฆืจื•ืคื” ื•ื”ื”ื’ื“ื” ื”ืชืžื™ืžื”. ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืืžืจื•: ืื™ืŸ ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืชื•ืจืช ืืจโ€ื™ ื•ืœื ื—ื›ืžื” ื›ื—ื›ืžืช ืืจโ€œื™, ืฉื ื”ื‘ื“ื•ืœื— ื•ื’ื•' ืžืงืจื ืžืฉื ื” ื•ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื•ืชื•ืกืคืชื ื•ืื’ื“ื”โ€ (ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืคื˜โ€ื–). ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื™ืฆืจื” ืœื ื• ื”ืกืชื•ืจื™ื” ืžื–ื”ื™ืจื”, ืœื•ืงื—ืช ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื‘ืงืกื ื™ืคื™ื” ืขื ื›ืœ ื”ืื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืฆืœืœื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ื”, ื”ืกืชื•ืจื™ื” ื ืขื™ืžื” ืืฉืจ ืื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืขืคืจ ืžึธืฉึฐืœึธื”, ื›ื™ ืžื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ืขืžื™ ื”ืชื‘ืœ ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ืžืกืคืจ ื”ืžื•ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืงืจื‘, ืžืœื›ื™ื ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืœื›ืกื, ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžืืฉืจื™ ื”ืขื, ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื•ืžืฉื•ืจืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ื™ืฉื•ื• ื‘ื‘ืจ ืœื‘ื‘ื ื•ื–ืš ื ืคืฉื ื•ื˜ื”ืจ ืœึดืงึฐื—ึธื ืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ื ื•, ืžืœื›ื™ื ื•, ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•, ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื• ื•ืžืฉื•ืจืจื™ื ื•? ื•ื›ืœ ืืœื” ื ื•ืœื“ื•, ื—ื™ื• ื•ื™ืคืขืœื• ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช! ื•ื”ื™ืคืœื ืืคื•ื ืื ื ืื”ื‘ ื›ื” ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื‘ื›ืœ ื—ื•ื ืœื‘ื‘ื ื• ื•ืขื•ืฆื ืจื’ืฉื•ืชื™ื ื•, ื›ื™ ืœืฉืžื” ื•ืœื–ื›ืจื” ืชืื•ืชึพื ืคืฉื”ื•, ื•ืขื“ ืจื’ืขื™ ื”ื™ื™ ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืœื ื™ึดืฉึฐื›ึธื—ึถื”ึธ ื•ื™ืฉืืฃ ืœืขืœื•ืช ืืœื™ื” ืœื ืฉืง ืืช ืื‘ื ื™ื” ื•ืœื—ื•ื ืŸ ืืช ืขืคืจื”, ื•ื’ื ื‘ืจื’ืขื™ ื™ื’ื•ืŸ ื’ื ื‘ืขืชื•ึนืชื™ ืฉืฉื•ืŸ ื ืขืœื” ืขืœ ืœื‘ื‘ื ื• ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช, ืžืฉื•ืฉ ื—ืœื“ื ื• ื•ืื“ื™ืจ ื›ืœ ืชืงื•ื•ืชื™ื ื•? ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืชื‘ืœ, ืžืžื–ืจื— ืฉืžืฉ ื•ืขื“ ืžื‘ื•ืื• ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืฆื™ืจ ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืฆื™ืจ ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™, ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืชืจื›ื•ืฉ ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื›ื” ืจื‘ื™ื, ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื›ื” ื ืฉื’ื‘ื™ื ื›ืืจืฅ ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื•, ืœืžืจื•ืช ื›ืœ ืงื˜ื ื•ืชื”, ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžืคืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ืขื™ืŸ ืœืฉื•ื˜ื˜ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื”ื ื” ื•ื”ื ื” ืขื“ ืืฉืจ ืชืžืฆื ืื•ืชื”. ื›ืœ ื”ืจ ื•ื’ื‘ืขื”, ื ื—ืœ ื•ืขืžืง ื•ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ, ื™ื ื•ืžืขื™ืŸ, ืขื™ืจ ื•ื›ืคืจ ืื• ื—ื•ืจื‘ื” ืขืชื™ืงื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ื” ื”ืžื” โ€œืœื•ื— ื”ืžืคืชื—ื•ืชโ€ ืœื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื‘ืขืžื™ื. ื•ืœืžืจื•ืช ื–ืืช ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืกืคืจื•ืชื ื• ืืฃ ืกืคืจ ืื—ื“ ืฉืœื ืืฉืจ ื™ื›ืœื›ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืช ื”ื ื•ื’ืขื•ืช ืœื—ืงื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ, ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช ื•ืชื›ื•ื ืช ืชื•ืฆืื•ืช ืื“ืžืชื” ื•ื—ืงื™ืจื•ืช ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืชื›ื•ื ืช ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืชื™ื” ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื•ื‘ื”ื•ึนื” ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื™ืžื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื•ื‘ืคืจื˜; ื•ืœืขืžืช ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืœื• ื—ื›ืžื™ ืขืžื™ ืื™ื™ืจื•ืคื ื ืคืœืื•ืช ื‘ืžืงืฆืข ื–ื”, ื›ืจื›ื™ื ืขื‘ื™ื ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืœืžืื•ืช ื ื“ืคืกื• ืขืœ ืื“ื•ืช ื—ืงื™ืจื•ืช ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื•ื”ืžืœืื›ื” ืžื” ื ื”ื“ืจื”! ื•ื”ืกื“ืจ ืžื” ื ืคืœื! ืžืœื‘ื“ ื™ืจื—ื•ื ื™ื ื•ืกืคืจื™ ืฉื ื” ื”ืžืงื•ื“ืฉื™ื ืœื–ื”, ื•ืžืœื‘ื“ ืžื” ืฉื ื›ืชื‘ ืื•ื“ื•ืชื” ื‘ืื ืฆื™ืงืœื•ืคื“ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช, ื•ืžืœื‘ื“ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื‘ืืฉื›ื ื–, ืื ื’ืœื™ื” ื•ืืžืจื™ืงื”, ืืฉืจ ื’ึดืœื• ื‘ืืจืฅ ืื•ืฆืจื•ืช ื—ืฉืš ื•ืžื˜ืžื•ื ื™ ืžืกืชืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœื ืฉึฐื–ึธืคึธืชึทื ืขื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœืคื™ ืฉื ื™ื. ื•ืืœ ื ื ื ืฉื›ื— ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ื”ื”ื ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืจืขื ื ื™ื ื”ืžื” ื‘ืืจืฆื•ืชื ืœื’ื•ื™ื™ื”ื ื•ืจืง ืžืกื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืืžื•ื ื” ื•ื”ืงื‘ืœื” ืžืฉื›ื• ืื•ืชื ื‘ื—ื‘ืœื™ ืื”ื‘ื” ืืœ ืืจืฅ ืงื“ื•ืžื™ื ื–ืืช; ื•ืื ื—ื ื•, ืืฉืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ื™ื—ืก ื™ื•ืชืจ ืงืจื•ื‘ ืืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช, ืื ื—ื ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื‘ื—ื‘ื•ืง ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื•ื‘ืชื ื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื ื›ืจื™ืโ€ฆ ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื›ืื‘! ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื”ื—ืจืคื”! ื™ืฉ ืœื™ืฉื‘ ืืžื ื ื‘ื“ื•ื—ืง, ื›ื™ ืืฆืœ ื”ืื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืื ื™, ื”ืชื™ื™ืจ ืื• ื”ื—ื•ืงืจ ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ืžืคื–ืจ ื›ืกืฃ ืขืœ ืชื™ื•ืจ ื•ืขืœ ื”ื“ืคืกืช ืกืคืจื™ื ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ืฉื›ืจ ืœืคืขื•ืœืชื• ื•ืขืœ ืกืคืจื™ื• ื™ื”ื™ื• ืงื•ืคืฆื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื™ืจื•ื™ื— ืจื•ื— ื—ืžืจื™ ื•ื’ื ืžื•ืกืจื™ ื™ื—ื“; ืื‘ืœ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ ืื•ืžืจ: ืœืžื™ ืื ื™ ืขืžืœ? ืžื™ ื™ืงื ื” ืืช ืกึฐืคึธืจึทื™? ื”ืึทื—ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื™, ื”ื“ืœื™ื ื•ื”ืžืกื›ื ื™ื? ื”ืœื ื’ื ืคืจื•ื˜ืชื™ ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืืฉืจ ืืฉืงื™ืข ื‘ื”ื ื™ืฉ ืœืคื—ื“ ื›ื™ ืชืจื“ ืื•ืœื™ ืœื˜ืžื™ื•ืŸ, ื•ื‘ื’ืœืœ ื”ืคื—ื“ ื”ื–ื” ืื‘ื“ื• ื‘ืืžืช ืžืืช ืกืคืจื•ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื‘ื•ืช ืืœืคื™ ืคื ื™ื ื™ื ื™ืงืจื•ืช. ืื•ืœื ื‘ืืžืช ื”ื•ื ืคื—ื“ ืฉื•ื, ื’ื ื”ืงื”ืœ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ ื™ื“ืข ืžืขื•ืœื ืœื”ื•ืงื™ืจ ืกืคืจ ืžื•ืขื™ืœ ื‘ืืžืช, ื•ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืชืžื™ื“ ืœืฉืœื ื‘ืขื“ื• ื‘ืžื™ื˜ื‘ ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ื“ืœื•ืช, ื•ืœื—ืœืง ืœื• ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืจืื•ื™ ืœื•. ื•ื”ื”ื›ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื ืึดืžึฐืฆึทืชึฐื ึดื™ ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ืช ืกืคืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื—ืงืจื™ ืืจืฅ ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื• ื›ื™ ืœืžืจื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื›ืœ ืขื•ื–ืจ ื•ืชื•ืžืš ื•ืจื•ื‘ ืขืชื•ืชื™ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ื–ื‘ื– ืœืชืช ื˜ืจืฃ ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ ืœืžื—ื™ืช ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ื, ืขื‘ื“ืชื™ ื‘ืœื™ ื”ืจืฃ ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ืกืคืงืชื™ ืœืืกื•ืฃ ื—ึนืžืจ ืจื‘ ื‘ืžืงืฆืข ื–ื” ื•ืœื ืื ื•ื— ื•ืœื ืืฉืงื•ื˜ ืžืœืืกื•ืฃ ืขื•ื“ ืžืžื™ื˜ื‘ ืกืคืจื™ ื”ืชืจื™ื ื•ื”ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ืžื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื™ื—ืก ื™ืฉืจ ืœื—ืงื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ. ื•ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื™ื—ืœืง ืกืคืจื™ ืœืฉืœืฉื” ื—ืœืงื™ื: ื) ืฉื ื™ืชื‘ืืจื• ื›ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื ื•ื”ืคืจื˜ื™ื ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช (ืžื‘ื•ื), ื”ื’ื™ืื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช, ื”ืžื—ืฆื‘ื™ื, ืชื•ืฆืืช ื”ืื“ืžื”, ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ื”ื›ืœื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืžื˜ื‘ืขื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื“ ื—ืงื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื ื•ื’ืขื•ืช ืœืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช. ื‘) ืฉื ืชืชื‘ืืจื ื” ื›ืœ ื”ืขืจื™ื ื•ื”ื›ืคืจื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื–ื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ. ืืฆืœ ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื•ืžืงื•ื ื™ืชื‘ืืจื• ื›ืœ ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืชื™ื• ืžืจืืฉ ื•ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ื‘ืคืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืžื”ื ื•ื’ืข ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืœืขืžื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ืžืื•ืจืขื•ืช ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืงืจื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื•ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืฉื ืืฉืจ ื”ื™ื• ืฉืžื” (ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื›ื›ืœ ืืฉืจ ืชืฉื™ื’ ื™ื“ื™ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื‘ืจื•ืจ). ื’) ืฉื ื™ื‘ื•ืื• ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื™ืžื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ื›ืœืœ. ืžื™ืžื•ืช ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื ื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืžื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช. ื•ื”ื ื ื™ ื ืฉืขืŸ ื‘ื—ืกื“ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ื›ื™ ืœื ื™ืขื–ื‘ื ื™ ื•ืœื ื™ืจืคื ื™ ืขื“ ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื™ ืืช ืžื—ืฉื‘ืชื™ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืœืคืขื•ืœื•ืช, ื•ื’ื ืขื“ ื–ืงื ื” ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืืœื”ื™ื ืืœ ืชืขื–ื‘ื ื™. ื•ืขืชื”, ืงื•ืจืื™ ื”ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื™ื! ื”ื ื ื™ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื›ื ืืช ื”ื—ื•ื‘ืจืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืžืกืคืจื™ ื–ื” โ€“ ืฉึดืคึฐื˜ื• ื‘ืขืฆืžื›ื ืขืœื™ื”! ื•ืืชื ื”ื™ื• ืฉืœื•ื ื‘ื—ืคืฅ ืื—ื™ื›ื ื”ืžื—ื‘ืจ. ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื–ืื‘ ื•ื•ืืœืฃ ื”ืœื•ื™ ืื™ืฉ ื”ื•ืจื•ื•ื™ืฅ. ื—ืžืฉื” ืขืฉืจ ื‘ืื‘ ื”ืชืจืกโ€œื˜. ืคืขื”โ€™ืง ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืชโ€ื•. ืžื‘ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ื›ืœืœ. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ, ืืฉืจ ื ืฉื‘ืข ื”' ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ืœืื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื• ืœืชืช ืœื ื• ืœืžื•ืจืฉื” ืœืื—ื–ืช ืขื•ืœื, ื”ืœื ื”ืžื” ื›ืžื• ืฉื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ืจืช ื”' ืืช ืื‘ืจื ื‘ืจื™ืช ืœืืžืจ ืœื–ืจืขืš ื ืชืชื™ ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ืžื ื”ืจ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืขื“ ื”ื ื”ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื ื”ืจ ืคืจืช. ืืช ื”ืงื™ื ื™ ื•ืืช ื”ืงื ื™ื–ื™ ื•ืืช ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™. ื•ืืช ื”ื—ืชื™ ื•ืืช ื”ืคืจื–ื™ ื•ืืช ื”ืจืคืื™ื. ื•ืืช ื”ืืžืจื™ ื•ืืช ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื•ืืช ื”ื’ืจื’ืฉื™ ื•ืืช ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™โ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื˜ื•, ื™ื—โ€“ื›ื), ื•ื›ืŸ ืฉื (ื™ื’, ื™ื“โ€“ื˜ื•; ื›ื•, ื’โ€“ื“; ื›ื—, ื™ื’โ€“ื™ื“; ืžื—, ื’โ€“ื“; ืฉืžื•ืช ื’, ื—โ€“ื™ื“; ื™ื’, ื”), ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ืฉืชื™ ืืช ื’ื‘ืœืš ืžื™ื ืกื•ืฃ ื•ืขื“ ื™ื ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ืžืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขื“ ื”ื ื”ืจโ€ (ืฉืžื•ืช ื›"ื’, ืœื), ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œืคื ื• ื•ืกืขื• ืœื›ื ื•ื‘ืื• ื”ืจ ื”ืืžืจื™ ื•ืืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื›ื ื™ื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ื” ื‘ื”ืจ ื•ื‘ืฉืคืœื” ื•ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ืืจืฅ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื•ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ื ื”ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื ื”ืจ ืคืจืชโ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื' ื“'), ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืืฉืจ ืชื“ืจืš ื›ืฃ ืจื’ืœื›ื ื‘ื• ืœื›ื ื ืชืชื™ื•โ€ฆ ืžื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื” ื•ืขื“ ื”ื ื”ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื ื”ืจ ืคืจืช ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื”ื—ืชื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื‘ื•ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื™ื”ื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœื›ืโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื', ื’โ€“ื“ ื•ื’ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ื, ื›ื“). ืžื›ืœ ืืœื” ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘, ื”ืŸ: ื ื”ืจ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ื™ื ืกื•ืฃ (ื‘ืคืืช ื ื’ื‘), ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ (ื‘ืคืืช ืงื“ื™ืžื”), ืคืจืช, ืืจืฅ ื”ื—ืชื™ื (ื‘ืคืืช ืฆืคื•ืŸ) ื”ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ (ื‘ืคืืช ื™ื). ื ื”ืจ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืื• ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œื•ึทืื“ึดื™ ืืœึพืขึฒืจึดื™ืฉโ€ (ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”), ื”ื•ื ื‘ืคืืช ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืชโ€“ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช ืœื”ืืจืฅ; ื•ื™ื ืกื•ืฃ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจ ืคื” ื”ื•ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื™ื ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ื”ื ืงืจืืช โ€œืขึทืงึทื‘ึทื”โ€, ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื”ื•ื ื‘ืคืืช ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืชโ€“ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืช ืœื”ืืจืฅ; ื•ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืžื•ืชโ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื›ื•) ืืฉืจ ื‘ื›ืชืฃ ืืจืฅ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ืงื“ืžื”; ื•ืคืจืช ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ, ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ืขืœ ืžืฆืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืžืฉ, ืžืžืฉื—ื–โ€ืœ โ€œืžื˜ืจื ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ืกื”ื“ื ืคืจืชโ€. (ืฉื‘ืช ืกื”, ื‘; ื ื“ืจื™ื ืž' ื‘; ื‘ื›ื•ืจื•ืช ื ื”, ื‘). ื•ืขื•ื“ ืžืžโ€œืฉ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืฉืืœืช ื’ืฉืžื™ื: โ€œืจโ€ื’ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื–' ื‘ื• ื˜โ€ื• ื™ื•ื ืื—ืจ ื”ื—ื’ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื ื”ืจ ืคืจืช" (ืชืขื ื™ืช ืคโ€œื ืžโ€ื’, ื•ืขื™' ื‘ืชื•ืก' ื‘โ€œืž ื“ืฃ ื›โ€ื—, ื ื“โ€™ื” ื˜"ื• ื™ื•ื), ืื•ืœื ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืจืง ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื’ืข ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจโ€œื™, ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืœื›ืŸ ืœื ืžื ื•ื”ื• ืจื–โ€ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืงื™ืคื™ืŸ ืืช ืืจโ€œื™ (ื‘โ€œื‘ ืขื“, ื‘ ื•ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืกื•ืฃ ื›ืœืื™ื ื•ื›ืชื•ื‘ื•ืช ืคื™โ€ื‘ ื”"ื’), ื•ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื”ื–ืืช, ื ืขืœื” ืžื›ืœ ืกืคืง ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œืชืคืกื—โ€ (ืขื™ืจ ื‘ืขื‘ืจื• ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื•ื ืงืจืื” ืืžืคื™ืคื•ืœื™ืก ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืกืœื™ืงื•ืก ื ื™ืงื˜ื•ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ื•ืก, ื•ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื โ€œื—ืจื‘ืช ื—ืžืโ€) ืืฉืจ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืฉืœืžื” ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืขื“ ืฉืžื” (ืžืœ"ื ื”, ื“) ื•ืžื ื—ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ื“ื™ ื”ื›ื” ืื•ืชื” ื•ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ื” (ืž"ื‘ ื˜ื•, ื˜ื–), ื•ื ืจืื” ืงืฆืช ื›ื™ ื’ื ื›ืจื›ืžื™ืฉ (ื ืงืจืื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ืช ืงึดืจึฐืงึฐืกึดื™ื•ึนืŸ, ื‘ืจื‘ื” ืื™ื›ื” ื, ื˜ื•, ื•ื”ื™ื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื™ืจื™ื“ืช ื ื”ืจ ื—ื‘ื•ืจ ืœืคืจืช) ื”ื™ืชื” ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืชื—ื•ื ืืจโ€ื™, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื—ืจื“ ื™ืืฉื™ื”ื• ื›"ื› ืœืงืจืืช ืคืจืขื” ื ื›ื• (ื“ื”โ€œื‘ ืœโ€ื”, ื›) ื•ื‘ืžื“ืจืฉ (ืฉื) ืืžืจื•: ื•ื—ืจื‘ ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื• ืจืฉืข ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื‘ืืจืฆื™ ื•ื‘ืชื—ื•ืžื™1 ื•ืืจืฅ ื”ื—ืชื™ื, ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื” ืืจืฅ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืจืฅ ืืจื ื•ื—ืžืช ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืก, ืžื“ืจื•ื ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ. ืื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ืคืจืช ื•ื”ื™ื ืžืžื–ืจื— ืœืžืขืจื‘; ื•ื”ึนืจ ื”ื”ืจ (ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”) ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืงืฆื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช. ื ืžืฆื ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื ืจืฆื•ืขื” ืืจื•ื›ื” ื•ืฆืจื”, ื ื˜ื•ื™ื” ื‘ืืœื›ืกื•ืŸ ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€“ ืžื–ืจื— ืขื“ ื“ืจื•ื โ€“ ืžืขืจื‘, ื•ืืจื›ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืžืขืœื” ยพ29 (ืขึทืงึทื‘ึทื”) ืขื“ ืžืขืœื” โ…”36 (ื”ึนืจ ื”ื”ืจ) ืจื—ื‘ ืฆืคื•ืŸ, ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืกืš 105 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ื•ืช ืคื—ื•ืช ื™ืชืจ,2 ื•ืจื—ื‘ื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืขืœื” ยพ34 (ืขื–ื”, ื“ืจืž"ืข) ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืขืœื” ยผ39 (ืชืคืกื—, ืฆืž"ื–) ืืจืš ืžื–ืจื— ืžื’ืจื™ื ื•ื•ื™ื˜ืฉ ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืกืš 37 ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ื‘ืจื—ื‘ ืžืžื•ืฆืข, ื ืžืงื ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ืฉื˜ื— ื”ืืจืฅ 3937 ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช ื‘ืงืจื•ื‘. ืโ€ื› ืืคื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื”ืืจืฅ ืืจื‘ืข ืคืขืžื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืจืฅ ืฉื•ื•ื™ืฅ, ืื• 2 ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืคืขืžื™ื ืžืืจืฅ ื‘ืื™ื™ืขืจืŸ, ืื• ืฉืชื™ ื—ืžืฉื™ื•ืช ืžืืจืฅ ืฆืจืคืช.3 ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืขืžื™ื ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช, ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื, ื”ื™ื• โ€œื›ื ืขื ื™ืโ€ ืžืฆืืฆืื™ โ€œื—ื ื‘ืŸ ื ื—โ€, ื›ืŸ ืžืกืจื” ืœื ื• ืชื•ืจืชื ื•, ื•ืœืคื™"ื– ืœื ืœืžืฉืคื—ืช ืขืžื™ ืฉึตื ื™ื—ืฉื‘ื•; ืื•ืœื ื”ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ื ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ืœืฉึตืžึดื™ึตื™ื ื•ืžื—ื–ื•ืช ืคื ื™ื”ื ื”ื—ื•ืึพื›ื”ื” ื”ื ืจืื” ื—ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ื‘ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ื’ื ืžื”ืชื“ืžื•ืช ืฉืคืชื ืœืฉืคืช ื”ืฉืžื™ื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืฉืคื•ื˜ ื›ื™ ื”ืžื” ื—ึธืžึดื™ึดื™ื ืฉื”ืชื‘ื•ืœืœื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืžื™ึดื™ื. ื•ื”ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ืžืจืืฉ ืžืงื“ืžื™ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื›ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื›ื ืขืŸ ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ื•ืขืœ ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื ื’ื‘ื”, ื›ืž"ืฉ: โ€œื•ื™ื”ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ืžืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื‘ืื›ื” ื’ืจืจื” ืขื“ ืขื–ื” โ€“ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื โ€“ ื‘ืื›ื” ืกื“ืžื” ื•ืขืžืจื” ื•ืื“ืžื” ื•ืฆื‘ื™ื ืขื“ ืœืฉืขโ€ โ€“ ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™, ื™"ื˜), ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ืžื–ื” ื›ื™ ื”ืงื™ืคื• ืืช ืืจืฅ ื”ื”ืจ ืžื™ื ื•ืžืงื“ื, ื•ื‘ื”ืจ ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืื– ืขืžื™ื ืฉืžื™ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ื ืชื ื• ื—ืชื™ืชื ื‘ืœื‘ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ืœื‘ืœ ื™ื”ื™ื ื• ืœืขืœื•ืช ืืœื™ื”ื4. ืืš ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ื—ึนืกืŸ! ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ื™ืฆืื• ืžืงืจื‘ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื›ื‘ื™ืจื™ ื›ื—, ืื“ื™ืจื™ ืื™ื•ืžื”, ื ืื–ืจื™ื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจื”, ื•ื™ื’ืจืฉื• ืืช ื”ืฉืžื™ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืชื—ืชื (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื‘, ื•)5. ื•ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื”ืชืคืจื“ื• ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœืœืื•ืžื™ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ื•ื ื‘ื“ืœื™ื, ื•ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืžืขืœื” ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™. ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื (ืื• ื”ืฆื•ืจื™ื ืื• ื”ืคื ื™ืงื™ื) ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื•ืฆื•ืจ, ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ื ื›ื‘ื“ ืฉื‘ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ ื›ื ืขืŸ, ื”ื•ื ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืžืกื—ืจื™ ื”ืžื”ืœืœ ืžืื“ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืงื“ื ืืฉืจ ืขืœื™ื• ืืžืจื• ื›ื•ืชื‘ื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืชื‘ืœ ืืฉืจ ื”ืจื”ื™ื‘ ื‘ื ืคืฉื• ืขื•ื– ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืจื—ื•ืช ื™ืžื™ื ื‘ืื ื™ื•ืช, ืœืจื’ืœ ืžืกื—ืจื•, ืขื“ ืืคืกื™ ืืจืฅ. ื‘ืฉืžื ื–ื” ื ืงืจืื• ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื, ื›ื ืจืื”, ืข"ืฉ ืฆื™ื“ ื”ื“ื’ื™ื ืื• ืฆื™ื“ ื”ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืขืจื•ืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ, ื•ืขืœ ื–ื” ื ืงืจืื” ืขื™ืจื โ€œืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ6โ€ ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ืœืžื• ืœืขื™ืจึพืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช ืื• ืงืจื™ืชึพืžืœืš ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื” ืื– โ€œืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื, ื™ื—; ื™ื˜, ื›ื—), ื›ืžื• ืฉื ืงืจืื” ืขื™ืจ ื‘ื™ืจืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื โ€œืจื‘ื”โ€ ืื• ืจื‘ืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ, ื•ื‘ื™ืจืช ืืจืฅ ื—ืžืช ื ืงืจืื” ื‘ืฉื โ€œื—ืžืช ืจื‘ื”โ€ (ืขืžื•ืก ื•, ื‘); ืื•ืœื ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ื ึธืกึทื‘ึธื” ื”ืžืœื•ื›ื”, ื›ื ืจืื”, ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื—ื™ืจื ืืœ โ€œืฆื•ึนืจโ€ (ืฉืžโ€œื‘ ื”, ื™ื; ื˜, ื™ื, ื™ื‘; ื“ื”โ€ื‘ ื‘, ื‘) ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ืฉื‘ื” ืœืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื” โ€œืืชื‘ืขืœ ืžืœืš ืฆื™ื“ื ื™ืโ€ (ืžืœ"ื ื˜ื–, ืœื) ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื—ืื‘, ื•ืื—ืจื™ื• ื”ื™ื” โ€œืืฉืžื ืขื–ืจโ€ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื ืคืจื“ื” ื”ืืจืฅ ืœืฉืชื™ื, ื›ื ืจืื” ืžื™ืฉืขื™'(ื›ื’), ืืš ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื ืคืจื“ื” ืœืฉืชื™ ืžืžืœื›ื•ืช, ื›ื ืจืื” ืžื—ื–ื™ื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื•ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ืืฉืจ ื—ื–ื• ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ. ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”ื™ื”: โ€œืžืชื™ืžืŸ ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™, ื•ืžืขืจื” ืืฉืจ ืœืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื ืขื“ ืืคืงื” ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืžืจื™. ื•ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื’ื‘ืœื™ ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืžื–ืจื— ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืžื‘ืขืœ ื’ื“ ืชื—ืช ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืœื‘ื•ื ื—ืžืช. ื›ืœ ื™ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ื”ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืžืฉืจืคืช ืžื™ื ื›ืœ ืฆื™ื“ื ื™ืโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื’, ื“โ€“ื•). ื•ืžืŸ ื›ืคืœ ื”ืœืฉื•ืŸ: ืืฉืจ ืœืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื, ื›ืœ ืฆื™ื“ื ื™ื, ืฉื›ืชื•ื‘ ืคื” ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจ ืคื” ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœื‘ืื•ืจ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืืจืฅ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื. ื•ื›ื™ ื ื‘ืงืจ ืืช ืจืฉื™ืžืช ืฉืžื•ืช ื›ืœ ืขืจื™ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ื›ื ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœื ื ืžืฆื ืืฃ ืžืœืš ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื”ืžื•ืœืš ืขืœ ืื™ื–ื” ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืžื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื7, ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืžืืœื™ื• ื›ื™ โ€œื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื ืฉืืจืช ืœืจืฉืชื” ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™, ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ื. ืฉืžื” ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื (ืฉื ืงืจืื• ื’ื ื”ื โ€œื›ื ืขื ื™ืโ€, ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”) ืขื“ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื“ื’ื•ืŸโ€ (ื‘ื™ืช ื“ึธื’ึธโ€™ืŸ) ื”ืกืžื•ืš ืœื™ืคื• (ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”), ื•ืžืฉื ื•ื”ืœืื”, ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ืขื“ ืขื›ื• ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ื”ืขืงืจื™ื (ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”), ื•ื”ืœืื” ืžื–ื”, ืขื“ ื ืงื•ื“ืช ืงืฆื” ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ, ืขื“ โ€œืžืคืจืฅ ืืกื›ื ื“ืจื•ื ืโ€ ืื• โ€œืื™ืกืกื•ืกโ€, ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื (ื‘ื›ืœืœ), ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื›ืชื•ื‘ โ€œืžืชื™ืžืŸ ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™โ€, ื›ื™ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ื•ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืฉืคืœื” ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืช, ื•ืžืฉื ื•ื”ืœืื” ื”ื™ืชื” โ€œื”ืžืขืจื” ืฉืœ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ืโ€, ื•โ€ืžืขืจื”" ื”ื•ืจืืชื” โ€œืžื™ืฉื•ืจโ€, ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ืชืจื’ื ืจโ€œื™ ืขืœ โ€œืžืžืขืจื” ื’ื‘ืขโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื›', ืœ"ื’) โ€“ โ€œืžืžื™ืฉืจ ื’ื‘ืขโ€, ื•ื‘ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ ื–ื” ื ื›ืœืœ ื’ื ื—ืœืง ืžืขืžืง ื™ื–ืจืขืืœ ื”ืžืฉืชืจืข ืžืจื’ืœื™ ื”ืจ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืขื“ ื”ืจ โ€œื’ืœื‘ื•ืขโ€ ื”ื ืงืจื: ื’ึถโ€™ื‘ึถืœ ืคึดื™ืงื•ืึทโ€, ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืืคืงโ€ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจืช ื‘ืžืœื—ืžืช ืฉืื•ืœ ืขื ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื (ืฉโ€œื ื›โ€ื˜, ื). ื•ืœื ืจื—ื•ืง ื”ื•ื ืœืืžืจ ืฉื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉืชืจืขื• ืขื“ ืขื›ื• ื”ืชื›ื ืกื• ื’ื ืืœ ืขืžืง ื™ื–ืจืขืืœ, ื•ืžืžืขืœ ืœื”ื, ืขืœ ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘, ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืžืœื›ื™ ื”ืืžืจื™: ืืคืง, ืชืขื ืš, ืงื“ืฉ, ืžื’ื“ื• ื•ื™ืงื ืขื ืœื›ืจืžืœ ื•ื“ื•ืจ. ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ืืคื•ื, ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื›ืœื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ ืขืžืง ื™ื–ืจืขืืœ ืฉื ื”ื—ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ื”ืจ, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ืžืขืจื”โ€ฆ ืขื“ ืืคืงื” ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืžืจื™โ€. ืขื“ ื”ื ื” ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื“ืจื•ื ืฉืœ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื (ื”ืขืงืจื™ื), ื•ืžืขืชื” ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™, ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื’ื™ืข ืขื“ โ€œื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื’ื‘ืœื™โ€ โ€œื•ื’ึฐื‘ึทืœโ€ (ื’ึถื‘ึทืึดื™ืœ) ื”ื™ื ืขื™ืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื”ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื˜ึทืจึทื‘ึฐืœื•ืก ืึดืฉ=ืฉึทืืโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื‘ื™ืจื•ื˜โ€ ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื–ื”. ื•ืื—ืจื™ ืืฉืจ ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™, ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ืžื“ืจื•ื ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ, ืขื‘ืจ ืงื“ืžื” ืืœ ื”ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืฉื ื™, ื•ืืžืจ: โ€œื•ื›ืœ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืžืžื–ืจื— ื”ืฉืžืฉโ€ ื”ื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื ื›ื”ื™ื•ื:ืžื•ืœึพื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸโ€. ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ื‘ืงืขื” ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื”ืžืคืจื™ื“ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ (ืžื•ืœ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ) ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™, ื•ืชื—ืœืชื” ื”ื™ื: ืžื ื’ื‘, โ€œืžื‘ืขืœ ื’ื“ โ€“ ืืฉืจ โ€“ ืชื—ืช ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸโ€, ื•ื”ื•ื ืœื“โ€œืง ื”ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ โ€œื‘ึทื ึฐื™ึทืืกโ€ (ืžืขืจืช ืคืžื™ืืก) ืืฉืจ ืžืžืขืœ ืœื”ื™ื โ€œืึดืœ ื—ื•ืœื”โ€ (ืžื™ ืžืจื•ื, ืœื“"ืง), ื•ืื—ืจื™ืชื” ื”ื™ื ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ: โ€œืขื“ ืœื‘ื•ื ื—ืžืชโ€. ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ โ€œื›ืœ ื™ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ื”ืจโ€, ืืฉืจ ืงืฆื”ื• ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืžื’ื™ืข, โ€œืขื“ ืžืฉืจืคืช ืžื™ืโ€, ื•ื”ื ืœื“ืขืชื™ โ€œื™ื ื—ึปืžืฅโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™, ื•ื ื”ืจ โ€œืขึทืกึดื™โ€ ื”ื™ื•ืจื“ ืžืฆืœืข ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ื ื•ืคืœ ื‘ื•, ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ื ืžืฆื ืœืžืขืจื‘ ื”ื™ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืงื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œืžึปืฉึตืจึดื™ืคึดื™ึถื”โ€8 ื–ื”ื• ื‘ืื•ืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื”ืืœื”. ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื ืžืฉืš ื”ืœืื”, ื”ื ื’ื‘ื”, ืขื“ ืขื›ื•, ืžืžโ€ืฉ ืืฆืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ: โ€œื•ื™ืจื›ืชื• ืขืœ ืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸโ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืž"ื˜, ื™ื’), ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ โ€œืคื’ืข ืืœ ื”ื ื—ืœ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื™ืงื ืขืโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ื™ื) ื•ื”ื•ื ื ื—ืœ ืงื™ืฉื•ืŸ" ื”ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื™ืงื ืขื ืœื›ืืžืœ ื•ื ื•ืคืœ ื”ื™ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื›ื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื™ืคื. ืœืคื™ ืฉื˜ืจืึทื‘ื• (ื—ื˜"ื– ืฆื“ 753) ื”ืฉืชืจืขื• ื”ืฆื“ื•ื ื™ื ืขื“ โ€œื˜ื ื˜ื•ืจืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืงืกืจื™ื. ื‘ืชื•ืจ ืขื ืคื™ื ืœื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ืฆื“ืง ืืช ื”ึธืึทืจึฐื•ึธื“ึดื™ ื”ืฆืžื“ื™ ื•ื”ื—ืžืชื™. ื”ืืจื•ื“ื™, ื‘ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช (ื™, ื™ื—) ืชืจื’ืžื• ื”ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™: โ€œืื ื˜ืจื™ื“ื ืื™โ€, ื•ื”ื™ื ืึทื ื˜ืึทืจืึทื“ื•ืก, ื•ื‘ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืœื™ื•ืกืฃ (ื, ื•, ื‘) โ€“ ืึทืจืึทื“ื•ืก, ื•ืจืกโ€œื’ ืชืจื’ืžื• โ€œืืœึพืึทึพืึทื“ื•ืึทืŸโ€ ื•ื›ื”ื™ื•ื ื ืงืจื ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” โ€œื’ึถโ€™ื‘ึถืœ ืึทืจึพืจื™ืึทื“โ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ื—ืฆื™ึพืื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžึดืคึฐืจึธืฅ ืืกื›ื ื“ืจื•ื ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ืจื‘ืœื•ืก, ื•ืœืขืžืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื™ืฉ ืื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื ืงืจื ื’ื ื”ื•ื โ€œืืจืื“ื•ืกโ€ ื•ืžโ€ืฉ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืžื’ืœื” ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื˜) โ€œื”ืืจื•ื“ื™ โ€“ ืจื•ื“ื•ืกโ€ ืžื•ืกื‘ ื’โ€œื› ืขืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื”. ื•ื™ื‘โ€ืข (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืฉื) ื•ื‘ืชืจื’' ืจโ€œื™ (ื“ื”"ื ื' ื˜ื–) ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ื โ€œืœื•ื˜ืกืโ€, ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื”ืจืจโ€ื™ ืฉื•ื•ืืจืฅ (ืชื‘ื•ื”"ื ืœื•ื ืฅ, ืฆื“ ืฉ) ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œืœืึทืึธื˜ื™ืกืขืึทโ€ (Laodicea) ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ. ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื ืชืคืฉื• ืœื”ื ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ื›ืœ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืืจื•ื“ื™ ืืฉืจ ื”ื’ื™ืข ืขืœ โ€œืœืึทืึธื“ื™ืงืขืึทโ€, ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ืื™ื ื ื—ื•ืœืงื™ื ื‘ืžืื•ืžื” ืขืœ ืฉโ€ืก ื•ืชืจื’ื•ื ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื•ืจืก"ื’ ื•ื™ื•ืกืฃ. ื‘ืคื™ ื”ืืฉื•ืจื™ื ื ืงืจื ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื–ื”: โ€œืืจืคื“โ€ (ืžืœ"ื‘ ื™ื—, ืœื“; ื™ื˜, ื™ื’; ื™ืฉืขื™ื” ื™, ื˜; ืœื•, ื™ื˜; ืœื–, ื™ื’), ื•ืžืงื•ืจ ืžื—ื™ืชื ื”ื™ืชื” ื“ืžืฉืง, ื›ื ืจืื” ืžื™ืจืžื™ื” (ืžื˜, ื›ื’โ€“ื›ื–). ื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืœื™. ื”ืฆืžืจื™, ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื•ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื•ืจืกโ€œื’ ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ื ืื•ืชื•: ื—ื•ืžืฆืื™, ื—ืžื™ืฆืื™, ืืœื—ืžืฆื™ื™ืŸ, ื•ื‘ื‘ืจโ€ืจ (ืคืœ"ื–) ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืžื’ืœื” ืฉื) โ€“ ื—ืžืฅ, ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ื โ€œืึทืœึพื—ึปืžึฐืฆ'โ€ ื”ื โ€œืœ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ, ื•ื‘ื‘ืจโ€ืจ (ืฉื) ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ืœืžื” ื”ื•ื ืงื•ืจื ืื•ืชื• ืฆืžืจื™? ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจ ืจ' ืืžืจ: ืฉื”ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืฆืžืจโ€ ื•ื”ืจโ€œื™ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื’ ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ืื•ืฆืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ืฉื™ืฉื‘ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ืจ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื™ืžื” ื•ืฉื ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ืคืจ ื–ื•ืžื™ืจื. ื‘ื›ืชื‘ ื”ื™ืชื“ื•ืช โ€œืขื™ืจ ื–ื™ืžื™ืจโ€, ื•ืื ื›ึดื•ึตืŸ ืขืœ ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œื–ึธืžื•ึนืจึดื™ึธื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขื›ื•, ืื™ืŸ ืฉื ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื ืœื”ืฉื โ€œื—ืžืฅโ€ ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื›ืœ ื›ืš, ื•ื’ื ืจื—ื•ืง ื”ื•ื ืžืืจื•ื“ ื•ื—ืžืช ืฉื›ื ื™ื•, ื•ืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ืจื™ืง ื”ื•ื ืžื” ืฉื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื–ื›ื™ืจ ืื•ืชื ืกืžื•ื›ื™ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื”, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ืจืื” ื‘ืชื‘ื•ื”โ€ื (ืœื•ื ืฅ ืฆื“ ืจืœ"ื—) ื›ื™ ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œื–ืžื•ืจื™ื”โ€ ื”ื•ื ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œืฆื•ืžืจื™ืโ€ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืค"ื“), ืืš ื”ืœื ื”ืจืจื™โ€œืฉ ืขืฆืžื• ืฉื“ื ื‘ื™ื” ื ืจื’ื, ืฉื›ืชื‘ ืฉื ืฉื‘ื ื•ืกื—ืชื ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื›ืคืจ ืฆืžื—โ€, ื•ื‘ืก' ื›ืคื•โ€ืค (ืœื•ื ืฅ ืฆื“ ืจ"ืข) ื’ื•ืจืก โ€œื›ืคืจ ื›ืžืจโ€; ืืš ืž"ืฉ ื›ื™ ื”ืจ โ€œืฆึฐืžึธืจึทื™ึดืโ€ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื”ื™' ืžืงื“ื ืžื•ืฉื‘ ืœืขื ืฆึฐืžึธืจึดื™, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืื•ืœื™. ื”ื—ืžืชื™, โ€œื—ืžืชโ€ ืื™ื ื ื” ืขื™ืจ ืื—ืช, ื›ื™ ืžืฆืื ื• ื‘ื” ืืช โ€œืจื—ึนื‘โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื’, ื›ื) ื•ืืช โ€œืจึดื‘ึฐืœึธื”โ€ (ืžืœโ€œื‘ ื›โ€ื’, ืœื’; ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืœื˜, ื”; ื ื‘, ื˜; ื›ื–) ื•ืฉืœืžื” ื‘ื ื” ื‘ื” ืขืจื™ ืžืกื›ื ื•ืช (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื—' ื“), ื•ื’ื ืžืœืš ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืชึนืขื™ ืฉืžื• (ืฉืžโ€œื‘ ื—, ื˜; ื“ื”โ€ื ื™ื—, ื˜) ื•ืžืœืš ืื—ื“ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืกื ื—ืจื™ื‘ (ืž"ื‘ ื™ื˜ ื™ื’; ื™ืฉืขื™' ืœื–, ื™ื’) ื•ืขื™ืจ ืžืœื›ื•ืชื ื ืงืจืื” โ€œื—ืžืช ืจื‘ื”โ€ ื›ื ื–', ื•ืืžื—ื–โ€œืœ: โ€œื—ืžืช ืจื‘ื” ื–ื• ื—ืžืช ืฉืœ ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ื™ืโ€ (ื•ื™ืงโ€œืจ ืคโ€ื”). ืืช ื”ืขืจืงื™โ€ ื•ืืช โ€œื”ืกื™ื ื™โ€ ืœื ืื‘ืืจ ืคื” ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ึตื ึธื” ืขืจื™ื ื‘ื•ื“ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื ื—ืœืช โ€œื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ืโ€ ื•ืžืฆื•ื™ื ื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžืคื•ืช, ื•ืฉืžืŸ ืœื ื ื–ื›ืจ ืจืง ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“, ื‘ืจืฉื™ืžืช ืฉืžื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ ื›ื ืขืŸ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื•, ื™ื–; ื“ื”"ื ื, ื˜ื•). ื”ืืžื•ืจื™. ื”ื•ื ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ ื›ื ืขืŸ, ื”ื•ื ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืืžื™ืฅ ื•ื”ื ื•ืจื ื”ืžื”ืœืœ ื‘ืคื™ ื—ึนื–ึตื ื• ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ: โ€œื•ืื ื›ื™ ื”ืฉืžื“ืชื™ ืืช ื”ืืžืจื™ ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ืืฉืจ ื›ื’ื‘ื” ืืจื–ื™ื ื’ื‘ื”ื• ื•ื—ืกึนืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ืืœื•ื ื™ืโ€ (ืขืžื•ืก ื‘, ื˜), ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืจืชื ื”ืคื™ืœื” ื—ึฒืชึตืช ื‘ืœื‘ ื›ืœ ื’ื•ื™ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื›ืืฉืจ ืืžืจื” ืจื—ื‘ ืืœ ื”ืžืจื’ืœื™ื: โ€œื•ืืฉืจ ืขืฉื™ืชื ืœืฉื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ ื”ืืžืจื™ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืœืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ืœืขื•ื’ ืืฉืจ ื”ื—ืจืžืชื ืื•ืชื. ื•ื ืฉืžืข ื•ื™ืžืก ืœื‘ื‘ื ื• ื•ืœื ืงืžื” ืขื•ื“ ืจื•ื— ื‘ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืคื ื™ื›ืโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘, ื™โ€“ื™ื), ื•ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ื›ื–ื” ืืžืจื• ื’ื ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ื ื™ื ืืœ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข (ื˜, ื™), ื’ื ื‘ืœืง ื‘ืŸ ืฆืคื•ืจ ื”ืชืคืœืฅ ื•ื™ื™ืจื ืžืื“ ื‘ืฉืžืขื• โ€œืืช ืืฉืจ ืขืฉื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืืžื•ืจื™โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื‘, ื‘). ื’ื ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื ืขื•ื“ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืขื•, ื›ื ืจืื”, ืจืง ืžื’ื‘ื•ืจืช ื”ืืžื•ืจื™, ื‘ืืžืจื: โ€œื‘ืฉื ืืช ื”' ืื•ืชื ื• ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื ื• ืžืืจืฅ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืœืชืช ืืชื ื• ื‘ื™ื“ ื”ืืžืจื™ ืœื”ืฉืžื™ื“ื ื•. ืื ื” ืื ื—ื ื• ืขืœื™ื ืื—ื™ื ื• ื”ืžืกื• ืืœ ืœื‘ื‘ื ื• ืœืืžืจ ืขื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืจื ืžืžื ื•โ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื, ื›ื–โ€“ื›ื—). ื•ื›ืชื‘ ืจืื‘โ€œืขโ€ฆื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ืืžื•ืจื™ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื›ื ืขืŸ ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ื”ืชืงื™ืฃ ืžื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ื’ื•ื™ืโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืœื‘, ืžื). ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ื›ื™ ื”ืชืคืจืกืžื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืขืฆื•ืžื•ืช ืืฉืจ ื ืœื—ืžื• ืขื ืฉื›ื ื™ื”ื; ืื•ืœื ืจืง ืžืœื—ืžื” ืื—ืช ืืฉืจ ื ืœื—ื ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ืขื ืžืœืš ืžื•ืื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื ืฉืืจื” ืœืžื–ื›ืจืช (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื, ื›ื•โ€“ืœ), ื•ืœืคื™ ื—ื–โ€œืœ ื ืœื—ื ื’ื ืขื ืขืžื•ืŸ (ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ืœื—), ืœื›ืŸ ืœื ื™ืคืœื ื›ื™ ื ืื—ื–ื• ื‘ืžืœื ืจื—ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžื™ื ื•ืžืงื“ื, ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืžืฆืื ื• ืœืคืขืžื™ื ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื ืงืจืื” ืขืœ ืฉืžื, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ืื ืืช ืืœื”ื™ ื”ืืžืจื™ ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื™ืฉื‘ื™ื ื‘ืืจืฆืโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ื“, ื˜ื•) ื•ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ื›ื–ื” ื ืžืฆื ื’ื ื‘ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื (ื•, ื™) ื•ื‘ืžืœโ€œื (ื›ื, ื›ื•) ื•ื‘ืžืœโ€ื‘ (ื›ื, ื™ื). ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื‘ื—ืจื• ืœื”ื ืœืฉื‘ืช ืขืœ ื”ื”ืจื™ื, ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื• โ€œืืžื•ืจื™ืโ€, ืžื”ื•ืจืืช ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื•ื”ืชื ืฉืื•ืช (ื›ืžื•: ืึธืžื™ืจ โ€“ ืจืืฉ ืขื ืคื™ ื”ืขืฅ (ื™ืฉืขื™' ื™ื–, ื•, ื˜), ื”ืืžืจืช, ื”ืืžื™ืจืš, (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื•, ื™ื–, ื™ื—) ืึถืžื™ืจ โ€“ โ€“ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื (ื”ืจืขโ€œื‘ ื‘ืฉืงืœื™ื ืคโ€ื” ืž"ื’) ืืžื•ืจื™ืŸ โ€“ ื”ื—ืœืง ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืช (ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืฉื ื”ืขืจื•ืš ื‘ืคืกื—ื™ื ืคโ€œื” ืžโ€ื™), ื•ืขื•ื“). ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื, ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื‘ืคืืช ื ื’ื‘, ื”ื™ื” ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ ืžืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื ืžื”ืกืœืข ื•ืžืขืœื”โ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ืœื•), ื•ืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื ื•ืกืœืข ื’ืœื™ืœ ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œืกึทืคึทื”โ€ (ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€) ืžืœื ื”ื•ื ืกืœืขื™ ืžื’ื•ืจ ื–ืงื•ืคื™ื ื•ื ื•ืจืื™ื, ื•ื”ื•ื ืœื“ืจื•ืึพืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื ื”ืžืœื—, ื•ืžืฉื ื•ื”ืœืื” ื”ื—ืœ โ€œื”ืจ ื”ืืžื•ืจื™โ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื, ื–; ื™ื˜ ื›), ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื ืขืœื” ื”ืœืื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื ืคื’ืฉื ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ื—ืฆืฆืŸ ืชืžืจ, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ื’ื ืืช ื”ืืžืจื™ ื”ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื—ืฆืฆืŸ ืชืžืจโ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื“, ื–), ื•ืขื•ื“ ืžืฆืื ื•: ื•ื™ืฆื ื”ืืžืจื™ ื”ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ื”ื•ื ืœืงืจืืชื›ื ื•ื™ื›ืชื• ืืชื›ื ื‘ืฉืขื™ืจ ืขื“ ื”ืจืžื”" (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื, ืžื“), ื•ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ื”ืœืื” ื›ื™ ื ื’ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืงืจื ืžืœืคื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื โ€œืฉืขื™ืจโ€, ื•ืขื•ื“ ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ืžืžืจื, ื‘ืขืœ ื‘ืจื™ืช ืื‘ืจื”ื ื”ื™ื” ืืžื•ืจื™, ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื‘ืืœื ื™ ืžืžืจื ื”ืืžืจื™โ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื“, ื™ื’), ื•ื›ืŸ ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื, ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ, ื™ืจืžื•ืช, ืœื›ื™ืฉ ื•ืขื’ืœื•ืŸ ื ืงืจืื•: โ€œืžืœื›ื™ ื”ืืžืจื™โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข, ื™, ื”), ื’ื ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ื ื™ื ื ืงืจืื• ืืžื•ืจื™ื, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ื ื™ื ืœื ืžื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืžื” ื›ื™ ืื ืžื™ืชืจ ื”ืืžืจื™โ€ (ืฉืž"ื‘, ื›ื, ื‘), ื•ื’ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ ื ืžืฆืื ื• (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื–, ื–), ืขื•ื“ ืžืฆืื ื•: โ€œื•ื™ืœื—ืฆื• ื”ืืžืจื™ ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ื“ืŸ ื”ื”ืจื”โ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ืœื“), ื•ื’ื ื‘ืฉื›ื ื ืžืฆืื ื•: โ€œื•ืื ื™ ื ืชืชื™ ืœืš ืฉื›ื ืื—ื“ ืขืœ ืื—ื™ืš ืืฉืจ ืœืงื—ืชื™ ืžื™ื“ ื”ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื—ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื‘ืงืฉืชื™โ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืžื—, ื›ื‘) ื•ืขื•ื“ ืžืฆืื ื•: โ€œื•ื™ื•ืืœ ื”ืืžืจื™ ืœืฉื‘ืช ื‘ื”ืจ ื—ืจื ื‘ืึทื™ืœื•ึนืŸ ื•ื‘ืฉืขืœื‘ื™ืโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ืœื”), ื•ื’ื ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ืœืืžืจ, ืžืฉื›ื ื•ื”ืœืื”, ื ืจืื” ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื”ืฉืชืจืขื• ืฉืžื” ื•ืœื ืื—ืจื™ื, ื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ืžโ€œืฉ ืืฆืœ ื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ: โ€œื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ืžืžื–ืจื— ื•ืžื™ื ื•ื”ืืžืจื™ ื•ื”ื—ืชื™ ื•ื”ืคืจื–ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™ ื‘ื”ืจโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื, ื’), ื›ื™ ื”ื—ืชื™ ื•ื”ืคืจื–ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™ ืœื ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื”ืจ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ (ื›ืืฉืจ ืื‘ืืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื), ื•ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ืœื ื™ืฉื‘ ืจืง โ€œืžืžื–ืจื— ื•ืžื™ืโ€, ื ืฉืืจื• ืืคื•ื ืจืง ื”ืืžืจื™ื™ื ืื“ื•ื ื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื”ืจ ืขื“ โ€œื—ืฆื•ืจโ€ ืฉื”ื™ืชื” โ€œืจืืฉ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืžืœื›ื•ืช ื”ืืœื”โ€ (ืฉื, ืฉื, ื™), ืื• ืื•ืœื™ ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ืขื“ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ โ€“ ืืจืฅ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื. ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืžืจื™ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™, ื”ื™ื” ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื›ื™ ืืจื ื•ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื•ืื‘ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืืžืจื™โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื, ื™ื’), ื•ืžืฉื ื•ื”ืœืื” ืขื“ ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ื ืงืจืื” ื”ืืจืฅ: โ€œืืจืฅ ื”ืืžืจื™โ€, ื•ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื’ ื™ืงืจืื• ืชืžื™ื“ โ€œืžืœื›ื™ ื”ืืžืจื™โ€, ื•ืืจืฅ ืžืžืœื›ืช ืขื•ื’ ื‘ื‘ืฉืŸ ื”ืœื ื›ืœืชื” ืืฆืœ ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ, ื›ื™ื“ื•ืข, (ื•ืขโ€œืข ื‘ืžื›ืœืชื ืคโ€ื– ืกื™' ืงโ€œื“ ื•ื‘ืจืฉโ€ื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ื–, ื‘). ื‘ืชื•ืจ ืขื ืคื™ื ืœืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืืžืจื™ ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœืžื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ื—ื•ื™ ื•ืืช ื”ืจืคืื™ื=ื”ืขื ืงื™ื. ื”ื—ื•ื™, ื”ื•ืจืืช ื”ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ื”ื™ื ืœื“ืขืช ืจโ€œืค ืขโ€ืฉ โ€œืฉื”ื™ื• ื˜ื•ืขืžื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื›ื—ื•ื™ืโ€9 (ืฉื‘ืช ืคื”, ื), ืื• ืขโ€œืฉ ืฉื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืื”ืœื™ื ื•ื‘ื›ืคืจื™ื (ื›ืžื•: ื—ื•ึนืช ื™ืื™ืจ"), ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ื ื™ื, ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื• ืืžื•ืจื™ื (ื›ื ื–') ื‘ื›โ€ื– ื ืงืจืื• โ€œื—ื•ื™ืโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜, ื–; ื™ื, ื™ื˜), ื’ื ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ืžืฆืื ื• ืื•ืชื, ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ืืžืจื™ื™ื, ื›ื™ ืขืฉื• ืฉื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ื”ืชื—ืชืŸ ืขื ืฆื‘ืขื•ืŸ โ€œื”ื—ื•ื™โ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืœื•, ื‘),10 ื•ื›ืŸ ืื ืฉื™ ืฉื›ื ื”ื™ื• ืืžื•ืจื™ื™ื ื•ื ืงืจืื•: โ€œื—ื•ื™ืโ€, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืœื ื™ืคืœื ื›ื™ ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื’ื โ€œืชื—ืช ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ืžืฆืคื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื, ื’) ื›ื™ ื”ืžื” ืฉืืจื™ืช ืคืœื˜ืช ื”ืืžืจื™ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™.11 ื”ืจืคืื™ื, ื ืขืœื” ื”ื•ื ืžื›ืœ ืกืคืง ื›ื™ ื”ืžื” ืขื ืฃ ืžืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืืžืจื™, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืงืจืื•: โ€œื•ืื ื›ื™ ื”ืฉืžื“ืชื™ ืืช ื”ืืžืจื™ ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ืืฉืจ ื›ื’ื‘ื” ืืจื–ื™ื ื’ื‘ื”ื• ื•ื—ืกืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ืืœื•ื ื™ืโ€ (ืขืžื•ืก ื‘, ื˜) ืฉื•ื˜ื˜ ืœื ื’ื“ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ืžื—ื–ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืจืช ื”ืขื ืงื™ื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืžืขื•ืœื ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืฉื, ื•ืขื•ื’ ืžืœืš ื”ื‘ืฉืŸ ืืฉืจ ื”ื™ื” ืืžืจื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืขืœื™ื•: โ€œื›ื™ ืจืง ืขื•ื’ ืžืœืš ื”ื‘ืฉืŸ ื ืฉืืจ ืžื™ืชืจ ื”ืจืคืื™ืโ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื’, ื™ื; ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื‘, ื“; ื™ื’, ื™ื‘), ื•ืœื“ืขืช ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘โ€œืจ ืคื™โ€ื˜ (ื•ืขื™' ื–ื‘ื—ื™ื ืงื™ื’ ื•ื ื“ื” ืกื) ื•ื”ื•ื‘ื ื‘ืจืฉ"ื™, ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื–, ื™ื’) ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื”ืคืœื™ื˜โ€ ืฉื ืฉืืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืคืื™ื ื‘ืžืœื—ืžืช ืืžืจืคืœ ื•ืœื“ืขืชื (ื ื“ื” ืฉื) ื”ื™ื” ืื—ื™ ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ, ืโ€ื› ื”ื™ื” ื’ื ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืคืื™ื, ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œืœืชืช ืื•ืชื ื• ื‘ื™ื“ ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ ืœื”ืฉืžื™ื“ื ื•โ€ฆ ืขื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืจื ืžืžื ื•โ€ฆ ื•ื’ื ื‘ื ื™ ืขื ืงื™ื ืจืื™ื ื• ืฉื, (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื, ื›ื–โ€“ื›ื—), ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ืžื–ื” ื›ื™ โ€œื‘ื ื™ ืขื ืงื™ืโ€ ื”ื™ื• ืžืžืฉืคื—ืช ื”ืืžื•ืจื™, ื•ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ืืœื” ืืจื‘ืขืช ื”ืขื ืงื™ื: ื™ึดืฉึฐื‘ึดื™, ืกึทืฃึฐ, ื’ึธืœึฐื™ึทืช ื•ืื™ืฉ ืžื“ื•ืŸ (ืฉโ€œื‘ ื›ื, ื˜ื–โ€“ื›; ื•ืขื™' ื‘ื“ื”โ€ื ื›) ืฉื”ื™ื• ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื”ื™ื• ื–ืจืข ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช, ื•ืืžื ืื• ืื‘ื™ื”ื ื”ื™ื• ืžืžืฉืคื—ืช ื”ืจืคืื™ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื• ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ โ€œื”ึธืจึธืคึธื”โ€ (ืฉ"ื‘ ื›ื, ื˜ื–, ื‘ืžืงื•ื: ื”ึธืจึฐืคึธืึธื”), ืื•: โ€œื”ึธืจึธืคึธื (ื‘ื“ื”โ€ื ืฉื, ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉื ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžืŸ โ€œืจืคืื™ืโ€12. ื•ื”ื ื ืื—ื–ื• ื’ื ื›ืŸ ื›ืžืขื˜ ื‘ืžืœื ืจื—ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžื™ื ื•ืžืงื“ื, ื‘ืžื–ืจื—: ืžืœื‘ื“ โ€œื™ืชืจ ื”ื’ืœืขื“ ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืฉืŸโ€ฆ ื›ืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจื’ื‘ ืœื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืฉืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ืงืจืื• ืืจืฅ ืจืคืื™ืโ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื’, ื™ื’), ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ืื•ืชื ื’ื ื‘ืขืฉืชืจื•ืช ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ืืฆืœ ื”ืขืžื•ื ื™ื ื•ื”ืžื•ืื‘ื™ื (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื“, ื”, ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื™ื; ื›, ื’; ื™ื’) ื•ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™โ€œื’, ื›โ€ื‘; ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜"ื•, ื™ื“; ื›ื ื™ื; ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ื›), ื•ื’ื ื‘ื“ื‘ื™ืจ, ืขื ื‘, ืขื–ื”, ื’ืช, ืืฉื“ื•ื“ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื, ื›ืโ€“ื›ื‘) ื•โ€ืขืžืง ืจืคืื™ื" ื™ื“ื•ืข (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืคโ€œื•, ื—; ื™ื—, ื˜ื–; ืฉโ€ื‘ ื”โ€˜, ื™ื—; ื›ื‘; ื›ื’, ื™ื’; ื“ื”"ื ื™ื, ื˜ื•; ื™ืฉืขื™โ€™ ื™ื–, ื”), ื•ื›ืŸ ืžืฆืื ื•ื ื‘ื ื—ืœืช โ€œื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื–, ื˜ื•)13. ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™. ื ืจืื” ื‘ืฉื ื–ื” ืขโ€œืฉ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ืชื•, ื‘ืฉืคืœื”, ืžืฉืจืฉ โ€œื›ื ืขโ€, ืฉืคืœ, (ื‘ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœื”ืฉื โ€œืืจืžื™โ€ ืฉืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ โ€œืจื•ืโ€), ื•ื›ืืžื•ืจ, ื ืฉืืจื• ื”ืžื•ืŸ ืžืกืคืจ ืžื”ืขื ื”ืขืงืจื™ โ€œื›ื ืขืŸโ€ ืืฉืจ ื ืฉืืจื• ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื ื”ืขืชื™ืง ื•ืœื ืขืœื• ื”ื”ืจื”, ื•ืœื ื ืจืืชื” ื›ืœ ืชืžื•ืจื” ื‘ืืจื—ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื”ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืฉืืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืฉื โ€œื›ื ืขืŸโ€ ืœืขื•ืœืžื™ื. ืชื—ืช ืืฉืจ ื™ืชืจ ืื—ื™ื”ื ื ืงืจืื• ื‘ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืœืคื™ ืžืฆื‘ื ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื™ ืื• ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื™ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื—ืจื• ืœืžื•14. ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ื™ื”ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ืžืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื‘ืื›ื” ื’ืจืจื” ืขื“ ืขื–ื” ื‘ืขื›ื” ืกื“ืžื” ื•ืขืžืจื” ื•ืื“ืžื” ื•ืฆื‘ื™ื ืขื“ ืœืฉืขโ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™, ื™ื˜), ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ื”ืชืคืฉื˜ื• ื‘ืขืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ื›ืž"ืฉ ืืฆืœ ื”ืจื™ ื’ืจื–ื™ื ื•ืขื™ื‘ืœ: โ€œื”ืœื ื”ืžื”โ€ฆ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื”ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืขืจื‘ื”โ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ื, ืœ), ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื”ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžืง ืœืืฉืจ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืœืืฉืจ ื‘ืขืžืง ื™ื–ืจืขืืœโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื–, ื˜ื–) (ื–ื” ืžื•ืกื‘ ืขืœ ื—ืœืง ื”ืขืžืง ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืืฉืจ ืžืŸ ื’ืœื‘ืข ืขื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื”ืœื, ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืฆื“ื•ื ื™ื, ื›ื ื–') ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื™ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื™ื ื•ืขืœ ื™ื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื’, ื›ื˜), ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œื•ื”ืขืžืœืงื™ ื•ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ืขืžืงโ€ (ืฉื ื™ื“, ื›ื”), ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œื•ื›ืœ ืžืœื›ื™ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ื”ื™ืโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”, ื), ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ืžืžื–ืจื— ื•ืžื™ืโ€ (ืฉื ื™ื, ื’), ืžื›ืœ ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื ืจืื” ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืžื•ื—ืœื˜ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืกืคืง ื‘ื• ืฉื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื”ืฉืชืจืข ืžื™ื ืจืง ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืฉืคืœื”, ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ืชื‘ื ื• ื”ืฉืชืจืขื• ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื ืขื“ ืขื›ื•, ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื ื‘ืืจ ืขื•ื“ ื”ื ื” ื”ืฉืชืจืขื• ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืžื ื’ื‘ ืขื“ ื™ืคื•, ืื• ืกืžื•ืš ืœื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ, ื–ืืช ืื•ืžืจืช, ืฉื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™, ื”ืขืงืจื™, ื”ืฉืชืจืข ืžืขื›ื• โ€“ ืกื•ืฃ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื โ€“ ืขื“ ื™ืคื• โ€“ ืจืืฉ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืฉืชืจืขื• ื’ื ืขืœ ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ (ื”ืขืจื‘ื”) ืžืžื–ืจื— ื•ืขืœ ื”ื”ืจ ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืืžืจื™ ื•ื”ื—ืชื™ ื•ื”ืคืจื–ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื’, ื›ื˜; ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื,ื’)15 ื•ืœื• ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื›ืœ ืชื—ื•ื ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœ ื•ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืœื ื˜ืจื— ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืœื”ืฉืžื™ืขื ื• ืคืขืžื™ื ืืช ื”ื—ืœื•ืงื” ื”ื–ืืช. ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืžืืœื™ื•, ื›ื™ ืื ื™ืงืจื” ืฉื’ื ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ื”ืจ ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื ืงืจืื™ื ื‘ืฉื โ€œื›ื ืขื ื™โ€, ืื™ืŸ ืœืชืคื•ืก ืงืจื™ืื” ื–ืืช ืœืžื•ื—ืœื˜ืช ื•ืคืกื•ืงื”, ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืช ื›ืœ ืขืžื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ืื‘ ืื—ื“ โ€“ ื›ื ืขืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื—ื, ื™ืงืจืื• ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืขืœ ืฉืžื• ื’ื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ืคืœื’ื• ืœืœืื•ืžื™ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื, ื›ืžื• ืฉื ืงืจืื” ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืฉื โ€œืืจืฅ ื›ื ืขืŸโ€, ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื“ื•ืŸ ืžืฉื ื›ืœืœื™ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืžืžื ื• ืื™ื–ื” ืชื•ืœื“ื” ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœื—ืงื™ืจื•ืช ื›ืืœื”, ืจืง ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื ื”ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื“ื™ื™ืงื ื•ืช ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ืช, ื›ืžื• ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ืฉื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืคื”. ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื. ื”ื•ืจืืช ื”ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืฉืคืช ื›ื•ืฉ, ื”ื™ื โ€“ ืชื ื•ื“ื” (ืžืื•ื•ืขืจโ€™ืก, ื‘ืก' โ€œื“ื™ืข ืคืขื ื™ืฆื™ืขืจโ€, ืฆื“ 4) ื•ื™ื•ืจื” ืขืœ โ€œื’ืจื•ืชโ€, ืœืืžืจ, ืขื ื”ื ืข ื•ื ื“ ืžืืจืฆื•, ื•ื›ืŸ ืชืจื’ืžื• ืคื™ืจืฉื˜, ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื‘ืื• ื”ื ื” ืžืืจืฅ ืื—ืจืช ืงืจืื• ืœืžืงื•ืžื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ: โ€œื’ืจืจโ€ ื”ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื’ืจื•ืช. ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื• ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืฉื‘ื˜ ืžืฉื‘ื˜ื™ ื›ื ืขืŸ ื™ื•ืฆื ืžืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œืžืŸ ื”ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขืงืจื•ืŸ ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืœื›ื ืขื ื™ ืชื—ืฉื‘โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื’, ื’), ื•ืฉืžื” ื”ืœื ื’ืจื• ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œื“ื‘ืจ ื”' ืขืœื™ื›ื ื›ื ืขืŸ ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ืโ€ (ืฆืคื ื™ื” ื‘' ื”). ืžื•ืฆื ื”ืคืฉืœืชื™ื โ€“ ืื• ืงืฆืช ืžื”ื โ€“ ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื›ืคืชื•ืจ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™, ื™ื“; ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื›ื’; ืขืžื•ืก ื˜, ื–), ืฉืฉื ืกื‘ืœื• ืขื•ืœ ื’ืœื•ืช, ื•ืœืคื™ ืžื” ืฉืชืจื’ื ืจืกโ€ื’ ืืช โ€œื›ืคืชื•ืจื™ืโ€ ื‘ืฉื โ€œืืœื“ืึทืžื™ื™ืึทื˜ื™ื™ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื ื“ืึทืžื™ืึทื˜" ืขื• โ€œื“ืึทืžื™ืขื˜ื˜ืขโ€, ืขื™ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื‘ืžืฆืจื™ื ื”ืชื—ืชื•ื ื” ืขืœ ื–ืจื•ืข ื”ื™ืื•ืจ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™, 2 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ืžื—ื•ื– โ€œืฉึทืจึฐืงึดื™ึธื”โ€,16 ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืฆืจื™ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืจื•ืขื™ื (ื”ื™ืงื–ื•ึนืก) ืืฉืจ ืžืœื›ื• ืขืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืœืคื™ ืขื“ื•ืช ื”ื›ื”ืŸ โ€œืžืื ืขื˜ืโ€, 512 ืฉื ื™ื, ื•ื”ืžื” ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื ืฉื‘ืื• ืžืืจืฆื•ืช ืงื“ื ื•ื™ืžืœื›ื• ืฉืžื” ืขื“ ืืฉืจ ืงืžื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ืžืœื›ื™ โ€œื˜ื”ืขื‘ืขืŸโ€ ื•ื™ืœื—ืžื• ื‘ื”ื ื•ื™ื’ืจืฉื•ื ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ (ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื ื’ื“ ืืคื™ื•ืŸ ื, ื“), ื•ืืฃ ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื”ื™ืงื–ื•ืก ื”ืืœื” ืื™ื ื ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ืืš ื–ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื ื–ืจื™ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ืงืจื‘ื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืช ื”ื–ืจื™ื, ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื. ื•ื™ืชื ื• ืœื”ื ื™ื“ื™ื ืœื”ืื—ื– ื‘ื“ืืžื™ืื˜ (ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ืœืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื”ืขืงืจื™ืช), ื›ืŸ ื ืชืงื‘ืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืืฆืœ ืคืจืขื”, ืื—ื“ ืžืžืœื›ื™ ื”ืขื ื”ื–ื”,ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื‘ื ื™ื• ื ื•ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืคืงื•ื“ืชื• ื‘ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื’ืฉืŸ, ื•ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื ืชืžื ื” ืœื•ื•ื–ื™ืจ โ€“ ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ื•ืื—ืจื™ ืืฉืจ ื’ื•ืจืฉื• ื”ื”ื™ืงื–ื•ืก ื”ืชืœืงื—ื” ืžืฉื˜ืžื” ื ื•ืจืื” ืœื›ืœ ืขืžื™ ื”ื ื›ืจ ื‘ืืจืฅ, ืœื›ืŸ ืืคืฉืจ ื›ื™ ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืœ ืงืฉื” ื’ื ืขืœ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื“ืืžื™ืื˜ (ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืžื“ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืงื˜ื ื” ืžืืฉืจ ืฉืžื• ืขืœ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื™ื, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื™ื ื’ืจื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืืจืฅ ืคื ื™ืžื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืฉื’ืจื• ืขืœ ืžืฆืจ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ื™ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื™ื ื™ืฆื ืžื•ืฉืœ, ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืกืฃ) ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืชืื–ืจื• ืขื– ื•ื™ืฆืื• ืžืขื‘ื“ื•ืช ืœื—ืจื•ืช, ื•ื™ื‘ืื• ืืจืฆื” ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืืœ ืื—ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ื’ืจืฉื• ืืช โ€œื”ืขื–ื™ื ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื‘ื—ืฆืจื™ื ืขื“ ืขื–ื”โ€ ื•ื™ืฉืžื™ื“ื•ื ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืชื—ืชื (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื›ื’),17 (ื•ืขื™' ืขืœ ืื“ื•ืช ื”ืขื–ื™ื ื•ื”ื›ืคืชื•ืจื™ื ื•ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืก, ื‘), ื•ืืœื™ื”ื ื ืœื•ื• ื’ื ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ึธืึดื™ ื›ึฐืจึธืชึทื” (ืงื ื“ื™ื), ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื• ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืœืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื:ื›ึฐืจึตืชึดื™ื, ื’ื•ื™ ื›ืจืชื™ื (ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ื›ื”, ื˜ื–; ืฆืคื ื™ื” ื‘, ื—), ืื• ื›ืจืชื™ (ืฉืžโ€œื ืœ, ื™ื“; ืฉืžโ€ื‘ ื˜ื•, ื™ื—; ื›, ื›ื’; ื“ื”"ื ื™ื—, ื™ื–). ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืžืฉืชืจืข, ื›ืืžื•ืจ, โ€œืžืŸ ื”ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขืงืจื•ืŸ ืฆืคื•ื ื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื’, ื’), ื•ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจ ื–ื” ืื• โ€œื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ืโ€ ื”ื•ื ืœื“ืขืช ื™ื‘โ€œืข ื•ืจืฉโ€ื™ ื•ืจื“โ€œืง โ€“ ื™ืื•ืจ ื ื™ืœื•ืก, ื•ืœืคื™ ืžื” ืฉื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืฉืžืงืฆืช ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื’ื ื‘ื“ืืžื™ืื˜ ืฉื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ ื”ื ื™ืœื•ืก, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ืžื• ืฉื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ื‘ื”ืขืจื”, ื›ื™ ื’ื ื“ืืžื™ืื˜ ืชื—ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœื ื™ืฆืื• ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืžืฉื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืื– ืขื•ื“ ื”ืขื–ื™ื ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื (ืฉื ื‘ืคืกื•ืง ื”ื”ื•ื) ื›ื™ ื˜ืจื ื ืœืžื• ื‘ื”ื ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื”ื“ืืžื™ืื˜ื™ืึพื”ื›ืคืชืจื™ื, ื•ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื“ืขืชื ื–โ€ืœ ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืžื•ื›ืจื—ื™ื ืื ื—ื ื• ืœืงื‘ืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืช ื“ืขืช ื”ืจืกโ€œื’ ื•ื”ืจื“ื‘โ€ื– (ืจืžื‘โ€œื ืคโ€ื ืžื”' ืชืจื•ืžื•ืช) ืฉื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืึดืœโ€“ืขึฒืจึดื™ืฉโ€, (ื•ื›ืŸ ื›ืชื‘ ื’ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืค' ืžืกืขื™ ื›ื™ ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืื™ื ื ื• ื”ื™ืื•ืจ), ื›ื™ ืื ื—ื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืฉื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืขื‘ืจ โ€œืžืขืฆืžื•ืŸ ื ื—ืœื” ืžืฆืจื™ืโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืœื”, ื”; ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ื“) ื•ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื–ื” ื•ื—ืฆืจื™ื” (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ืžื–), ืโ€œื› ื”ืœื ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœโ€“ืขืจื™ืฉโ€ ื”ืกืžื•ืš ืœืขืฆืžื•ืŸ ื•ืœืขื–ื” ื•ื ื•ืคืœ ื”ื™ืžื” (ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”)18. ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ืขื™ืจ ืžืœื›ื•ืชื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื—ืง, ื”ื™ืชื” โ€œื’ืจืจโ€ (ืึปื ื’ึธโ€™ืจึทืจ, ืœื“ืจื•ื ืขื–ื”), ื•ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ โ€œื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืขโ€ ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื•ืฉื ื™ืฉื‘ ืื‘ืจื”ื19. ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œืืคืก ื“ืžื™ืโ€ ืื• โ€œืคืก ื“ืžื™ืโ€, ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œื“ื•ืžื”โ€ ืžื ื’ื‘ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ, ื”ื™ืชื” ืขืœ ืชื—ื•ื ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื”ื™ืชื” ืกืœืข ื”ืžื—ืœืงื•ืช ื‘ืฉืชื™ ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช (ืฉโ€œื ื™ื–, ื; ื“ื”โ€ื ื™ื ื™ื’). ื’ื โ€œืงืขื™ืœื”โ€ โ€œืขื™ืจ ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœึทืกึฐืคึธืจ ื”ื™ืชื”โ€ (ืขืจื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื”, ื), ื•ื”ื™ื, ืœืคื™ ืื™ื–ื‘ื™ื•ืก, ื›ืฉืœืฉ ืฉืขื•ืช ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸโ€, ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ, ื•ื ืงืจืืช โ€œืงื™ืœืึทโ€. ื’ื โ€œืกืขื™ืฃ ืกืœืข ืขื™ื˜ืโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื˜ื•, ื—), ื”ื™ื” ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื, ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื—ื•ืง ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืฉืชื™ ืฉืขื•ืช (ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื—, ื–, ื’), ื•ืœื ืจื—ื•ืง ื’ื ืžืชึตืžึฐื ึธื” ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ืช, ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืฉืœืฉ ืžืื•ืช ื”ืฉื•ืขืœื™ื20. ื’ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืฉโ€, ื”ื ืงืจืืช ื›ื”ื™ื•ื โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืฉึธืžึฐืกึฐโ€, ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ื›ืฉืขื” ืœื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื, ื”ื™ื ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื (ืฉืž"ื ื•, ื˜). ื’ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื›ึธืจโ€, ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื (ืฉ"ื ื–, ื™ื), ื•ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจโ€ื™ ืฉื•ื•ืืจืฅ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืžื—ื•ื– โ€œืจืึทืึพืึทืœึฐืœึทื”โ€ (ื›ืคืจ ืœืžืขืจื‘ ื‘ืึตืจึนืช ื‘ืขืจืš ยพ ืฉืขื”) ื•ื ืงืจื โ€œื›ืึทืจื•ืึท. ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ืขื•ื“ ืžืœื—ืžื” ืขื ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื‘ื ึนื‘, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื ื•ึนื‘ืึทโ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื‘ืขืจืš 7 ืฉืขื” ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืœืžืขืจื‘ึพืฆืคื•ืŸ (ืฉืž"ื‘ ื›ื, ื™ื—). ื•ื ืžืฆื ืขื•ื“ ืขื ืง ืคืœืฉืชื™ ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œืื™ืฉ ืžื“ื™ืŸโ€ (ืœืคื™ ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘) ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œืžื“ื™ืŸโ€“ืžื•ื“ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืขื™ืจ ื”ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื, ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื˜โ€ื• ืžื™ืœ (ืคืกื—ื™ื ืฆื’, ื‘) ืื• ยฝ1 ืฉืขื”, ื•ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžื’ื‘ืข ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ืžืขืจื‘ื”, ื•ื ืงืจืืช โ€œืžึดื™ื“ึฐื™ึทืโ€, ืโ€ื› ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื’ื ืฉืžื”?. ื•ื ืžืฆื ืขื•ื“ ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ื™ื”, ื›ื ืจืื”, ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œืื‘ืŸ ื”ืขื–ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืฆืคื” ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืŸโ€ (ืฉ"ื ื–, ื™ื‘), ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื”ืจืจโ€œืฉ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืืคืจื™ื, ื•ื–ื” โ€œื”ึทืฉึตืŸโ€ ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืช ืฉึตืŸโ€ (ืฉืžโ€œื ืœื, ื™; ื™ื‘; ืฉโ€ื‘ ื›ื, ื™ื‘), ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื’ึธโ€™ืŸโ€ ืื• โ€œื“ึธื’ึธโ€™ืŸโ€, ื›ื™ ืžื‘ื˜ื ื”ืฉื™โ€œืŸ ื•ื”ื’โ€™ื™ื ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ ื™ื“ืžื” ื‘ืžืงืฆืช, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืชื—ืช ื–ื” ื‘ื“ื”โ€ื (ื™, ื™) โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื“ื’ื•ืŸโ€, ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืฉื ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืœืืœื™ืœ ืคืœืฉืชื™, ืœื›ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ืขื™ืจ ืคืœืฉืชื™ืช, ื•ื”ื™ื ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื™ืคื• ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืœื•ื“โ€. ื•ื”ื™ื ืขื™ืจ ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื“ืŸ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืึถืœึฐืชึธืงึตื” ื•ื‘ึทืขึฒืœึธืช (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ืžื“).21 ืžื›ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจ ื‘ื–ื” ื™ื•ืฆื ืœื ื•, ื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ืœืžืฉื•ืš ืืช ืงื• ืชื—ื•ื ืžื–ืจื— ืฉืœ ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื (ื”ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืžื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœ ืขืจื™ืฉ) ืžื“ืจื•ื ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ, ืžื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข (ืœืžืขืจื‘ื”) ืขื“ โ€œืจื•ืžื”โ€, ื•ืžืฉื ืœืžืขืจื‘ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืงืขื™ืœื” ื•ืžืฉื ืœโ€œืกืœืข ืขื™ื˜ืโ€, ื•ืžืฉื ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืฉ, ื•ืžืฉื ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืžืขืจื‘ื”, ืœื‘ื™ืช ื›ืจ ื•ืœื’ื‘ ื•ืœืžื“ื™ืŸ (?) ื•ืœืื‘ืŸ ื”ืขื–ืจ ื•ืœื’ื‘ืชื•ืŸ, ืขื“ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื’ื•ืŸ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื™ืคื•. ืืš ื”ืœื ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ืขืจื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื•ืช ื ื›ื ืกื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื–ื”? ืขโ€œื– ื ืฉื™ื‘: ื›ื™ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื’ื–ืœื• ืื•ืชืŸ ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื•ืคืขื ืื—ืช ืฉื‘ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื™ื•ืฆื™ืื•ืŸ ืžืชื—ึทืช ื™ื“ื, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ืชืฉื‘ื ื” ื”ืขืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœืงื—ื• ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืžืืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืขืงืจื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื’ืช ื•ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœืŸ ื”ืฆื™ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื™ื“ ืคืœืฉืชื™ืโ€ (ืฉืžโ€œื ื–, ื™โ€ื“), ืืš ืœื ืœืืจืš ื™ืžื™ื! ื ืฉืืจ ืขืชื” ืจืง ืœื“ืขืช, ืžื“ื•ืข ื‘ืžืœื—ืžืชื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืืฉืจ ื ืœื—ืžื• ืขื ืฉืื•ืœ ื‘ื—ืจื• ืœืœื›ืช ื‘ืขืงื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืœืฆืืช ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื—ืœืชื ืžืจื—ืง ืจื‘ ืขื“ ืœื‘ ืขืžืง ื™ื–ืจืขืืœ, ืขื“ โ€œืืคืงโ€, ื•ืœื ื”ืชื ืคืœื• ืขืœื™ื• ืกืžื•ืš ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื›ืคืขื ื‘ืคืขื? ื•ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ืื– ื’ื‘ืจื• ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืขืœ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ืฉื›ื ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ื’ืจืฉื•ื ื•ื™ืงืจื™ื‘ื• ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืฆื“ื•ื ื™ื, ื•ืžืฉื ื”ืœื›ื• ืœื”ื‘ืงื™ืข ืืœ ืœื‘ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื™ื“ื ื ื˜ื•ื™ื” ืžืฉื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ, ืœื›ืŸ ื‘ื—ืจื• ืืช ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ื‘ืขืžืง ื™ื–ืจืขืืœ. ื•ืจืื™ื” ืœืงืจื•ื‘ ื”ืชื—ื•ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืืœื” ื”ื™ื ืžืž"ืฉ: โ€œืขืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื‘ื ืœืฉื“ื•ื“ ืืช ื›ืœ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืœื”ื›ืจื™ืช ืœืฆืจ ื•ืœืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉืจื™ื“ ืขื–ืจโ€ (ื™ืจืžื™' ืžื–), ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืฉื›ื ื™ื”ื. ื•ืขื•ื“; โ€œื”ื ื” ืคืœืฉืช ื•ืฆื•ืจโ€ (ืชื”ืœื™ื ืค"ื–, ื“): โ€œื•ื’ื ืžื” ืืชื ืœื™ ืฆืจ ื•ืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ืคืœืฉืชโ€ (ื™ื•ืืœ ื“, ื“); โ€œืคืœืฉืช ืขื ื™ืฉื‘ื™ ืฆืจโ€ (ืชื”ืœื™ื ืคื’, ื—), ื•ืžืžื” ืฉืœื ื”ื–ื›ื™ืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ืฉื•ื ืืžืฆืขื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ื”ืฆื•ืจื™ื ืžื•ื›ื— ื›ื™ ืขืœื” ื”ื›ื•ืจืช ืขืœ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฉืคืœื” ื•ื™ื’ื•ืจืฉื• ืžืฉื, ื•ืœื ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ืจืฉื• ืื•ืชื, ื•ืžืžื” ืฉืจืื™ื ื• ืฉื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื”ืจื”ื™ื‘ื• ื‘ื ืคืฉื ืขื•ื– ืœืฆืืช ืœืžืœื—ืžื” ืขื“ ืขืžืง ื™ื–ืจืขืืœ, ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ื”ืžื” ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืขื•ื›ืจื™ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ื•ื™ื’ืจืฉื•ื ื•ื™ืจื—ื™ื‘ื• ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ืขื“ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื. ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™, ื”ื—ืชื™, ื ืคืœื ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ืืœื”, ืœืžืจื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืœื ื™ื—ืกืจื• ื›ืžืขื˜ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืžืงืจื ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื™ื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืขืžื™ ื›ื ืขืŸ, ื”ืžื” ืœื ื”ืฉืชืจืขื• ืจืง ืขืœ ืขื™ืจ ืื—ืช ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“, ื›ื™ โ€œื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™โ€ ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ื—; ื™ื—, ื›"ื—; ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื™ื˜, ื™), ื•ื’ื ืคื” ื™ืฉ ืกืคืง ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืขืฆืžื”, ื›ื™ ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื ืžืœืš โ€œืืžื•ืจื™โ€ ื•ืฉืžื•: ืื“ื ื™ ืฆื“ืงโ€œ, ื•ืœืคื™ ืจืฉโ€ื™ ื•ื”ืจื“โ€œืง (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ื—), ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™ ื”ื–ื” ืฉื‘ื˜ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“, ื›ื™ ืื ืžื–ืจืข ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™, ื•ืจืฉโ€ื™ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื (ื™ื‘, ื™ื–) ื”ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืฉื ืคืจืงื™ ื“ืจ' ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื›ื™ ืœื ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืืœื ื—ืชื™ื™ื, ื•ืข"ืฉ ืขื™ืจื โ€œื™ื‘ื•ืกโ€ ื ืงืจืื• โ€œื™ื‘ื•ืกื™ืโ€ ื•ืืช โ€œื”ื—ืชื™โ€ ื ืžืฆื ืจืง ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ, ื‘ืคืจืฉืช ืงื‘ื•ืจืช ืฉืจื”, ื•ื’ื ืฉื ืžืฆืื ื• ืžืœืš โ€œืืžื•ืจื™โ€ ื•ืฉืžื•: โ€œื”ื•ื”ืโ€, ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ืชื‘ื•ืœืœื• ื‘ืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ืชืจ ื”ืขืžื™ื, ื•ื‘ืืžืช, ื›ื™ ืืช ืฉื ื™ ื”ืขืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืœื ื ืคื’ื•ืฉ ื‘ืฉื•ื ืคืขื•ืœื” ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืืช ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ื‘ืขื ื™ืŸ ืžืขืจืช ื”ืžื›ืคืœื”, ื•ืžืื– ื•ื”ืœืื” ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื–ื›ืจ ืœืžื• ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ืžืขืฉื” ืžืžืฉื™ ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ื‘ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืฉืžื ื‘ืœื‘ื“.22 ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ื—ืจื™. ืœืคื™ ื’ืจืกืช ื”ืขืจื•ืš ื”ื™ื” ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืžื“ืจืฉ (ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืคืžโ€ื‘ ืกื™' ื•), โ€œื•ืืช ื”ื—ืจื™โ€“ืึธืœึทื™ึฐื™ืชึฐืจื•ึนืคื•ึนืœึดื™ืกโ€, ื•ื‘ืฉื ื–ื” ืงืจืื• ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ื ืืช โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸโ€ (,ื‘ื™ืช ื’ึดโ€™ื™ื‘ึฐืจึดื™ืŸ"), ื•ืœื“ืขืช ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ (ืคืœืกืชื™ื ื ื—"ื‘, ืฆื™ื•ืŸ 31) ื™ืฉื‘ ืฉืžื” ื”ื—ืจื™, ื•ื”ื•ืจืืช ื”ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ื”ื™ื: ืžื—ื™ืœื•ืช ืขืคืจ (ื•ื›ืŸ ื“ืขืช ื”ืจืžื‘โ€œืŸ ื–โ€ืœ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื›ื’). ื•ื”ื ื” ื ืžืฆืื” โ€œืžืขืจื” ื‘ืžืงื“ื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™, ื˜ื– ื•ืฉื) ืฉื”ื™ื ืœืขื“ื•ืช ื”ื™ืจื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก ื‘ืžืจื—ืง 8 ืžื™ืœ (ืจื•ืžืื™ื ืื• ยฝ2 ืฉืขื”) ืœืžื–ืจื— ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ, ื•ื‘ื›ืคืจ โ€œื“ื™ืจ ื“ึปื‘ึทืŸโ€, ื”ืจื—ื•ืง ื‘ืขืจืš 2 ืฉืขื” ืžื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ, ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ืžืขืจื•ืช ื—ืฆื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืจ ื‘ืžืœืื›ื” ื™ืคื”, ื•ืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืŸ ื‘ืžืกืคืจืŸ ืขื“ ื›ื™ ืชื“ืžื™ื ื” ื“ืœื”ื™ื›ืœึพืžืชืขื” (ืœืื‘ื™ืจื™ื ื˜). ื•ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ ื‘ืืจ ืืช ื›ืœ ืชื›ื•ื ืชืŸ (ืฉื ืฆื“ 611). ื’ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืขืฆืžื” ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ืžืขืจื•ืช. ื’ื โ€œืžืขืจืช ืขื“ื•ืœืโ€ (ืฉโ€œื ื›ื‘, ื™ื; ืฉโ€ื‘ ื›ื’, ื™ื’; ื“ื”"ื ื™ื, ื˜ื•), ื ืžืฆืืช ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ืื™โ€œื”. ื•ื™ืฉ ื™ื“ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืขืจื” ื›ื™ โ€œื”ื—ืจื™โ€ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืฉื‘ื˜ โ€œื”ื—ื•ื™โ€, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ืฆื‘ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื ื” ื ืงืจืื™ื โ€œื—ื•ื™โ€ ื•ื”ื ืžื‘ื ื™ ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ื—ืจื™ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืœื•, ื‘; ื›), ื›ื™ ืื—ื“ื™ื ื”ืžื”, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ ื”ืจืžื‘โ€œืŸ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื. ื•ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ื›ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื™ืฉื‘ ืขืฉื• ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ืžืงื•ื ื”ื—ืจื™, ื•ื™ืฉื ื ืฉื™ื ืžื‘ื ื•ืช ื”ื—ืชื™ ื•ื”ื—ื•ื™ (ืื• ื”ื—ืจื™) ื•ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ (ืขื™' ืจืื‘"ืข ืฉื) ื•ืฉื ื”ื•ืœื™ื“ ื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื™ืคืจืฅ ืœืจื‘ ืขื“ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื” ืœืจืืฉ ื’ื“ื•ื“, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื”ืžืงื•ื โ€œืืจืฅ ืฉืขื™ืจ ืฉื“ื” ืื“ื•ืโ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืœื‘, ื“), ืขืคโ€ื™ ื”ื”ืชื—ืชื ื•ืช ื”ื–ืืช, ื•ืœื›ืŸ, ื‘ืจืฆื•ืช ื™ืขืงื‘ ืœื‘ื ื—ื‘ืจื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื” ื ืืœืฅ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื“ืจืš ืžืงื•ื ืžื’ื•ืจื™ ืขืฉื•, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืจื ืžืคื ื™ื• ื•ื™ืขืฉื” ืžื” ืฉืขืฉื”; ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืžืื“ ืฉื”ื—ืจื™ ื™ืฉื‘ ื’ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ืื“ื•ื ื”ืขืงืจื™ืช, ืœืžื–ืจื—ึพื“ืจื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืœื—, ื•ื”ื™ื ื ืงืจืื” โ€œื”ืจ ืฉืขื™ืจโ€, ื•ืื—ืจื™ ืืฉืจ ื ืืœืฅ ืขืฉื• ืœืขื–ื•ื‘ ืืช ืžืงื•ื ืžื’ื•ืจื• ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืคื ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื—ื™ื• (ืฉื ืœื•, ื–), ื”ืœืš ืœื• ืืœ โ€œื”ื”ืจโ€ ื”ื”ื•ื ื•ื™ืฉืžื“ ืืช ื”ื—ืจื™ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ ืชื—ืชื™ื• (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื›ื‘),23 ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื™ื•ืจื ื ืœื—ื ืขื ื”ืื“ื•ืžื™ื ืืฉืจ ืคืฉืขื• ื‘ื•, ื‘ืฆึธืขึดื™ืจ ื•ื‘ืœึดื‘ึฐื ึธื” (ืž"ื‘ ื—), ื•ื”ื ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื, ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ืœื˜ืฉื• ื”ืื“ื•ืžื™ื ืืช ืขื™ื ื™ื”ื, ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื• ืžืงื•ื ืžื’ื•ืจื™ ืื‘ื™ื”ื ื•ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืฉืžื” ืื“ื•ึนืžื™ื (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื' ื“, ื˜ื•; ื›ื˜; ืกื; ื”, ืกื”; ื•, ืœื). ื‘ืชื•ืจ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืœื™ืฉื•ื‘ื ื–ื” ื ืฉืืจ ืฉื ื”ืฉื โ€œื”ืจ ืฉืขื™ืจโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ื™; ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื’, ื›ื•),24 ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ืจ ืื—ื“ ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ืโ€. ื”ืคึผืจื™ื–ื™. ืžืฆืื ื•ื”ื• ืืฆืœ ื”ื—ืชื™ ื•ื”ืจืคืื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ, ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ ื•ืฉื›ื. ื”ื’ืฉื•ืจื™ ื•ื”ื’ืจื–ื™=ื”ื’ื–ืจื™. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื“ืจื•ื ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื•ื™ืขืœ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืื ืฉื™ื• ื•ื™ืคืฉื˜ื• ืืœ ื”ื’ืฉื•ืจื™ ื•ื”ื’ืจื–ื™, (ื•ื”ื’ื–ืจื™, ืงืจื™) ื•ื”ืขืžืœืงื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื” ื™ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืžืขื•ืœื ื‘ื•ืืš ืฉื•ืจื” ื•ืขื“ ืืจืฅ ืžืฆืจื™ืโ€ (ืฉโ€œื ื›โ€ื–, ื—). ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืžื–ื”, ื›ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื’ืจื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ื“ืจื•ืžื” ืžืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœืžืขืจื‘ ื”ืขืจื‘ื”, ื•ื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื’ื ืžืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื›ืœ ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื’ืฉื•ืจื™ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจโ€ฆโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื’, ื‘โ€“ื’). ื•ื™ืฉ ืขื•ื“ ื’ืฉื•ืจ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืืจื, ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืฆื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืžืคื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืžื–ืจื— โ€œื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ืืฉึพืฉึตื™ืšโ€ (ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ) ื‘ืืจืฅ ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ ื”ื ืงืจืืช โ€œื’โ€™ื“ื•ืจโ€, ื•ื‘ืœืฉื•ื ื โ€œืื™ืชื•ืจื™ืึทโ€, ื•ืžืฉื ืขื“ โ€œืื‘ืœโ€ ื”ื™ื” ื›ื ืจืื” ื”ืžืขื›ืชื™ ื•ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ื–ืืช ื ืงืจืื” ืขืœ ืฉื ื–ื” โ€œืื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืžืขื›ื”โ€. ืืช ื”ื’ืจื’ืฉื™ ืœื ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื, ื•ืขืคโ€œื™ ื—ื–โ€ืœ (ืชื ื—ื•ืžื ืค' ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื•ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื•, ื”โ€ื, ื•ืขื•ื“) ื”ืœืš ืœื• ืืœ ืืจืฅ ืืคืจื™ืงื™. ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื™ื” โ€œื”ื’ืฉื•ืจื™โ€ ืฉืืจื™ืช ืคืœื˜ืช ื”ืขื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืฉื ื•ื™ ื”ืฉื ืงืฆืช. (ื•ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืค"ืž ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉื ื™ืฉื‘ ื”ื’ืจื’ืฉื™ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื˜ื•ื‘). ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื. ืื•ืžื” ืฉืœืžื” ื‘ืฉื โ€œืขืจื‘ื™ืโ€ ืœื ืžืฆืื ื• ืจืง ื‘ื›ื”โ€œืง ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ื•ื’ื ื”ืžื” ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืืฆืœ ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: ื•ื™ืขื–ืจื”ื• ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืขืœ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ืขืœ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ืจ ื‘ืขืœ ื•ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื" (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื›ื•, ื–), ืขื•ื“ ืžืฆืื ื• ืืช ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื โ€œืœืžื‘ื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืจ ืขื“ ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ื’ื™ืโ€ (ื“ื”"ื ื“, ืœื˜), ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื”ืจโ€œื™ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื’: โ€œื›ื ืจืื” ื™ืฉื‘ ื”ืขื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืกืœืข ืขืจื‘, ื›ื™ ืฉื ื™ืฉ ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ืขื™ืจ ืžื‘ืฆืจ โ€œืžึทืขึทืŸโ€ ืžื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ื“ืจื•ืžื”. ื•ืœืคื™ ื–ื” ื™ืฉ ืœื—ืคืฉ ืฉืžื” ืืช ื’ื“ื•ืจ,25 ื•ืœื“ืขืช ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ (ืคืœืกืชื™ื ื ื—"ื‘ ืฆื“ 592) ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื” ืง' ืค' ืจื•ื™ืžืจ (ืคืœืกืชื™ื ื ืฆื“ 195) ื ืžืฆื ื”ืžืงื•ื โ€œื’โ€™ื“ื•ืจโ€ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ื›ืชืฉืข ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืจื•ืžืื™ื•ืช ืœื“ืจื•ืึพืžืขืจื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ืœื—ื, ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืื—ื“ื• ืขื ื’ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจืช ืืฆืœ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฆื•ืจโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ื ื—), ื•ืœืคโ€ื– ื”ื™ื• ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื, ื•ืื•ืœื™, ื‘ืžืงื•ื โ€œืžืขื•ืŸโ€ ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ ื›ืจืžืœ ื•ื–ื™ืฃ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื ื”), ื‘ืœื‘ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”! ื•ืžืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื“ื”โ€ื ื“' ืœื ื ืจืื” ื›ืŸ, ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ ื™ืฉ ื™ื“ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืขืจืช ืจ"ื™ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื’ ื”ื ื–'. ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื‘ืขืœื™ ื‘ืจื™ืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื• โ€œื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ืโ€, ื•ืืฆืœื ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ื™ืฉื›ื ื• ืžื—ื•ื™ืœื” ืขื“ ืฉื•ืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื‘ืื›ื” ืืฉื•ืจื”โ€26 (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›ื”, ื™ื—), ื•ืชโ€œื: โ€œืžื—ื•ื™ืœื” ืขื“ ื—ื’ืจืโ€, ื•ื‘ืชโ€ื™ โ€œืžืŸ ื”ื ื“ืงื™ ืขื“ ื—ืœื•ืฆื”โ€, ื•ื”ืœืื” ื‘ืืจืชื™ ื›ื™ โ€œื—ื’ืจืโ€ ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ โ€œืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื•ื—ื•ื™ืœื” ื”ื™ื ืื• โ€œืึทื•ื•ืึทืœื™ื˜ื™ืกโ€ ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ืืจืฅ โ€œืึทื‘ืกื™ื ื™ืโ€ ืžื ื’ื‘ ืœืœืฉื•ืŸึพื™ื โ€œื‘ึทื‘ ืึถืœึพืžึทื ึฐื“ึธื‘โ€ ืžื‘ื•ื ื™ืึพืกื•ืฃ. ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืžื” ืฉื ื–ื›ืจื• ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื ืืฆืœ ื”ื›ื•ืฉื™ื: โ€œื•ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ ื›ื•ืฉื™ืโ€ (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื›ื, ื˜ื–), ื•ืื ื™ ืžืฉืขืจ ืฉื”ื ื”ืžื” โ€œื”ื”ื™ืงื–ื•ืกโ€ (ื”ื ืงืจืื™ื ื’ื ืขืจื‘ื™ื) ื•ืื—ืจื™ ืืฉืจ ื’ื•ืจืฉื• ืžืžืฆืจื™ื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื ืฉืืจื• ื‘ื—ืฆื™ ื”ืื™ ืกื™ื ื™ ื•ื‘ืืจืฅ ื›ื•ืฉ ื•ื‘ืืจืฅ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื27, ื•โ€œืืฉื•ืจื”โ€ ื”ื™ื ืœื“ืขืช ืคื™ืจืฉื˜ ืขื™ืจ ืื—ืช ืžืฉื‘ื˜ื™ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸึพืžื–ืจื— ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืื• ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื”ืชโ€œื™ ืชื”ื™' โ€œื—ื•ื™ืœื”โ€ ืืจืฅ ืžืกื•ื‘ื‘ืช ืžื–ืจื•ืข ื ื”ืจ โ€œืคื™ืฉื•ืŸโ€ (ืื™ื ื“ื•ืก) ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืชืจื’ืžื” โ€œื”ื ื“ืงื™โ€. ื’ื ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื”ืืจืฅ ื ืžืฆืื, ื›ื™ ื‘ื‘ื ื™ ืงื˜ื•ืจื” ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ื™ืฉืœื—ืโ€ฆ ืงื“ืžื” ืืœ ืืจืฅ ืงื“ืโ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›ื”, ื•), ื•ืœืคื™ ื“ืจื™ืฉืช ื—ื–โ€ืœ ืฉืงื˜ื•ืจื” ื”ื™ื โ€œื”ื’ืจโ€ ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ืžื” โ€œื”ื”ื’ืจื™ืื™ืโ€ (ืชื”ืœื™ื ืคื’, ื–; ื“ื”"ื ื”, ื™; ื™ื˜, ื›) ื›ื™ ืจืง ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื”ืืจืฅ ื ืžืฆืื, ื•ื’ื ื‘ื”ื ื”ืชื‘ื•ืœืœื• ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื, ื›ื™ ื ืžืฆืื ืืฆืœ ื”ืขืžื•ื ื™ื (ื ื—ืžื™' ื“, ื), ื•ืืช ื”ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื ื•ื”ื”ื’ืจื™ื ื ืžืฆื ืืฆืœ ื’ืœืขื“ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืœื–, ื›ื— ื•ื“ื”"ื ื”, ื™). ื•ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื ืขืฉื• ื”ืฉืžื•ืช: ืขืจื‘ื™ื, ื”ื’ืจื™ื, ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื, ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื ืฉืœืฉืชื ืœืื•ืžื” ืื—ืช, ืืœ ืœื ื• ืœื”ืฉืœื•ืช ืืช ื ืคืฉื ื• ื›ื™ ืขื โ€œื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ืโ€ ื›ืœื• ืžื™ื•ืฆืื™ ื™ืจืš ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื”ื™ื”, ืื“ืจื‘ื”, ืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื’ื โ€œื”ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ืโ€ืขืฆืžื ืื™ื ื ื›ืœื ืžื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ, ื›ื™ ื‘ืขืช ืžื›ื™ืจืช ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืจืื™ื ื• ื›ื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื” ืœื”ื ืฉื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื‘ืชื•ืจ ืขื ืขื•ืฉื” ืžืงื ื” ื•ืงื ื™ืŸ, ื•ืจืฉื” ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ืžืฉืš 141 ืฉื ื” (ืžืขืช ืฉื ืฉื ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืฉื” ืขื“ ืžื›ื™ืจืช ื™ื•ืกืฃ) ื”ื™ื• ืœืขื ืžืกื•ื™ื, ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื• ื›ืจืชื• ื‘ืจื™ืช ืื”ื‘ื” ืขื ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื”ื ืœืจืืฉื™ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื• ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ื”ื ื‘ืฉื ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื", โ€œื”ื’ืจื™ืโ€28 ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื’ื ื‘ื ื™ ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืžืื ืฉื™ ื‘ืจื™ืชื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื• ื’ื ื”ื โ€œื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ืโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื—, ื›ื“). ืงื“ืจ ื•ื ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื ื”ืžื”. ืขืžืœืง. ืืฃ ื›ื™ ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉืื—ื“ ืžื‘ื ื™ ืืœื™ืคื– ื”ื™ื” ืฉืžื• โ€œืขืžืœืงโ€, ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœืืžืจ ืœืคื™ ืคืฉื˜ ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื” ื’ื โ€œืขืžืœืงโ€ ืขืชื™ืงึพื™ืžื™ื ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื›ืž"ืฉ: โ€œืจืืฉื™ืช ื’ื•ื™ื ืขืžืœืงโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื“, ื›), โ€œื•ื™ื›ื• ืืช ื›ืœ ืฉื“ื” ื”ืขืžืœืงื™โ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื“, ื–) โ€œื•ื™ืคืฉื˜ื•โ€ฆ ื•ื”ืขืžืœืงื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื” ื™ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืžืขื•ืœืโ€. ื•ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื™ื• ื’ื ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™. ื”ืงื™ื ื™. ื–ื” ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืฉื ื™ โ€œืงื™ื ื™โ€ ืื—ื“ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื–ืจืข ื™ืชืจื•, ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ืฉื‘ ืžืชื—ืœื” ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ืชืžืจื™ื, ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื•ื‘ื ื™ ืงื™ื ื™ ื—ื•ืชืŸ ืžืฉื” ืขืœื• ืžืขื™ืจ ื”ืชืžืจื™ื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ืขืจื“โ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ื˜ื–), ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืžืื“ ืœืื—ื“ื” ืขื โ€œืชืžืจ ืžื™ ืžืจื™ื‘ืช ืงื“ืฉโ€ (ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ืžื—, ื›ื—)29 ื•ื”ื•ื ืงื•ืจึฐื ึปื‘ึฐ ื”ืจื—ื•ืง ยฝ6 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืœื“ืจื•ืึพืžื–ืจื— โ€œื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืขโ€, ืื• 7 ืคืจ' ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€“ ื ื•ื˜ื” ืงืฆืช ื“ืจื•ืžื” ืžื™ื ื”ืžืœื—, ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืืžืช ืžืงื•ื ืžื‘ื•ืฆืจ ืžืื“ ืžืฆื“ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื‘ืžืฆื“ื•ืช ืกืœืขื™ื ื•ืžื•ืงืฉื™ื ื•ื—ืชื—ืชื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉืขืœ ื•ืฆืขื“, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ ื‘ืœืขื ืืœ ื”ืงื™ื ื™: โ€œืื™ืชืŸ ืžื•ืฉื‘ืš ื•ืฉื™ื ื‘ืกืœืข ืงื ืšโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื“, ื›ื), ื•ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื—ืคื™ ื”ืคืฉื˜ ืžื•ืกื‘ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื‘ืœืขื ืืœ ื”ืงื™ื ื™ ื”ืขืชื™ืง, ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื’ื ื™ืชืจื• ืžื•ืฆืื• ืžืŸ ื”ืงื™ื ื™ ื”ื–ื”, ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžืฉื”: โ€œืืœ ื ื ืชืขื–ื‘ ืืชื ื• ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ื™ื“ืขืช ื—ื ืชื ื• ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื™ืช ืœื ื• ืœืขื™ื ื™ื. ื•ื”ื™ื” ื›ื™ ืชืœืš ืขืžื ื• ื•ื”ื™ื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ื”ื•ื ืืฉืจ ื™ื™ื˜ื™ื‘ ื”' ืขืžื ื• ื•ื”ื˜ื‘ื ื• ืœืšโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™, ืœืโ€“ืœื‘) ื ืื•ืช ื™ืชืจื• ืœืœื•ืช ืื•ืชื• ื•ื‘ื‘ื•ืื ืืœ ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ื—ืจื™ืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ืžืœืš ืขืจื“ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื”ื ื’ื‘ (ืฉื ื›ื, ื™ื’), ื ื•ืฉื‘ื• ื™ืชืจื• ื•ืžืฉืคื—ืชื• ื‘ืงื•ืจึฐื ึปื‘ึฐ ืืฆืœ ื”ืงื™ื ื™ โ€“ ื‘ื ื™ ืฉื‘ื˜ื•, (ื•ืขื™' ืžโ€œืฉ ื”ืจืžื‘โ€ืŸ ืฉื). ื”ืงื ื–ื™ ืœื ื ื•ื“ืข. ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™. ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื”ืขื โ€œื‘ื ื™ ืงื“ืโ€ ื•ื ืจืื” ืฉื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื ื’ื‘ึพืžื–ืจื— ื”ืืจืฅ, ืžืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื›ื™ ืžืœืื• ืžืงื“ื ื•ืขื ื ื™ื ื›ืคืœืฉืชื™ืโ€ (ื™ืฉืขื™ื” ื‘, ื•), ื•ืžืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ืขืคื• ื‘ื›ืชืฃ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื™ืžื” ื™ื—ื“ื• ื™ื‘ื–ื• ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ืงื“ืโ€ (ืฉื, ื™ื, ื™ื“). ื•ืžืžโ€œืฉ โ€œืงื•ืžื• ื•ืขืœื• ืืœ ืงื“ืจ ื•ืฉื“ื“ื• ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ืงื“ืโ€ (ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžื˜, ื›ื—). ื•ืงื“ืจ ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืขื™ืจ โ€œืกืœืขโ€, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื—ืฆืจื™ื ืชืฉื‘ ืงื“ืจ ื™ืจื ื• ื™ืฉื‘ ืกืœืขโ€ (ื™ืฉืขื™' ืžื‘,ื™ื) ื•ืกืœืข ื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžื•ืกึทื”โ€ ื›ื ื–', ืžื›โ€œื– ื ืจืื” ืฉื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ; ื‘ื›โ€ื– ืื™ืŸ ืœืคื•ืŸ ื›ืœืœ ื›ื™ ื”ืขื ื”ื–ื” ื™ืฉื‘ ื’ื ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื™ืจื“ืŸ, ืืฆืœ ืืจื (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›ื˜, ื; ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื’, ื–), ืืฆืœ ืืจืฅ โ€œืขื•ืฅโ€ (ืึดืœ ืœึธื’ึทโ€™ื”) ืžืงื•ื ืื™ื•ื‘ (ืื™ื•ื‘ ื, ื’). ื—ื–"ืœ ื ืคืœื’ื• ื‘ื‘ืื•ืจ ืงื™ื ื™ ืงื ื–ื™ ืŸืงื“ืžื•ื ื™, ื›ื™ ืืช ื) ื™ื‘ืืจื•: ื ืคืชื•ื—ื, ื”ืจ ืฉืขื™ืจ, ืขืงื“ื™ืกืงื•ืก, ืขืจื‘ื™ื”, ื“ืจืžื•ืกืงื•ืก; ืืช ื‘) ื™ื‘ืืจื•: ืืกื™ื, ืื“ื•ื, ืฉืœืืžื”, ืžื•ืื‘, ืืกืคืžื™ื; ืืช ื’') ื™ื‘ืืจื•: ื’ื•ื˜ื™ื™ื”, ืงืจื˜ื™ื ื’ื, ืจืืฉื™ืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ, ื“ืžืฉืง, ืชื•ืจืงื™ (ื‘โ€œื‘ ื ื•, ื‘; ื‘ืจโ€™ืจ ืคืžโ€ื“ ืื•ืช ื›ื’; ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื• ื”โ€ื; ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื—). ืžื“ื™ืŸ. ืืจืฅ ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืฆื“ ืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘,30 ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื”ืžื›ื” ืืช ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืžื•ืื‘โ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืœื•, ืœื”), ื•ื›ืŸ ืฉืœื—ื• ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื™ื—ื“ื• ืืช ืฉืœื™ื—ื™ื”ื ืืœ ื‘ืœืขื ื•ื™ื—ื“ื• ื”ืคืงื™ืจื• ืืช ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื”ื, ื•ืžืขื ื™ืŸ ืžืœื—ืžืชื ืขื ื’ื“ืขื•ืŸ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื•; ื–; ื—) ื™ื•ืฆื, ื›ื™ ืืจืฆื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืžืฆื ื’ื“ืขื•ืŸ ืืช ื–ื‘ื— ื•ืฆืœืžื ืข ืžืœื›ื™ ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืขื ืžื—ื ื™ื”ื โ€œื‘ืงึทืจึฐืงึนืจโ€ ื•ื’ื“ืขื•ืŸ ืขืœื” โ€œื“ืจืš ื”ืฉื›ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืื”ืœื™ื ืžืงื“ื ืœื ื‘ื— ื•ื™ื’ื‘ื”ื” ื•ื™ืš ืืช ื”ืžื—ื ื” ื•ื”ืžื—ื ื” ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื˜ื—โ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื—, ื™ื) ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ืฉื ืื• ืกืžื•ืš ืœืฉื ื”ื™ื” ืžืงื•ื ืžื’ื•ืจื ื•ื™ื’ื‘ื”ื” ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื โ€œื’ึปโ€™ื‘ึฐื”ึทืชึฐโ€ ืœืžื–ืจื— ืจื‘ืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ, ืโ€ื› ืืคื•ื ื”ื™ืชื” ืืจืฅ ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืœืžื–ืจื— ืืจืฅ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ. ื•ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ื‘ืขืช ื”ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืืจืฅ ืจื‘ื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ืœื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ืขื ื›ื—ื”, ืขื“ ื›ื™ ื”ืกืคื™ืงื” ืœื”ื›ื ื™ืข ืชื—ืชื™ื” ืืช ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื“ ืขื–ื”, ื›ืž"ืฉ: โ€œื•ืขืœื” ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืขืžืœืง ื•ื‘ื ื™ ืงื“ื ื•ืขืœื• ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื™ื—ื ื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฉื—ื™ืชื• ืืช ื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืขื“ ื‘ื•ืืš ืขื–ื”โ€ (ืฉื ื•, ื’โ€“ื“), ื•ืžื›ืœ ื”ืกืคื•ืจ ื”ื”ื•ื ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืจืง ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื”ืขืงืจ ื•ืฉืืจ ื”ืขืžื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื˜ืคืœื™ื ืœื”ื. ื•ื›ื™ ื ืฉืชื›ืœ ื ืžืฆื ืคื” ืขื ื™ืŸ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“, ืžื” ืฉืœื ืžืฆืื ื•ื”ื• ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœื—ืฆื• ืืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืœื—ืฅ ืืฉืจ ืกื‘ืœื• ืžื”ืžื“ื™ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจืง ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืžืจืขื” ืขื“ืจื™ื”ื, ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื›ื™ ื”ื ื•ืžืงื ื™ื”ื ื™ืขืœื• ื•ืื”ืœื™ื”ื ื•ื™ื‘ืื• ื›ื“ื™ ืืจื‘ื” ืœืจื•ื‘ ื•ืœื”ื ื•ืœื’ืžืœื™ื”ื ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืคืจ ื•ื™ื‘ืื• ื‘ืืจืฅ ืœืฉื—ืชื”โ€, ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œื•ื’ื“ืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื• ื—ื•ื‘ื˜ ื—ื˜ื™ื ื‘ื’ืช ืœื”ื ื™ืก ืžืคื ื™ ืžื“ื™ืŸโ€, ืœื›ืŸ, ื–ืืช ืื•ืžืจืช ื›ื™ ืืจืฅ ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืชื” ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืžื“ื‘ืจ ืืฉืจ ืœืžื–ืจื— ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ืคื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืžืงื•ื ืžืจืขื” ืœื›ืŸ ื”ืชืคืจืฆื• ื‘ืโ€ื™ ืœืžืฆื ืžืจืขื” ื˜ื•ื‘; ืื•ืœื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืžืฉื” (ืœื“ืขื” ื' ื‘ืžื“ืจืฉ ืฉื”ื‘ืืชื™ ื‘ื”ืขืจื”) ืื–, ื”ื™ืชื” ืืจืฅ ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื’ ื•ืื“ื•ื ื•ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื›ืœ ืขืžื™ ื›ื ืขืŸ ืืฉืจ ืžืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ืขื–ื•ื– ื’ื‘ื•ืจืชื ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ืžื“ื™ื ื™ื ืœืจืขื•ืช ืืช ืขื“ืจื™ื”ื ื–ื•ืœืชื™ โ€œืื—ืจ ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจโ€ (ืฉืžื•ืช ื’, ื), ื”ืจื—ืง ืžืื“ ืžืืจืฆื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ื”ื’ ืžืฉื” ืืช ืฆืื ื• ืขื“ ื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™, ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืคืœื, ื›ื™ ืžื•ื“ืขืช ื–ืืช ืฉืืจื—ื•ืช ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื‘ืขื“ืจ ืœื”ืชืจื—ืง ื›ืžื” ื™ืžื™ื ืขื ืขื“ืจื™ื”ื ื–ื•ืœืชื™ โ€œืื—ืจ ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจโ€ (ืฉืžื•ืช ื’, ื), ื”ืจื—ืง ืžืื“ ืžืืจืฆื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ื”ื’ ืžืฉื” ืืช ืฆืื ื• ืขื“ ื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™, ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืคืœื, ื›ื™ ืžื•ื“ืขืช ื–ืืช ืฉืืจื—ื•ืช ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื‘ืขื“ืจ ืœื”ืชืจื—ืง ื›ืžื” ื™ืžื™ื ืขื ืขื“ืจื™ื”ื ืžืืจืฅ ืžื•ืœื“ืชื. โ€“ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืื“ื•ื, ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ืขืžื•ืŸ ื™ื“ื•ืขื•ืช ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืคื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื“ ื™ื“ึปื‘ืจ ืื“ื•ืชืŸ ื”ืœืื”. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืขืžื ื• ื”ืžืฆื•ืžืฆืžื™ื. ื‘ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ (ืœื“) ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื›ื™ ืืชื ื‘ืื™ื ืืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื›ื ืขืŸ ื–ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืชืคื•ืœ ืœื›ื ื‘ื ื—ืœื” ืืจืฅ ื›ื ืขืŸ ืœื’ื‘ืœื•ืชื™ื”โ€, ื•ืื—โ€œื› ืžื‘ืืจ: โ€œื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ืคืืช ื ื’ื‘ ืžืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื“ื•ื ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื’ื‘ ืžืงืฆื” ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ืงื“ืžื”โ€, ืคื™', ื›ื™ โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืŸโ€ ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื™ื”ื™ื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™, ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื—ืฆื•ื ื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ, ื•ืื—โ€ื› ื”ื—ืœ ืžืจืืฉ ืงื• ื”ืžื“ื”, ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืงืฆื” ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ืžืžื–ืจื—. ื•ืžืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื•ืื‘ืฉื™ ื‘ืŸ ืฆืจื•ื™ื” ื”ื›ื” ืืช ืื“ื•ื ื‘ื’ื™ื ื”ืžืœื—โ€ (ื“ื”"ื ื™ื—, ื™ื‘), ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œื”ื•ื ื”ื›ื” ืืช ืื“ื•ื ื‘ื’ื™ ื”ืžืœื—โ€ (ืžโ€œื‘ ื™ื“, ื–; ื•ืจืื” ืขื•ื“: ื“ื”โ€ื‘ ื›ื”, ื™ื; ืชื”ืœื™ื ืก; ืฉโ€œื‘ ื—, ื™ื’, ืขื™' ืžืœื‘ื™โ€ื) ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œื’ื™ื ื”ืžืœื—โ€ ื”ื™ื” ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืื“ื•ื, ื•ื”ื’ื™ ื”ื–ื”, ื”ื•ื ืœื“ืจื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื”ื™ื ืžืžืฉ, ื•ืœืคื™ ืขื“ื•ืช ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ ื™ืฉ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื’ื“ื•ืชื™ื• ื•ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื–ื” ื™ืžืœื ืžื™ื, ื•ื’ื ื‘ืฉืืจ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืชื›ืกื” ืฉื›ื‘ืชึพืžืœื— ืขื‘ื” ืืช ื›ืœ ืคื ื™ื•, ื•ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ืขื•ืžื“ ื”ื”ืจ โ€œื—ืึทืฉื ืื•ืกื“ื•ืกโ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• โ€œื ืฆื™ื‘ ืžืœื—โ€. ืžื›โ€ื– ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื˜ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืžืฉื ืœืžื–ืจื—, ื›ื“ืขืช ื”ืจ"ื™ ืฉื•ื•ืืจืฅ, ื›ื™ ืื ืœื”ื˜ื•ืชื• ื™ืฉืจ ืžืฉื ืœืžืขืจื‘. โ€œื•ื ืกื‘ ืœื›ื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื ื’ื‘ ืœืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€, ื•ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข (ื˜ื•, ื’), ื›ืชื™ื‘: โ€œื•ื™ืฆืโ€, ื•ื”ื’ืจโ€œื ื–โ€ืœ ื—ึดืœึตืง ื‘ื–ื”, ื›ื™ โ€œื•ื™ืฆืโ€ ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื™ืฆื™ืื” ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืฉืจ ื‘ืืœื›ืกื•ืŸ โ€œื•ื ืกื‘โ€ ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืชืจื—ื‘ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื“ ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื”ื”ื™ื, ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื•ืžืฉื ื•ื”ืœืื” ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ืงื• ืœืื—ื•ืจื™ื• ืขื“ ื›ื ื’ื“ ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉื™ืฆื ืžืžื ื” ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื ืœื™ื–ื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขืœื” ืžื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ื“ืจื•ืžื”ึพืžืขืจื‘ื” ื‘ืชื•ืš โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืึดืœึพืคึดื™ืงึฐืจึถื”โ€ ืขื“ ื‘ื•ืื• ืืœ โ€œืžื ื’ื‘ ืœืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€, ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื’ื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ โ€œืืœึพืกืคื”โ€, ื•ืžืŸ โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืึดืœ ื•ึตื™ื‘ึถื”โ€ (ื•ึธื”ึตื‘) ืขื•ืœื” ืžืกืœื” ืœืžืจื•ื ื”ืืจืฅ (ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืžืžื ื• ื‘ืขืจืš 1200 ืจื’ืœ) ื“ืจืš โ€œืกืคื”โ€ (ืกื•ืคึธื”) ื•ื ืงืจืื” โ€œืžืกืœืช ืกืคื”โ€, ื•ื‘ื›ื”"ืง โ€œืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€)31. โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ืฆื ื”โ€, ื•ืช"ื™ โ€œืœืฆื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ืจ ืคืจื–ืœืโ€, ื•ืฆื™ื ื™ื™ืชื ื”ื ื“ืงืœื™ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œืชืžืจโ€ (ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ืžื—, ื›ื—).32 โ€œื•ื”ื™ื” ืชื•ืฆืื•ืชื™ื• ืžื ื’ื‘ ืœืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืขโ€, ื•ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ืชื•ื‘ โ€œื•ืขืœื”โ€. ื•ืœืžืฆื ืืช ืžืฆื‘ โ€œืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืขโ€ ื”ื ื›ื•ืŸ, ื ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ื›ื™ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉืžืฉื ื ืฉืœื—ื• ื”ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ื ืงืจื ืชืžื™ื“ โ€œืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืขโ€ (ืžืœื‘ื“ ืคืขื ืื—ืช, ื‘ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื’, ื›ื•) ื•ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉืœ ืžื™ ืžืจื™ื‘ื” ื ืงืจื ืชืžื™ื“ ืจืง โ€œืงื“ืฉโ€ ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ื•ืืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืชืจื’ืžื• ืื•ื ' ื•ื™ื•ื ' ืชืžื™ื“: โ€œืจึฐืงึทื ื’ึตื™ืขึธื”โ€ ืื• โ€œื’ื™ืื”โ€ (ืคื™' ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื”) ื•ืืช ื”ืฉื ื™ ืจืง โ€œืจืงืโ€ ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ื•ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืžืงื•ื ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืคืืจืŸ ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืŸ. ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื ื—ืกืจื• ืžื™ื, ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื‘ืื• ืฉืžื” ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ืกื™ื•ืŸ (ื›ื™ ื”ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื—' ืœื—ื“ืฉ ืื‘ ืžืงืฅ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื•ื, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื™ืฆืื• ืœื“ืจื›ื ื‘ื›"ื˜ ืกื™ื•ืŸ), ื•ื‘ืฉื ื™ ื—ืกืจื• ืžื™ื, ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื‘ืื• ืฉืžื” ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื ื™ืกืŸ (ืจืื” ื‘ืกื“ื”"ื“), ืขืช ืฉืคืขืช ื”ืžื™ื. ื•ืžืขืชื” ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืื™ื” ืื™ืคื” ื”ื™ื โ€œืจืงื? ื•ืขืœ ื–ื” ืžืฆืื ื•: โ€œืจื™โ€ื ืžืจืงื ืœืžื–ืจื— ื•ืจืงื ื›ืžื–ืจื—โ€ (ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ืคโ€œื ืžโ€ื‘), ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื–ื” ืฉืจืงื ื‘ืงืฆื” ื”ืžื–ืจื— ื”ื™ื ื•ื ื—ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื—ื•โ€œืœ,33 ืโ€ื› ืโ€œื ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื”ื”ืจ ืฉืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื ืฉืืจ ืืคื•ื ืจืง ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืื ื‘ืืžืช ื”ื™ื ื›ื“ืขืช ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช (ื“, ื“, ื–) ื•ื”ื™ืจื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก ื•ืจืกโ€ื’ ื–โ€œืœ ื‘ืชืจื’ื•ืžื• ื•ืกื•ืคืจื™ ื”ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื ืฉืงื•ืจืื™ื ืืช โ€œืคึฑื˜ึฐืจึทืโ€ (ืกึถืœึทืข) ื‘ืฉื: ืึทืจึฐืงึธื”, ืึทืจึฐืงึธืžึธื”, ืจึถืงึถื, ืึดืจ ืจึทืงึดื™ื, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื”โ€ (ื•ื”ื•ื ืขืžืง ืฆืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉึฐื ื™ ืฉึดื ึตื™ ืกืœืข ื–ืงื•ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืจืš 300โ€“500 ืจื’ืœ, ื•ืžืขื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืืจื›ื• ื•ื ืงืจื โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืžื•ืกื”โ€, ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืกืœืขื™ื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง โ…” ืžื™ืœ ืื ื’' ืžื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œืึธืœื’โ€™ื™โ€); ืืš ืœืคื™ ื–ื” ื™ืงืฉื” ื›ื™ ืขืœ โ€œื‘ืืจ ืœื—ื™ ืจืื™โ€ ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื™ืŸ ืงื“ืฉ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื“โ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืžื–, ื™ื“) ื•ืชโ€ื™: โ€œื‘ื™ืŸ ืจืงื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืฆื”โ€ ื•ื›ืŸ ืชืจื’ื ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืขืœ โ€œืฉื•ืจโ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื™ื–) ื•ืจืกโ€œื’ ืชืจื’ื ื›ืŸ ืืช โ€œื’ืจืจโ€, ื•ืžืงื•ื ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช ืขื™ืจ ืงื“ื•ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ื•ื ืงืจืื” ื‘ืžืคืช ืคึทื™ึฐื˜ึดื™ื ึฐื’ึถืจ (ืื—ื“ ืžื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื) โ€“ ืึถืœื•ืกึทื”, ื•ื›ื”ื™ื•ื ื ืงืจืื” โ€œื—ึฒืœึทืกึทื”โ€, ื•ื”ื™ื ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื” ื‘ืขืจืš ืืจื‘ืขื” ื™ืžื™ื ืžืกืขึพื’ืžืœ ืœืžืขืจื‘, ื•ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืชื›ื•ื ืช ืžืขื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ื•ื›ืŸ ืžืฆื‘ ืขื™ืจ ื’ืจืจ (ืฉื ื›, ื) ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื•ืช ื–ื• ืžื–ื• ืžืจื—ืง ืจื‘ ื›ื–ื”, ื•ืื•ื ืงืœื•ืก ืชืจื’ื ืžืงื•ื ื–ื” ื‘ืฉื โ€œื—ื’ืจืโ€ (ื•ื”ื•ืจืืช ื”ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ื: ืื‘ืŸ, ืกืœืข โ€“ ื—ึทื’ึทโ€™ืจ) ื•ื ืจืื” ืžื—ื–โ€ืœ ื›ื™ ืจืงื ื•ื—ื’ืจ ื”ื™ื• ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื–ื• ืœื–ื• (ืจืืฉ ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ), ื•ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ื›ืชื‘ื• ื”ืชื•ืก' ืฉื ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื” ื ื•, ื‘, ื›ื™ ื‘ืืžืช ื”ื™ื• ืฉืชื™ ืจืงื ื•ื—ื’ืจ, ื’ื ื”ืจืžื‘โ€œืŸ ื–โ€ืœ ื”ื—ืœื™ื˜ ื›ื™ ืฉืชื™ โ€œืงื“ืฉโ€ ื”ื™ื• (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื“, ื–; ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื‘, ื˜ื–; ื›, ื), ื•ื›ืŸ ื›ืชื‘ ืจืฉโ€œื™ ื–โ€ืœ (ื‘ืžื“ืžื‘ืจ ืœื‘, ื—) โ€œืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืข ื›ืš ืฉืžื” ื•ืฉื ื™ ืงื“ืฉ ื”ื™ื•โ€ (ื•ืขื™' ื‘ืชื‘ื•ื”โ€œื ืœื•ื ืฅ ืฆื“ ืจื โ€ื’ ื‘ื”ืขืจื” ืื“ื•ืช ื–ื”), ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œืงื“ืฉ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืŸโ€ ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื”โ€ (ื•ื”ื•ื, ื•ื’ื ื”ืžืขื™ืŸ ื ืงืจืื™ื ื›ืŸ ืขืœ ืฉื ื›ื™ ืฉื ื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืžืฉื” ืžื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืกืœืข), ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œืจืงืโ€, ื•ืขโ€œืฉ ืกืœืข, ืคึถื˜ึฐืจึทื, ื ืงืจื: โ€œื—ื’ืจโ€ ืื• โ€œื—ื’ืจืโ€ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืกืžื•ื›ื™ื ื”ื™ื•, ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืืžืช ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ืจื™ ืื“ื•ื, ืืฆืœ โ€œื”ืจ ื”ื”ืจโ€ ืฉืœ ืงื‘ืจ ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืชึพืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ืœืืจโ€ื™ ื›ืžโ€œืฉ ื‘ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ, ื•ื›ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ื”ื ื” ืื ื—ื ื• ื‘ืงื“ืฉ ืขื™ืจ ืงืฆื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœืšโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›, ื˜ื–)34, ืืš โ€œืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืขโ€ ื”ื™ืชื” ืœืคืืช ืžืขืจื‘, ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื—ืœื•ืฆื” (ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ืื‘ื•ืช ื ืงืจืื” ืจืง โ€œืงื“ืฉโ€ ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ืงื‘ืœื” ืืช ื”ืชื•ืืจ โ€œื‘ืจื ืขโ€ ืฉื”ื•ื ืœืคื™ ื”ืชืจื’ื•ืžื™ื โ€œื’ื™ืื”โ€ ืื• โ€œื’ื‘ื•ื”ื”โ€ ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœื” ืžืŸ โ€œืงื“ืฉึพื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื”โ€ ื”ืฉืคืœื”35 ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืึดืœ ืจึทืงึดื™ืžื”โ€ ืื• โ€œืจึทืงึดื™ื ึธื”โ€, ื•ืฉื ื”ื•ื โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืคืืจืŸโ€ ื•ื›ื”ื™ื•ื ื ืงืจื ืฉื ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“ ื‘ืฉื โ€œืคึทื™ึฐืจึทืืŸโ€, ื•ื’ืจืจ ื”ื™ื, ืื• โ€œื—ืœื•ืฆื”โ€ ื›ื“ืขืช ื”ืชืจื’ื•', ืื• โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืึดืœึพื’ึธโ€™ืจื•ืจโ€ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืคืืช ืžืขืจื‘ ืœืคื™ืจืึทืŸ (ื•ืขื™' ื ื’ื“ ื‘ื“ื™โ€œื™ ืœื’ืจืฅ ื—โ€ื‘ ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช 7, ืฆื“ 488), ื•ืืš ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื ืงืจื ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืฉโ€ (ืชื”ืœื™ื ื›"ื˜, ื™ื—), ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื•ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงื“ืฉ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืจ ื•ื™ื’ืจ ื‘ื’ืจืจโ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›, ื). ืื™ืŸ ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืคืจื˜ื™ื™ื, ืจืง ืขืœ โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืฉโ€, ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื•ืขืœ โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื•ืจโ€ ืืฉืจ ืกืžื•ืš ืœืžืฆืจื™ื, ื•ืžื” ืฉืชโ€ื™ ืขืœ โ€œืฉื•ืจโ€ ื—ืœื•ืฆื”, ืื™ืŸ ืคืœื, ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื•ืฆืจื™ื ื ืงืจื ืจื•ื‘ ื—ืฆื™ ื”ืื™ ืกื™ื ื™ ื‘ืฉื โ€œื’ืœื™ืœ ื—ืœื•ืฆื”โ€, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ โ€œื—ืœื•ืฆื”โ€ ื”ื™ืชื” ืขื™ืจ ืจืืฉื™ืช ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื–ื”.36 โ€œื•ื™ืฆื ื—ืฆืจ ืื“ืจโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ื—ืฆืจื•ืŸ ื•ืขืœื” ืื“ืจื”โ€ ื•ืœืคื™ ื“ืจื›ื ื• ืฉืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืข ื”ื™ื โ€œืจืงื™ืžื”โ€, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ โ€œื—ืฆืจโ€ ืื• โ€œื—ืฆืจื•ืŸโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ึฒืฆึดโ€™ื™ืจึธื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืจืงื™ืžื”โ€œ, ื•ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€œื—ืฆืจื•ืŸโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ืฆืจื™ืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืชโ€ื โ€œืจืคื™ื—โ€ ื•ืจืกโ€œื’ โ€“ โ€œืจืคืื—โ€, ื•ื‘ื›ืคื•โ€ืค ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืขื–ื” ื›ื—ืฆื™ ื™ื•ื (ืื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืขื˜) ื•ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€œืื“ืจึพืื“ืจื”โ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืึฒื“ื•ืจึทื™ืโ€, ื•ืืช โ€œืœื›ื™ืฉโ€ ื ื‘ืืจ ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œื—ึทืœึทืกึทื”โ€ (ื—ืœื•ืฆื”) ื•ืืช ืขื–ืจื” ื ื‘ืืจ ื›ื“ืขืช ื›ืคื•โ€œืค (ืคื™"ื) ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œื–ืขืงื”โ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืขื–ื” ื›ืžื• ื™ื•ื ื”ื ื’ื‘ื”, ื•ืžื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื›ืžื• ื™ื•ืžื™ื ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ื•ื›ืชื•ื‘: ื•ืืช ืื“ื•ืจื™ื ื•ืืช ืœื›ื™ืฉ ื•ืืช ืขื–ืงื”โ€ ืฉื‘ื ื” ืจื—ื‘ืขื ืœืขืจื™ ืžื‘ืฆืจ (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื™ื, ื˜). ื”ื•ืฆืื ื• ืžื–ื” ื›ื™ โ€œื—ืฆืจื•ืŸโ€ (ืื• ื—ืฆืจื™ื โ€“ ื—ึฒืฆึดโ€™ื™ืจึธื”, ืจืคืื—) ื•โ€œืื“ืจื”โ€ (ืื• ืื“ื•ืจื™ื), ืื• (ื›ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื”) โ€œื—ืฆืจ ืื“ืจโ€ (ืฉื”ืŸ ืขื™ืจ ืื—ืช) ื”ื™ืชื” ืขื™ืจ ืžื‘ืฆืจ ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืœื›ื™ืฉ (ื›ึทืœื•ืก) ื•ืœืขื–ืงื” (ื–ืขืงื”).37 ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข โ€œื•ื ืกื‘ ื”ืงืจืงืขื”โ€, ื•ื›ืžโ€œืฉ ืœืžืขืœื”, ื›ื™ โ€œื•ื ืกื‘โ€ ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื‘ืœื™ื˜ื” ื›ืขื™ืŸ ืงืจืŸ, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืคื” ืœืืžืจ, ื›ื™ ืžืŸ โ€œื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ื—ืฆโ€™ื™ืจื”โ€ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื‘โ€ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžืึทืจึฐืจึทื”" ืžืขืจื‘ื” ื•ืคื’ืข ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื˜ื•ื— ื•ืจื—ื‘ ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œืึทื‘ื• ื˜ื•ืจืึทื‘ื”โ€ ื•ื”ืฉื โ€œื˜ึปืจึทื‘ึฐโ€ ื‘ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ื•ื โ€œืขืคืจโ€ ืื• โ€œืงืจืงืขโ€ (ื‘ื“ื•ื—ืง), ื"ื› ื”ื•ื โ€œืงืจืงืขื”โ€! 38 โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ืขืฆืžื•ื ื”โ€, ืžื ื•ื™ื” ื•ื’ืžื•ืจื” ื”ื“ืขื” ื”ื–ืืช ื›ื™ โ€œืขืฆืžื•ืŸโ€ ืื™ื ื ื• ืžืงื•ื ืคืจื˜ื™ ืจืง ื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื” ื›ืœ ืฉืจืฉืจืช ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืชึถืœ ืžึทื“ื•ืจึทื”โ€ (ืžืงื“ืก) ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื–ึฐื‘ึตื™ื˜ึทื”โ€ ืฉืฉืžื โ€œืขึฒืฆึทโ€™ืึทืฆึดื™ืžึถื”โ€ ื•ืœืคื™ ืชโ€œื™ ืฉืชืจื’ื ืืช โ€œืขืฆืžื•ืŸโ€“ืงึตื™ืกึธืโ€ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ึดื™ ืงื•ืกึทืžึถื”โ€ (ื•ื‘ืžืคืช ืคึทืืœืžืจ โ€“ ื’ึทืืกึตื™ืžึถื”)โ€ ื ืจืื” ืฉืขื“ ืฉืžื” ื ืงืจืื• ื”ื”ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื‘ืฉื ื–ื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืชืคืก ืืช ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื”ื—ืฆื•ื ื”, ื•ืจืก"ื’ ืชืจื’ืžื•: โ€œืžึทื ึทืื–ึถืœโ€, ืœืืžื•ืจ: ืžื•ืจื“ื•ืช. โ€œื•ื ืกื‘ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืขืฆืžื•ืŸ ื ื—ืœื” ืžืฆืจื™ืโ€. ืžโ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืงื•ืกื™ืžื”โ€ ืžืชืคืจื“ื™ื ืขืžืงื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืœื›ืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ื ื˜ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆืคื•ื ื”ึพืžืขืจื‘ื” ื•ืžืชืื—ื“ื™ื ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ื‘ื•ึทืื“ื™ ืืœึพืขืจื™ืฉ, ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ โ€œื•ื ืกื‘โ€ ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื‘ืœื™ื˜ื” ื›ืขื™ืŸ ืงืจืŸ, ื•ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืžืŸ ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืงื•ืกื™ืžื”, ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœึพืขื™ืŸ, ืขื™ืŸ ื’ืึทื“ื™ืก, (ืœื“ืขืช ืคืืœืžืจ ื”ื•ื: โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืžืฉืคื˜ ื”ื•ื ืงื“ืฉโ€) ื”ื•ื ืงืจืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืŸ, ื›ืœื• ืžืฉืงื”, ืœืขื“ื•ืช ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื”ืงื™ื, ื•ื”' ื—ืคืฅ ื‘ื ื• ืœืชืช ืœื ื• ื’ื ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ืฆื ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื•ืึทื“ื™ ืงื•ืกื™ืžื” ื”ื ื’ื‘ื” ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื•ืื“ื™ ืืœึพืขื™ืŸ, ืขื™ืŸ ื’ืื“ื™ืก, ื’โ€™ืื“ื™ืก, ื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ืžืจืืคื™ืง, ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื ื›ื ืกื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื—ื•ืžื ื• (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื’, ื‘) ืœื›ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืขื‘ืจ ื’ื ืืœ ืžื ื’ื‘ ืœื•ืึทื“ ื’โ€™ืจื•ืจ (ื’ืจืจ) 39 ืžืขืจื‘ื”, ื•ืžืฉื ืฉื‘ ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื ื™ โ€œื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ื’โ€™ื”ืึทืกโ€, ื•ื™ืคื•ืœ ืืœ ื”ืขืžืง ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืืฉึพืฉืจืื™ืฃโ€ (ืขืžืง ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื, ืื•ืœื™ ืงื“ืฉ?) ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื ื™ โ€œื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ืžื•ื•ื™ื™ืœื”โ€, ื•ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืœืื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื•ืคื’ืฉ ื‘โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืืœึพืึทื‘ื™ืื“โ€ (ืื•ืœื™ โ€œืœื‘ืŸโ€ ืฉื‘ืจืืฉ ืก' ื“ื‘ืจื™ื?) ื•ืžืฉื ืžืขืจื‘ื”ึพืฆืคื•ื ื” ืคื’ืฉ ื‘โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ื—ึทื‘ึทืจึทื”โ€ ื•ืžืฉื ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขื“ ื›ื™ ื™ืคื’ื•ืฉ ื‘"ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœึพืขืจื™ืฉ (ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื) ื”ื™ื•ืจื“ ืžืœื‘ ื—ืฆื™ ื”ืื™ึพืกื™ื ื™ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืžื“ืจื•ื ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื˜ื™ื” ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช, ื•ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืืœ ื”ื™ื, ื‘ืขืจืš ืฉืชื™ ืฉืขื•ืช ื™ืชืขืงื ื•ื™ื˜ื” ืžืขืจื‘ื” ื•ื™ืคื•ืœ ื”ื™ืžื” ืืฆืœ โ€œืงืœืขืช ืืœึพืขืจื™ืฉโ€40 ื”ืจื—ื•ืง ื‘ืขืจืš 12 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ื•ืช ืžืขื–ื” ื“ืจื•ืžื”. ืžื“ืช ื›ืœ ืืจืš ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ื–ื” ืžืŸ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ืขื“ โ€œืงืœืขืช ืืœ ืขืจื™ืฉโ€ ืขื ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืœื™ื˜ื•ืช ื•ื”ืขืงืžื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืขื•ืœื” ืœืคื™ ืžืคืช โ€œืคืืœืžืจโ€ 43 ืคืจ' ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ื•ืช ืื• 62 ืฉืขื” ืžืคืขืจืกื•ืก, ื•ื‘ืงื• ื™ืฉืจ ืขื•ืœื” ื”ืžืจื—ืง (ืœืคื™ ืžืคืช ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ) 18 ืคืจ' ืืฉ'. โ€œื•ื–ื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืชืชืื• ืœื›ื ื”ืจ ื”ื”ืจโ€, ื•ืชโ€œื™ โ€œื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืžื•ื ื•ืกโ€, ื•ืืžืจื• ื—ื–โ€ืœ: โ€œืื™ื–ื”ื• ืืจืฅ ื•ืื™ื–ื”ื• ื—ื•โ€ืœ? ื›ืœ ืฉืฉื•ืคืข ื•ื™ื•ืจื“ ืžื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื•ืœืคื ื™ื โ€“ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ืžื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื•ืœื—ื•ืฅ โ€“ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืืจืฅ. ื”ื ืกื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ื™ื? ืจื•ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื—ื•ื˜ ืžืชื•ื— ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืžื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื•ื˜ ื•ืœืคื ื™ื โ€“ ืืจโ€œื™, ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื•ื˜ ื•ืœื—ื•ืฅ โ€“ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืืจืฅ. ืจื™โ€ื: ื›ืœ ืฉื›ื ื’ื“ ืืจโ€œื™ ื”โ€ื” ื›ืืจโ€œื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื”ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ื. ื•ื”ื ืกื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืฆื“ื“ื™ืŸ? ืจื•ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื›ืืœื• ื—ื•ื˜ ืžืชื•ื— ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืžืงืคืœื•ืจื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื™ื ืื•ืงื™ื ื•ืก ื•ืžื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื™ื ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก; ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืื™ โ€œื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœโ€ ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื™ื”? ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื™ืŸ; ื•ืจ' ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”? ื ืกื™ืŸ, ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ ืงืจืโ€ (ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ื”, ื; ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื• ื”โ€ื; ื—ืœื” ืคโ€œื“ ื”โ€ื”; ืชื•ืกืคืชื ืชืจื•ืžื•ืช ืกืค"ื ื•ืกื•ืฃ ื—ืœื”). ื•ืขืชื” ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ืœื—ืงื•ืจ: ื) ืื™ื” ื”ื ื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ? ื‘) ืžื” ื”ืžื” ื”ื ืกื™ืŸ? ื’) ืžื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืขืช ืจ"ื™? โ€œื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸโ€ ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ืœื ื”ืจ ื‘ื•ื“ื“ ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ืื โ€œืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ื”ืจื™ืโ€ ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ืŸ ื”ืจื™ โ€œื˜ืึทื•ืจื•ืกโ€ (Taurus) ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืกื™ื ื”ืงื˜ื ื” ืžื ื’ื‘ ืœืืจืฅ โ€œืงื™ืœื™ืงื™ืโ€, ืืฆืœ ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ื•ืฉื ื ืžืฆื ื”ื”ืจ โ€œืึทืžืึทื ื•ืกโ€, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืงืจืื• โ€œื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืืžื ื•ืกโ€41 ื•ื”ื”ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืžืฉืชืจืขื™ื ืžื—ื•ืฃ ืื–ื™ื” ื”ืงื˜ื ื” ืžึดื™ึธื ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืืจื›ื ืขื“ โ€œืึทืจึฐืžึตื ึฐื™ึทืโ€, ื•ืฉืคื•ืขื ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื™ื•ืจื“ ืืœ ืžื•ืœ โ€œืกื•ืจื™ืโ€, ื•ืงืฆื”ื• ื™ื›ืœื” ืืฆืœ ืžืคืจืฅึพื™ื โ€œืืกื›ื ื“ืจื•ื ืโ€ (ื•ื”ื™ื ื›ื“ืขืช ื”ื›ืคื•โ€œืค (ืœื•ื ืฅ ืฆื“ ืจ"ื ) ืื• ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœื”42, ื•ืœืคโ€ื–, ื”ื ื” โ€œื”ืจ ื”ื”ืจโ€ ื”ื•ื โ€œื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸโ€ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืฉื•ืคืข ืžืžื ื• ืœืฆื“ ื“ืจื•ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ืืจ"ื™. โ€œื ืกื™ืŸโ€ ื”ื โ€œืื™ื™ืโ€ ื‘ืชืจื’ื•ืžื™ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื›ื•ื•ื ื• ืคื” ืขืœ ื”ืื™ื™ื ื”ื–ืขื™ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœืคื ื™ ืึทืจื•ืึทื“โ€œื•ื ืงืจืื™ื: โ€œื’ึธโ€™ื–ึดื™ืจึทืชึฐ ืจื•ืึทื“โ€ ื•ื”ื ื›ืฉืฉื” ื‘ืžืกืคืจ, ื•ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ ืœืฉื•ืŸึพืืจืฅ โ€œืืœืžึดื™ื ึถื”โ€ ื”ื ืงืจืื™ื: โ€œืฉึทืึดื™ืฉึถืชึฐ ืึดืœึพืงืึทื“ึดื™โ€, ื•ื”ื ื›ืฉื‘ืขื” ื‘ืžืกืคืจ ื•ื›ื™ ื ืžืชื— ืงื• ื‘ืืœื›ืกื•ืŸ ืžืืกื›ื ื“ืจื•ื ื ืขื“ ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœึพืขืจื™ืฉ ื™ื›ื ืกื• ืื™ื–ื” ืื™ื™ื ืžื”ื ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•, ื•ืœื“ืขืช ืจโ€ื™ ื™ื”ื™ื• ื›ืœ ืื™ื™ ื”ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืžืžื•ืœ ืืจ"ื™, ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ, ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ, ื•ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืžื ื’ื‘, ื›ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืฆืžื”, ื•ื”ื: "ืงื™ื‘ืจื™ืฅ, ื›ึฐืจึธืชึทื”,ืจื•ื“ื•ืก, ืžืขื˜ื™ื ืžืื™ื™ ื™ื•ืŸ (ืึทืจึฐื›ึดื™ืคึถืœึทื’ื•ืก) ื•ืกื™ืฆื™ืœื™ื ื•ืžืืœื˜ื ื•ืขื•ื“, ื•ืงืคืœื•ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื โ€œืงึทืœึทื‘ึฐืจึดื™ืึธโ€ (ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืค' ื›โ€ื’) ื•ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ืื˜ืœื™ื ื‘ืงืฆื” ื”ืืจืฅ ื ื’ื‘ื”, ื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื”ื™ื ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ ืžืžืฉ ื ื’ื“ ืืกื›ื ื“ืจื•ื ื43. โ€œืžื”ืจ ื”ื”ืจ ืชืชืื• ืœื‘ื ื—ืžืชโ€ โ€œื—ืžืชโ€ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืชื‘ืืจื” ืฉื ืงืจืื” โ€œื—ึทืžึทื”โ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืงื“ื ื ืงืจืื” โ€œืึถืคื™ืคืึทื ื™ืึทโ€ (ื—ืžืช=ืคื™ืคืึทื ื™, ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืคืœโ€ื–), ื•ืขื™ืจ โ€œื—ืžืฅโ€ ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžื”ืœืš ื™ื•ื ืžืžื ื” ื”ื ื’ื‘ื”. ื•ื‘ืชืจ' ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œืžื˜ื•ื•ืจืก ืžื ื•ืก ืชื›ื•ื•ื ื•ืŸ ืœื›ื•ืŸ ืœืžืขืœื™ ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ืโ€ ื•ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื”ื ืงืจืืช ื›ื”ื™ื•ื: โ€œืึทื ื˜ืึทื›ื™โ€ ื•ื”ื™ื ืœื“ืจืž"ื– โ€œืืกื›ื ื“ืจื•ื ื”โ€ ื‘ืขืจืš ื—ืฆื™ ื™ื•ื (ื•ื–ื” ืžื—ื–ืง ืืช ื“ืขืชื ื• ื”ื ื–'), ื•ืื™ืŸ ื›ื•ื•ื ืช ื”ืžืชืจื’ื ืœื‘ืืจ ื‘ืฉื ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ื ืขืช ื”ืฉื โ€œื—ืžืชโ€ ื›ื™ ืื ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื—ื•ื˜ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื‘ืจ ืžื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืืžื ื•ืก ื“ืจื•ืžื”ึพืžืขืจื‘ื” ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ื™ื. โ€œื•ื”ื™ื• ืชื•ืฆืื•ืช ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆื“ื“ื”โ€, ืœืขื“ื•ืช ื“"ืจ ื–ืึทื›ื•ื™ (ื‘ืกืคืจื• โ€œืžืกืขื•ืช ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืืจื ื ื”ืจื™ืโ€) ื ืžืฆื ื›ืคืจ ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œืฆึทื“ึทื“โ€ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืชื™ ืฉืขื•ืช ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืžื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œื—ึทื•ึทืจึดื™ืŸโ€ ืžืขืจื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืžืจื—ืง 4 ืฉืขื” ืงื“ืžื” ืœื”ืจ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ, ื•ืœืคื™ ืžืคืช ืงืจืœ ื“ื™ื ืจ ื‘ืกืคืจื• โ€œืœื‘ื ื•ืŸโ€ ืจื—ื•ืง ื”ื•ื ืžืŸ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ 19 ืงื™ืœื•ืžืชืจ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ 15 ืงื™ืœื•ืžืชืจ, ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืฆื“ื“โ€ ืฉืœื ื•. โ€œื•ื™ืฆื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ืคืจื•ื ื” ื•ื”ื™ื• ืชื•ืฆืื•ืชื™ื• ื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ืŸโ€ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื–ื” ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื‘ืืจ ืžืชื—ืœื” ืืช ืžื” ืฉื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ (ืžื–): โ€œื•ื–ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ื—ึธืชึฐืœื•ืŸ ืœื‘ื•ื ืฆื“ื“ื”. ื—ืžืช ื‘ึตืจื•ืชึธื” ืกึดื‘ึฐืจึทื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืžืฉืง ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื—ืžืช ื—ืฆืจ ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ ืืฉืจ ืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื—ึทื™ึฐืจึธืŸ. ื•ื”ื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ื•ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืžืฉืง ื•ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื—ืžืช ื•ืืช ืคืืช ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ืœืื” (ืžื—) ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œืžืงืฆื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืืœ ื™ื“ ื“ืจืš ื”ืชืœื•ืŸ ืœื‘ื•ื ื—ืžืช ื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืžืฉืง ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืืœ ื™ื“ ื—ืžืชโ€ ื•ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื ื• ืœื“ืขืช ืžืชื—ืœื” ืื™ืคื” ื”ื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื ื–ื›ืจื™ื ืคื”: ื—ืชืœื•ืŸ, ืกื‘ืจื™ื, ื—ืžืช, ื—ืฆืจ ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ, ื—ื•ืจืŸ, ื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ืŸ? ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œื—ืชืœื•ืŸโ€ ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ืืฉืจ ืชื›ื•ื ืชื• ื”ื™ื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ื™ืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื ึทื”ึธืจ ืึดืœ ื›ึธื‘ึดื™ืจโ€ (ืœึดื™ื˜ึถืจื™ืŸ Eleutheros) ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื ื”ืจ ืึดืœ ืขึทื›ึทืจโ€ ืžื ื’ื‘, ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œืฉึทืขึฒืจึทื”โ€ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸึพืžืขืจื‘ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ, ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ื›ืคืจืกื” ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ืช ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ืงื“ืžื”, ื•ื ืงืจื โ€œื”ึทื™ึฐืชึธืœืึทโ€ (ื”ื™ื โ€œื”ื™ืชืœื•โ€ โ€“ ื ื“ื” ื˜, ื‘; ื™ื‘ืžื•ืช ื ื˜, ื‘. โ€œืขื™ื™ืชืœื•โ€ โ€“ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื ื“ื” ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื, โ€œืขื™ื™ืชื” ืœื•โ€ โ€“ ื‘ืงื ืช ืื™ื›ื” ื™ืฉื‘ื” ื—ื‘ืฆืœืช ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ). โ€œื‘ืจื•ืชื”โ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ืจึตื™ืชึทื™โ€ (ืฉืž"ื‘ ื”, ื—) ื”ื ืงืจืื” ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืžืื•ื—ืจ: โ€œื›ื•ืŸโ€ (ื“ื”"ื ื™ื—, ื—) ื•ื‘ืฉื ื–ื” ื ืงืจื ื‘ืžืคืช ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืงื•ื โ€œืจืึทืก ื‘ืขืœึพื‘ึถื›ึฐโ€ ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ ืžืงื•ืจื™ โ€œื ื”ืจ ืืœ ืขึทืกึดื™โ€ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ืฉื โ€œื‘ืจื•ืชื™ โ€“ ื‘ืจื•ืชื”โ€ ื”ื•ื ืฉื ื•ื™ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื โ€œื‘ืืจื•ืชโ€. โ€œืกื‘ืจื™ืกโ€ ืื• โ€œื–ืคืจื•ืŸโ€ ืื• โ€œืกืคืจื™ื•ืกโ€ ืขืคโ€œื™ ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื™ื‘โ€ืข ื ืงืจื โ€œืงึฐืจึทืŸ ื–ื›ื•ืชืโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืงึทืจืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื ืฆื“ื“ ื‘ืขืจืš 3 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ื•ืช.44 โ€œื—ืžืชโ€ ื”ืœืื” ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืžืŸ โ€œืฆื“ื“โ€, ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื–ืจื•ืข ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื”ื ืงืจืืช โ€œื’ึถโ€™ื‘ึถืœ ืึดืœ ืขึทโ€™ืืจึฐื‘ึดื™โ€, ื ืžืฆื ืžืงื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œืึทื‘ื• ืจืึทื‘ืึทืšโ€ ืื• โ€œื—ึทืžึทื ืึดืœ ื—ื•ืžึถื”โ€. ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ืžืช ืฆื•ื‘ื”โ€, ื›ื“ืขืช ื”ืžืคืจืฉื™ื ืฉื ืฉืื™ื ื ื” โ€œื—ืžืช ืจื‘ื”โ€ ืื• โ€œื—ืžืช ืฉืœ ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ืโ€. โ€œื—ืฆืจ ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸโ€ ืขืคโ€œื™ ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื ืงืจื โ€œื‘ึฐืจึตื›ึทืช ืขึทื’ึฐื‘ึธืึตื™โ€ ื•ื”ืจื“โ€ืง ื”ืขืชื™ืง โ€œืขื’ื™ื‘ืโ€ ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื ืชื—ืœืคื” ืคื” ื˜' ื‘ื’' ื•ืฆ"ืœ โ€œืขื˜ื™ื‘ืโ€, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ึทื—ึทืจ ืขึทื˜ึตื™ื‘ึถื”โ€, ื™ืžื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืœื“ืจื•ื ืžื–ืจื— ื“ืžืฉืง ืืฉืจ ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ึพืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื ืงืจื โ€œืึดืœ ืฉึถืจึฐืงึดื™ึถื”โ€ ื•ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ึพืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื ืงืจื: "ืึดืœ ืงึดื‘ึฐืœึดื™ึถื” ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื—ืฆืจ ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸโ€, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ืžืžื•ืฆืข ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื•ื’ื• ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œืืœ ืฉืจืงื™ื”โ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื‘ื—ืจืช ืืœ ื—ื’โ€™ืื ื™โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ืžื•. โ€œื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ื•ืŸึพืขื™ื ืŸโ€ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื’ื โ€œื—ืฆืจโ€ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ืžืงื•ื”ึพืžื™ื ื›ืจืขื”ื• ืืฉืจ ืœืคื ื™ื•, ื•โ€œืขื™ื ื•ืŸโ€ ื”ื•ื ืžืขื™ืŸ, ืโ€œื› ืืคื•ื ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื—ืจืช ืืœ ื—ื’โ€™ืื ื™โ€ ื˜ืฉื ื ื”ืจ โ€œืขึทื•ึทื’'โ€ (ืคืจืคืจ) ื ื•ืคืœ ื‘ื• ื•ื–ื” ื”ื ื”ืจ ืžื’ื‘ื™ืœ ืืช ื“ืžืฉืง ืžืŸ ื”ื“ืจื•ื, ื•ืžโ€ืฉ โ€œื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืžืฉืงโ€ ืžื•ืกื‘ ืขืœ โ€œืขื™ื ืŸโ€ (ืขื•ื ') ืœื ืขืœ โ€œื—ืฆืจโ€ (ื”ื™ื ืืœ ื—ื’โ€™ืื ื™), ื•ืฉื ื™ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื”ื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ โ€œื—ึทื™ืจึธืŸโ€ ื”ื™ื ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œื—ื•ืจึทืŸโ€ ื•ืขืชื” ื ื‘ื•ื ืœื‘ืื•ืจ ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช. "ื•ื”ื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ื—ืชืœื•ืŸ ืœื‘ื•ื ืฆื“ื“ื”โ€œ. ืžืชื—ืœื” ื‘ืืจ ื”ื ื‘ื™ื ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ื”ื•ื”, ืœืืžืจ, ืœืคื™ ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืก' ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื‘ืก' ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข (ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืจืชื™ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื), ื›ื™ ืจืืฉ ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื—ืœ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ โ€œื—ืชืœื•ืŸโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ื ืžืฉืš ืขื“ โ€œืฆื“ื“โ€, ื•ื’ื ื”ื™ื•ื ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืžืกืœื” ื™ืฉืจื” ื“ืจืš ืขืžืง โ€œื ื”ืจ ืืœึพื›ื‘ื™ืจโ€ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืฉืคืœืช โ€œื”ืžืฆ'โ€ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ืขื›ืจโ€ ืขื“ โ€œื—ึถืœึถื‘โ€, ืื•ืœื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ืฆื ืžืŸ โ€œื—ืžืฆ'โ€ ื•ืขืœื” ืืœ โ€œื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื’ื™ืข ืขื“ ืจืึทืก ื‘ืขืœึพื‘ื›โ€ (ื›ื•ืŸึพื‘ืจื•ืชื”ึพื‘ืจื•ืชื™), ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืจืืฉ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืืœ โ€œื—ึฒืœึดื™ืžึทืชึฐ ืึดืœ ืงึทืจึทืโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œืงืจืโ€ ืขืฆืžื” (ืงืจืŸ ื–ื›ื•ืชื=ื–ืคืจื•ืŸ=ืกื‘ืจื™ื=ืกืคืจื•ื™ื) ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืžืขื˜ ืืœ โ€œืฆื“ื“โ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืืœ โ€œืึทื‘ื• ืจืึทื‘ืš=ื—ึฒืžึทื ืึดืœ ื—ื•ืžึทื”โ€ (ื—ืžืช ืฆื•ื‘ื”), "ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืžืฉืง ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื—ืžืช" ืคื™' ื›ื™ ืืจื‘ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื”ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืคืœืš ื“ืžืฉืง (ืžื ื’ื‘) ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืคืœืš ื—ืžืช [ืจื‘ื”] (ืžื™ื), ื•ืžืฉื ื™ืจื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืจื•ืžื”ึพืžืขืจื‘ื” ืขื“ โ€œื‘ื—ืจ ืขื˜ื™ื‘ื”โ€ (ื—ืฆืจ ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ) ื•ื”ื•ื ืกืžื•ืš โ€œืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื—ึทื™ึฐืจึธืŸโ€, ืœืืžืจ ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œื—ื™ืจึทืŸโ€ โ€“ ืืœื” ื”ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ื”ื•ื”; ืื•ืœื ืœืขืชื™ื“ โ€“ "ื•ื”ื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ื•ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืžืฉืง ื•ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืฆืคื•ื ื”โ€œ, ืคื™โ€˜, ื›ื™ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ื•ืŸโ€ (ื‘ื—ืจืช ืืœึพื—ื™ื’โ€™ืึทื ื™) ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื“ืžืฉืง, ื™ืžืชื— ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ โ€œื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื—ืžืช ื•ืืช ืคืืช ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€, ืคื™โ€™ ื›ื™ ื’ื ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œื—ืžืช ืจื‘ื”โ€ ื•ื›ืœ โ€œืคืืช ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€ ื™ื›ื ืก ืืœ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ, ื•ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื” ื™ื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ื” ืขืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืžืฉื ืขื“ โ€œื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืืžื ื•ืกโ€. ื•ื”ืœืื” ืžื ื” ืืช ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ื” ื‘ืงืฆื•ืจ: ื—ืชืœื•ืŸ (ืžืขืจื‘ื”) ื—ืžืช (ืžื–ืจื—ื”) ื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ืŸ (ื“ืจื•ืžื”) ื•ื”ื ื‘ืคืืช ืฆืคื•ื ื” (ืœื”ืืจืฅ) ืืœ ื™ื“ ื—ืžืช (ืจื‘ื”). ื•ืœืคื™โ€ื– ื”ืฉืชืจืข ืงื• ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ (ืฉืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื”) ืžื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืืžื ื•ืก ื‘ืืœื›ืกื•ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื“ืจื•ืžื”ึพืžื–ืจื—ื” ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืืช ืึทื ื˜ืึทื›ื™, ื—ืžืช [ืจื‘ื”], ืจืึทืก ื‘ืขืœึพื‘ื›, ืงืึทืจืึท, ืฆื“ื“, ืึทื‘ื• ืจืึทื‘ืš, ื‘ื—ืจ ืขื˜ื™ื‘ื”, ื‘ื—ืจ ืืœึพื—ื™ื’โ€™ืื ื™.45 ื‘ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ (ืฉื) โ€œื•ื”ืชืื•ื™ืชื ืœื›ื ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืงื“ืžื” ืžื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ืŸ ืฉืคืžื” ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื•ืจืกโ€ื’ ืชืจื’ืžื• ืื•ืชื” โ€œืืคืžื™ืโ€, ืื‘ืœ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œืึทืคึทืžึตื™ืึทโ€ ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ ื ื”ืจ โ€œืื•ึนืจื•ึนื ึฐืžึถืกโ€ ื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื“ืžืฉืง ืื ื—ื ื• ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืขืชื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืขโ€œื“ ืฉื›ืชื‘ ื“โ€ืจ ื“ืึทืคืคืจ (ืืกื™ื ืฆื“ 122) ื›ื™ ื”ืฉื โ€œืืคืžื™ืโ€ ื ื’ื–ืจ ืžืŸ โ€œืืคืคื•ื ื™ ืžื™ืโ€ (ื™ื•ื ื” ื‘, ื•), ืœืืžืจ, ืžืงื•ื ืžืกื•ื‘ื‘ ื‘ืžื™ื, ื•ืคืœื™ื ื™ื•ืก ืžื–ื›ื™ืจ โ€œืืคืžื™ืโ€ ื›ื–ืืช ื‘ืืจืฅ โ€œืคืจื™ื’ื™ืโ€ ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ืœืžื™ื•ืก ืžื–ื›ื™ืจ โ€œืึทืคืžื™ืโ€ ื›ื–ืืช ื‘ืืจืฅ ื‘ื‘ืœ. ื•ื”ื™ื ื ื–ื›ืจืช ื‘ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ (ืขื, ื‘) ืฉืืžืจื•: โ€œืชืจืชื™ ืืคืžื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸโ€ ื•ื–ืืช ืฉื”ื™ื ื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื–' ื”ื™ื ื’ื ื›ืŸ ืžืกื•ื‘ื‘ืช ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ื’ื ืœื“ืจื•ืึพืžื–ืจื— ื“ืžืฉืง ื™ืฉ ืžืงื•ื ื›ื–ื” ื”ืžืกื•ื‘ื‘ ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืืžืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื’ืœื™ืœ "ืืœึพืœื’โ€™ื (ื˜ืจื›ื•ื ื) ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ื—ื ืึทืคื™ืกโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืืœึพืœื™ื•ื•ืึทโ€ ื•ื ืงืจื โ€œืžื–ืžื™ื”โ€ (Phaene)46 โ€œื•ื™ืจื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืฉืคื ื”ืจื‘ืœื” ืžืงื“ื ืœืขื™ืŸโ€ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืชืจื’ื•ื ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืคื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืชื™ืงื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ื ื•ืกื— ื”ืžื“ื•ื™ื™ืง ืฆโ€œืœ ื›ืŸ: โ€œื•ื™ื™ื—ื•ืช ืชื—ื•ืžื ืžืŸ ืืคืžื™ืื” ืœื“ืคื ื™ ืžืŸ ืžื“ื ื— ืœืขื™ื ื•ื•ืชื ื•ื™ื™ื—ื•ืช ืชื—ื•ืžื ืœืžืขืจืช ืกึทื ึดื™ืึธืก ื•ืžืžืขืจืช ืกื ื™ืืก ื™ื™ื—ื•ืช ืœื˜ึทื•ึธืจ ืชืœื’ื ื•ืžื˜ื•ืจ ืชืœื’ื ื™ื™ื—ื•ืช ืชื—ื•ืžื ืœืขื™ื ืŸ ื•ืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื™ื™ื—ื•ืช ืชื—ื•ืžื ื•ื™ืงื™ืฃ ืœืชื—ื•ื ื™ืžื ื“ื’ื ื™ืกืจ ืžืžื“ื™ื ื—ื, ื•ื™ื™ื—ื•ืช ืชื—ื•ืžื ืœื™ื•ืจื“ื ื ื•ื™ื”ื•ื•ืŸ ืžืคืงื ื•ื™ ืœื™ืžื ื“ืžืœื—ื ื•ื™ืกื‘ ืžื™ืฉืจื™ื ืžื™ืฉืจ ื ื—ืœื™ ืืจื ื•ื ื ื•ื™ื™ืชื™ ืœืžื“ื‘ืจื ื•ืฆื™ื ื™ (ืฆ"ืœ ื“ืฆื™ื ื™) ื˜ื•ืจ ืคืจื–ืœื ืžื™ ืžืฆื•ืชื ืื‘ืœื• ื•ื“ืžื•ื›ื ืกืžื™ืš ืœื’ื ื™ืกืช ื›ืจืš ืžืœื›ื•ืชื”ื•ืŸ ื“ืื“ื•ืžืื™, ืื—ืกื ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ื’ื“ ื•ืคืœื’ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ ืžื ืฉื”; ืจื™ืงื ื’ื™ืขื” โ€“ ืžืŸ ื“ืจื’ืžื, ื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืื•ืžื ื•ืก ืžืŸ ืฆืคื•ื ื, ื™ืžื ืจื‘ื ืžืŸ ืžืขืจื‘ื, ื™ืžื ื“ืžืœื—ื ืžืŸ ืžื“ื™ื ื—ืโ€ฆโ€ ื›ืŸ ื โ€ืœ ืœื ึทืกึตื— ืืช ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื”ื–ื”, ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืขืชื” ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ื›ืœืœ ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ื”ื•, ื•ื–ื” ื‘ืื•ืจื•: โ€œื“ึฐืคึทื ึตื™โ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืชึดื‘ึฐื ึถื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œืึดืœโ€“ืœึถื’ึทโ€™ืโ€ ื•ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืึดืœโ€“ื—ึทืจึทืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ ืžืกืœืช ื”ื—ืึทื’' ื•ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื ืžืฉืš ืžืžื–ืจื— ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช โ€œืžึดื™ื–ึฐืžึทื™ึถื”โ€ (ืืคืžื™ื=ืขื™ื ื•ื•ืชื) ืขื“ โ€œืชื‘ื ื”โ€ (ื“ืคื ื™) ื•ืžืฉื ื™ื•ืจื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ื ื”ึพืžืขืจื‘ื” ื ื’ื“ ืžืขืจืช โ€œืกื ื™ืืกโ€ (ืฆ"ืœ ืคืžื™ืืก) ื•ืžืฉื ื™ื•ืฆื ืœื’ืžืจื™ ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœ โ€œื˜ื•ืจ ืชืœื’ืโ€ (ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ) ื•ื™ืจื“ ืืœ โ€œืขื™ื ืŸโ€, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ึทื—ึทืจ ืึดืœโ€“ื—ื•ืœึถื”โ€, ื•ื ืงืจื ื›ืŸ ืข"ืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื™ืงื•ื• ื”ืžืขื™ื™ื ื•ืช: ื‘ึทื ึดื™ึทืืก, ืชึถืœ ืึดืœโ€“ืงึทืื“ึดื™, ื—ึทืกึฐื‘ึทืื ึดื™. (ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืคืจืง ืืฉื•ื‘ ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ืฉืืจื™ืช ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื). โ€œื•ื™ืจื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื•ืžื—ื” ืขืœ ื›ืชืฃ ื™ื ื›ื ืจืช ืงื“ืžื” ื•ื™ืจื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืจื“ื ื” ื•ื”ื™ื• ืชื•ืฆืื•ืชื™ื• ื™ื ื”ืžืœื—โ€, ื•ื‘ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ: โ€œื•ืคืืช ืงื“ื™ื ืžึดื‘ึตื™ืŸ ื—ึทื•ึฐืจึธืŸ ื•ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ืžืฉืง ื•ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื’ืœืขื“ ื•ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ื’ื‘ืœ ืขืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ ืชึธืžื“ื•โ€ ืคื™ืจืฉ: ื›ื™ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ื• ื—ื•ึนืจืŸ, ื“ืžืฉืง ื•ื’ืœืขื“ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžื–ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืจ"ื™ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžื–ื”, ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื–ืจื— ื”ืืจืฅ, ืžืŸ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€“ ืขื™ื ืŸ, ืขื“ ื”ื“ืจื•ื โ€“ ื”ื™ื ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื™ืจื“ืŸ ืื™ื ื ื• ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืงื“ื•ืฉืช ื”ืืจืฅ. ืืš ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื’ืžืชื ื• ืคื” ื‘ืœืชื™ ืื ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ื ื—ืœื• ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื• ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื”, ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ืคืงื•ืชื ืœื ื• ื‘ื—ืงื™ืจืชื ื• ืœื”ืฆื™ื‘ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ื‘ืงื“ื•ืฉืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืฉืื™ื ื ื” ืงื“ื•ึนืฉื”, ืœื›ืŸ ื ื‘ืืจ ืคื” ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื“ืจื•ื ืฉืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™. ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œืžืขืจืขืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ืขื™ืจ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื—ืœ ื•ื”ื’ืœืขื“โ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ืœื•). โ€œื•ื ืงื— ื‘ืขืช ื”ื”ื™ื ืืช ื”ืืจืฅโ€ฆ ืžื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸโ€ (ืฉื, ื’, ื”), โ€œื›ืœ ืขืจื™ ื”ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื’ืœืขื“ ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืฉืŸ ืขื“ ืกืœื›ื” ื•ืื“ืจืขื™โ€ ืฉื, ืฉื, ื™) โ€œื™ืื™ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืžื ืฉื” ืœืงื— ืืช ื›ืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ืืจื’ื‘โ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื™ื“) โ€œื•ื™ื™ืจืฉ ืืช ืืจืฆื• ืžืืจื ืŸ ืขื“ ื™ื‘ืง ืขื“ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื, ื›ื“โ€“ื›ื”; ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘) โ€œโ€ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืžื–ืจื—ื” ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืžื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืขืจื‘ื” ืžื–ืจื—ื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื, ื™ื‘) โ€œืžืืจื ื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื‘ืง ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื™ื, ื™ื’) โ€œืžืืจื ื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื‘ืง ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸโ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื›ื‘). ืžื›ืœ ืืœื” ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ื™ื” ื”ืืจื ื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ื”ื™ื” ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื”ื™ื” ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืืจืฅ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ. โ€œืืจื ื•ืŸโ€, ื”ื ื—ืœ ื”ื–ื” ื™ืงื ื›ื”ื™ื•ื: โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืžื•ื’โ€™ื™ื‘โ€ (ืฉื ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉืโ€“ืžื•ืื‘), ื•ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ืœืง ืืช ืฉืจืฉืจืช ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืžืžื–ืจื— ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ืœืฉืชื™ื, ื•ืขืžื•ืง ื”ื•ื ืžืื“47, ืจืืฉื™ืชื• ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ โ€œืขืจืขืจโ€ (ืขึทืจึทืขึดื™ืจ), ื•ืžืฉืชืคืš ืืœ ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ื‘ืคืืช ืžื–ืจื—, ืžื›ื•ืŸ ืžืื“ ืžื•ืœโ€œืขื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื™โ€ (ืขื™ืŸ ื’โ€™ื™ื“ื™) ืืฉืจ ืœืขืžืชื• ื‘ืคืืช ืžืขืจื‘. ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ืžื• ื ืงืจื: โ€œื‘ึฐืœึทื“ ืึดืœึพื›ึปืจึดื›ึฐ (ืืจืฅ ื›ืจื› โ€“ ืงื™ืจ ืžื•ืื‘, ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ื ืŸ: ื›ืจื›ื ื“ืžื•ืื‘) ื•ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ื ื• ื ืงืจื: โ€œืึดืœ ื‘ึดืœึฐืงึทื”โ€, ื•ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื”ืขื™ืจ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื—ืœโ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ืœื•) ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ืืฆืœ โ€œื’ึดโ€™ื‘ืœ ืฉึดื™ื—ึทืŸโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื ืืจื ื•ืŸ ื”ื ืงืจื ืขโ€œืฉ โ€œืกื™ื—ื•ืŸโ€ ืืฉืจ ื›ื‘ืฉื•, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ืขืœื™ ื‘ืžื•ืช ืืจื ื•ืŸโ€ ืืฉืจ ื›ืชื‘ ื”ืžืชืจื’ื โ€œื›ื•ืžืจื™ื ื“ืคืœื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื—ืœื ืจืžืชื ื“ืืจื ื•ืŸโ€, ื•ืœืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘: ื•ื™ืชื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื” ื›ื•ืžืจื™ื” ืคืœื—ื™ ื˜ืขื•ื•ืชื”ื•ืŸโ€ ื•ืคึทืœึฐืžึถืจ (ื‘ืก' โ€œืžืงื•ื ื”ืžื—ื–ื” ืฉืœ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื•ืช ื ื“ื•ื“ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจโ€ ืฆื“ 375) ื›ืชื‘ ืฉืžืฆื ืฉื ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ึทืžึฐืจึดื™ึธื” ืื—ืช, ื•ื–ื”ื• ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื›ื™ ืืฉ ื™ืฆืื” ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸโ€ฆ ืื›ืœื” ืขื“ ืžื•ืื‘ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื‘ืžื•ืช ืืจื ื•ืŸโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื, ื›ื”), ื•ืœื“ืขืช ืจืฉโ€ื™ ื ืœื—ืžื• ืฉื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ.48 โ€œื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸโ€, ืžื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ (ื›ื, ื›ื“) ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื (ื›, ืœื–; ื’, ื˜ื–) ื•ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข (ื™ื‘, ื‘) ืฉื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืœืžืขืœื”, ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื‘ืง ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™, ื›ืžื• ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืืจ. ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ื™ื”, ื›ื ืจืื” ืœื›ืื•ืจื”, ืืฆืœ โ€œืขืจโ€, ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œืืชื” ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื•ื ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื•ืื‘ ืืช ืขืจ ื•ืงืจื‘ืช ืžื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸโ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื™ื–โ€“ื™ื—) ืืš ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืœืื• ื“ื•ืงื, ืฉืžืฆืื ื• ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื• ืฉื™ื™ื›ื™ื ืœืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขืจ, ื›ื™ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช: ืžื™ืคืขืช ืงื“ืžื•ืช ืžืฆื•ื™ื ื•ืช ื‘ืžืคื•ืช ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขืจ ื•ื”ืืจื ื•ืŸ, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืฉื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ื™ื” ืืฆืœ โ€œืžึถื ึฐื™ึทื”โ€ (ืžื ื™ืช), ืœื ืจื—ื•ืง ืžืจื‘ืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ49, ื•ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ื™ื›ื ืžืขืจื•ืขืจ ื•ืขื“ ื‘ื•ืืš ืžื ื™ืช ืขืฉืจื™ื ืขื™ืจ ืขื“ ืื‘ืœ ื›ืจืžื™ืโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื™ื, ืœื’), โ€œืขืจื•ืขืจ ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ ื™ืขื–ืจ ื•ื™ื’ื‘ื”ื”, ื•ืœืคโ€ื– ื›ื‘ืฉ ื™ืคืชื— ืืช ื›ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™,50 ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื”ื’ืœืขื“ ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื’ื“ ื”ื™ื” ืœื ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ. ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: ื•ื™ื”ื™ ืœื”ื ื™ืขื–ืจ ื•ื›ืœ ืขืจื™ ื”ื’ืœืขื“ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืืจืฅ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืขืจื•ืขืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื’, ื›ื”)51 ื•ื’ื: โ€œืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ืคืฉืขื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸโ€ฆ ืขืœ ื‘ืงืขื ื”ืจื•ึนืช ื”ื’ืœืขื“ ืœืžืขืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ื‘ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœืโ€ (ืขืžื•ืก ื, ื™ื’) (ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื‘ืืจื• ืื™ื–ื” ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืืช โ€œื”ืจื•ืชโ€ ื›ืžื• โ€œื”ืจื™โ€), ื•ื›ืŸ ื—ืฆืจ โ€œื ื—ืฉ ื”ืขืžื•ื ื™โ€ ืœื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื™ื‘ืฉ ื’ืœืขื“, ื•ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื”, ืœืžืขืŸ ื”ืจื—ื™ื‘ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•, ื•ื™ืคืชื— ื”ื•ื‘ื ืžืืจืฅ ื˜ื•ื‘ โ€œื”ื’ืœืขื“ื”โ€ ืœืฆืืช ืžืฉื ืœืžืœื—ืžื” ืขืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ, ื”ืจื™ ื›ื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื”ื’ืœืขื“ ื›ืœืœ ืžืืจืฅ ืขืžื•ืŸ. ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ื’ื“ืขื•ืŸ ืขืœื” โ€œื“ืจืš ื”ืฉื›ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืื”ืœื™ื ืžืงื“ื ืœื ื‘ื— ื•ื™ื’ื‘ื”ื”โ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื—, ื™ื) ื•ื™ื’ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื โ€œื’ึปโ€™ื‘ึถื“ึทืชึฐโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸึพืžื–ืจื— ืจื‘ืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ, ื”ืœื ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื”ืŸ ื™ืฉื‘ื• โ€œืฉื›ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืื”ืœื™ืโ€ (ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื, ื‘ื“ื•ืื™ื ื™ื) ืœืโ€œืขืžื•ื ื™ืโ€, ืโ€œื› ืืคื•ื ืžื•ื›ื— ื›ื™ ืœื ื”ืฉืชืจืข ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืขึทืžึทืŸโ€ (ื”ื™ื•ืจื“ ืžืจื‘ืช ืขืžื•ืŸ ืžื–ืจื—ื”ึพืฆืคื•ื ื” ืขื“ โ€œืจืืฉ ื”ื™ื‘ืงโ€ = ืจืึทืก ืึดื– ื–ึถืจึฐืงึทื”) ื•ืโ€ื› ื”ื™ื” ืขืžืง ื–ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™; ืืš ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืฉืชืจืข ื”ืœืื” ืฆืคื•ื ื”ึพืžื–ืจื—ื” ืขืœ ื”ืจืจื™ โ€œื—ื•ืจืŸโ€ ื•ืฉื ื ืงืจื ื’ื‘ื•ืœื โ€œืขืจื™ ื”ื”ืจโ€, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืžื” ืฉื™ืื™ืจ ื•ื ื‘ื— ื›ื‘ืฉื• ืืช ื”ืจืจื™ ื—ื•ืจืŸ ืจืง ืขื“ โ€œืกืœื›ื”โ€ (ืกึทืœึฐื›ึทื“) ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื ื’ื‘ื”, ื•ื’ื ืขื•ื’ ืžืœืš ื”ื‘ืฉืŸ ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉ ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืจืง ืขื“ ืกืœื›ื” ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžื–ื” ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื“ืจื•ืžื”, ื•ื‘ืคืืช ืžื–ืจื— ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉ ืจืง ืขื“ ื”ื™ื‘ืง, ื•ืžื™ ื”ื ื™ื ืื•ืชื ืžืœื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื’ื ืืช ื”ื—ืœืง ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ึพืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืจืจื™ ื—ื•ืจืŸ? โ€“ ื”ืขืžื•ื ื™ื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ื! ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื›ื™ ืขื– ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื, ื›ื“), ื•ื‘ื–ื” ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื›ืœ ื™ื“ ื ื—ืœ ื™ื‘ืง ื•ืขืจื™ ื”ื”ืจโ€ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ืœื–), ื›ื™ ื‘โ€œื™ื“ ื ื—ืœ ื™ื‘ืงโ€ ื™ืจื•ืžื– ืขืœ ื”ืขืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘โ€œื—ื•ืจืŸโ€ ืขื“ ืกืœื›ื”, ื”ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื” ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขืžื•ืŸ, ื•ืœืคื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจ ื™ืจื“ ืงื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ืžื”ืจื™ โ€œื—ื•ืจืŸโ€ ื“ืจื•ืžื”ึพืžืขืจื‘ื” ืขื“ โ€œืจืึทืก ืื–ึพื–ืจืงืึทโ€, ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ื“ืจืš โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืขืžืŸโ€ ืืœ โ€œืจื‘ื”โ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ ืขืจื•ืขืจ ืืฉืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ืจืžื•ืช ื’ืœืขื“, ื•ืžืฉื ื™ืฆื ื”ื ื’ื‘ื” ืœืขืžืช ืื‘ืœ ื›ืจืžื™ื, ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ, ืžื ื™ืช ืขื“ โ€œื™ื—ืฆื”โ€ (ืฆื™ืฅโ€“ืฆื™ืฆื), ื•ืฉื ื”ื™ื” โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืžื•ืชโ€ ื•ืฉื ื—ื ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื•ืžืฉื ืฉืœื— ืžืฉื” ืžืœืื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืœืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ. ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืžื‘ื•ืืจ ื›ื™ ื—ื•ื˜ ืชื—ื•ื ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืจ"ื™ ื ื’ืข ื‘ื—ึทื™ึฐืจึธืŸ ื—ื•ืจึทืŸ, ื•ืžืŸ ื—ื•ืจืŸ ืœื“ืจื•ื, ื‘ืืจื ื• ืฉื”ื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉืชืจืข ืขื“ โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืžื•ืชโ€, ื•ืžืืœื™ื• ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื›ืœื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ืฉื ื”ื—ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืžื–ืจื—, ื•ืžื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ืืจื ื• ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื ืชื‘ืืจ ืœื ื• ืžืืœื™ื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืขืจื‘ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ. ืžืŸ ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ืจื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืœื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืฉื ื‘ื ื“ืจืš ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ืืœ โ€œืื‘ืœื ื“ืžื•ื›ืโ€ (ื›ืฆ"ืœ) ื”ื•ื โ€œืื‘ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸโ€ (ื‘ืจื' ื , ื™ื), ื•ื ืงืจื ืžืงื•ื ื–ื” โ€œืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸโ€ ืขโ€œืฉ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืฆื“ ื”โ€ืขืจื‘ื”" ื•ื™ืฉ ืžืกื•ึนืจื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืขื‘ืจ ืžื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ื“ืจืš ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืขืจื‘ื” ื•ื”ืฉืชืคืš ืืœ ื™ื ืกื•ืฃ, ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจื ื“ืฆื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ืจ ืคืจื–ืœืโ€ (ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื), ืœืืžืจ, ืืœ โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืŸโ€ ืฉืฉื:ืžื™ ืžืฆื•ืชื" โ€“ ืžื™ ืžืจื™ื‘ืช ืงื“ืฉ. ื•ื‘ื–ื” ื‘ืืจื ื• ื‘ืข"ื” ืืช ื›ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ืžืฆื•ืžืฆืžื™ื ืžื ื’ื‘ ื•ืžื™ื, ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืžืงื“ื. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ืžื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ืขื“ โ€œืงึทืœึฐืขึทืช ืึดืœโ€“ืขึฒืจึฒื™ืฉโ€, ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื‘ืืจื ื• ืชื›ื•ื ืชื•, ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜"ื• ื”') ื•ืืจืš ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื–ื”, ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ืืจืš ื™ืึพื”ืžืœื— ืขืฆืžื• โ€“ ืขืจืš 40 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืื ื’ืœื™ื•ืช, ื•ื ืฉืืจ ืœื ื• ืœื‘ืืจ ืขืชื” ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ื•ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™. โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื’ืœื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ื•), ื”ื•ื โ€œืขื™ืŸ ื—ื’โ€™ืœื”โ€ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื—ื•ืจืฉื” ืื—ืช, ื›ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืžืขืจื‘ื” ืžืฉืคืช ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืจื“ืชื• ื”ื™ืžื”. โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืขืจื‘ื”โ€ ืœื“ืขื•ืช ืงื ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื ื›ื”ื™ื•ื โ€œืงึปืกึฐืจ ื—ึทื’ึฐโ€™ืœึทื”โ€ (ืžื‘ืฆืจ ื—ื’ืœื”) ื•ืกืžื•ืš ืœื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ. โ€œืื‘ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸโ€, ื‘ืœืชื™ ื™ื“ื•ืข. โ€œื•ืขืœื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื” ืžืขืžืง ืขื›ื•ืจโ€, โ€œืขืžืง ืขื›ื•ืจโ€ ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื—ืœื˜ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ื›ึถืœึฐืชึฐโ€ ื”ื™ื•ืจื“ ื”ื›ื›ืจื” ืžื ื’ื‘ ื™ืจื—ื• ื•ืฉื ื ืกืงืœ ืขื›ืŸ, ื•ื”ืžืกืœื” ื”ืขื•ืœื” ืžื™ืจื—ื• ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื“ืจืš ืขืœื™ื•, ื•โ€œื“ื‘ื™ืจโ€ ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™"ืฉ ืžืงื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œืชื•ื’ึทโ€™ืจึธืชึฐ ืึดืœโ€“ื“ึดื‘ึฐืจึฐโ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื—ื•ืง ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื›ืฉืขื•ืชื™ื ืงื“ืžื”, ื•ื‘ืกืžื•ืš ืœื• ื ืžืฆืื” ื’ื‘ืขื” ืื—ืช ืฉื›ืœ ืื‘ื ื™ื” ื”ืŸ ืžืžื™ืŸ โ€œืื‘ื ื™โ€“ืืฉโ€ (ืคื™ื™ืขืจืฉื˜ื™ื™ืŸ) ื•ื ืงืจืืช: โ€œืชืœ ืื“ื•ืโ€, ื•ื”ื™ื, ืœื“ืขืชื™, โ€œืžืขืœื” ืื“ื•ืžื™ืโ€, ื•ืืฆืœื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืขื™ืจ ืฉืฉืžื” โ€œื’ืœื’ืœโ€, ื›ื ืจืื”. โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืœ ืžื™ ืขื™ืŸ ืฉืžืฉโ€ ืœื“ืขืช ื”ื ื–' ื”ื•ื ืขืžืง ืจื—ื‘ ื‘ืฆื“ ืขืžืง ืขื›ื•ืจ ื•ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืŸ: โ€œืขื™ืŸ ื”ื•ึนื“โ€, ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ื›ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืขื” ืœืžื–ืจื— ื›ืคืจ โ€œืขึฒื–ึถืจึดื™ึธื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ โ€œื”ืจ ื”ื–ืชื™ืโ€ ืงื“ืžื”. โ€œื•ื”ื™ื• ืชื•ืฆืื•ืชื™ื• ืืœ ืขื™ืŸ ืจื’ืœโ€, ื”ื•ื โ€œื”ื™ืจ ืึถื™ื•ึผื‘โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื›ืคืจ โ€œืกึถืœึฐื•ึทืŸโ€, ื•ืœืคื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช (ื–, ื˜, ื•) ื”ื•ื ืจื—ื•ืง ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื 2 ืฉื˜ืึทื“ื™ื (ืจื™ืก). โ€œื•ืขืœื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื’ื™ ื‘ืŸ ื”ื ื ืืœ ื›ืชืฃ ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™ ืžื ื’ื‘ ื”ื™ื ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืโ€ ื•ืคื™' ื‘ื‘ืื•ืจ, ืฉืืžืจ โ€œื•ืขืœื”โ€ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉืงื“ื ืœื•, ื•ื™ืคื” ื›ึดื•ึตืŸ, ื•ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื”ืขืžืง ืืฉืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ืจ ื”ื–ืชื™ื, ื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื”ืจ ื”ืžื•ืจื™ื”โ€, ื•ืœืคื™ ืงื‘ืœืช ื—ื–โ€œืœ ื”ื™ื” โ€œืžื–ื‘ื— ืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžื”โ€ ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ื‘ืงืจืŸ ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืช, ื•ืขโ€ื– ืืžืจ ืจืœื‘โ€œื— ืืžืจ ืจื—ื‘โ€ื— โ€œืจืฆื•ืขื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื™ื•ืฆืืช ืžื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื ื›ื ืกืช ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื•'โ€ (ื™ื•ืžื ื™ื‘, ื,; ืžื’ืœื” ื›ื•, ื; ื–ื‘ื—ื™ื ื ื’, ื‘; ืงื™ื—, ื‘) ื•ื‘ืจืฆื•ืขื” ื–ืืช ื ื›ืœืœื• โ€œื”ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืฉื›ื•ืช ื•ื”ืขื–ืจื•ืชโ€ (ืฉื) ื•ื‘ืื“ืจโ€œื  (ืคืœ"ื”) ืžืกื™ื™ื: โ€œื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืชื•ืจ ื”ื™ื” ื ื›ื ืก ื•ื™ื•ืฆื ื•ื”ื™ื” ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืื—ื•ืจื™ื• ื•ืขืœื™ื• ืžื–ื‘ื— ื‘ื ื•ื™โ€, ื•ื‘ืกืคืจื™ ืค' ื•ื–ืืช ื”ื‘ืจื›ื” ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื•ื›ืจืืฉ ืชื•ืจ ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืœื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€ ื•ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช.52 โ€œื•ืชืืจโ€ฆ ืืœ ืžืขื™ืŸ ืžื™ ื ืคืชื•ื—โ€ ืืžื—ื–โ€ืœ: โ€œืกื‘ื•ืจ ืœืžื‘ื ื™ื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ืขื™ื˜ื ื“ืžื“ืœื™ ืืžืจื™ ื ืชืชื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืงืœื™ืœโ€ (ื–ื‘ื—ื™ื ื ื“, ื‘), ื•ื›ืชื‘ ืจืฉโ€œื™ ืขโ€ื–: โ€œื ืจืื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืขื™ืŸ ืžื™ ื ืคืชื•ื—โ€, ื•ื ืจืื” ืœื™, ืฉืื ื ื—ืงื•ืจ ืขืœ ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื ืžืฆื ืฉื”ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” 2610 ืจื’ืœ ืื ื’ืœื™ื•ืช ืžืฉื˜ื— ืคื ื™ ื”ื™ื, ื•ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื”ืจ ื”ื–ืชื™ื โ€“ 2724 ืจื’ืœ, ื•ืœื’ื•ื‘ื” ื›ื–ื” ืœื ื™ื’ื™ืข ื›ืœ ื”ืจ ืฉื‘ืโ€œื™, (ื•ืœืคื™ ืžื“ื™ื“ืช ืกื™ืžื•ื ื“ืก ืขื•ืœื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” โ€œื ื‘ื™ ืกืžื•ืื™ืœโ€ 2649 ืจื’ืœ, ื•ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื‘ื™ืžื™ ืงื“ื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื˜ื— ืžืงื•ื ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืžืขื˜ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื›ื”ื™ื•ื), ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืืžืจื• ืฉื ื›ื™ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ืžื›ืœ ืืจโ€ื™ (ื•ื›ืŸ ืืžืจื• ื‘ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืค"ื–,ื ื•ื‘ืกืคืจื™) (ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ื”ืจ โ€œืฆืคืชโ€ (2775 ืจื’ืœ) ื•ื”ืจ โ€œืกืขืกืขโ€ ื”ืกืžื•ืš ืœื• (4000 ืจื’ืœ) ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืœื ื”ืฉื’ื™ื—ื• ื‘ื”ื ื—ื–"ืœ)53 ื•ืื ื”ื ืืžืจื• ืฉืขื™ืŸ ืขื™ื˜ื ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืžื”ืจ ื”ืžื•ืจื™ื” ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื” ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื”ื”ืจ ืืฆืœ ืฉื›ื•ื ืช โ€œืžื—ื ื” ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€, ืื• ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ึดืจึฐื›ึธืช ืžึทืืžึดืœึฐืœึธื”โ€, ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื›ื” ื”ื–ืืช ื”ืžืฉื™ื›ื• ืžื™ื ื‘ืชืขืœื•ืช ืœื”ืขื–ืจื”, ื›ืžื• ืฉืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™: โ€œืฉโ€ืž ืขื™ืŸ ืขื™ื˜ื ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืžืงืจืงืข ื”ืขื–ืจื” ื›โ€œื’ ืืžื•ืชโ€ (ื™ื•ืžื ืœื, ื), ื•ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ ืžืฆื ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืชืขืœื•ืช ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื›ื” ื”ื–ืืช ืœื‘ืจื›ืช ื—ื–ืงื™ื” ื•ืžืฉื ืœืžืงื•ื ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ.54 โ€œื•ื™ืฆื ืืœ ืขืจื™ ื”ืจ ืขืคืจื•ืŸโ€, ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื”ื”ืจ ืืฉืจ ื•ืื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื ื™ื ื” ืžืžื–ืจื— ื•ื•ืื“ื™ ืขโ€™ื•ืจึทื‘ ืžืžืขืจื‘ ื•ื•ืื“ื™ ืื™ืกืžืึทืขื™ืŸ ืžื ื’ื‘ ื™ืกืชืจื•ื”ื• ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ื•ื ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื” โ€œื”ืจ ืขืคืจื•ืŸโ€ ื•ืขืจื™ื• ื”ึตื ึธื” ื›ื”ื™ื•ื: ืงื•ืœื•ื ื™ื, ืกื•ึนื›ึทื”, ืงึทืกึฐื˜ึตืœ, ื•ื›ื•'. โ€œื•ืชืืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ืขืœื” ื”ื™ื ืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ืโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œืงื™ึดืจึฐื™ึธืชึฐ ืึดืœึพืขึธื ึถื‘โ€, ืœืคื™ ื”ื™ืจื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื”ื™ื ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื 9 ืžื™ืœ ืขืœ ื“ืจืš ื“ื™ืึธืกืคื•ึนืœื™ืก (ืœื•ื“) ื•ืฉื ื™ืฉ ื’ื โ€œืงื™ืจึดื™ึธืช ืึดืโ€“ืกึทืขึดื™ื“ึถื”โ€. ื•ืžื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ โ€œื•ืชืืจโ€ ืžื•ืจื” ืฉื”ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืงื™ืฃ ืืช โ€œืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ืโ€ ื•ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœืชื—ื•ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื•ื›ืŸ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืœืื” (ื™ื—, ื™ื“) โ€œืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ื ืขื™ืจ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€, ื•ื›ืŸ ืืžืจื• ื—ื–"ืœ: โ€œื•ื ืคืœื” ืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ื ื‘ื—ืœืง ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘โ€œืจ ืคโ€ื“ ืกื™' ื›). โ€œื•ื ืกื‘ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื‘ืขืœื” ื™ืžื” ืืœ ื”ืจ ืฉืขื™ืจโ€ โ€œื•ื ืกื‘โ€ ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ื—ื•ื˜ ืžื ืœื™ื–ืชื• ืืœ ืžื•ืœ ื ืงื•ื“ืช ืžืฆื‘ื• ื”ืงื•ื“ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืžื‘ืขืœื” ืขื‘ืจ ื•ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื“ืจื•ืžื” ืืœ โ€œืกืึทืจื™ืกโ€ ื•ืœื“ืขืชื™ ื ืฉืชื ื” ืžืŸ โ€œืฉืขื™ืจโ€ ืืœ โ€œืกืขืจื™ืกโ€ (ื‘ื”ื•ืกืคืช ื™ืก) ื•ืื—"ื› ื”ื™ื” ืžืžื ื• โ€œืกืืจื™ืกโ€ ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ื™ืžื™ื. โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ืืœโ€ฆ ื›ึฐืกึธืœื™ึนืŸโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œื›ึถืกึฐืœึทื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืžื ื’ื‘ โ€œืกื•ึนื›ึทื”โ€ ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื–ึทืžึดื™ึธื”โ€ ื•ืืจืชื•ืฃ. โ€œื•ื™ืจื“ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืฉโ€ ื”ื•ื โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืฉึถืžึฐืกึฐโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œืืจืชื•ืฃโ€ ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื•ื•ืื“ื™ ืกื•ืžื˜โ€. โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ืชืžื ื”โ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œืชึดื‘ึฐื ึถื”โ€. โ€œื•ื™ืฆื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืœ ื›ืชืฃ ืขืงืจื•ืŸ ืฆืคื•ื ื”โ€, ื”ื•ื โ€œืขึฒืงึดื™ืจโ€. ืžื•ืฉื‘ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื ื•. โ€œื•ืชืืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฉื›ืจื•ื ื” ื•ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืจ ื”ื‘ืขืœื” ื•ื™ืฆื ื™ึทื‘ึฐื ึฐืึตืœโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื™ึธื‘ึฐื ึถื”โ€ (ื™ึทืืžึฐื ึดื™ึธื”), ื•ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ื›ื™ ืฉื›ืจื•ื ื” ื•ื”ืจ ื”ื‘ืขืœื” ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืงืจื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื™ื‘ื ื”โ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื•ืช ื–ื• ืžื–ื• ืคืจืกื” ื’ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ืช. ื"ื› ื ืžืฉืš ื—ื•ื˜ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”: ืžื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื—ึทื’ึฐโ€™ืœึทื” ื•ืžืฉื ืœืงึปืกึฐืจ ื—ึทื’ึฐโ€™ืœึฐื” ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ื‘ื•ืื“ื™ ืึดืœโ€“ื›ึธืœึฐืชึฐ ืขื“ ื“ึดื‘ึฐืจ, ื•ืžืฉื ืœื•ืื“ื™ ืืœโ€“ื—ื•ึนื“, ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ืœืจืืฉ ื”ืจ ื”ื–ืชื™ื ื“ืจืš ืขึทื–ึทืจึดื™ึธื” ื•ืื‘ื• ื“ื™ืก ื•ื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื™ืจ ืื™ื•ื‘, ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ืœื”ืจ ื”ืžื•ืจื™ื”, ื•ืžืฉื ืœืžื™ ื ืคืชื•ื— (ื‘ืจื›ืช ืžืืžื™ืœืœื”) ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ื”ืจ, ื•ืžืฉื ืœื”ืจ ืงื•ืœื•ื ื™ื, ื•ืžืฉื ืœืงื•ืจื™ืช ืืœโ€“ืขื ื‘, ื•ืžืฉื ืœืกืึทืจื™ืก, ื•ืžืฉื ืœื›ืกืœื”, ื•ืžืฉื ืœืขื™ืŸ ืฉืžืก, ื•ืžืฉื ืœืชื‘ื ื”, ื•ืžืฉื ืœืขืงืจื•ืŸ, ื•ืžืฉื ืœื™ื‘ื ืืœ ื•ืœื™ื. ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ. ืœื ื ื–ื›ืจื• ืืฆืœื• โ€œืขืจื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœโ€ ืจืง ืกืชื ืฉืžื•ืช ืขืจื™ื, ื•ื”ื ื”: (ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜) โ€œื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืขโ€ (ื‘ึดื™ืจ ืกึถื‘ืขึทื), โ€œืฉื‘ืขโ€ (ื•ืื“ื™ ืกึธื‘ึฐืขึทื ื”ืžื•ืฉืš ืžื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืขื“ ืขื–ื”), ืžื•ึนืœึธื“ึธื”" (ืึดืœโ€“ืžึดืœึฐื—ึฐ Molatha), โ€œื—ืฆืจ ืฉื•ืขืœโ€ (ืื—ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื—ืฆืจื™ื ื”ื ืฉืขื ื™ื ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื–ื”) โ€œื‘ึธืœึธื”=ื‘ึดืœึฐื”ึธื”โ€ ืœื“ืขืช ื”ื’ืจโ€œื ื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ืขืœื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ื›ื˜), ื•ื ืžืฆื ืขื•ื“ ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ โ€œื‘ืขืœโ€ ืื• โ€œื‘ืขืœืช ื‘ืืจ ืจืžืช ื ื’ื‘โ€ (ื“ื”ื™"ื ื“, ืœื’; ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ื—), ื•ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™โ€ืฉ ื”ื•ื โ€œื›ืคืจ ื‘ืขื™ืœื™ืŸโ€, ื›ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืขื” ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื›ืคืจ ื‘ืจื•ืงืกื™ืึถโ€ ื•ืœื“ื‘ืจืช ื”ื™ืจื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก ืจื—ื•ืง ื”ื•ื 8 ืžื™ืœ ืžื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ, ื•ืื ื ืฉืขืŸ ื”ืจื™โ€œืฉ ืขืœ ืฉื•ื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื™ืฉ ืœืกืคืง ื‘ื–ื”, ื›ื™ ื ืžืฆื ืขื•ื“: โ€œื‘ืขืœื•ึนืชโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื•, ื›ื“) ื•โ€ื‘ืขืœื”" ื”ื โ€œืœ ืฉื”ืŸ ื’โ€ื› ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ, ื•ืืช ื”ืฉื โ€œื‘ืขื™ืœื™ืŸโ€ ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœื™ื—ืก ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉืœืฉื” ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื‘ืฉื•ื”, ื•ืœืœื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื’ืจโ€œื ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€œื‘ืœื”=ื‘ืœื”ื”โ€ ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ โ€œื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืขโ€ ืœื“ืจื•ืžื”, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œื›ึปื‘ึธืช ืึดืœ ื‘ื•ึนืœโ€ ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ ืงึปืจึฐื ึปื‘โ€ ื•โ€œื‘ืขื™ืœื™ืŸโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ืขืœื” ืื• โ€œื‘ืขืœื•ึนืชโ€, ื•ืืช โ€œื‘ืขืœืช ื‘ืืจ ืจืžืช ื ื’ื‘โ€ ื™ืฉ ืœื‘ืงืฉ ื‘ืงืฆื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™, ื›ื™ ืžื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืงืฆื” ื ื—ืœืช ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ, ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื‘ื ื’ื‘, ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืืช โ€œืจืžืช ื ื’ื‘โ€ ืื• โ€œืจืžื•ึนืช ื ื’ื‘โ€ (ืฉ"ื ืœ, ื›ื–). โ€“ โ€œืขืฆื ื•ืืœืชื•ืœื“โ€ ืœื ื™ื“ื•ืขื•ืช ื•ื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™โ€ืฉ ืขืœ ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ืžืคื•ืงืคืงืช. โ€œื‘ืชื•ืœโ€ ื•ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืงืจืืช โ€œื›ืกื™ืœโ€ ื•ืกื•ึนืฆื•ึนืžื ืก ื›ืชื‘ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ื›ืคืจ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ืขื–ื” ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œื‘ึธืชึธืœึฐื™ึทื”โ€ ื•ืขืœ ื’ื‘ืขื” ืื—ืช ืืฉืจ ื‘ืงืจื‘ืชื• ื™ืฉ ื”ื™ื›ืœื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืขืชื™ืงื™ื, ื•ื”ื—ื•ืงืจ ื•ื•ืึธืœื ื™ื™ ืžืกืคืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช ืขื–ื” ื™ืฉ ื’ื‘ืขื” ืืฆืœ ื›ืคืจ โ€œื›ืึทืกื™โ€ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” 70 ืจื’ืœ ื•ืืจื•ื›ื” 200 ืจื’ืœ ื•ืจื—ื‘ื” 150 ืจื’ืœ ื•ืขืœื™ื” ื™ืฉ ื’ืœื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื, ื•ืขืœ ืจืืฉ ื”ื’ื‘ืขื” ื ืจืื™ื ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืžืฆื•ื“ื” ื ืฉื’ื‘ื” ืžืื•ื“, ื•ืืช ื”ื—ืงื™ืจื” ื”ื–ืืช ื“ืจืฉื• ื”ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืžืจ,ื›ื™ โ€œื‘ืชื•ืœโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ืชืœื™ื”โ€ ื•ื‘ืชื•ืœ ื”ืœื ื”ื™ื โ€œื›ืกื™ืœโ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืฉื ื•ื™ ืงืœ โ€œื›ึทืกึดื™โ€, ื•ื”ื ื” ื‘ื ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ ื•ื™ื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืขืฆืžื• ืืช ื”ื’ื‘ืขื” ื”ื–ืืช, ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืขื™ื“ ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืฃ ืžืฉื”ื• ืžื—ืจื‘ื•ืช ื ื•ืฉื ื•ืช, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื‘ืืžืช ื ืžืฆื โ€œื›ืคืจ ื‘ืชืœื™ื”โ€ ืืฆืœ ืขื–ื”, ื›ืขื“ื•ืช ืกื•ึนืฆื•ึนืžื ืก, ืืš ื•ืืœื ื™ื™ ื˜ืขื” ื‘ืฉืžื•ืขืชื•, ื›ื™ ืื™ื ื ื• ืืฆืœ โ€œืืœ ื›ืกื™โ€ ื•ืโ€œื› ื ื”ืจืก ื”ื‘ื ื™ืŸ, ื•ื‘ืชื•ืœ=ื›ืกื™ืœ ืื™ื ื ื• โ€œืืœ ื›ืกื™โ€, ืื‘ืœ โ€œืืœ ื›ืกื™โ€ ื”ื•ื ืœื“ืขืชื™ ืื—ื“ ืขื โ€œืึปื ืœึทืงึดื™ืฉโ€ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืงืจื‘ืชื• ื•ื”ื•ื ืึถืœืงื•ึนืฉโ€ ืžืงื•ื ื ื—ื•ื ื”ื ื‘ื™ื.55 โ€œื—ืจืžื”โ€ ื›ื‘ืจ ื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œื ึปืงึฐื‘ึฐ ืึดืโ€“ืกื™ืคื”โ€ (ืžืกืœืช ืกื•ืคื”โ€“ืฆืคืช). โ€œืฆืงืœื’โ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื–ื™ื”ึทื™ืœึดื™ืงึทืโ€ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืึดืฉโ€“ืฉึทืจึดื™ึทืขโ€ (ื ื—ืœ ื”ึทื‘ึฐืฉื•ืจ). โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืจื›ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื—ืฆืจ ืกื•ืกื”:, ืื•ืœื™ ื”ืŸ ืขืจื™ ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื•ืขืจื™ ื”ืคืจืฉื™ืโ€, ืืฉืจ ืœืฉืœืžื” (ืž"ื ื˜, ื™ื˜; ื™, ื›ื•) ื•ื‘ืœื ืชืคื•ื ื” ื”ืŸ โ€œืกื•ืกื™ึธื”โ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” ยฝ6 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืื ื’' ืžื ื’ื‘ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ. โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืœื‘ืื•ืชโ€ ื•ื‘ื“ื”"ื (ื“, ืœื) ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื‘ึดืจึฐืึดื™โ€ ื•ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ื•ืจึตื™ืจโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืกึปืžึฐืกึปืโ€. โ€œืฉึธืจื•ื—ึธืŸโ€ ื•ื‘ื“ื”ื™"ื (ืฉื) ื›ืชื™ื‘: โ€œืฉึทืขึฒืจึธื™ึดืโ€ ื•ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œืชึถืœ ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืฉึทืจึดื™ึทืขโ€. โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืจืžื•ืŸโ€ ื”ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ื™ืขืชื™ืงื•ื”ื• โ€œืชืึทืœึฐื›ึทื”โ€ ื•ืœื“ื‘ืจืช ืื™ื™ื–ื‘ื™ื•ืก ื”ื™ื” โ€œื›ืคืจ ืชึถืœึฐืœึทื”โ€ 15 ืžื™ืœ ืžื ื’ื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ, ื•ื”ืจื™โ€œืฉ ืžืฉืขืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื โ€œืชืืœื›ื”โ€ ื”ื ื–', ื•ืืš ืœืžื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œื•ืื“ึดื™ ืึดืฉโ€“ืฉึทืจึฐื™ึทืขโ€ ื ืžืฆื โ€œืึปื ืึดืจโ€“ืจึปืžึทืืžึดื™ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืจืžื•ืŸโ€ ื•ืชืืœื›ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ื”ื•ื โ€œืชึถืœ ื›ึปื•ึตื™ืœึดื™ืคึทื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœื• ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ื•ื ืื•ืœื™ โ€œืขึทื™ึดืŸโ€ ื•ืจืง ืืœื™ื• ื›ื•ื ื• ื”ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืœื ืืœ โ€œืจืžื•ืŸโ€ ื•ื‘ืืžืช ื”ื™ื• ืฉื ื™ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช, ื›ืžโ€ืฉ ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”: โ€œื•ืขื™ืŸ ื•ืจืžื•ืŸโ€. โ€œืขึธืชึธืจโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืขึฒืชึธืšโ€ (ืฉ"ื ืœ, ืœื) ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™"ืฉ, ื•ื›ืชื‘ ืฉื™ืฉ ืขืžืง ืื—ื“ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ืžึทื“ึตืจึทื”โ€ ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืขึฒืชึตืื‘ึทื”โ€ ื•ื‘ืžืคืช ืคืืœืžืจ ืœื ืžืฆืืชื™ ื›ื–ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œื”ื ื’ื‘โ€, ืืš ื‘ืจืื•ืชื ื• ื›ื™ ื‘ืฉื™ื ื ืžื ืชื” ื™ื—ื“ื• ืขื ื”ืงื™ื ื™ ื•ื—ืจืžื”, ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืจืื™ื ื• ื›ื™ ื—ืจืžื” ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ โ€œืงื•ืจื ื‘โ€ ืฉืฉื ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืฉื‘ โ€œื”ืงื™ื ื™โ€, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ โ€œืขืชืšโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืขึถืชึธืจโ€ ื•ืžืฆืืชื™ ื‘ืžืคื” ื”ื”ื™ื ื”ืจ ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ืชืึทื•ืจโ€ ื•ืืฆืœื• ื™ืฉ ืขืžืง ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืึดื˜ึพืชืึทื•ืจโ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ื™ืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืงื•ืจื ื‘โ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื—ืœื•ืฆื”โ€ ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œืขืชืจโ€ ื‘ื”ืฉืžื˜ืช ื”ืข' ื•ืžืžื ื” ื ืขืฉื” โ€œืขืชืšโ€, ื•ืžืžื ื” ื ืขืฉื” โ€œืชื›ืŸโ€ (ื‘ื“ื”"ื ื“, ืœื‘). ื›ื” ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืฉื ื™ ื’ืœื’ื•ืœื™ื. โ€œืขืฉืŸโ€ ืœืคื™ ื”ื โ€œืœ ื ืืžืจ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื•ึนืจ ืขืฉืŸโ€ (ืฉ"ื ืฉื) ื•ืœืคื™ ืขื“ื•ืช ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ืืฆืœ ื—ืœื•ืฆื” ืขืžืง ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืืœโ€“ื›ึปืจึฐืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œื›ึนืจ ืขืฉืŸโ€, ืโ€ื› ื™ืฆื ืœื ื• ื›ื™ ื”ืงื™ื ื™ (ืงื•ืจื ื‘) ื•ื—ืจืžื” (ืกื•ืคื”, ืฆืคืช) ื•ื›ื•ึนืจ ืขืฉืŸ (ื•ืื“ื™ ืืœโ€“ื›ึปืจึฐืŸ) ื•ืขืชืš=ืขืชืจ (ื’โ€™ื‘ืœ, ืื• โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืื˜โ€“ืชืึทื•ืจโ€) ื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ืื—ืช, ื•ืคืืœืžืจ ืื•ืžืจ (ื‘ืกืคืจื• 297) ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืฆื ืขืžืง ื”ื ืงืจื โ€œื›ื•ืจืŸโ€ ืืฆืœ ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช โ€œื—ืœื•ืฆื”โ€; ืืš ืœื ืจืื™ื ื• ืื™ื ื• ืจืื™ื”, ื•ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืขื“ ืจืื™ื”, ื•ื”ื•ื ื˜ื•ืขืŸ โ€œื‘ืจื™โ€ ื•ื›ืœืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ื• ื›ื™ โ€œื‘ืจื™ ื•ืฉืžื ื‘ืจื™ ืขื“ื™ืฃโ€. โ€“ ื‘ื“ื”โ€œื (ืฉื) ืžื•ื ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืจื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืขื•ื“ ืืช โ€œืขื™ื˜ืโ€, ื•ืฆโ€ืข ื•ืžโ€œืฉ ืื“ื•ืชื” ื‘ืชื‘ื•ื”โ€ื (ืœื•ื ืฅ, ืงืžื—), ื‘ืคื ื™ื ื•ื‘ื”ืขืจื”, ื”ื•ื ืžืคื•ืงืคืง ื‘ืขื™ื ื™. ืœืคื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจ, ื”ื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ืžื ื’ื‘, ืžโ€œืชืœ ืžื“ื•ืจื”โ€ (ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™"ืฉ) ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืขื“ โ€œื›ึปื‘ึธืช ืืœโ€“ื‘ื•ื™ืœโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืœโ€œืึดืœโ€“ืžึดืœึฐื—ึฐโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ื ื˜ื” ืžืขืจื‘ื” ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ื•ืขืœื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืœโ€œืชืœ ืืฉโ€“ืฉืจื™ืขโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืœโ€œืึปื ืืจโ€“ืจึปืžึทืืžึดื™ืŸโ€ ื•ืœโ€œืชืœ ืึดืœโ€“ื›ึปื•ึตื™ืœึดื™ืคึทื”โ€ ื•ืžืฉื ื ื˜ื” ืžืขืจื‘ื” ืœโ€œื›ื•ื”ึตื™ืจโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ื“ืจื•ืžื” ืœโ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืกึปืžึฐืกึปืโ€ ื•ืœโ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืกื™ื ื™โ€ ื•ืœโ€œืžื™ื ื™ึทืึดื™โ€ (ืžื™ื ื•ื™ืก) ื•ืœโ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืืœโ€“ื›ืจืŸโ€. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 293 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ื•ืช ื’ื™ื•ื’' ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช" ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™, ื•ื ื‘ืืจ ืจืง ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืคืืช ืžื–ืจื— ื ื’ืข ื‘ื™ืจื“ืŸ, ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ืช ืงืฆื” ืžื–ืจื—โ€“ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื™ืขืฉื” ืฉื ืขืžื• ื–ื•ื™ืช ืฆืจื” ื•ืืจื•ื›ื”, ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืขืœื” โ€œืืœ ื›ืชืฃ ื™ืจื—ื• ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขืœื” ื‘ื”ืจ ื™ืžื” ื•ื”ื™ื” ืชื•ืฆืืชื™ื• ืžื“ื‘ืจื” ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืŸโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื—, ื™ื‘), ื•ืื ื ื‘ืงืฉ ืฉื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœืืžืจ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ืจื—ื• ืขืœ ืคื ื™ โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืกื•ืœืชึทืŸโ€ ื•ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช โ€œื˜ื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืกึปื›ึทืจโ€ ื•ื™ื‘ื ืืœ โ€œื“ื•ืšโ€ (ืžื‘ืฆืจ ื“ืš, ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื' ืกื•ืฃ ื˜ื–), ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืžื‘ื•ื โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ื ืึทื•ืึทืขื™ืžื”โ€, ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ืืœ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืึฒืกึทื ืึดืโ€“ืกื™ืงโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืŸโ€. ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื›ื—ืชื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ ื‘ืจืื™ื•ืช ืžืกืคื™ืงื•ืช ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื™ืช ืืœื™ืœ ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช โ€œืขื™โ€. ื•ื›ื”ื™ื•ื ื ืงืจื: โ€œื“ื™ืจ ื“ึปื‘ึทืืŸโ€, ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื—ื•ืง ืžืขึทื™ 20 ื“ืงื™ื (1 ืคืจืกื” ืื ื’') ื ื’ื‘ื”ึพืžื–ืจื—ื”, ื•ื‘ื ื˜ื™ื” ื›ื–ืืช ื”ื•ื ืจื—ื•ืง ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ืžื‘ื™ืช ืืœ, ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืืœโ€ ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืชึพืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช ืœืžืงื•ื ื–ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื, ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื—ื•ื ืืคืจื™ื,56 ืจืง ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืขืžื™ื“ ื™ืจื‘ืขื ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ ื”ืกื‘ื• ืœื” ื”ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื (ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“, ื˜ื•; ื”, ื—; ืขืžื•ืก ื”, ื”) ืืช ื”ืฉื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืŸโ€ ืข"ืฉ ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœื”. ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืื—ืจื™ ื‘ื ื”ื—ื•ื˜ โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจื” ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืŸโ€ ืขื‘ืจ ืžืฉื โ€œืœื•ื–ื” ืืœ ื›ืชืฃ ืœื•ื–ื” ื ื’ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื ื‘ื™ืช ืืœโ€, ื•ืขโ€œื“ ืœื•ื–, ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ ื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ, ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืงื•ืžื•, ื•ืขื™' ืจืžื‘โ€ืŸ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›ื—, ื™ื–) ื•ื‘ืชื‘ื•ื”โ€œื. ื•ืœืคื™ ืจื–โ€ืœ (ื–ื‘ื—ื™ื ืงื™ื—, ื‘) ื™ืฆืื” ืจืฆื•ืขื” ืžื—ืœืง ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื•ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืขื“ โ€œืฉื™ืœื”โ€ (ื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึธืชึฐ ืกื™ื™ืœื•ืŸ), ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื ืžืฉื›ื” ื”ืจืฆื•ืขื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืžื‘ื™ืช ืืœ ืœโ€ื˜ึทืึดื™ื‘ึถื”" ื•ืžืฉื ืœโ€œืชืœ ื—ืฆื•ืจโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืœืฉื™ืœื”. โ€œื•ื™ืจื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื˜ืจื•ืช ืื“ืจโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œืขึฒื˜ึทืจึทื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œืจืึทื ืึทืœึฐืœึทื”โ€ ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืงึทืœึฐื ึทื“ึดื™ืโ€ ื•ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œืจืึทืคืึทืชโ€ ื•ืœืžืขืจื‘ "ื›ืคืจ โ€œืขึทืงึทื‘โ€. โ€œื•ื”ื™ื” ืชื•ืฆืื•ืชื™ื•โ€ฆ ืืœ ืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ื ืขื™ืจ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€, ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืชื‘ืืจื”. ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช (ื”, ื, ื›ื) ื›ืชื‘, ืฉื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื ื˜ืœื• ื—ืœืงื ืžื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ื™ื, ื•ื”ื™ื ื˜ืขื•ืช ื’ืœื•ื™ื”, ื›ืžื‘ื•ืืจ. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 9 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช. ื“ืŸ. ื›ืฉื‘ื˜ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื›ืŸ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื“ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื’ื ื‘ื ื—ืœืชื• ืœื ื ืชื‘ืืจื• ืขืจื™ ืชื—ื•ืžื”, ืืš ื ื—ื–ื™ ืื ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™, ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืขืจื‘ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื, ื ืฉืืจ ืืคื•ื ืœื‘ืืจ ืจืง ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ื”ืžืฆืขืจ. ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช (ืฉื) ื›ื™ โ€œื‘ื—ืœืง ื“ืŸ ืขืœืชื” ื”ืฉืคืœื” ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื’ื‘ืœืช ืืฆืœ ืืฉื“ื•ื“ ื•ื“ื•ึนืจื™ืก ื•ื‘ื” ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ื™ึทืืžื ื™ึธื”, ื’ืช ืขืงืจื•ืŸ, ืขื“ ื”ื”ืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€. ื•ื›ื•ื•ื ืชื• ืžื‘ื•ืืจืช, ื›ื™ ืืฉื“ื•ื“ ื”ื™ื ืžื ื’ื‘ ืฉืคืœืช ื“ืŸ (ืœืืžื•ืจ, ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืฉื“ื•ื“. ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ืœื” ื‘ื™ื‘ื ืืœ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืฉื“ื•ื“) ื•ื“ื•ืจื™ืก ื”ื™ื ื‘ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ื™ืืžื ื™ื” (ื™ื‘ื ืืœ), ื’ืช ืขืงืจื•ืŸ, ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืŸ ื›ืœื” ื‘ื™ืคื• (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ืžื•), ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืžืืœื™ื•, ื›ื™ โ€œื“ื•ืจื™ืกโ€ ื–ืืช ื”ื•ื โ€œื“ืึทืจื™ืกื”ืึทโ€, ื”ืกืžื•ืš ืœื™ืคื• ืฆืคื•ื ื”.57 ืโ€œื› ื”ื•ืฆืื ื• ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ืœืกื™ื™ื ืืช ืชื—ื•ื ื ื—ืœืช ื“ืŸ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ืคื• ื“ืืจื™ืกื”ื (ืื• ืžื”ื™ืจืงื•ึนืŸ=ืึดืœ ืขื•ึนื’ึถโ€™ื”) ื•ืžืฉื ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืœโ€ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจืง" (โ€œืึดื‘ึฐืŸ ืึดื‘ึฐืจึทืงโ€) ื•ืžืฉื ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืœโ€œื™ื”ื•ื“โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื”) ื•ืžืฉื ื ื’ื‘ื”โ€“ืžื–ืจื—ื” ื“ืจืš ืื•ึนื ื•ึน, ืœึนื“, ื ึฐื‘ึถืœึทื˜ (ื‘ึดื™ืจ ื ึธื‘ึทืœึทื”), ื—ื“ื™ื“, ื’ืžื–ื•ึน ืขื“ ืฉืขืœื‘ื™ืŸ (ืกึธืœึฐื‘ึดื™ื˜) ื•ืžืฉื ืœืึทื™ืœื•ึนืŸ, ืฆืจืขื”, ืืฉืชืื•ืœ, ื•ืžืฉื ืžืขืจื‘ื” ืœืขื™ืŸ ืฉืžืฉ, ืชืžื ื”, ื’ืช ืจืžื•ืŸ, (ืงืืชืจื•ึนืŸ), ืขืงืจื•ืŸ, ื•ืžืขืงืจื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื™ื‘ื ืืœ, ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื ื–ื›ืจื•ืช ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื“ืŸ, ืขโ€œืฉ ื•ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื™ืžื™ื. ื•ืžืžโ€ืฉ ืืฆืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ โ€œืขื˜ืจืช ืื“ืจโ€ โ€œื•ืชืืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื•ื ืกื‘ ืœืคืืช ื™ื ื ื’ื‘ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื”ืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ืจื•ึนืŸ ื ื’ื‘ื” ื•ื”ื™ื” ืชืฆืื•ืชื™ื• ืืœ ืงืจื™ืช ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื™ื ืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ืโ€, ื•ื›ื™ ื ืžืฉื•ืš ืงื• ืžื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ื ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œืœื“ ื•ืื•ื ื• ื•ื ื‘ืœื˜ ื•ื—ื“ื™ื“โ€ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื—ืœื•ืงืช ื”ืืจืฅ, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ. ื•ืื—ื–"ืœ: โ€œื”ื“ื ื‘ืขืœืช ื–ืžื ื™ืŸ ืžื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื–ืžื ื™ืŸ ืžื“ืŸ, ืืœืชืงื” ื•ื’ื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืขืœืช โ€“ ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ืžื“ืŸ (ื›ื’ื™' ื”ืค"ืž), ื‘ืขืœื” ื•ืขื™ื™ื ื•ืขืฆื ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ืžื™ื”ื•ื“ื” (ื›ื’ื™' ื”ืค"ืž), ื•ื”ืจื™ ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืฉืงื™ื“ืฉื• ืืช ื”ืฉื ื” ื‘ื‘ืขืœื”?โ€“ืžื™ืžืจ, ื‘ืชื™ื ืžื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉื“ื•ืช ืžื“ืŸโ€ (ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื‘)58. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 10 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช. ืืคืจื™ื. ืจืื•ื™ ืœืฉื•ื ืœื‘ ืืœ ืžื” ืฉื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื“ืŸ ืžื•ื ื” ืขืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ื™ื• ื’ื ื‘ืคื ื™ื ื ื—ืœืชืŸ ืžืœืžื“ ืขืจื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื, ื•ืืฆืœ ืฉืืจ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืžื•ื ื” ืจืง ืืช ืขืจื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ (ืžืœื‘ื“ ื–ืขื™ืจ ืฉื, ื“ื•ืง ื•ืชืžืฆื), ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืžื’ืœื” ืคโ€œื ื—โ€ื) ื”ืงืฉื• ืขืœ ืžื” ืฉืืžืจ ืจโ€œื™ ืฉืžื’ื‘ืช ื•ืขื“ ืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืก ื™ืฉืจ ืก' ืจื‘ื•ื ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช, ื•ื”ืงืฉื•: โ€œื›ืœ ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืžื ื” ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืืคื™' ืžืื” ืื™ื ืŸ, ืจืฉื‘โ€ืœ ืืžืจโ€ฆ ืจ' ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘โ€ื— ืืžืจ ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืกืคืจ ืžื ื”โ€œ, ื•ื‘ืื•ืจ ื”ืžืืžืจ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื›ืŸ, ื›ื™ โ€œื’ื‘ืชโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื’ึปื‘ึทืชึทืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œืฆืคื•ืจื™โ€ ื•ืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืก ื”ื™ื โ€œื›ืคืจ ืกื‘ืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ืคื•, ื•ื‘ื—ืœืง ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ืœืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืจ ืืคืจื™ื ื•ืขืžืง ื™ื–ืจืขืืœ ื”ื™ื•, ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจ' ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืกโ€ื“ ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช, ื•ืขโ€œื– ื”ืงืฉื•: ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื ืžื ื• ื‘ื—ืœืง ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื‘ืก' ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื™ื ืŸ ืขื•ืœื•ืช ืืคื™' ืœืžืื”; ื•ื”ืจื™ ืœืš ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ืŸ: ืœืืคืจื™ื โ€“ 13 (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื–); ืœืžื ืฉื” โ€“ ื‘ืขืจืš 6 (ืฉื ื™ื–); ืœื–ื‘ื•ืœืŸ โ€“ 12 (ืฉื ื™ื˜, ื˜ื•); ืœื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ โ€“ 16ึพ ืกื”โ€ื› 47 ืขืจื™ื. ื•ืขโ€œื– ืชืจืฅ ืจืฉื‘โ€ืœ ื›ื™ ืžื•ืงืคื•ืช ื—ื•ืžื” ืžื ื”, ื•ืจื™ื‘โ€œื— ืชื™ืจืฅ ื›ื™ ืืช ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืกืคืจ ืžื ื”, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืขืœื” ืขืœ ื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงืฉืŸ ืœื›ืœื•ืœ ื‘ืงื•ืฉื™ืชื• ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื›ื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ื™ืฉ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžืืชื™ื ืขืจื™ื, ื”ื™ื™ื ื•: ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ โ€“ 98 (ืฉื ื˜ื•); ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸโ€“26 (ืฉื ื™ื—); ืืฉืจโ€“22 (ืฉื); ื ืคืชืœื™ โ€“ 19 (ืฉื); ื“ืŸ โ€“ 18 (ืฉื)โ€“ ืกื”โ€ื› ืขื ื”ืงื“ื•ืžื•ืช, 230 ืขืจื™ื ื‘ืขืจืš. ื•ืœืžื”ืœืš ื—ืงื™ืจื•ืชื ื• ืžืฆืืชื™ ืœื ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืื—ื•ื– ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื™ื‘"ื—, ื›ื™ ืฉื™ื˜ืชื• ืชื•ืจื” ืœื ื• ื“ืจืš ื‘ืžืฆื™ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื, ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื ืจืื” ื”ืœืื” ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ืŸ (ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื›ื™ ืจืฉื‘โ€œืœ ื•ืจื™ื‘โ€ื— ืœื ื ืคืœื’ื• ื‘ืžืื•ืžื”, ืจืง ืžืจ ืืžืจ ื—ื“ื ื•ืžืจ ืืžืจ ื—ื“ื). (ื•ืจืื” ื‘ื‘ืื•ืจ ื”ื’ืจโ€œื ื–โ€ืœ ืœื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื—, ื›ื—, ื•ืชืฉื‘โ€œืฅ ื—โ€ื’ ืกื™' ืงืฆ"ื—). ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื’ื‘ ืืคืจื™ื ื”ื™ื”, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ื•ืžืฉื: โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจื›ื™ ืขื˜ืจื•ืชโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื˜ื–, ื‘), ืคื™' ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ื’ื™ืข ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืœื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืŸ ืขื‘ืจ ืžืฉื ืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ โ€œื”ืึทืจื›ื™โ€ ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื•ืจึฐื›ึทื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œืึดืœ ื‘ึดื™ืจึถื”โ€ ื•ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œืึดืœ ืงึปื“ื™ึตืจึทื”โ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืขื‘ืจ ืœโ€œืขื˜ืจื•ืชโ€ (ื•ื›ืŸ ืชืจื’ื ื‘ืŸโ€“ืžื ื—ื) ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืขื˜ืจื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืžืขืจื‘ ืืœโ€“ื‘ื™ืจื”" ืžืฉื โ€œื•ื™ืจื“ ื™ืžื” ืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืคืœื˜ื™โ€ ื•ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ โ€œื”ื™ืคืœื˜ื™โ€ ืชื›ื•ื ืชื• ื”ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืขื˜ืจื•ืชโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ึนืจืŸ ืชื—ืชื•ืŸโ€ ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œืจึทืคึทืชึฐโ€ "ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ืจื•ึนืŸ ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื’ื–ืจ". โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจืŸโ€ ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืขื•ืจโ€, ื•ื’ื–ืจ? ื›ืžื” ืงืฉื” ืœืึทืžืช ืื•ืช ื”ื“ืขื” ื›ื™ ื’ื–ืจ ื”ื™ื ืฉืจื™ื“ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืืฉืจ ืžืฆื โ€œื’ืึทื ื•ึนโ€ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื ื›ื”ื™ื•ื โ€œืชึถืœ ื’ึถื–ึถโ€™ืจโ€ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืขึทืžึฐื•ึทืืกโ€ (ืืžืื•ืกโ€“ื‘ืชืœืžื•ื“, ื ื™ืงื•ึนืคื•ึนืœื™ืก) ื›ื™ ื”ืœื ื”ืชืœ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืœืžืขืจื‘ ืฉึทืขึฒืœึทื‘ึดื™ืŸ ื•ืึทื™ืœื•ึนืŸ, ื’ืžื–ื• ื•ื—ื“ื™ื“โ€“ืขืจื™ ื“ืŸ! ื•ืื™ืš ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื™ื—ื“ื•ืจ ืชื—ื•ื ืืคืจื™ื ืขื“ ืœื‘ ื ื—ืœืช ื“ืŸ, ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื’ื ืžื‘ืœืขื“ื™ ื–ื” ื›ื›ืฃ ืื™ืฉ? ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ื›ื™ โ€œืชืœ ื’โ€™ื–ืจโ€ ืื™ื ื ื• โ€œื’ื–ืจโ€ ืฉืœ ืืคืจื™ื, ื•ืฉืœ ืืคืจื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื›ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืงึดื‘ึฐืฆึทื™ึดืโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ื, ื›ื‘). ืžื ื”ื™ ื•ื”ืœืื” ืžื’ื‘ื™ืœ ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชื—ื•ื ืืคืจื™ื ื”ืขืงืจื™, ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ืœืงื• ืืฉืจ ืœืงื— ื‘ืชื•ืš ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื ืฉื”, ื•ืืžืจ: โ€œื•ื™ื”ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื—ืœืชื ืžื–ืจื—ื”โ€, ืคื™' ื›ื™ ืืจืฅ ืืคืจื™ื, ื”ืžืฉืชืจืขืช ืœืืจื›ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื, ื ื—ืœืงื” ืœืฉืชื™ื, ื•ืขืชื” ืžื‘ืืจ ืืช ื”ื—ืœืง ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืžืžื ื”, ื•ื”ื•ื: โ€œืขื˜ืจื•ืช ืื“ืจ ืขื“ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ึนืจื•ึนืŸ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸโ€, ื•ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™โ€œืฉ ื™ื”ื™' โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸโ€ ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œื—ืึทื•ืึทืจื”โ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืง ยฝ3 ืฉืขื” ืžื ื’ื‘ ืฉื›ื ื•ืœืžื–ืจื— ื›ืคืจ โ€œื—ืืจื™ืกโ€ ื›ืฉืขื” ื•ื—ืฆื™, ืื‘ืœ ืื ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืฆืืชื™ ืฉื ืืช โ€œื—ืึทื•ืึทืจื”โ€ ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืื ืืช โ€œื›ื•ืจึทื‘ึทื”โ€ ื•ืจืื™ืชื™ ืžืกืคืจ ื”ื™ืฉืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื—ื•ื– ื”ืจ ื’ืขืฉ, ื•ื”ืจ ื’ืขืฉ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื โ€œืชืžื ืช ื—ืจืกโ€ื•ื—ืจืก ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื โ€œื—ืืจื™ืกโ€; ื•ื›ืœ ื–ื” ื”ื˜ื•ืจื— ืœื—ื ื ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื–โ€ืœ (ื‘โ€œื‘ ืงื›โ€ื‘, ื‘; ืคืจื“ืจโ€œื ืคโ€ื–) ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œื—ืจืกโ€ ืื• โ€œืกืจื—โ€ ืื™ื ื ื• ืฉื ืขืฆืžื™, ืœื›ืŸ ื“ืจืฉื• ื‘ื• ืžื” ืฉื“ืจืฉื•, ื•ืจืง โ€œืชืžื ืชโ€ ื”ื•ื ืฉืžื” ื”ืขืฆืžื™, ื•ื‘ืืžืช ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื’ื‘ืขืช ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸโ€ ืžืงื•ื ืฉืฉืžื• โ€œืชึดื‘ึฐื ึธื”โ€, ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืชืžื ื”โ€, ื•ื”ื•ื ืงืจื•ื‘ ื’ื ืœื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืขื•ืจ ืคื•ึนืงื”โ€ ื•ื ืžืฆืื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืกืคืจ ื”ื™ืฉืจ ืงื™ื™ืžื™ื. โ€œื•ื™ืฆื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืžื” ื”ืžื›ืžืชืชโ€, ื•ื”ืœืื” (ื™ื–, ื–) ื›ืชื™ื‘: โ€œ**ื”ืžื›ืžืชืช ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืฉื›ืโ€,** ื•ืžืœืฉื•ืŸ โ€œืขืœ ืคื ื™โ€ ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื™ื ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืฉื›ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื”ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ โ€œืžึทื›ึฐื ึธื”โ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืจื•ืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื”ืœืœ ืžืื•ื“ ื”ืžืฉืชืจืข ื‘ืืจืš ยฝ1 ืฉืขื” ื‘ื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžื–ืจื— ืฉื›ื, ื•ื”ืขื™ืจ ืฉื›ื ื”ื™ื ื‘ืขืžืง ืื—ื“ ื”ืžืกืชืขืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื”.59 ื•ื ืจืื” ืœืคื™ ื”ืชื›ื•ื ื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื”ื™ื, ื›ื™ ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™, ืขื‘ืจ ืžืŸ โ€œืขึฒื˜ืจึทื”โ€ (ืขื˜ืจื•ืช ืื“ืจ), ื•ื™ืฆื ืžืขืจื‘ื” ืœโ€œื‘ื™ืช ืจื™ืžืึทโ€ (ืจืžืชื™ื ืฆื•ืคื™ื), ื•ืžืฉื ืœโ€œืœึปื‘ึทืืŸโ€ (ืœื‘ื•ื ื”) ื•ืžืฉื ืœื”ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ โ€œืืœ ืžื›ื ื”โ€ (ื”ืžื›ืžืชืช) ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื• ืžื“ืจื•ื ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื”ืขืžืง ื”ืฆืจ, ืืฉืจ ืœื™ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื”, ื”ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื“ืจืš โ€œื›ืคืจ ืกึทืœึถืโ€ (ืฉึธืœึตื) ื•ืžืฉืชืคืš ืืœ โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืคึทืจึทืขโ€ ื•ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืœื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžื–ืจื— ื“ืจืš โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื“ึธื’โ€™ืŸโ€, ื•ืžืฉื: โ€œื•ื ืกื‘ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืชืื ืช ืฉืœื”โ€ ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œืชึทืื ึธื”โ€ (Thenac) ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื”, ืœื“ื‘ืจืช ืื™ื™ื–ื‘ื™ื•ืก, 10 ืžื™ืœ ืœืžื–ืจื— ืฉื›ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ60 ื•ืžืฉื: โ€œื•ืขื‘ืจ ืื•ืชื• ืžืžื–ืจื— ื™ื ื—ื”โ€, ื›ื”ื™ื•ื: ื’โ€™ืึทื ื•ืŸโ€œ, ื•ืœื“ื‘ืจืช ืื™ื™ื–ื‘ื™ื•ืก, ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื”ื™ื 12 ืžื™ืœ ืœืžื–ืจื— ืฉื›ื. ื•ืžืฉื ืœโ€ื ืขืจืชื”" ื•ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืื™ื™ื–ื‘ื™ื•ืก ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื”ื™ื 5 ืžื™ืœ ืžื™ืจื—ื•, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื ืขืจืŸโ€ (ื“ื”"ื ื–, ื›ื—) ื•ื‘ื—ื–"ืœ โ€œื ืขื•ืจืŸโ€ (ืกื•ื˜ื” ืžื•, ื‘; ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”, ื) ื•ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื™ืจื—ื• (ื•ื™ืงโ€œื“ ืคื›โ€ื’; ืื™ื›โ€œืจ ืคโ€ื; ืฉื”ืฉโ€œืจ ืคโ€ื‘). ื•ืžืฉื ืœื™ืจื—ื• ื•ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ. ื•ื”ืขืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœืงื— ืืคืจื™ื ืžื ื—ืœืช ืžื ืฉื” ื”ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืืฉืจ ืžืฉื›ื ืขื“ โ€œื ื—ืœ ืงื ื”โ€ (ื ื”ืจ ืื™ืกื›ื ื“ืจื•ื ื”, ืื• ื ื”ืจ ืึดืœโ€“ืึทื›ึฐื“ึทืจ) ื”ืžืฉืชืคืš ื”ื™ืžื” ืžื ื’ื‘ โ€œืงื™ืกืจื™ืŸโ€ ื•ืืจืฅ โ€œืชืคื•ื—โ€ ื”ื™ื, ื›ื ืจืื” ืžื–ื”, ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื›ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื ื—ืœ ืงื ื” ื•ืœื โ€œื”ืžื—ื•ื– ืืฉืจ ืœืžื–ืจื—โ€“ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืฉื›ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸโ€ ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืจื™"ืฉ. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 50 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช. ืžื ืฉื”. ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ืœืืžืจ, ืœื“ืจื•ื ื”ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ื ืžืชื— ืžืฉื›ื ืขื“ โ€œื ื—ืœ ืงื ื”โ€, ื›ืœ ื”ืขืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืžืฉื ืขื“ โ€œืžื™ ื”ื™ืจืงื•ืŸโ€ (ืึดืœ ืขื•ึนื’ึถโ€™ื”) ื”ืœื ื ื˜ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืืคืจื™ื, ื ืฉืืจ ืืคื•ื ืœื‘ื ื™ ืžื ืฉื” ืœื ื—ื•ืœ ืจืง ืžื ื—ืœ ืงื ื” ืฆืคื•ื ื”. ืžืฆืจื™ ื ื—ืœืชื• ืœื ื ืกืžื ื• ืจืง ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœื™ โ€œื•ื™ื”ื™ ื”ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื•ื‘ืืฉืจ ื™ืคื’ืขื•ืŸ ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ืžืžื–ืจื—โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื–, ื™), ืœื›ืŸ ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืงืฆื•ืจ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ื”ื ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื ืฉื”. ื ื—ืœืช ืืฉืจ ื‘ืงึธืฆึถื”ึธ ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ืคื’ืขื” โ€œื‘ื›ืจืžืœ ื”ื™ืžื” ื•ื‘ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจ ืœึดื‘ึฐื ึฐืชโ€ (ืฉื ื™ื˜, ื›ื•) ื•ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจ ืœื‘ื ืช ื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ื ึทืขึฒืžึทืŸโ€ (ื‘ึถืœื•ืก)ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื™ืคื” ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื›ื•, ื•ืœืคโ€œื– ื›ืœื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื ืฉื” ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ื’ื ื”ื•ื ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื–ื•, ื•ืขืชื” ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื–ื” ื ื’ื‘ื”โ€“ืžื–ืจื—ื”, ืฉื ื›ืœื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืฉืจ ื‘โ€ื’ื™ ื™ืคืชื— ืืœ" ืฉื”ื•ื ืœืคื™ ื”ืกื›ืžืช ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื โ€œื’โ€™ื•ึผืคืึทืชโ€ (ื™ื•ื“ืคืช Jotapata) (ืฉื ืฉื, ื›ื–), ื•ืžืฉื ื”ื—ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœืŸ, ื•ื™ืจื“ ืžืฉื ื”ื ื’ื‘ื” ืืœ โ€œืจึถืžึทืื ึถื”โ€ (ืจืžื•ืŸ ื”ืžืชื•ืืจ) ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืœื—ืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื ืฆืคื•ืจื™ ื•ืžืฉื ืœืฉืžืจื•ืŸ (Simmonias) ื•ืžืฉื ืœื™ืงื ืขื (Commona) ื•ื”ื•ื ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ืจ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ ื‘ืงืฆื” ื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžื–ืจื—, ื•ืžืฉื ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื ื’ื‘ื” ืœโ€œืคึทืืจึดื™ึถื”โ€ (ื—ึฒืคึธืจึทื™ึดื) ืฉื”ื™ื ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ (ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืœืžื–ืจื— ืžื ืฉื”) ื•ืžืฉื ื ืžืชื— ืืช ื”ื—ื•ื˜ ื‘ืืœื›ืกื•ืŸ ื™ืฉืจ ื“ืจื•ืžื”โ€“ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืขื“ โ€œื”ึธืจึทื‘ึดื™ืชโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ โ€œื”ืจ ื”ื’ืœื‘ื•ืขโ€ ื“ืจื•ืžื”. ืืœื” ื”ื ืžืฆืจื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ื ืฉืขืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ื™ื“ ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ืžืงื“ื. ืžืœื‘ื“ ื ื—ืœืชื• ื”ืขืงืจื™ืช ื”ื–ืืช, ืœืงื— ืขื•ื“ ืขืจื™ื ืžื ื—ืœืช ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ื•ื”ืŸ: ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸ, ื™ื‘ืœืขื ื“ืืจ, ืขื™ืŸ ื“ื•ืจ, ืชืขื ืš, ืžื’ื“ื• (ื•ืชืชื‘ืืจื ื” ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ืื™"ื”), ื•ื’ื ืืช ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œืืฉืจโ€ (ื”ืืฉื•ืจื™, ื‘ืฉืž"ื‘ ื‘, ื˜) ื•ื”ื•ื, ืœื“ืขืช ื”ื™ืจื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก, ื’ืœื™ืœ ืฉื ืงืจื ื‘ืฉื ื–ื”. ื”ืžืฉืชืจืข ืžโ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืžึทืœึดื™ื›ึฐโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื”ื’ืœื‘ื•ืข ืขื“ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืคึทืจึทืขโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืฉื›ื (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื–, ื–, ื™ื) ื•ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื• ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื”ื ื” ื‘ื™ืขืจ, ื‘ื”ืจ โ€œื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ืคืจื–ื™ ื•ื”ืจืคืื™ืโ€ (ืฉื ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืคืจืฉื”, ื•ืขื™' ืจืฉ"ื™ ืฉื ื˜ื–), ื•ื‘ื“ื—ื–"ืœ: โ€œื•ื™ื–ืจืขืืœ ื”ื™ื” ืœืžื ืฉื”โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘โ€œืจ ืคื™โ€ื“ ืกื™ ื). ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 24 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช. ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ. ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ื•: โ€œื—ืคืจื™ืโ€, ื”ื™ื, ืœื“ืขืช ืื™ื™ื–ื‘ื™ื•ืก ื•ื”ื™ืจื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก โ€œืึทืคืจืึทืžืึทโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืžื’ื“ื•โ€ ื›ืฉืชื™ ืฉืขื•ืช, ืื• ืœื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžื–ืจื— ื”ื›ืจืžืœ; โ€œืžื’ื“ื•โ€ ื”ื•ื ื ื”ืจ โ€œืœื’ื™ื•ึนืŸโ€; โ€œืงื“ืฉโ€ ืฉืœ ืœโ€œื ืžืœื›ื™ื; โ€œื”ืจื“ืจื™ืžื•ืŸโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืจื•ืžืึทื ื”โ€ (Maximianopolis), ื›โ€ื” ืœื“ืขืช ื”ื™ืจื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก, ืื•ืชื” ื”ื ื–ื›ืจืช ื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ืžื’ื“ื•ืŸ (ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื™ื‘, ื™ื)61 โ€œืชืขื ืšโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืชึทืขึฐื ื™ื›ึฐโ€; โ€œืขื™ืŸ ื’ื ื™ืโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื’ึถโ€™ื ึดื™ืŸโ€ (Ginaea); โ€œื™ื‘ืœืขืโ€ ื•ื‘ื“ื”โ€œื (ื•, ื ื”) ื ืงืจืืช: โ€œื‘ึดืœึฐืขึธืโ€ ื•ื‘ืกืคืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ืช (ื•, ื’) ื ืงืจืืช โ€œื‘ึถืœึฐืžึธื”โ€, ื•ื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืืช ื›ื”ื™ื•ื: โ€œื‘ึถืœึทืžึธื”โ€; โ€œื”ึธืจึทื‘ึดื™ืชโ€ ื”ื™ื ืจึทื‘ึถื” ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื‘ึถื“ึถืงโ€ (ื‘ึถื–ึถืง) ื•ื”ื™ื ืงืฆื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ืžืคืืช ื ื’ื‘, ืžืฉื ืขื‘ืจ ืฆืคื•ื ื”โ€“ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืœื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืืช โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸโ€ (ื‘ื™ืกืึทืŸ, Scitopolis) ื•ื›ืœื” ื‘ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืืฆืœ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืฉโ€, ืฉื”ื™ื ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™โ€ืฉ โ€œื›ึปื›ึทื‘ ืึดืœ ื—ึทื•ึทืโ€ ืžืฉื ื™ืฆื ืžื–ืจื—ื”โ€“ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื“ืจืš โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ื‘ึดื™ืจึถื”โ€ ืขื“ ื”ืจ โ€œืชื‘ื•ืจโ€ (ื’ึถโ€™ื‘ึถืœ ื˜ื•ืจ Itabyrion) ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื”ึทื“ึธื‘ึฐืจึทืชโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œื“ึถื‘ื•ืจึดื™ึถื”โ€, ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื›ึฐืกึปืœื•ึนืชโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืึดื›ึฐืกึทืœโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื™ืคื™ืขโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œื™ืึทืคืึทโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื™ืงื ืขืโ€. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื–ื” ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 22 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช. ื–ื‘ื•ืœืŸ. ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืขืจื™ื• ืœื ืคื•ืจืฉื•, ืืš ืืคืฉืจ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื• ื›ืŸ: ื›ื™ ืžื™ืงื ืขื ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืืœ โ€œื›ืกืœืช ืชื‘ื•ืจโ€, ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื”ื“ื‘ืจืชโ€, ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื™ืคื™ืขโ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื’ืช ื—ืคืจโ€ (Diocaesarea), ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืจึทื‘ื•ื“ึดื™ึธื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ โ€œื˜ื‘ืจื™ืโ€62 (ื•ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื” ื ื’ืข ื’ื ื‘ื™ื ื›ื ืจืช ื‘ืžืงืฆืช) ื•ืžืฉื ืฆืคื•ื ื” โ€œืืœ ืจืžื•ืŸโ€, ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ โ€œื’ื™ ื™ืคืชื— ืืœโ€ (ื’โ€™ื•ืคืึทืช), ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื™ ื™ืฆืื” ืจืฆื•ืขื” ืžื—ืœืงื• ื•ื ื›ื ืกื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื ื—ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืื” ืขื“ ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ ืืฆืœ ืขื›ื•, ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืืžื—ื–โ€œืœ: โ€œื–ื‘ื•ืœืŸ ืขื•ืœื” ืชื—ื•ื ืขื›ื• ืขื•ืœื” ืขืžื•โ€ (ื‘"ื‘ ืงื›ื‘) ื•ืขื•ื“ ืืžืจื•: โ€œืืžืจ ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื‘โ€ื”: ืจื‘ืฉโ€ืข! ืœืื—ื™ื™ ื ืชืช ืœื”ื ืฉื“ื•ืช ื•ื›ืจืžื™ื, ื•ืœื™ ื ืชืช ื”ืจื™ื ื•ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช; ืœืื—ื™ื™ ื ืชืช ืœื”ื ืืจืฆื•ืช ื•ืœื™ ื ืชืช ื™ืžื™ื ื•ื ื”ืจื•ืช โ€“ ืืžืจ ืœื•: ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืŸ ืœืš ืขโ€œื™ ื—ืœื–ื•ืŸ, ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขืžื™ื ื”ืจ ื™ืงืจืื• ื•ืฉืคื•ื ื™ ื˜ืžื•ื ื™ ื—ื•ืœ. ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ, ืฉืคื•ื ื™ โ€“ ื–ื” ื—ืœื–ื•ืŸ, ื˜ืžื•ื ื™ โ€“ ื–ื• ื˜ืจื™ืช, ื—ื•ืœ โ€“ ื–ื• ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ืœื‘ื ื”โ€ (ืžื’ืœื” ื•, ื), ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื–โ€œืœ ื™ื‘ื•ืืจื• ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื ื”ืจ โ€œื‘ึธืœื•ืกโ€ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœืŸ,63 ื•ื”ื•ื ืžื”ื•ืœืœ ืžืื“ ืขโ€ื™ ื”ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืืฉืจ ืชืขืฉื” ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื•ืœ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืชื•, ื•ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ื ื™ื ืžื›ืจื• ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืœ ื”ื”ื•ื ืœื‘ืชื™ ื—ืจื•ืฉืช ื”ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ืืฉืจ ื‘ื’ึตื™ื ื•ึนื‘ืึท ื•ื‘ื™ึธื ึถื“ึดื™ื’ (ืจืื” ืคืœืกืชื™ื ื ืฉืœ ืง' ืค' ืจื•ืžืจ ืฆื“ 49 ื•ื‘ื”ืขืจื” 92 ืฉื).64 ื•ืขโ€œื“ ื”ื—ืœื–ื•ืŸ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื, ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ืืจื™ืš ื”ืจื‘ ื”ื—ื›ื ืจ' ืžืฉื” ืœืึทื ื“ื• ื‘ื”ืขืจืชื• ืœืก' ื”ืขืจื•ืš, ืขืจืš โ€œื—ืœื–ื•ืŸโ€. ื•ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ืŸ, ื™โ€™ืœ ื›ื™ ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ืขืœื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ืœื™ืžื” ื•ึทืจึฐืขึฒืœึธื” ื•ืคื’ืข ื‘ื“ื‘ืฉืชโ€ ืžื•ืกื‘ ืขืœ ื”ืจืฆื•ืขื” ื”ื–ืืช, ื•ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื”ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืขืœ ื”ืจืฆื•ืขื” ื”ื–ืืช65, ื•ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื ื’ืข ื’ื ื‘ื™ื ื›ื ืจืช, ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ืž"ืฉ: ื–ื‘ื•ืœืŸ ืœื—ื•ืฃ ื™ืžื™ื โ€“ (ื›ื ืจืช ื•ื™ื ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ)โ€“ื™ืฉื›ื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ื•ืโ€“ (ืฉื•ื›ืŸ ืืฆืœ ื™ื ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ)โ€“ ืœื—ื•ืฃ ืื ื™ื•ืชโ€“ (ืขื›ื•), ื•ื™ืจื›ืชื• โ€“ (ืงืฆื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ื•ื) โ€“ ืขืœ ืฆื™ื“ืŸ, ืœืืžืจ, ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื›ืœื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™, ื‘ืขื›ื• (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืžื˜, ื™ื’) (ื•ืขื™' ื‘ื‘"ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืคืกื•ืง ื”ื–ื”). ื•ื›ืŸ ื“ืขืช ื”ื–ื”ืจ (ื—โ€œื ื“ืฃ ืžื˜; ืงืžื˜; ื—โ€ื’ ืงื•; ืงืขื”), ื•ื›ืŸ ืžืฉืžืข ืžืœ' ื”ื’ืž' ืฉื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืœืžืขืœื” โ€œื•ืœื™ ื ืชืช ื™ืžื™ืโ€. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 12 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช. ื ืคืชืœื™. ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช (ื”, ื, ื›ื): ื‘ื’ื•ืจืœ ื ืคืชืœื™ ืขืœื” ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ืžืฉืชืจืข ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืขื“ ืขื™ืจ ื“ืžืฉืง ื•ื’ื ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ืจ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ื”ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื•ืžืฉืชืคื›ื™ื ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืขื™ืจ โ€œืึทืจึฐืงึถื”โ€ (ืจืงื, ืงึธื“ึตืฉ)โ€œ, ื•ืœืคื™โ€ื– ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœืืžืจ, ื›ื™ โ€œื—ืœืฃโ€ ืฉื”ื™ื ืจืืฉ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ืคืชืœื™ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ืœื’) ื”ื™ื ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช ื“ืžืฉืง, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ื—ืึทื ืึทืคื™ืก โ€œื•ืื™ืœื•ืŸ ื‘ืฆืขื ื ื™ืโ€ (ืฉื) ื”ื•ื ืกืžื•ืš ืœโ€ืงื“ืฉ" (ืงืึทื“ึถืก, ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œื‘ึทื—ึทืจ ืึดืœโ€“ื—ื•ืœึถื”โ€ ืขืœ ืžืจื•ื ื”ื”ืจื™ื), ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œืื™ืœื•ืŸ ื‘ืฆืขื ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืืช ืงื“ืฉโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื“, ื™ื) ื•ืชโ€ื™: โ€œืžืฉืจ ืื’ื ื™ืโ€66, ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืžื’ืœื” (ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื), ื•ืโ€œื› ื™ื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ื” ืืœ ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ ืืฉืจ ืžืŸ โ€œืึธื‘ึตืœ ื“ืŸโ€ ืขื“ โ€œื‘ื—ืœ ืืœโ€“ื—ื•ืœื”โ€, ื•ื›ืŸ ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ โ€œืขื™ื•ืŸโ€ (ืžึถืจึฐื’ึฐโ€™ืขึทื™ื•ืŸ) ื•ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืžืขื›ื” ืื• ืื‘ืœ ืžื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžืืจืฅ ื ืคืชืœื™ ื‘ึฐืงึธืฆึถื”ึธ (ืžืœโ€œื‘ ื˜ื•, ื›ื˜; ื“ื”โ€ื‘ ื˜ื–, ื“) ื•ืžืฉื ื™ืฆื ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ื ื’ื‘ื” ืœื™ื ื›ื ืจืช ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืืช ื”ืขืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืชื• ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช, ื•ื”ืŸ: ื”ึทืฆึดื“ึดื™ื (ื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฆื™ื™ื“ืŸโ€ ื•ื‘ืคื™ ื”ื ื•ืฆืจื™ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฆโ€™ื™ื™ื“ืโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืึดืœึพื˜ึทื‘ึฐื—ึถื”โ€, ื•ืœืคื™ ื”ื™ืจื•ืฉืžื™ (ืฉื) ื”ื•ื ื›ืคืจ โ€œื—ื˜ื™ื™ื”โ€ (ื—ึทื˜ึดื™ืŸ) ืืฉืจ ืœืžืขืจื‘โ€“ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ืขืจืš 2 ืฉืขื•ืช); ืฆึตืจ (ืœืคื™ ื”ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื ื”ื™ื ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื—ื˜ื™ืŸ); ื—ืžืช (ืึดืœ ื—ึธืžึธื”); ืจืงืช (ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื); ื›ื ืจืช (ื’ื ื•ืกืจ), ื•ืžืฉื ืœโ€ืึฒื“ึธืžึดื™" (ื“ึทืืžึถื”, ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืื“ื ื”ืขื™ืจ ืืฉืจ ืžืฆื“ ืฆืจืชืŸโ€, ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื’, ื˜ื–) ื•ืžืฉื ืœโ€œื”ึทื ึถืงึถื‘โ€ (ืฆื™ื™ื“ืชื, ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื, ื•ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™"ืฉ ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึธืช ืึดืœ ืึทืฆึฐโ€™ื“ึทื”ึดื™โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื—ึทืื˜ึฐืœโ€ ื‘ืืจืš ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช. ื•ืื ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืฆืืชื™ื”) ื•ืœโ€œื™ื‘ื ืืœ (ื”ื™ื ื™ึธืžึธื”) ืขื“ โ€œืœืงื•ื (ื‘ื™ืจ ืœื™ืงึดื™ึถื”? ื‘ืขื™ืจ ืžื•ืœื“ืชื™ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืžืขืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื”ื•ื, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืžืฆืืชื™ื•), ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืขื“ โ€œื›ึปื›ึทื‘ึฐ ืึดืœ ื”ืึทื•ื”โ€ (ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืฉ, ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ,) ืžืฉื ืขื‘ืจ ืžืขืจื‘ื”โ€“ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืœโ€ืื–ื ื•ืช ืชื‘ื•ืจโ€ (ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื”ืจ ืชื‘ื•ืจ) ื•โ€œืœื”ึปืงึนืงึธื”โ€ (ื™ืึทืงื•ืง, 4 ืฉืขื” ืœืžื–ืจื—โ€“ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืจ ืชื‘ื•ืจ) ื•ืžืฉื ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืœื—ืฆื•ืจ, ืจืžื”, ื™ืจืื•ึนืŸ, ื‘ื™ืช ืขื ืช, (ืขึทื™ึฐื ึดื™ื˜ึทื”) ื‘ื™ืช ืจื—ื•ื‘ (ื”ื•ื ึดื™ืŸ) ืขื“ โ€œืึถื‘ืœโ€ (ืึทื‘ื™ืœ, ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œื“ืŸโ€), โ€œื•ืคื’ืข ื‘ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ ืžื ื’ื‘ ื•ื‘ืึธืฉืจ ืžื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืžื–ืจื— ื”ืฉืžืฉโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ืœื–) ื›ื™ ื ื˜ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ืืช ื—ืœืง ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืืฉืจ ืžโ€œื›ึปื›ึทื‘ ืึดืœโ€“ื—ึทื•ึทื”โ€ ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขื“ โ€œื™ืจื—ื•โ€ ืžื ื’ื‘, ืงืฆื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื—ืœืช ืืคืจื™ื, ื‘ื–ื” ืœื ื™ืคื•ืŸ ื›ืœ ืื™ืฉ, ื›ื™ ืื ืœื ื”ื•ื ืœืงื—ื•, ืื™ื–ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืœืงื—ื•? ืื•ืœื ืœื“ืขืช ื”ื’ืจโ€œื ื–โ€ืœ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืžื‘ืืจื™ื ื”ื™ื” ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืขืฆืžื• ืฉื™ื™ืš ื›ืœื• ืœื ืคืชืœื™, ื•ืงืฆื” ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ืœื ื ื’ืข ื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื•ื”ืจื™"ืฉโ€“ื‘ืžื—ืœื” ืžื›ื‘ื•ื“ื•โ€“ืœื ื“ึดื‘ึถืจ ื ื›ื•ื ื” ื‘ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื–ื”. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• (ืžืœื‘ื“ ื—ืœืงื• ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ) ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 48 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช. ืืฉืจ. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื•ืคื’ืข ื‘ื›ืจืžืœ ื”ื™ืžื” ื•ื‘ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจ ืœื‘ื ืชโ€, ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืืžืจืชื™ ื›ื™ ื™ืฆืื” ืจืฆื•ืขื” ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœืŸ ื•ื ื›ื ืกื” ืœืชื•ืš ืชื—ื•ื โ€œืืฉืจโ€ ื•ื‘ืื” ืขื“ ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ, ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืžืงืจื ื”ื–ื” ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ืจืฆื•ืขื” ื”ื–ืืช ื”ืชื›ื ืกื” ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื•ืึทื“ึดื™ ื ึทืขึฒืžึทืŸโ€ (ืœึดื‘ึฐื ึธืช ื‘ึถืœื•ืก) ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ ื”ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื, ืœืืžืจ, ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื›ื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื™ืคื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืืœืฅ ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืœื”ื•ื“ื™ืขื ื• ืืช ื”ืคื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืืœื”, ื›ื™ ืื—ืจื™ ืฉื ืงืจืขื” ืžืงืฆืช ืžื ื—ืœืช ืืฉืจ ืขโ€ื™ ื”ืจืฆื•ืขื” ื”ื–ืืช, ื ืฉืืจื” ืžืงืฆืชื” ืืฆืœ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ ืžื–ื”, ืžื ื’ื‘, ื•ืฉืืจ ื ื—ืœืช ืืฉืจ ื”ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื™ื—ื•ืจ ืœื‘ื ืช ื•ื ืžืฉื›ื” ืขื“ ืงืฆื” ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ. ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ ื™ืฆื ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ืžื–ืจื—ื”โ€“ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืืœ โ€œืึทืœึทืžึถืœึถืšโ€ (ื•ืื“ึดื™ ืึดืœโ€“ืžึทืœึดื™ื›ึฐ); ืขึทืžึฐืขึธื“ (ืึดืœโ€“ืžึถืขึทืื“; ื’ื™ ื™ืคืชื— ืืœ (ื’โ€™ื•ืคึทืืชึฐ); ื›ื‘ื•ืœ; ืขื‘ืจื™ืŸ (ื›ึดื™ืจื•ืึท); ื—ืœืงืช (ื™ึดืจึฐืงึทื”) ื—ึฒืœึดื™, ืื• ืึทื—ึฐืœึธื‘ (ื’ื•ืฉ ื—ืœื‘ Ciscala ืึดืœ ื’ึดโ€™ื™ืฉ); ื‘ึถื˜ึถืŸ (ืชึดื™ื‘ึฐื ึดื™ืŸ); ืื›ืฉืฃ (ื›ึฐืกึทืฃ) ืขื“ ืงื ื” (ืงืึทื ื) ืืฉืจ ืœืžื–ืจื—โ€“ื“ืจื•ื โ€œืฆื•ืจโ€ ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื•ืึทื“ึดื™ ืึถื–ึฐื–ึดื™ึถืโ€. ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ื” ื›ืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ืžืฆื•ืจ ื•ืขื“ ื—ื™ืคื”. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 22 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช. ืžืขืชื” ื ืฉื™ืช ืคื ื™ื ื• ืืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™, ืืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ, ื’ื“, ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืžื ืฉื”. ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ. ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘. ืœืืžืจ, ื›ืœ ืืจืš ื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ, ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื“ื‘ืจื ื• ืžื–ื”, ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื ื–ื–ืจื—ื™, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื’ื ืืจืฅ ืžื“ื™ืŸ, ื•ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ื–ื• ื ืžื ื•: โ€œื‘ืžื•ืช ื‘ืขืœ (ื’ึถโ€™ื‘ึถืœ ืฉึดื™ื—ึทืŸ), ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืŸ (ื“ึดื™ื‘ึทืืŸ), ืขึทืจื•ึนืขึตืจ (ืขึทืจึทืขึดื™ืจ) ืžื™ืคืขืช (ืึปื ืจืึทืกืึทืก), ืžืชื ื”, ืงื“ืžื•ืช, ื‘ืขืœ ืžืขื•ืŸ (ืžึทืขึดื™ืŸ), ืžื™ื“ื‘ื, ื ื‘ื•, ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ (ื—ึทืกึฐื‘ึทืืŸ), ืืœืขืœื” (ืึถืœึฐืขึทืืœ) ืขื“ ื™ึทืขึฐื–ึตืจ (ื–ึทืขึทืจ) ืฉื”ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจืฅ ื’ื“. ืžืŸ ื™ืขื–ืจ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ืœืงืจื™ืชื™ื, ืฉื›ืžื”, ืฆืจืช ื”ืฉื—ืจ (Tyrus), ื‘ื™ืช ืคืขื•ืจ,67 ืืฉื“ื•ืช ื”ืคืกื’ื”, ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ืฉื™ืžื•ืช. ืืœื” ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ืŸ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื ื—ืœืช ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ, ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ื” ื™ื ื”ืžืœื—, ื•ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ื™ื”ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื’, ื›ื’), ืคื™' ืฉื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืงืฆื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ื‘ืคืืช ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€“ืžืขืจื‘. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 38 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช. ื’ื“. โ€œื•ื™ื”ื™ ืœื”ื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ืขื–ืจโ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื›ื”) โ€“ ื›ืืžื•ืจ, ื”ื™ื โ€œื–ึทืขึทืจโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืžื–ืจื—โ€“ื“ืจื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ึดื™ ื–ื™ืจโ€ ื•ื‘ืขืจืš 3 ืฉืขื•ืช ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œืจื‘ืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸโ€ (ืขึทืžึทืŸ Philadelphia), โ€œื•ื›ืœ ืขืจื™ ื”ื’ืœืขื“โ€ ื”ืŸ ืขืจื™ ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œืื ืกึทืœึฐืชึฐโ€, โ€œื•ื—ืฆื™ ืืจืฅ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸโ€โ€“ ื”ื™ื ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ื›ื‘ืฉ ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ืžืืช ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ, ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ืฉืชืจืขื” โ€œืขื“ ืขืจื•ืขืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื”โ€. ืขื“ ื”ื ื” ื”ื–ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ืžื—ืฆืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื”ืคื•ื ื” ืงื“ืžื”, ื•ืžืขืชื” ืžื–ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ืžื—ืฆื™ืชื” ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช: โ€œื•ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸโ€ โ€“ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ึดื™ ื—ึทืกื›ึทืืŸโ€ ื”ื™ื•ืจื“ ื”ืขืจื‘ืชื”, ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ, ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ื ื”ืžืœื—, ืืฆืœ โ€œืื‘ืœ ื”ืฉื˜ื™ืโ€, โ€œืขื“ ืจืžืช ื”ืžืฆืคื”โ€ โ€“ ื”ื•ื โ€œื’ึถโ€™ื‘ึถืœ ืขึถืฉึทืโ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืง ื‘ืขืจืš ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืื ืกืœืชโ€, โ€œื™ื‘ึฐื˜ื ึดื™ืโ€ โ€“ ื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ึทื˜ึฐื ึถื”โ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” 2 ืฉืขื” ื‘ืขืจืš ืœื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžืขืจื‘ โ€œืขื ืกืœืชโ€ โ€œื™ืžืžื—ื ื™ืโ€ ื‘ืžืฆื™ืืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ื–ืืช ืจึธื‘ื• ื”ื”ืฉืขืจื•ืช (ืจืื” ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช ืœื“ื™โ€œื™ ืฉืœ ื’ืจืฅ ื—โ€ื) ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืขื›"ืค ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืžืฆืคื” ื’ืœืขื“โ€ (ื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ืขืฉื) ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื‘ืง, ืืฆืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืงืจื โ€œืคื ื•ืืœโ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืœื,ืœื‘) ืฉื”ื™ื” ืืฆืœ โ€œืกื›ื•ึนืชโ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ืœื’; ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื—), โ€œืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืœึดื“ึฐื‘ึดืจโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืฉื, ื›ื•) โ€“ ื”ื™ื โ€œืœื ื“ึฐื‘ึธืจโ€ (ืฉืž"ื‘ ื˜, ื“; ื”; ื™ื– ื›ื–), "ื•ื‘ืขืžืง, ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืจื ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ โ€œืื‘ืœ ื”ืฉื˜ื™ืโ€ โ€œื•ื‘ื™ืช ื ืžืจื”โ€ โ€“ ื”ื™ื โ€œืชึถืœ ื ึดืžึฐืจึดื™ืŸโ€ ื‘ืžื‘ื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ึดื™ ืฉึทืขึดื™ื‘ึฐโ€ โ€œื™ืกื›ื•ืชโ€ โ€“ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืžื‘ื•ื ื ื—ืœ ื™ื‘ืง (ื•ืึทื“ึดื™ ื–ึถืจึฐื›ึทื”) ื”ืขืจื‘ืชื”, โ€œื•ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€ โ€“ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื˜ ื”โ€ื‘) ืืžืจื•: โ€œืฆืคื•ืŸโ€“ืขืžืชื™โ€, ื•ื”ื™ื ื›ื”ื™ื•ื: โ€œืึทืžึถืชึถื”โ€, โ€œืขื“ ืงืฆื” ื™ื ื›ื ืจืช ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืžื–ืจื—ื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืฉื, ื›ื–), ื•ืœืคื™ ื–ื” ื ืชืŸ ืœื• ื›ืœ ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืžืœื‘ื“ ื—ืœืงื• ื‘ื”ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœืคื ื™ื ืžื ื—ืœ ื™ื‘ืง. ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœืชื• (ืขื ื›ืœ ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™) ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 26 ืคืจ' ืืฉ' ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช. ื—ืฆื™ ืžื˜ื” ืžื ืฉื”. ืจืง ืœืื—ื“ ืžื‘ื ื™ ืžื ืฉื”, ืœืžื›ื™ืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืจื•, ื ืชื ื” ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ืžื“ืช ืืจื›ื” ืขื•ืœื” ื›ื—ืฆื™ ืืจืš ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช, ืœืืžืจ ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื‘ืง ืขื“ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ. ื‘ื”: ืืจืฅ ื’ืœืขื“ (Galaditis) ื‘ืฉืŸ (Batanaea)68, ื’ื•ึนืœืŸ (Gaulonitis) ื—ื•ืจืŸ (Auranitis), ืืจื’ื•ื‘ (ื˜ืจื›ื•ื ื Trachonitis.) ื‘ื”ืจื™ โ€œื—ื•ืจืŸโ€ ื”ื™ืชื” โ€œืงื ืชโ€ ื•ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื” ืืฉืจ ืœื‘ื“ โ€œื ื•ึนื‘ื—โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืœื‘, ืžื), ื•ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ื’ืœืขื“ ื”ื™ื• โ€œื—ื•ืช ื™ืื™ืจโ€ (ืฉื ืฉื ืžื‘; ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื™, ื“), ืืš ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื‘ื˜ืœื• ื”ืชื—ื•ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ (ืจืื” ื“ื”ื™"ื ื, ื”). ืžื“ืช ืฉื˜ื— ืืจืฅ ืžื›ื™ืจ ื•ื ื‘ื— ื•ื™ืื™ืจ ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืขืจืš 195 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ื•ืช ื’ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื•ืช, ืžืจื‘ืขื•ืช. ื ืžืฆื ืฉื ื—ืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœืœืŸ 490 ืคืจโ€œืž, ื•ืืจืฅ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ื’ื“ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืžื˜ื” ืžื ืฉื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืžื—ื–ืงืช 259 ืคืจโ€ืž โ€“ ืกื”โ€œื›: 749 ืคืจโ€ืž, (15167 ืคืจ' ืื ื’ืœื™ื•ืช) ื•ื‘ืค' ืคื™ื ื—ืก ืขื•ืœื” ืžืกืคืจ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื, ืขื ืžื˜ื” ืœื•ื™ 624,730, ื›ืœ ืืœื” ื‘ื ื™ ืขืฉืจื™ื ืฉื ื”, ื•ืื ื ื—ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ 6 ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืœืคื—ื•ืช, ืขื ื”ื ืฉื™ื (ืจืื” ืช"ื™ ืฉืžื•ืช ื™ื’, ื™ื—) ื™ืขืœื” ืžืกืคืจื 4,373,110 ืฉื”ื 5838 ื ืคืฉ ืœื›ืœ ืคืจืกื” ืžืจื‘ืขืช. ื•ืœื• ื ืชื—ืœืงื” ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ืขืจืš ื–ื” ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ื—ืœื•ืงื” ืžืขื•ืจืจืช ื›ืœ ืคืœื, ืืš ื”ืœื ืื ื—ื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ื›ื™ ืœื ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื”, ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื•: ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื• 98,700 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืืจืฆื ื”ื™ืชื” 293 ืคโ€œืž; ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ โ€“ 45,600 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืืจืฆื 9 ืคโ€ืž; ื“ืŸ โ€“ 64400 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 10 ืคโ€œืž; ืืคืจื™ื, โ€“ 32,500 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 50 ืคโ€ืž; ืžื ืฉื” โ€“ 52,700 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 24 ืคโ€œืž ืœืžืขืจื‘ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ, ื•ืขื ืืจืฅ ืžื›ื™ืจ ื•ื™ืื™ืจ โ€“ 219 ืคโ€ืž; ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ โ€“ 64,300 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 22 ืคโ€œืž; ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ โ€“ 60,500 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 12 ืคโ€ืž; ื ืคืชืœื™, โ€“ 45,400 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 48 ืคโ€œืž; ืืฉืจ โ€“ 53,400 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 22 ืคโ€ืž, ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ โ€“ 43,730 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 38 ืคโ€œืž; ื’ื“ โ€“ 40,500 ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืืจืฆื โ€“ 26 ืคโ€ืž, ื•ืžื™ ื”ืื™ืฉ ืืฉืจ ืขื™ื ื™ื ืœื• ืœืจืื•ืช ื•ืœื ื™ืจืื” ืืช ื”ืคืœื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื–ื”, ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ื— ื ื—ืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืžืชืื™ื ืœืขืจืš ืžืกืคืจ ื ืคืฉื•ืชื™ื”ื, ื”ืœื ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œืœืจื‘ ืชืจื‘ื” ื ื—ืœืชื• ื•ืœืžืขื˜ ืชืžืขื™ื˜ ื ื—ืœืชื•โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื•, ื ื“),! ื•ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื™ืคืœื, ื›ื™ ืืคืจื™ื ื•ืžื ืฉื”, ืฉืžื“ืช ืืจืฆื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ื—ื“ 74 ืคโ€œืž, ื”ืชืœื•ื ื ื• ื‘ืื–ื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ื™ ืžืขื˜ื” ื”ื™ื ืœื”ื, ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื“ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ื•ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ ื•ืึธืฉืจ, ืืฉืจ ืžืกืคืจ ื ืคืฉื•ืชื ื”ื™ื• ืคื™ ืฉืœืฉื” ืžืžืกืคืจ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื,ืœื ื”ืชืœื•ื ื ื• ืžืื•ืžื”. ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื ื—ืœื•ืชื™ื”ื ื”ื—ื–ื™ืงื• ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ืจืง 75 ืคโ€ืž. ื•ืขืœ ื–ืืช ืขืžื“ื• ื›ื‘ืจ ื—ื–โ€œืœ ื•ืืžืจื•: โ€œืฉืœื ื ืชื—ืœืงื” ื”ืืจืฅ ืืœื ืœื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืฉื‘ื˜ ืœืคื™ ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ืื™ (ืกืคืจื ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื•, ื ื“), ื•ืขื•ื“ ืืžืจื• (ื‘"ื‘ ืงื›ื‘, ื): โ€œืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื•, ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืื™ืคืœื•ึนื’ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืœืงืจืงืฃ ื’ื‘ืจื™ ืื™ืคืœื•ื’? ืชโ€ืฉ, ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ ืœืžืขื˜ (ืคื™' ืจืฉื‘"ื ืฉื ืชื—ืœืงื” ืœื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื‘ืฉื•ื” ื•ืœื ื—ืœืงื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืžืจื‘ื” ื‘ืื•ื›ืœืกื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืžื•ืขื˜ ื‘ืื•ื›ืœืกื™ืŸ) ื•ืขื•ื“ ืชื ื™ืโ€ฆ ืฉื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืœื ื ืชื—ืœืงื” ืืœื ืœื™โ€ื‘ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื, ื•ืœื ื ืชื—ืœืงื” ืืœื ื‘ื›ืกืฃโ€ฆ ืืจโ€ื™ ืกืื” ื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉื•ื” ื—ืžืฉ ืกืื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ, ื•ืœื ื ืชื—ืœืงื” ืืœื ื‘ื’ื•ืจืœโ€ฆ ื•ืœื ื ืชื—ืœืงื” ืืœื ื‘ืื•โ€œืชโ€ฆ ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“? ืืœืขื–ืจ ืžืœื•ื‘ืฉ ืื•โ€ืช ื•ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ืงืœืคื™ ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื•ืงืœืคื™ ืฉืœ ืชื—ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื—ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ื”ื™ื” ืžื›ื•ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ื”โ€œืง ื•ืื•ืžืจ: ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ ืขื•ืœื” ืชื—ื•ื ืขื›ื• ืขื•ืœื” ืขืžื•โ€ฆ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืœืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืื™ืคืœื•ื’, ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”โ€ ื•ืขืœ ืชืœื•ื ืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจื• ืฉื: โ€œื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžโ€ื“ ืœื™ื•ืฆืื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงื ืฆื•ื•ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃโ€ฆ ืืœื ืœืžโ€œื“ ืœื‘ืื™ ื”ืืจืฅ. ืžืื™ ืงื ืฆื•ื•ื—ื•? ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืฉืงื•ืœ! ืžืฉื•ื ื˜ืคืœื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื• ื ืคื•ืฉื™ ืœื”ื•โ€ (ื“ืฃ ืงื™"ื— ื) ืขื™' ืจืฉื‘โ€œื. ื•ืœื‘ืœื™ ื”ืœืื•ืช ืืช ื”ืงื•ืจื ื‘ื”ืขืชืงืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื–โ€ืœ ืืฉืจ ืคืœืคืœื• ื‘ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืงืฆืจื”: ื›ื™ ืฉื˜ืช ืจืฉโ€œื™ (ื‘ืค' ื•ื™ื—ื™, ื•ื‘ืค' ืคื ื—ืก) ื•ื”ืจืื‘โ€ื“ (ื‘ืฉื™ื˜ื” ืžืงื•ื‘ืฆืช ื‘โ€œื› ืงื™โ€ื–) ื•ื”ื›ืคืชื•ืจ ื•ืคืจื— (ืคืจืง ื™') ื•ื”ืจโ€œื™ ืื‘ืจื‘ื ืืœ (ื‘ืค' ืคื ื—ืก ื•ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื“) ื•ื”ืจื‘ ื—ื–ืงื•ื ื™ (ืคื ื—ืก) ื•ื”ืจืœื‘โ€ื’ (ืฉื) ืฉื•ื” (ืžืœื‘ื“ ืฉื ื•ื™ื™ื ืงืœื™ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื), ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื•ืจืœ ืœื ื”ื•ื“ื™ืข ืจืง ืืช ื”ืžื—ื•ื– ืฉื™ื ื—ืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืฉื‘ื˜ ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ื•ื‘ืจืื•ืช ืจืืฉื™ ื”ืขื ื›ื™ ืžืขื˜ ื”ื•ื ื”ืžื—ื•ื– ื”ื–ื” ืœืขืžืช ืžืกืคืจ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ืกื™ืคื• ืœื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžื—ื•ื– ื”ื”ื•ื, ื•ื›ืŸ ืœื”ื™ืคืš, ื•ืฉื˜ืช ื”ืจืžื‘โ€œืŸ (ื‘ืค' ื•ื™ื—ื™ ื•ื‘ืค' ืคื ื—ืก) ื”ื™ื, ื›ื™ ืžืชื—ืœื” ื—ืœืงื• ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืœื™โ€ื‘ ื—ืœืงื™ื ืฉื•ื™ื. ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ื—ืœืงื• ืืช ื—ืœืง ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืฉื‘ื˜ ืœื ืคืฉื•ืชื™ื•, ื•ื”ืื™ืฉ ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืžืฉื‘ื˜ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืฉื™ื’, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื—ืœืง ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื•ืขื˜ ืžืŸ ื”ืื™ืฉ ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืžืฉื‘ื˜ ืงื˜ืŸ, ื•ืœื–ื” ื ื•ื˜ื™ื ื’ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืจืฉื‘โ€œื ืฉื”ื‘ืืชื™, ื•ืœืจโ€ืข ืกืคื•ืจื ื• ื™ืฉ ืฉื˜ื” ืื—ืจืช, ืข"ืฉ, ื•ืœื”ืฉื˜ื” ื”ื' ืงืฉื” ืžื” ืฉื”ืงืฉื™ืชื™ ืืฆืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ, ื›ื™ ืืฃ ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€œื˜ืคืœื™ ื”ื•ื• ื ืคื™ืฉื™ ืœื”ื•โ€, ืœืืžืจ, ื›ื™ ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืกืคื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ืฉื‘ืขืช ื›ื ื™ืกืชืŸ ืœืืจืฅ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื ื™ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืขืช ื”ื—ืœื•ืงื”, ืœืืžืจ, ืฉื‘ืข ืฉื ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ, ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืœืขืฉืจื™ื, ืœื ื™ืฆื•ื™ื™ืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ืฉืžืกืคืจ ื”ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื• ืœื‘ื“ื ืขืœื” ืœื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืคื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืžืžืกืคืจ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ื”ื ืขืฆืžื ืขื“ ื›ื™ ืขื ื”ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ืขืœื” ืžืกืคืจื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžืกืคืจ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ื“ืŸ, ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ, ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ ื•ืึธืฉืจ, ืืฉืจ ื’ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ื›ืืœื” ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื”. ืžืœื‘ื“ ืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืชืžื•ื” ืขืœ ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื•ืงื•ื˜ืŸ ื”ื ื—ืœื•ืช ืขืฆืžืŸ ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ืžืชืื™ืžื•ืช ืœืขืจืš ืžืกืคืจ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืฉื‘ื˜; ื•ืœื™ ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื›ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ื‘ืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืžื—ื•ึนื–ื•ืช ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืืจืฅ, ื•ื”ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื”ื™ื• ืฉื•ื™ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื‘ื›ืžื•ืชื ืื• ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืชื, ื•ื”ื’ื•ืจืœ ื—ืœืง ืœื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืฉื‘ื˜ ืžื—ื•ื– ืžื™ื•ื—ื“, ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื—ืœืง ืืช ืงืจืงืขื•ืชื™ื• ืœืคื™ ืžื›ืกืช ื ืคืฉื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ ืœืžืขื˜, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื”ืชืœื•ื ื ื• ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื ื•ืกืคื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืจื’ื™ืœ ืืฆืœ ืฉืืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื, ืขื“ ื›ื™ ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืงื” ืœื”ื ืืจืฅ ืื—ื•ื–ืชื, ืื‘ืœ ืื—โ€œื› ื”ืœืš ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ื™ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืืช ื”ืขืžื™ื ืืฉืจ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช ืžื—ื•ื–ื•, ื•ืขืœ ื–ื” ืœื ื”ืคื™ืœื• ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืจืœ, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืฆื•ื™ื™ืจ ื›ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ื—ื–ืง ื›ื‘ืฉ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื™ืกืคื—ื ืืœ ื ื—ืœืชื• ื”ืขืงืจื™ืช ืืฉืจ ื ืคืœื” ืœื• ื‘ื’ื•ืจืœ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”', ื•ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ื—ืœืฉ ื ืฉืืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ื ื—ืœืชื• ื”ืขืงืจื™ืช ื•ืœื ื™ืฆื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืžื ื”. ื•ื™ืฉื ื ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื’ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ื ื”ืื•ื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ ื•ื™ืงื— ืžื”ื ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื›ื‘ืฉื• ืžืžื ื•, ื•ืžืขืชื” ื™ืฆื•ื™ื™ืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื” ืฉื™ืฉื ื ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื”ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื›โ€ื– ื ื—ืœืชื ื”ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื” ืžืื“, ื•ืœื”ื™ืคืš, ื™ืฉื ื ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืฉืžืกืคืจ ืื•ื›ืœืกื™ื”ื ืžืžื•ืฆืข ื•ื ื—ืœืชื ื”ื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ืจื—ื‘ื”, ื›ื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ื—ื•ื–ืง ืื• ื‘ื—ื•ืœืฉืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ื”ื, ืื• ื”ืขืžื™ื ืืฉืจ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืชื™ื”ื, ื›ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื, ื•ืžืขืชื” ืืคืฉืจ ืœื ื• ืœืงื™ื™ื ืืช ืฉื˜ืช ื”ืจืžื‘โ€œืŸ ื•ื”ืจืฉื‘โ€ื. ืกืงื™ืจื” ื›ืœืœื™ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืื‘ื•ืช ื™ืฆื, ื‘ืคืืช ื ื’ื‘: ืžืŸ ื™ืโ€“ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ (ืขึทืงึทื‘ึทื”, ืื™ืœืช ื•ืขืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื’ื‘ืจ) ืขื“ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื™ื ื”ืžืœื— ื”ืคื•ื ื” ื ื’ื‘ื”, ืœืืžืจ, ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืฉื•, ื•ื‘ืคืืช ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื ืฉืืจื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ืžืฉืง, ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ืฆื•ืจ ืžื ื’ื‘ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื ื”ืจ ืคืจืช ื•ื”ืจืจื™ ื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ, ืœืืžืจ, ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ืืจื ื•ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื. ื’ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืขืฆืžื ื”ื™ื• ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืœื ื ื›ื‘ืฉื•, ื•ื‘ื™ื—ื•ื“ ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ื: ืžื ืฉื”, ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ, ืืฉืจ ื•ื ืคืชืœื™ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื), ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืื” ื›ืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ืืจืฆื ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ื‘ืฉื: โ€œื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื’ื•ื™ืโ€ (ื™ืฉืขื™ื” ื—, ื›ื’) ืื• โ€œืืจืฅ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœโ€ (ืž"ื ื˜, ื™ื) ืื• โ€œื”ื’ืœื™ืœื”โ€ ืกืชื (ืžืœ"ื‘ ื˜ื•, ื›ื˜) ืœืืžืจ, ื›ื™ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ืื—ื“ื™ื ืžืฉื ื ืฉืืจื• ืขื•ื“ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื; ื‘ื ื™ ื“ืŸ ื ืœื—ืฆื• ื”ื”ืจื” ื›ื™ ืœื ื ืชื ื” ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ืœืจื“ืช ืืœ ื”ืขืžืง, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื• ืœืœืฉื ื“ืŸ; ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืกื™ ื ืฉืืจ ืขืœ ื›ื ื• ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืขื“ ืžืœื•ืš ื“ื•ื“; ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื ื ืฉืืจื• ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืชื™ื”ื ื•ืœื ืžืฉื• ืžืžืงื•ืžื; ืฉื‘ื˜ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืœื ื™ื“ืขื ื• ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ืœื•, ื›ื™ ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืจื ื•, ื”ืชื›ื ืก ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื (ืขื™' ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ), ื•ื‘ืืžืช ืื™ื ื• ืชื•ืคืก ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื”ืชื•ืœื“ื” ืขื“ ืžืœื•ืš ื“ื•ื“, ืฉืื– ื‘ืื• ืืœื™ื• 7100 ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ื ืžืฉื‘ื˜ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ (ื“ื”"ื ื™ื‘, ื›ื‘), ื•ื™ืฉ ืœืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืืœ ืžืฉโ€œื›: โ€œืืœื” ืขืจื™ื”ื ืขื“ ืžืœื•ืš ื“ื•ื™ื“โ€ (ืฉื ื“, ืœื), ื•ืœื™ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื”ืฆืจื• ืœื”ื ืขื“ ื›ื™ ื ืืœืฆื• ืœืขื–ื•ื‘ ืืช ืžืงื•ืžื•ืชื™ื”ื, ื•ืžืงืฆืชื ื ื•ืฉื‘ื• โ€œื‘ืžื‘ื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืจ ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ื’ื™ืโ€, ื•ืงืฆืชื โ€œื”ืœื›ื• ืœื”ืจ ืฉืขื™ืจโ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ืœื˜; ืžื‘) ื•ืžืงืฆืชื ื ื•ืฉื‘ื• ืื•ืœื™ ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ืžืื•ื—ืจื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื ื—ืœืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื˜ื•, ื˜; ืœื“, ื•) ื•ื ืชืงื™ื™ื ื‘ื”ื: โ€œืื—ืœืงื ื‘ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืืคื™ืฆื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœโ€ ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื ืฉืืจื• ืžืงืฆืชื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืขืจื™ ืื—ื•ื–ืชื ื•ื™ื›ืจืชื• ื‘ืจื™ืช ืฉืœื•ื ืขื ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื. ื•ืงืฆืช ืจืื™ื” ืœื–ื” ืžืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืœืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื›ืืชืžื•ืœ ืฉืœืฉื•ื ืืฉืจ ืขืœื• ืขืžื ื‘ืžื—ื ื” ืกื‘ื™ื‘โ€ (ืฉืž"ื ื™ื“, ื›ื) ( ื•ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ื›ืชื‘ ืจืฉโ€œื™ (ื“ื”"ื ื“, ืœื) ื‘ืฉื ืจ' ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘โ€ืจ ืžืฉื•ืœื ื•ืจ' ืฉืœืžื” ื‘ืจ ืœื•ื™ ืื—ื™ ืจ' ืžืฉื” ื”ื“ืจืฉืŸ ื›ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื’ืจืฉ ืื•ืชื ืขืค"ื™ ื“ืจื™ืฉืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉื”ืชืจืขืžื• ืขืœื™ื”ื); ื’ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื’ืขื“ ื•ืืฆืœ ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ืขืžื™ื ื–ืจื™ื: โ€œืื™ืฉ ื˜ื•ื‘โ€ (ื”ื™ื โ€œืืจืฅ ื˜ื•ื‘โ€ ืื• ื˜ึทื™ึฐื‘ึดื™ึถื”" Tabae ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืœืขืžืช โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸโ€) ื•ืžืขื›ื” (ืฉ"ื‘ ื™, ื•) ื•ื”ืขื ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ โ€œืœึทื™ึดืฉโ€ (ืชึถืœ ืึดืœโ€“ืงึทืื“ึดื™) ืืฉืจ ื‘ืื• ื”ื“ื ื™ื ื•ื™ื’ืจืฉื•ื”ื•. ื•ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืžืฉื” ื”ืฉืชืจืข ืžื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ืชื—ืช ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื, ื›ื“ โ€“ ื›ื”; ืœื”; ืœื‘, ืœื˜โ€“ืžื‘; ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื‘), ื•ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข โ€“ โ€œืžืŸ ื”ื”ืจ ื”ื—ืœืง ื”ืขืœื” ืฉืขื™ืจ ื•ืขื“ ืคืขืœ ื’ื“ ื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืชื—ืช ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸโ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื, ื™ื–; ื™ื‘) ื•ื‘ื›"ื– ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื“ืจื•ื ื”ื™ื• ืชืžื™ื“ ืจืง โ€œืžื“ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืขโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื›, ื; ืฉืžโ€œื ื’, ื›; ืฉืžโ€ื‘ ื’, ื™; ื™ื–, ื™ื; ื›ื“, ื”โ€“ื–; ื˜ื•; ืžืœโ€œื ื”, ื”; ื“ื”โ€ื‘ ืœ, ื”), ื•ืจืง ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืฉืœืžื” ื•ื™ืจื‘ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืืฉ ืžืฆืื ื• ืืช ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื—ืžืชโ€ ื•ืืช ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ื“ืจื•ื โ€œื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ืโ€ ืื• โ€œื™ื ื”ืขืจื‘ื”โ€ (ืžืœโ€œื ื”, ืกื”; ืžืœโ€ื‘ ื™ื“, ื›ื”; ื“ื”โ€œื ื™ื’, ื”; ื“ื”โ€ื‘ ื“, ื—; ื, ื˜ื•; ืขืžื•ืก ื•, ื“). ื”ื™ื•ึน ื”ื™ื• ืชืงื•ืคื•ึนืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ืขืžื ื• ืขื“ ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืืฉืจ ื”ืื™ืจื” ืœื ื• ื”ื”ืฆืœื—ื” ืืช ืคื ื™ื” ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืืจืฆื ื• ืจื—ื‘ื• ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื•ื ื’ื‘ื” ื•ืงื“ืžื”; ื“ื•ื“ ื ืœื—ื ื‘ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ื‘ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื“ื•ื ื•ื‘ืžืœื›ื™ ืฆื•ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ื‘ืขืžืœืง ื•ื‘ืืจื ื“ืžืฉืง, ื•ื‘ืื—ื“ื™ื ืžื”ื ืฉื ื ืฆื™ื‘ื™ื (ืฉโ€œื‘ ื” ื™, ื”; ื“ื”โ€ื ื™ื’, ื™ื—; ื—); ื‘ื ื™ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ื’ื“ ืขืฉื• ืžืœื—ืžื” ืขื ื”ื”ื’ืจื™ืื™ื ื•ื™ื˜ื•ืจ ื•ื ืคื™ืฉ ื•ื ื•ื“ื‘ ื•ื™ื ืฆื—ื•ื ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื• ืชื—ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ื’ึนืœื” (ืขื“ ืฉื”ื’ืœื• ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ) ื•ื‘ื ื™ ื—ืฆื™ ืžื ืฉื” ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืืจืฅ ืžื‘ืฉืŸ ืขื“ ื‘ืขืœ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ืจ ื•ื”ืจ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ (ื“ื”"ื ื”, ื™ื˜ ื›ื’)69; ืฉืœืžื”, ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื ื ืœื—ื ืžืื•ืžื”, ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€œื”ื•ื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืื™ืฉ ืžื ื•ื—ื” ื•ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ืชื™ ืœื• ืžื›ืœ ืื™ื‘ื™ื• ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืฉืœืžื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืฉืžื•โ€ (ื“ื”"ื ื›ื‘ ื˜), ื•ื‘ื›โ€ื– ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ โ€œื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืฉืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžืžืœื›ื•ืช ืžืŸ ื”ื ื”ืจ (ืคืจืช, ืขื“) ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ืจึนื“ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื ื”ืจ ืžืชืคืกื— ื•ืขื“ ืขื–ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืœื›ื™ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื ื”ืจโ€ (ืžืœ"ื ื”, ืโ€“ื“). ืื•ืœื ืขื“ ืžื”ืจื” ื™ืฆืื• ื”ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ืžืชื—ืช ื™ื“ ืžืœื›ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื•ืœื ืœื—ื ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื™ ืฉืืžืจ: โ€œื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืœื ืฉืžื™ื” ื›ื‘ื•ืฉโ€ (ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ืžื–, ื; ืข"ื– ื›ื, ื) ื•ื–ื” ื™ื“ื•ืข ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื“ืžืฉืง ืžืœื›ื™ื ืฆื•ืจืจื™ื ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฆื•, ื•ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื”ื,ืจื–ื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœื™ื“ืข, ื”ื™ื” ืœืฉื˜ืŸ ืœืฉืœืžื” ืขืฆืžื• (ืž"ื ื™ื ื›ื’โ€“ื›ื“); ืืžืฆื™ื”ื• ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืืฉ ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื›ื” ืืช ืื“ื•ื ื‘ื’ื™ ื”ืžืœื— ืขืฉืจืช ืืœืคื™ื ื•ืชืคืก ืืช ื”ืกืœืข ื‘ืžืœื—ืžื” (ืž"ื‘ ื™ื“, ื–); ืขื–ืจื™ื”ื• ื‘ื ื• ื‘ื ื” ืืช ืื™ืœืช ื•ึทื™ึฐืฉึดื‘ึตื”ึธ ืœื™ื”ื•ื“ื” (ืฉื ืฉื, ื›ื‘), ื•ื”ื’ื™ืข ืืคื•ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื’ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขื“ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื™ืโ€“ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ (ืขึทืงึทื‘ึทื”); ื™ื—ื–ืงื™ื”ื• ืœื›ื“ ืืช ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื›ืžโ€œืฉ: ื”ื•ื ื”ื›ื” ืืช ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืขื“ ืขื–ื” ื•ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ื” ืžืžื’ื“ืœ ื ื•ืฆืจื™ื ืขื“ ืขื™ืจ ืžื‘ืฆืจ (ืฉื ื™ื—, ื—); ื•ื™ืจื‘ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืืฉ ืžืœืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืฉื™ื‘ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืœื‘ื•ื ื—ืžืช ืขื“ ื™ื ื”ืขืจื‘ื”. ื’ื ื”ืฉื™ื‘ ืืช ื“ืžืฉืง ื•ืืช ื—ืžืช ืœื™ื”ื•ื“ื” (ืฉื ืฉื, ื›ื”; ื›ื—). ืื•ืœื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื—ื– ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืชื ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงื ืจืฆื™ืŸ ืžืœืš ืืจื ื•ื™ื ืฉืœ ืืช ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื ืžืื™ืœื•ืช ื•ืืจื•ืžื™ื (ืื“ื•ืžื™ื ืง') ื‘ืื• ืื™ืœืช ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืฉื (ืž"ื‘ ื˜ื–, ื•), ื•ื›ืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืฉื ื” ืื—ืจื™ ื™ืจื‘ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืืฉ ื›ื‘ืฉ ืชื’ืœืช ืคืœืืกืจ ืืช ื›ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ (ืฉื ื˜ื•, ื›ื˜) ื•ืืช ื›ืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ (ื“ื”"ื ื”, ื›ื•). ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืืจื™ืš ืขื•ื“ ื‘ื–ื”, ืืš ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืงืฆืจื”, ืฉืื ื ืื‘ื” ืœืกึทืžึตืŸ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื ืœื ื ื•ื›ืœ ื‘ืฉื•ื ืื•ืคืŸ ืœืกืžื ื ืขืคโ€ื™ ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื•ื”ืžื”ืœืš ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™, ื›ื™ ืœื ื ืฉืืจื• ื‘ืžืฆื‘ ืื—ื“ ืงื‘ื•ืข ืืฃ ืžืืชื™ื ืฉื ื” ื›ืกื“ืจืŸ, ื•ื‘ื‘ื•ืื ื• ื‘ื›"ื– ืœืกืžืŸ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ื” ืฉื”ื™ื• ืœื” ืขื“ ื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ, ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœืกืžืŸ, ืื•: ื) ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉื”ื•ื‘ื˜ื—ื” ืœื”ืื‘ื•ืช, ืื• ื‘) ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืชื™ื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ืค' ืžืกืขื™ ื•ืกื•ืฃ ืก' ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ, ืื•, ื’) ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข, ื›ืืฉืจ ืขืฉื™ืชื™ ืคื”. โ€œื™ื•ื ื”ื•ื ื•ืขื“ื™ืš ื™ื‘ื ืœืžื ื™ ืืฉื•ืจ ื•ืขืจื™ ืžืฆื•ืจ ื•ืœืžื ื™ ืžืฆื•ืจ ื•ืขื“ ื ื”ืจ ื•ื™ื ืžื™ื ื•ื”ืจ ื”ื”ืจโ€ (ืžื™ื›ื” ื–, ื›). ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืœื‘ื“ ื—ืœื•ืงืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืœืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื ื—ืœืงื” ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืจื—ื‘ืขื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœืžื” ืœืฉืชื™ ืžืžืœื›ื•ืช: ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ. ืœืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื• ืฉื‘ื˜ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ื’ื ืฉื‘ื˜ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ื“ืŸ (ืœืฉื ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ืึทื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื–ื›ืจ ื‘ื”ืชื•ืœื“ื” ืฉืœ ืื—ืจื™ ื”ืคืจื•ื“, ืจืง ืฉื‘ื˜ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื ื–ื›ืจ ืขื ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ื™ื, ื›ืืฉืจ ืจืžื–ืชื™ ืœืžืขืœื”), ื•ืื ื ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืœืžื” ืฉืืžืจ ืื—ื™ื” ื”ืฉื™ืœื ื™ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”' ืืœ ื™ืจื‘ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื ื‘ื˜: โ€œื”ื ื ื™ ืงื•ืจืข ืืช ื”ืžืžืœื›ื” ืžื™ื“ ืฉืœืžื” ื•ื ืชืชื™ ืœืš ืืช ืขืฉืจื” ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื•ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืื—ื“ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื•. ื•ืœืงื—ืชื™ ื”ืžืœื•ื›ื” ืžื™ื“ ื‘ื ื• ื•ื ืชืชื™ื” ืœืš ืืช ืขืฉืจืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื•ืœื‘ื ื• ืืชืŸ ืฉื‘ื˜ ืื—ื“โ€ (ืžืœ"ื ื™ื, ืœืึพืœื‘; ืœื”, ืœื•) ื•ื‘ืจืื•ืชื ื• ืœืขืžืช ื–ื” ื›ื™ ืœื ืฉื‘ื˜ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื‘ื“ื• ื“ื‘ืง ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื•ื“ ื›ื™ ืื ื’ื ืฉื‘ื˜ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืง ื‘ื•, ื•ื’ื ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉืจื—ื‘ืขื ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื ื” ืžื‘ืฆืจื™ื ื‘ืฆืจืขื” ื•ืื™ืœื•ึนืŸ, ืขืจื™ ื ื—ืœืช ื“ืŸ (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื™ื, ื™), ื•ื’ื ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ื”ืœื•ื™ื ื ืกืคื—ื• ื›ืœื ืืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” (ืฉื ืฉื, ื™ื‘โ€“ื™ื“), ืื– ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€œืขืฉืจืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ืโ€ ื”ืžื”: ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ, ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ, ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ, ื ืคืชืœื™, ื’ื“, ืืฉืจ, ืืคืจื™ื, ืžื ืฉื” ื‘' (ืžื›ื™ืจ), ื“ืŸ ื‘' (ืœืฉื), ื•ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื•ื“ ื ืฉืืจื•: โ€œื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ, ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ื“ืŸ ื' โ€“ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื ื—ืœื”, ื•ืฉื‘ื˜ ืœื•ื™ ื•ื’ื ืžืฉืืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื™ื, ื˜ื–) โ€“ ื‘ืœื ื ื—ืœื”. ื•ื‘ื›โ€ื– ื ืงืจืื” ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื•ื“ โ€œื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€ ื•ื”ื ื‘ื™ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืจืง ืฉื‘ื˜ ืื—ื“ ื™ืฉืืจ ื‘ื™ื“ื, ืžืคืืช ื›ื™ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ื” ื”ืขืงืจ, ื”ืŸ ืžืฆื“ ืจื‘ื•ื™ ืื ืฉื™ื• ื•ื”ืŸ ืžืฆื“ ืจื•ื‘ ืฉื˜ื— ืืจืฆื•, ื•ื”ืŸ (ื•ื–ื” ื”ืขืงืจ) ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื” ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืžื•ืœืš. ืœืืžืจ, ืฉื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืงืจื‘ ืื—ื™ื”ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื•ื“ ืœื”ืฉืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืขืช ืฆืจ ืจืง ืขืœ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื”ืื—ื“, ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ืœื‘ื“ื• ื›ื™ ื™ื”ื™ื” ื ืืžืŸ ืœื“ื’ืœื•. ื•ืœืคโ€œื– ื”ืœื ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ืงื• ืชื—ื•ื ืฉืชื™ ื”ืžืžืœื›ื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืคืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืคืืช ืงื“ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืขืจื™ ืžื ืฉื” ื”ืžื‘ื“ืœื•ืช ืœืืคืจื™ืโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืจื™ ื“ืŸ ื‘ืคืืช ื™ื; ื•ื‘ื›โ€ื– ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืขื™ืจ ื›ื™ ื ืฉืชื ื” ืงืฆืช ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœื ื—ืœืช ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ื›ื™ ืื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ืจื—ื‘ืขื ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืœื—ื ืขื ื™ืจื‘ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื ื‘ื˜ ืžืœืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื™ืงื— ืžืžื ื• โ€œืืช ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ ื•ืืช ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืืช ื™ืฉื ื” ื•ืืช ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืืช ืขืคืจื™ืŸ ื•ืืช ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื”โ€ (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื™ื’, ื™ื˜), ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ ื”ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื—ื•ื ืืคืจื™ื, ื›ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ืœืžืขืœื”, ื•ืขื™ืจ โ€œื™ืฉื ื”โ€ ื”ื™ื, ืœื“ืขืชื™ โ€œืกึทืžึดื™ึถื”โ€ ื‘ืขืจืš 2 ืฉืขื” ืœืžื–โ€œืฆ โ€œื˜ึทืึดื™ื‘ึถื”โ€ ืื• 3 ืฉืขื” ืœืžื–โ€ืฆ ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ70 ื•ืขืคืจื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจืช ื”ื™ืจื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก ื‘ืจื—ื•ืง 20 ืžื™ืœ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื, ืโ€œื› ื”ื™ื โ€œื˜ืื™ื‘ื”โ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื’ื ื”ื™ื ื›ื›ื” ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ื•ืฉื ื ืžืฆื ื›ื™ ืื‘ื™ื” ื ืฉื ื ืื•ื ืขืœ โ€œื”ืจ ืฆึฐืžึฐืจึทื™ึดืโ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื“), ื•ื”ื ื” ืžืฆืื ื• โ€œื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึถืชึฐ ืึดื ืฆโ€™ื•ืžืจืโ€ ืขืœ ื™ื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ื”ืจ โ€œืขึถืฉ ืึดืœโ€“ืขโ€™ื•ึทืจื‘โ€, ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ืขื™ืจ โ€œืฆืžืจื™ืโ€ ื•ื”ื”ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื”ืขืจื‘ื”โ€ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื—, ื›ื‘), ื•ื ืงืจื ืœื“ืขืชื™ โ€œื”ืจ ืฆืžืจื™ืโ€ ืขืœ ืฉื ื”ืขื™ืจ ืืฉืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ื•. ืโ€ื› ื”ืฉืชืจืข ื”ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืงืจืŸ ื–ื•ื™ืช ืื—ืช โ€“ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸึพืžื–ืจื— ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ (ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื–ืžื ื™ื ืžืœืคื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื‘ื” ื ืžื ื• (ืฉื ืฉื, ื›ื‘โ€“ื›ื“) ื‘ืชื—ื•ืžื ื”ืขืจื™ื: ื‘ื™ืชึพื”ืขืจื‘ื”, ืฆืžืจื™ื, ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ, ื”ืขื•ื™ืก (ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœโ€“ืขื•ื’โ€™ื”), ื”ึทืคึธืจึธื”ึน (ื•ืื“ื™ ืคึทืจึทื”) ืขืคืจื” (ื˜ืื™ื‘ื”), ื›ืคืจ ื”ึธืขึฒืžื•ื ึธื™ (ื•ืื“ื™ ื ืื•ื•ืืขื™ืžื”) ืขึธืคึฐื ึดื™ (ื’ื•ืคื ื™ืŸ, Gophna, ื’โ€™ื•ืคื ื”) ื•ื›ืœืŸ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืŸ ืœืคืืช ืงื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื ืกืคื—ื• ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื”ืŸ ืืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื—ืœื•ืงื” ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข). ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืืกืืก ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขืœื” ื‘ืขืฉื ืžืœืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื™ื‘ืŸ ืืช ื”ืจืžื” ืœื‘ืœืชื™ ืชืช ื™ืฆื ื•ื‘ื ืœืืกื ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ื ืฉื ืืกื ืืช ืื‘ื ื™ ื”ืจืžื” ื•ืืช ืขืฆื™ื” ื•ื™ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื ืืช ื’ื‘ืข ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืืช ื”ืžืฆืคื” (ืž"ื ื˜ื–, ื™ื–โ€“ื›ื‘), ื•ืฉื, ืืฆืœ ื”ืžืฆืคื”, ืขืฉื” ืืกื ื‘ื•ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืคื ื™ ื‘ืขืฉื ืžืœืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ (ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžื, ื˜) ืโ€œื› ืœื ื”ื’ื™ืข ืื– ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจืง ืขื“ โ€œื’ื‘ืขื”โ€ (ืชึปืœึตื™ืœ ืึดืœโ€“ืคื•ืœ) ื•ืขื“ โ€œืžืฆืคื”โ€ (ื ื‘ึดื™ื ืกึถืžื•ืึดื™ืœ) ื•ื‘ื›โ€ื– ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื• ืื™ื–ื” ืขืจื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื’ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ืฉื•ืžืจื•ืŸ, ืžืž"ืฉ: โ€œื•ื™ืคืฉื˜ื• ื‘ืขืจื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืฉืžืจื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸโ€ (ื“ื”"ื‘ ื›ื”, ื™ื’). ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ืฉื•ื‘ ื”' ืืช ืฉื™ื‘ืช ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื›ื•ืจืฉ ืžืœืš ืคืจืก ืขืœื• ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžืฉื‘ื™ ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ืืœ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื•ื›ืœืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืžืฉื‘ื˜ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ื•ืืฉืจ ื ืงืจืื• ืขืœ ืฉื ืขืจื™ื”ืŸ, ื”ืŸ: ื‘ื ื™ ื’ื‘ืขื•ืŸ, ืื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืœื—ื, ื ื˜ื•ึนืคื”, ืขื ืชื•ืช, ื‘ื™ืช ืขื–ืžื•ืช, ืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ื, ื›ืคื™ืจื”, ื‘ืืจื•ืช, ืจืžื”, ื’ื‘ืข, ืžื›ืžืก, ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ, ืขื™, ื ื‘ื•, ืขื™ืœื ืื—ืจ, ื—ืจื™ื ืœื•ึนื“, ื—ื“ื™ื“, ืื•ื ื• ืกึฐื ึธืึธื”, ื•ื‘ืจืฉื™ืžืช ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื ื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ, ื ืžืฆื: ืงืจื™ืช ื”ืืจื‘ืข, ื“ื™ื‘ืŸ, ืงื‘ืฆืืœ, ื™ืฉื•ืข, ืžื•ืœื“ื”, ื‘ื™ืช ืคืœื˜, ื—ืฆืจ ืฉื•ืขืœ, ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข, ืฆืงืœื’, ืžื›ยญื ึธื”, ืขื™ืŸ ืจืžื•ืŸ, ืฆืจืขื”, ื™ืจืžื•ืช, ื–ื ื•ื—, ืขื“ืœื, ืœื›ื™ืฉ, ืขื–ืงื”, ื’ื™ ื”ื ื, ื ื•ึนื‘, ืขื ื ื™ื”, ื—ืฆื•ืจ, ืจืžื”, ืฆื‘ื•ืขื™ื, ื ึฐื‘ึทืœึธื˜, ื’ื™ ื”ื—ืจืฉื™ื. ื•ื‘ื‘ื ื™ืŸ ื”ื—ื•ืžื” ืžืฆืื ื• ืขื•ื“: ืื ืฉื™ ื™ืจื—ื•, ื”ืชืงื•ืขื™ื, ืžืจื•ื ื•ืช, ืžืฆืคื”, ื–ื ื•ื—, ื‘ื™ืช ืฆื•ืจ, ืงืขื™ืœื”, ืคืœืš ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื (ื”ื›ืœ ื‘ืกืคืจ ื ื—ืžื™ื” ืค' ื’' ื–, ื™ื, ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืขื–ืจื), ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืžืืœื™ื•, ื›ื™ ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื”ื ืงืจืื•ืช ืขโ€œืฉ ืขืจื™ื”ืŸ, ื ื•ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืขืจื™ื”ืŸ, ื•ื™ืชืจ ื”ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื ื•ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื ื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืคื”, ื•ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื”ืŸ ื•ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœืŸ ื ื•ื“ืขื•ืช ื”ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื“ืŸ,71 ื•ืœืคโ€ื– ื”ืœื ืืคืฉืจ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉื ื•ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื” ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื›ื–ื”: ื™ืจื—ื• โ€“ ืœืžื–ืจื—ึพืฆืคื•ืŸ, ืžืฉื ืœืขื™, ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ, ื’ื‘ืขื”, ื ื‘ืœื˜ (ื‘ื™ืจ ื ึธื‘ึทืœึทื”), ื•ืžืฉื ื“ืจื•ืžื”โ€“ืžืขืจื‘ื” ืืœ ื—ื“ื™ื“, ื•ืœื•ึนื“, ื•ืžืฉื ืฆืคื•ื ื”โ€“ืžืขืจื‘ื” ืืœ ืื•ึนื ื•ึน ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœื™ืคื•. ื–ื”ื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ืœืคื™ ืจืื•ืช ืขื™ื ื™, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืฆืืชื™ ืขืจื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฆืคื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจืฉื™ืžื” ื–ืืช; ื•ืขืจื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืขืจื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื”ืŸ: ืžื—ื“ื™ื“ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืงื• ืžืขืจื‘ื” ื“ืจืš ื’ื™ ื”ื—ืจืฉื™ื ืœืขื–ืงื”, ื™ืจืžื•ืช, ืขื“ื•ืœื, ืงืขื™ืœื”, ื‘ื™ืช ืฆื•ืจ, ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ, ืฆืงืœื’, ืขื™ืŸ ืจืžื•ืŸ, ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข, ื—ืœื•ืฆื” (ืœื›ื™ืฉ); ืžืฉื ืขื‘ืจ ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืœื—ืฆืจ ืฉื•ืขืœ ื•ืœืžื•ืœื“ื— (ืึดืœโ€“ืžึดืœึฐื—ึฐ) ื•ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื’ื โ€œืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื“ืจื•ื, ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ื ืงื•ื“ืช ืงืฆื” ื”ื ื’ื‘72 ืžื›ืœ ื–ื” ื™ืฆื ืœื ื• ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ืชื—ืœืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉื ื™ ืœื ื ืฉืชื ื• ื‘ืžืื•ืžื” ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืชื™ื” ืฉื”ื™ื• ืœื” ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืคืจื•ื“, ื•ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื ืฉืืจื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ืžื”. ื•ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ, ื™ืฉื‘ื•, ื›ื ืจืื”, ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ื ืœืื—ืจ ื’ืœื•ืช ืขืฉืจืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื’ื ื‘ืขืช ื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ. ื›ื™ ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื—ื–ืงื™ื”ื• ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ืชื‘ โ€œืื’ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ืืคืจื™ื ื•ืžื ืฉื” ืœื‘ื•ื ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”' ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืœืขื“ื•ืช ืคืกื—โ€ (ื“ื”"ื‘ ืœ, ื) โ€œืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืงื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ื•ืขื“ ื“ืŸโ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื”) โ€œื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ื”ืจืฆื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืขื™ืจ ืœืขื™ืจ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืืคืจื™ื ื•ืžื ืฉื” ื•ืขื“ ื–ื‘ืœื•ืŸโ€ฆ ืืš ืื ืฉื™ื ืžืืฉืจ ื•ืžื ืฉื” ื•ืžื–ื‘ืœื•ืŸ ื ื›ื ืขื•โ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื™ึพื™ื) โ€œื›ื™ ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืขื ืจื‘ืช ืžืืคืจื™ื ื•ืžื ืฉื” ื™ืฉืฉื›ืจ ื•ื–ื‘ืœื•ืŸ ืœื ื”ื˜ื”ืจื•โ€ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื™ื—) โ€œื•ื›ื›ืœื•ืช ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ื™ืฆืื• ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื ืžืฆืื™ื ืœืขื™ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื™ืฉื‘ืจื• ื”ืžืฆื‘ื• ื•ื™ื’ื“ืขื• ื”ืืฉืจื™ื ื•ื™ื ืชืฆื• ืืช ื”ื‘ืžื•ืช ื•ืืช ื”ืžื–ื‘ื—ื•ืช ืžื›ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืืคืจื™ื ื•ืžื ืฉื” ืขืœ ืœื›ืœื”โ€ (ืฉื ืœื, ื), ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขืฉื™ื ื”ืืœื• ื ืขืฉื• ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื’ืœื•ืช ื›ืžโ€œืฉ โ€œื•ื™ืฉื‘ ืืœ ื”ืคืœื™ื˜ื” ื”ื ืฉืืจืช ืœื›ื ืžื›ืฃ ืžืœื›ื™ ืืฉื•ืจ ื•ื’ื•'โ€ (ืฉื ืœ, ื•โ€“ื˜) ื•ื’ื ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื—ื–ืงื™ื” ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื™ืขืจื•ื‘ ืืช ืœื‘ื‘ื• ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื”ืžื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ืžืืจืฅ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืœื‘ื ืืจืฆื” ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื‘ืœื™ ืจืฉื™ื•ื ืžืœืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื–ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืชื ื•ืขื” ื“ืชื™ืช ืคืฉื•ื˜ื”. ื•ืœื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืืœื” ืžืœืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื• ื™ื“ื™ื ืœื—ืฉื•ื“ ื‘ืฆื“ืง ืืช ื—ื–ืงื™ื”ื• ื›ืžืขื•ืจืจ ืืช ืขืžื• ืœื”ืชืงื•ืžื ื ื’ื“ ืžืœื›ื•ืชื• ื•ืœืงื‘ืœ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืช ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื•ื”ืขืœื™ื” ืœื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื”ืœื ื”ืคื—ื™ื“ื” ืžืื– ื•ืžืขื•ืœื ืืช ืžืœื›ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื‘ืœ ืชืžื™ื˜ ืขืœ ืžืœื›ื•ืชื ืฉื•ืื”, ื•ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ื›ื— ื ืชืฆื• ืืช ื”ืžื–ื‘ื—ื•ืช ื‘ืืจืฅ ืœื ืœื”ื? ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉื›ืœ ื–ื” ื ืขืฉื” ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื’ืœื•ืช (ื•ืขื™' ื‘ืžืคืจืฉ ืฉื, ื•ื›ืจืฆื•ื ืš ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืงื•ืจื!) ื’ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื™ืืฉื™ื”ื• ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืฆืื ื•: โ€œื•ื‘ืขืจื™ ืžื ืฉื” ื•ืืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื ืคืชืœื™โ€ (ืฉื ืœื“, ื•), ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€œืืฉืจ ืืกืคื• ื”ืœื•ื™ื ืฉืžืจื™ ื”ืกืฃ ืžื™ื“ ืžื ืฉื” ื•ืืคืจื™ื ื•ืžื›ืœ ืฉืืจื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืžื›ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ (ืฉื ืฉื, ื˜) ื•ืขืœ ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ืžื“ืœืช ืขื ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ืฉืื™ืจ ืจื‘ ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืœึฐื›ึนืจึฐืžึดื™ื ื•ืœื™ึนื’ึฐื‘ึดื™ืโ€ (ืžืœ"ื‘ ื›ื”, ื™ื‘; ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืœื˜, ื™) ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ: โ€œืืœื• ืžืœืงื˜ื™ ืืคืจืกืžื•ืŸ ืžืขื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื™ ื•ืขื“ ืจืžืชื. ื™ื•ื’ื‘ื™ื, ืืœื• ืฆื™ื™ื“ื™ ื—ืœื–ื•ืŸ ืžืกื•ืœืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืขื“ ื—ื™ืคื”โ€ (ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•, ื). ืขื•ื“ ืžืฆืื ื• ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื—ืจื‘ืŸ: โ€œื•ื™ื‘ืื• ืื ืฉื™ื ืžืฉื›ื ืžืฉืœื• ื•ืžืฉืžืจื•ืŸ ืฉืžื ื™ื ืื™ืฉโ€ (ื™ืจืžื™ื”ื• ืžื, ื“). ื”ืจื™ ืฉื ืฉืืจื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ื’ื ืœืื—ืจ ื”ื—ืจื‘ืŸ, ื•ืœื“ืขืช ื—ื–โ€ืœ (ืžื’ืœื” ื™ื’, ื‘; ืขืจื›ื™ืŸ ืœื’ ื) ื”ื—ื–ื™ืจืŸ ื™ืจืžื™ื” (ื•ืขื™' ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื’, ื™ื‘โ€“ื˜ื•)73 ื•ื”ื ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืฉืžื” ื ืงืจืื• โ€œืื ืฉื™ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœโ€ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ื‘ืฉ"ืก ืœืื ืฉื™ื ื—ืจื“ื™ื (ืคืกื—ื™ื ื ื”, ื; ื›ืชื•ื‘ื•ืช ื˜, ื‘,; ื™ื‘ ื) ืื‘ืœ ืขืžืงื™ ืฉืคื” ื”ื™ื• ื•ืœื ื ืชืงื™ื™ืžื” ืชื•ืจืชืŸ ื‘ื™ื“ื (ืขืจื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื ื’ ื)74 ื•ืงื ื˜ืจื ื™ืŸ (ื ื“ืจื™ื ืžื”, ื) ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืœื ื ืฆืจืคื• ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื”ืขื•ื ื™, ื‘ื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ, ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืœื ืคืฉื, ืจื—ื•ืงื™ื ืžืงื”ืœ ื”ื’ื•ืœื”. ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืœืืจืš ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืฆื˜ืžืฆืžื• ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื•ื’ื ื–ื” ื”ืฆืจ, ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉื ื™ ืจื—ื‘ื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืชื™ื”ื ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืจื•ื—ื‘ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข, ืžื” ืฉื›ื‘ืฉ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื•. ื•ื—ื–โ€œืœ ืžืกืจื• ืœื ื• ืืช ืฉืžื•ืช ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ื ื”ืืœื” (ืกืคืจื™ ืค ืขืงื‘ ืกื™' ื ื; ืชื•ืกืคืชื ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื“ ืžโ€ื™; ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื• ื”โ€ื; ื™ืœืงื•ื˜ ืฉืžืขื•ื ื™ ืค' ืขืงื‘ ืกื™ืง ืชืชืข"ื“), ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœ ื”ื“โ€ืจ ื”ื™ืจืฉ ื”ื™ืœื“ืกื”ื™ื™ืžืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ืขื ื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืžื›ืœ ืืฉืจ ื”ื™ื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ื‘ืืจื• ืืช ื”ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื‘ื“ื™ื™ืงื ื•ืช ืฉื›ืœ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ึฐื ื•ึน ืืช ื”ื ื•ืกื—ื” ื”ื ื›ื•ื ื” ื‘ืžื—ื‘ืจืชื• โ€œื‘ื™ื™ื˜ืจืึถื ืข ืฆื•ืจ ื’ืขืื’ืจืืคื™ืข ืคืืœืขืกื˜ื™ื ืโ€™ืกโ€ (ื‘ืจืœื™ืŸ 1886) ืœื›ืŸ ืืœืš ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืชื™ื•. ื•ื›ืŸ ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™: โ€œืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื—ื–ื™ืงื• ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ: ืคืจืฉืช [ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ]โ€ (ื›ืŸ ื ืกื— ื”"ื”) ื•ืœืงืžืŸ ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œื’ื ื™ื ื“ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ (ืคื™' ื”ื’ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ), ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ืขืฆืžื”? ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื‘ืจ ืื—ื ื‘ืฉื ืจ' ื–ืขื™ืจื: ืžืŸ ืžื” ื“ืชื ื™ โ€œื’ื ื™ื™ืโ€ ื“ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ, ื”ื“ื ืืžืจื” ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื›ืœื—ื•ืฅ75 76 ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื“ืžืื™ (ืคโ€œื‘ ื”โ€ื) โ€œืจื‘ื™ ื”ืชื™ืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸโ€ ื•ืขื‘ืจ ืืคื•ื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืขื“ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸโ€ ื•ืœืคื™ ืจืฉื™ืžืช ืขืจื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืขืจื‘ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืฉืจ ื ื•ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืกืžืŸ ืืช ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื›ืŸ: ืžืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื™ืจื“ ื”ืงื• ื”ื ื’ื‘ื” ืืœ โ€œื—ืœื•ืฆื”โ€ ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข, ืจืžื•ืŸ, ืฆืงืœื’. ื•ืžืฉื ื™ืฆื ืžื–ืจื—ื” โ€“ ื—ื‘ืจื•ื ื”, ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ืฆืคื•ื ื”ึพืžืขืจื‘ื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฆื•ืจ, ืงืขื™ืœื”, ืขื“ื•ืœื, ื™ืจืžื•ืช, ืขื–ืงื”, ื’ื™ ื”ื—ืจืฉื™ื, ื—ื“ื™ื“, ืœื•ื“, ืื•ื ื•. ื•ืœืคื™ ืžื” ืฉื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืฉื ื‘ื”ืขืจื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืœื•ื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืขืจื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื•ื‘ืžืฉื ื” (ืจื™ืฉ ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ) ืืžืจโ€ื โ€œืืคื™' ืžื›ืคืจ ืœื•ื“ื™ื ืœืœื•ื“โ€ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื’ืž' (ืฉื ื“, ื) ื•ื”ืชื•ืก' ื•ื”ืจโ€œืŸ ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื›ืคืจ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืกืžื•ืš ืœืœื•ื“ ื•ื‘ื›โ€ื– ื ื—ืฉื‘ ื›ื—ื•โ€œืœ ื•ืขื™' ืžโ€ืฉ ื‘ืก' ื˜ื•ื‘ ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ืจืœื‘โ€œื— ื‘ื’ื˜ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื›ื™ โ€œืจืžืœื”โ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื’ืชโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื ืœื“ืจื•ื ืœื•ื“ ื•ื–ื” ื”ืœื ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื›ื™ ื’ืช ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ืžื›ืœืœ ืโ€ื™ ื”ืขืงืจื™ืช. โ€œื—ื•ืžืช ืžื’ื“ืœ ืฉื™ื“โ€ [ืฉื™ืจ, ืฉื“, ืฉืจ, ืฉืจืฉืŸ] ื”ื•ื ืžื’ื“ืœ ืกึฐื˜ึฐืจึทื˜ื•ืŸ ืงืกืจื™ืŸ" (ืงึทืกึทืจึฐื™ึธื” ื•ืขื™' ื‘ืขืจื•ืš ืข' ืื—ื“ ื). ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืฉื ืืžืจื• ืฉืจื‘ื™ ื”ืชื™ืจ ืงืกืจื™ืŸ, ืžื•ื›ื— ืžื–ื” ืฉื”ืขื™ืจ ืขืฆืžื” ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื, ืœื›ืŸ ืืžืจื•: โ€œื—ื•ืžืชโ€ฆโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื“ืžืื™ ืืžืจื• (ืคโ€œื‘ ื”โ€ื) ืฉื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ ืงืกืจื™ ื ื”ื’ื• ื”ื™ืชืจ ื‘ื“ื‘ืœื” ืฉืœ โ€œืฉื•ืจื™ื™โ€* ื•ืœื ื—ืฉืฉื• ืฉืžื ืžืืจโ€œื™ ื”ื™ื, ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื•ืชืจืช? ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘โ€ืจ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืฉื ื–ื•ื’ื ื“ืงืกืจื™ืŸ: โ€œื›ืœ ื“ื—ืžื™ ืžื™ื ืฉื•ืจื™, ืื™ืช ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ืžืจ ืขื“ ืžื’ื“ืœ ืžื™ืœื—ื ื•ืื™ืช ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ืžืจ ืขื“ ืžืขืจืช ื˜ืœื™ืžื•ืŸโ€ ื•โ€œืžื™ื ืฉื•ืจื™ื™โ€ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื” ื ื”ืจ โ€œื–ึถืจึฐืงึทื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืงืกืจื™ืŸ ื•โ€œืžื’ื“ืœ ืกืœืชืโ€ ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ืจืžืช โ€œืžึทืœึฐื—ึทืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืžโ€œืข โ€œื’โ€™ื‘ืขโ€ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ืจ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ ืžืขืจื‘ื” ื•โ€ืžืขืจืช ื˜ืœื™ืžื•ืŸ" ืฆโ€œืœ ืœื“ืขืช ื”โ€ื” โ€œืกืœื™ืžื•ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช ืžื”ืžืขืจื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ ืžืขืจื‘ื” ื•ื ืงืจืืช โ€œื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึถืช ืึดื ืกึทืœึถืžึทื ึดื™ึถื”โ€ ืœืฆืžโ€œืข โ€œืืœ ืคื•ืจึตื™ื“ึดื™ืกโ€. ื•ื”ืœืื” ืžื–ื” ืืžืจื•: โ€œืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ? (ื“ื™ื ื• ื›ืงืกืจื™ืŸ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ื“ืžืื™), ืคื•ื ื“ืงื ื“ืขืžื•ื“ื, ืคื•ื ื“ืงื ืจื˜ื™ื‘ืชื ืขื“ ื›ืคืจ ืกื‘ื ื•ืฆื™ืจืŸ ื•ื“ืื™ ื‘ืงื™ืกืจื™ืŸโ€77 ื•ืฉื ื™ ื”ืคื•ื ื“ืงื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื•ื“ืื™ ื‘ืชื™ ืžืœื•ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ื•โ€ืขืžื•ื“ืโ€œ, ืื•ืœื™ ืฆโ€ืœ โ€œืขึทื ึถื‘ึฐืชึทืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืกึทื‘ึทืกึฐืชึตื™ืึทโ€ ื•ืคื•ื ื“ืงื ื“ื˜ื™ื‘ืชื" (ื›ืŸ ื’ื•' ื”"ื”) ื”ื•ื โ€œื˜ืื™ื‘ื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œื“ื™ืจ ืื–ืจื•ืจโ€ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืœื™ื“โ€ ื•ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œื˜ื•ืœ ื›ืจืโ€ ื•ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œื›ึทืœึทื ึฐืกึปื™ึทื”โ€ ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืžื•ึทืขโ€™ืจึทื”โ€ (ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื™ืชืโ€ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจืช ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื– ืกื™' ื˜' ืืฆืœ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ, ืœื’ื™' ื”ื’ืจโ€ื) ื•ื›ืคืจ โ€œืกื‘ืโ€ื ืงืจื ื›ืŸ ื’ื ื”ื™ื•ื, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œืื ื˜ื™ืคื˜ืจื™ืกโ€ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื’โ€™ื™ืœื’โ€™ื•ืœื™ื ื•ืจืึทืก ืืœโ€“ืขื™ืŸ, ืืฆืœ ื”ืžื•ืฉื‘ื” โ€œืคืชื— ืชืงื•ื”โ€, โ€œืฆื™ืจืŸโ€ ื”ื•ื โ€œื˜ื™ืจื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืœื•ื“ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื ื—ืœ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืขื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืœื™ื‘โ€ ื•ืœืžื–ืจื— ื™ืคื• ื‘ืžืจื—ืง 3 ืฉืขื”. ื›ืœ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื•ื“ืื™ ื›ืงืกืจื™ืŸ (ื›ืŸ ื’ื•' ื”ืคโ€ืž โ€œื•ืœื ื‘ืงืกืจื™ืŸโ€(. ื•ื‘ื–ื” ืžืชื•ืจืฆืช ื”ืชืžื™ื”ื” ืขืœ ื”ืงืคื™ืฆื” ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืฉืขืฉื• ื‘ืจืฉื™ืžืช ื”ืชื—ื•ืžื™ืŸ โ€“ ืžืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืงืกืจื™ืŸ! ื•ืœื ืžื ื• ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื™ ืžื ื• โ€œืคืจืฉืช ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸโ€ ืคื™' โ€œื’ืœื™ืœ ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื–ื” ื›ืœืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ืฉืคืœืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื“ืŸ, ืœืืžืจ, ืขื“ ื”ืขืจื™ื ืฉื ื•ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ (ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืจืชื™) ื•ื’ืœื™ืœ ื–ื” ื”ืฉืชืจืข ืขื“ โ€œืœื•ื“โ€, ื•ืžืฉื ื•ื”ืœืื” ืขื“ ืงืกืจื™ืŸ, ืื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ืขื“ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื”ื›ืจืžืœ, ืœืืžืจ, ื›ืœ ืฉืคืœืช ืžื ืฉื”, ื”ื™ื” ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœืงืกืจื™ืŸ, ื•ืฉื ื™ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืืœื• ื”ื™ื• ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ, ื•ื’ื โ€œื™ืคื•โ€ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื, ื›ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื ืฉื”ื‘ืืชื™ ื‘ื”ืขืจื”, ื›ื™ ื›ืžืขื˜ ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉื ื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืื•ื™ื‘ื™ื. ื•ืขื ื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืคื ื™ื ื•ืœืคื ื™ ื•ืœืคื ื™ื, ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื’ืข ืžืื“ ืœืฉืืœืช ื”ืฉืžื˜ื”, ื•ืื ื™ ืžื•ืกืจ ืขื™ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืœื”ื’ืื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœื™ื˜"ื ืืฉืจ ืžื”ื ืชืฆื ืชื•ืจื” ืœื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ. ื•ืฉื™ื ื ื“ื“ื•ืจ" ื”ื™ื โ€œืชึทื ึฐืชื•ืจึทืโ€78 ืฉืขื” ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืงืกืจื™ืŸ โ€œื•ืฉื™ื ืโ€ ื”ื™ื ื’ื‘ืขื”, ืฆื•ืจ, ื›ื™ืฃ. โ€“ โ€œื•ืฉื•ืจื ื“ืขื›ื•โ€, ืœืืžืจ, ื—ื•ืžืช ืขื›ื•, ืื‘ืœ โ€œืขื›ื•โ€ ืขืฆืžื” ื”ื™ื ื—ื•โ€œืœ (ืคืกื—ื™ื ื ื, ื; ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘, ื; ืขื•, ื) ื•ื”ืขืœื• ื”ืชื•ืก' ื‘ืจืืฉ ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืžืงืฆืช ืขื›ื• ื”ื™ืชื” ืืจโ€ื™ ื•ืžืงืฆืชื” ื—ื•โ€œืœ, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืฉืง ืจ' ืื‘ื ืืช ื›ื™ืคื™ ื“ืขื›ื• (ื›ืชื•ื‘ื•ืช ืงื™"ื‘), ื•ืฉื ื‘ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ (ื–, ื) ืืžืจื•: โ€œื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ืžืขื›ื• ืœื›ื–ื™ื‘ (ื”ื™ื ืื›ื–ื™ื‘โ€ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ื›ื˜; ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ืœื ื•ื ืงืจืืช: ืึดื™ื– ื–ึดื™ื‘ึฐ, (Ecdippa ืžื™ืžื™ื ื• ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ื“ืจืš ื˜ืžืื” ืžืฉื•ื ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžื™ื ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืš ืฉื”ื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช, ืžืฉืžืืœื• ืœืžืขืจื‘ ื”ื“ืจืš ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืžืฉื•ื ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžื™ื, ื•ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ื‘ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืš ืฉื”ื™ื ืคื˜ื•ืจื”. ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ? โ€“ ืขื“ ื›ื–ื™ื‘. ืจโ€ื™ ื‘ืจโ€œื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืื‘ื™ื•: ืขื“ ืœื‘ืœื‘ื•. ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืจืฆื•ืขื” ื ืคืงื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืจื™ืฉ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช, ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœืคืืช ืžืขืจื‘ ืขื›ื• ื•ืžืฉื ืขื“ ื›ื–ื™ื‘ ืœืืจืš ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœืืจโ€ื™ ื•ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจืฆื•ืขื” ื–ืืช ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื•โ€œืœ ื”ื™ื”: โ€œืžืŸ ื›ื™ืคืชื ื•ืœืขื™ืœโ€ (ื™ืจื•ืฉืœ' ืฉื) ื•ืงืฉื” ืœื™ ืœืคืจืฉ โ€œื›ื™ืคืชืโ€ ืขืœ ื”ื•ืจืืช โ€œื’ืฉืจโ€ ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื, ืฉืžืชื•ืจื’ื ืชืžื™ื“: โ€œื›ื™ืฃ ื™ืžืโ€, ืœืืžืจ ืฉืคืœืช ื”ื—ื•ืฃ. ื•ืฉื (ื•, ื‘) ืืžืจื• ืฉื›ืคืจ โ€œืกื™ืกืื™โ€ ืžื•ื‘ืœืขืช ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืืจโ€ื™ ื•ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ืœืฆืคื•ืจื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืœืขื›ื• (ื•ืื™ื ื ื” โ€œืกื•ืกื™ืชืโ€ืฉืืฆืœ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื) ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื ื“ืื”ืœื•ืช (ืคื™"ื—) ื•ื‘ืจืžื‘โ€œื (ื”' ื˜ื•โ€œืž ืคื™โ€ื ื”ื™"ื‘). ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื–ื”, ื›ื™ ื—ืœืง ืžื’ืœื™ืœ ืขื›ื• ื‘ืžื–ืจื—, ืœืืžืจ, ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืฉืคืœืช ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื, ื•ืขื ื–ื” ื›ืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืžื ื” ืขื“ โ€œืกื™ืกืื™โ€ ื•ืขื“ ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื”ื™ื” ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœื—ื•โ€ืœ.79 โ€œื•ืจื™ืฉ ืžื™ื ื“ื’ืขืชื•ืŸ ื•ื’ืขืชื•ืŸ ืขืฆืžื”โ€, ืœื“ื‘ืจืช ื”ื™ืœื“ืกื”ื™ื™ืžืจ ื™ืฉ โ€œืขื™ืŸ ื’ืขืชื•ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืœืฉืช ื”ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื”ืžืฉืงื™ื ืืช ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œืึดืœึพื›ึทื‘ึดื™ืจึธื”โ€ ื•ืžืชืื—ื“ื™ื ืœื ื”ืจ ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืงืจื: โ€œื ื”ืจ ื’ืขืชื•ืŸโ€ ืืฉืจ ืžื•ืฆืื• ื”ื•ื ืื™ื–ื” ืฉืขื•ืช ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œืืœ ื›ื‘ื™ืจื”โ€ ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื”ืชืื—ื“ื• ืขื ืขื•ื“ ืื™ื–ื” ื ื—ืœื™ื ื™ึดืงึธืจึตื: โ€œื ึตื“ึถืจ ืžึทืคึฐืฉื™ื—ึฐโ€ ื•ืžืฉืชืคืš ื”ื™ืžื” ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œื“ืึทืจ ืืœ ื’โ€™ื‘ืึทื—ืึทื ื’ื™โ€ ื•ืœื“ืจื•ื ืื›ื–ื™ื‘, ื•ื–ื” ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œืืœโ€“ื›ื‘ื™ืจื”โ€ ื”ื•ื ืœืฆืž"ืข โ€œืกื›ื ื™ืŸโ€ (Sogane), ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œืืœโ€“ื›ื‘ื™ืจื”โ€ ืื• ยฝ1 ืฉืขื” ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œื˜ึถืจึฐืฉึดื™ื—ึทืโ€ ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ โ€œื ื”ืจ ื’โ€™ืขืชื•ืŸโ€ ืœืฆืคื•ื ื•, ืฉื”ื•ื ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืึถืกึฐืคึตื™ึฐื™ึถื”โ€ ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ื ืงืจืื•ืช โ€œื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึถืชึฐ ื’ืขืชื•ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ืŸ ื’ืขืชื•ืŸ ืขืฆืžื”. โ€œื•ื›ื‘ืจืชื, ื”ื™ื โ€œืืœโ€“ื›ื‘ื™ืจื”โ€ ื”ื ื–'. โ€“ โ€œื•ื‘ื™ืช ื–ื ื™ืชืโ€, ื”ื™ื ื—ืจื‘ืช ื–ึตื™ืึตื™ึดื™ื ื™ืชึทื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืคืจืกื” ืื—ืช ืœืฆืžโ€ื– โ€œืืœโ€“ื›ื‘ื™ืจื”โ€. โ€œื•ืงืฆื˜ืจื ื“ื’ืœื™ืœโ€, ื”ื•ื โ€œื’ึถืœึดื™ืœโ€ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€“ืžื–ืจื— โ€œื–ื•ืื™ื™ื ื™ืชืโ€ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง 3 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ื•ืขืœ ื”ื’ื‘ืขื” ืฉื ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื‘ืฆืจ ืื—ื“, ืฉื–ื” ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื” ืฉืœ โ€œืงืฆื˜ืจืโ€, ื™ื”ื•ื ื›ืžื™ โ€œืงึปืกึฐืจึฐโ€ ื‘ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื•ื‘ืขื‘ืจื™ืช โ€œืžื‘ืฆืจโ€.โ€“ โ€œื•ืงื•ื‘ืขื™ื ื“ืขื™ื™ืชืโ€, ืคื™' ื“ึธืจึตื™ โ€œืขื™ื™ืชืโ€ ื•ื”ื โ€œืขึทื™ึฐืชึทื” ืึดืฉโ€“ืฉืื™ื‘โ€ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง 6 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืžื–โ€œืฆ ืžืŸ โ€œื—ืจื‘ืช ื’ืœื™ืœโ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ื›ืคืจ ื™ืคื” ืขืœ ืจืืฉ ื’ื‘ืขื”. โ€“ โ€œื•ืžืœืชื ื“ื›ื•ืจโ€ (ื’ื‘ืขื” ืื• ืžื‘ืฆืจ ื›ื•ืจ) ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ืจื‘ืช ืืœโ€“ื›ื•ืจืึทโ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” ยฝ1 ืคืจืกื” ืœืžื–ืจื— ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€“ืžื–ืจื— โ€œืขื™ืชืโ€. โ€“ โ€œื•ื›ื•ืจื™ ืจื‘ืชืโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ืจื‘ืช ืืœโ€“ื›ื•ืจึทื™ึฐื™ึธื”โ€ ยฝ2 ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืฆืคื•ืŸโ€“ืžื–ืจื— โ€œื—ืจื‘ืช ืืœ ื›ื•ืจืโ€. โ€“ โ€œื•ืชืคื ืชโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œืชื‘ื ื™ืชโ€ ืื• โ€œืชื‘ื ื™ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืงึทืœึฐืขึทืชึฐ ืชึดื‘ึฐื ึดื™ืŸโ€ ื›ืคืจ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ืขื” ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื—ืืจื™ืชโ€ ื‘ื™ืช ืขื ืช ื™ึปืขืžึธื”. โ€“ โ€œื•ืžื—ืจืชื (ื ื”ื•ืจืชื) ื“ื™ืชื™ืจโ€, (ื”ืžืขืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื™ืชื™ืจ) ื”ื™ื โ€œื™ืชื™ืจโ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืคืจืกื” ืื—ืช ืœื“ืจื•ืึพืžืขืจื‘ โ€œืชื‘ื ื™ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืžืกืœื” ื”ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืžืฆืคืช ืœืฆื•ืจ ื•ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืŸ ื”ืื—ื•ืจื ื” ยฝ2 ืคืจืกื” ื“ืจื•ืžื” ืžื–ืจื—ื”, ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” โ€“ 4 ืคืจืกื” ืฆืคื•ื ื”โ€“ืžืขืจื‘ื”. โ€“ โ€œืกื ืคืชืโ€ (ืกืคื ืชื)? โ€“ โ€œื•ืžืžืฆื™ื (ืžืฆื™ื) ื“ื’ืชืโ€ (ื“ืขื‘ืจื, ื‘ืื‘ื”ืชื)? โ€“ โ€œื•ืžื™ืกืคืจโ€ (ืžื™ ืกืคืจ) ื™ืฉ ืœืฉืขืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื โ€œืžึถืจึฐื’' ืกืคืจืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืžโ€ืข โ€œื™ืชื™ืจโ€ ืืฆืœ โ€œืงึทื ึทื” ืืœ ืคื•ืงื”ึทโ€ ื•ื”ืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื”ื ืื• โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืืœโ€“ืขึทื–ื•ืจโ€ ืื• โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืึดืโ€“ืกึถืžึทืœึดื™โ€. โ€“ โ€œื•ืžืจื—ืฉืชโ€ (ืžืจืขืฉืช) ื”ื™ื โ€œืžึถืจึฐืขึทืฉโ€ ืœืขืžืช ืฆื•ืจ ืžื–ืจื—ื” ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืคืจืกื” ืื—ืช, โ€“ โ€œื ื—ืœื ื“ืคืฆืืœโ€ (ื“ืื‘ืฆืืœ), ื™ืฉ ืœืฉืขืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืึดื‘ึฐืขึทืืœโ€ ยฝ2 ืคืจืกื” ืœืฆืžโ€œืข โ€œื™ืชื™ืจโ€ ืื• ืคืจืกื” ืื—ืช ืœื“ืžโ€ื– โ€œืฆื•ืจโ€ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืงื‘ืจ ื—ื™ืจืโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืงื ื” ืืœโ€“ืคึทื•ืงื”โ€. ื•ื™ืฉ ื™ื“ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืขืจื” ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€œื“ึถื‘ึฐืขึทืืœโ€ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื˜ึถืจ ื–ึดื‘ึฐื ึถื”โ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืžึถืจึฐืขึทืงึถื”โ€ 7 ืคืจืกื” ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œืฆื•ืจโ€. โ€“ ื•ืขื•ืœืฉืชืโ€œ, ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ึทืœื•ึนืกึดื™ึถื”โ€ ืœืฆืžโ€ืข ื“ื‘ืขืืœ ืืฆืœ โ€œื ื”ืจ ืืœโ€“ืงึทืกึดื™ึดืžึถื™ื”โ€ ื›ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืฆื•ืจโ€. ื”ื ื” ืจืื™ื ื• ื›ื™ ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืœืš ืกื—ื•ืจ ืกื—ื•ืจ ืœืฉืคืœืช ื”ืฆื•ืจื™ื, ื›ื™ ืžืขื›ื• ื™ืจื“ ื“ืจื•ืžื”โ€“ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืขื“ ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœืฆืคื•ืจื™ (ืกื™ืกืื™) ื•ืžืฉื ืขืœื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืขืœ ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื”ืฉืคืœื” ื•ื”ื’ื™ืข ืขื“ โ€œืชื‘ื ื™ืŸโ€, ื•ืžืฉื ื ื˜ื” ืžืขืจื‘ื”โ€“ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืขื“ ืœื ื”ืจ ืืœโ€“ืงืืกื™ืžื™ื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืฆื•ืจโ€ ื•ืœืคื™"ื– ื”ื™ืชื” ื›ืœ ื”ืฉืคืœื” ื”ื–ืืช ืžืฆื•ืจ ืขื“ ืขื›ื• ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื, ืžืœื‘ื“ ืจืฆื•ืขืช ื—ื•ืฃโ€“ื”ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืžืขื›ื• ืขื“ ื›ื–ื™ื‘, ืฉื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ.80 โ€œื•ืื•ืœื ืจื‘ืชืโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œืขึทืœึฐืžื™ืŸโ€ ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ โ€œื ื”ืจ ืืœโ€“ืงืืกืžื™ื”โ€ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขื˜ืกื™ื˜โ€œ. โ€“ ื•ืžื’ื“ืœ ื—ืจื•ื‘โ€, ื”ื•ื โ€œืึดืœโ€“ื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึถื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื“ึตื™ืจ ืžึดื™ืžืึทืกโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืชึถืœ ื“ึดื‘ึดื™ืŸโ€ ืืฆืœ โ€œืžึถืจึฐื’' ืขึทื™ื•ืŸโ€, ืฉื ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื’ื“ืœ ื—ืจื‘. โ€“ โ€œื•ื ื•ืงื‘ืชื ื“ืขื™ื•ืŸโ€, (ืขืžืง ืฆืจ ืฉืœ ืขึดื™ื•ืŸ), ื”ื™ื โ€œืขื™ื•ืŸโ€ ืฉื‘ืžืงืจื (ืžโ€œื ื˜โ€ื–, ื›; ืžโ€œื‘ ื˜ื•, ื›ื˜; ื“ื”โ€ื‘ ื˜ื–, ื“) ื•ื‘ื”ื™ื•ื ื ืงืจื: โ€œืžืจื’' ืขื™ื•ืŸโ€, ืข"ื™ ืขืžืงื™ื ืฆืจื™ื ืžืชื—ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ืืœ ืึฒื’ึทืŸ โ€œื‘ึทื—ึทืจ ืึดืœโ€“ื—ื•ืœึถื”โ€ ื•ืืœ ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ81. โ€œื•ืžื™ืฉืโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึถืช ืžึถื–ึทื”โ€, ืืฆืœ โ€œื ื”ืจ ื—ึทืฆึฐโ€™ื‘ึทืื ึดื™โ€ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืึทื›ึดื™ืœ ืึดืœโ€“ืงึถืžึฐื—โ€ (ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืžืขื›ื”) ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œืชึถืœ ืืœโ€“ืงึทืื“ึดื™โ€ (ื“ืŸ) ืขืœ ื™ื“ โ€œื’ึดโ€™ื™ืกึฐืจ ืึดืœโ€“ืขึทื’ึทโ€™ืจโ€ ื•ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืžืขื›ื” ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œื™ื‘ืœื•ื ื”โ€ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจืช ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื• ื”โ€ื) ืฉืจืฆื” ืจ' ื”ื•ื ื” ืœื”ืชื™ืจื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื•ืœื ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื”ื• ื•ืžืกืงื ื ื“ื’ืžืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื โ€œื ืื›ืœ ืื›ืœ ืœื ื ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจื•ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ืฉื“ื•ืช ืขื›ื•โ€ื ื•ืึธื‘ืœ ื–ืืช ื ืงืจืืช โ€œืื‘ืœื ื™ืโ€ (ื‘ืจ"ืจ ืค' ืœื’) ืื‘ื•ืœื™ืŸ, ื•ืžื–ื” ื ืฉืชื‘ืฉ ื”ืฉื ื•ื ื›ืชื‘ โ€œื™ื‘ืœื•ื ื”โ€ โ€œื•ืชื•ืงืจืชโ€ ื™ืฉ ืœืฉืขืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึถืชึฐ ืชื•ืจึฐืจึดื™ืชึทืโ€ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื—ึดืจึฐื‘ึถืชึฐ ืžึถื–ึทื”โ€ ืขืœ ื™ื“ ื ื”ืจ โ€œื—ึทืกึฐื‘ึทืื ึดื™โ€ โ€“ โ€œื•ื›ืจื›ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืกื ื’ืจืโ€ (ืกื ื’ื“ื), ืขโ€œื™ ื”ืฉืขืจื” ื—ืจื™ืคื” ืื•ืžืจ ื”โ€ื” (ืฉื 42 ื”ืขืจื” 283) ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œื–ึทืขึดื™ืจึทืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžื–ืจื— โ€œื‘ื ื™ืืกโ€. โ€“ โ€œื•ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ืขื™ืœืโ€™ื“ืงืกืจื™ืŸโ€, ืขืคโ€œื™ ื”ืชื“ืžื•ืช ื”ืฉืžื•ืช: ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœโ€“ืฉื›ื•ื™, ืฉืขืจ ื”โ€ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œืกื›ื•ืชืโ€ ืื• โ€œืฉึทื›ึดื™ืชึทืโ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” ยผ ืคืจืกื” ืœืฆืžโ€œื– โ€œื‘ื ื™ืืกโ€ ื•ืคืจืกื” ืื—ืช ืœื“ืžโ€ืข โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื’ึถโ€™ืŸโ€ ื•ื›ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืขื” ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื‘ึดืจึฐื›ึถืชึฐ ืึดืจโ€“ืจืืโ€ โ€“ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืกื•ื›ืชโ€ (ื‘ื™ืช ืกื›ืœ, ื‘ื™ืช ืกื‘ืœ), ืœื“ืขืชื™ ื”ื•ื โ€œื•ึทืขึทืจ ืึดื–โ€“ื–ึทื›ึดื™ึถื”โ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ื—ื‘ืœ ืืจืฅโ€“ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื ื”ืจ โ€œืคืจืคืจโ€ ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื’ืฉื•ืจโ€ ื•ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€œืึดืœ ื›ึฐื™ึทืืจึทืโ€ ื•ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œืกึทืขึฐืกึทืขโ€.โ€“ โ€œื•ืงื ืชโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œืงึปื ึทื™ึทืชึฐโ€ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื”ึธืจึตื™ โ€œื—ื™ืจึทืŸโ€, ื•ืœื“ืขืช ืงืฆืช ื”ื•ื โ€œื›ึถืจึทื›ึฐโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืชืœื™ืชโ€ ื•ืœืฆืžโ€œื– โ€œืื“ืจืขื™โ€ (ื“ึทืจึฐืขึทื”) ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื• ื”โ€ื) ืฉืืœื•: โ€œืื”ืŸ ื—ื•ื˜ื ื“ื ื™ื™ืโ€. ืคื™', ื”ื™ื โ€œื ื•ื”โ€ ื•ื”ื™ื: โ€œื ืึทื•ื”โ€ ืœืฆืžโ€ืข โ€œืขืฉืชืจื•ืช ืงืจื ื™ืโ€ ื›ืฉืชื™ ืคืจ' ืืฉ', ื•ืฉืืœื•, ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื ื—ืฉื‘ ืœืืจโ€œื™ ื‘ืžืกืœืช ื ืึทื•ื”โ€? ื•ื”ืฉื™ื‘ื•: โ€œืขื“ ื“ืจื™ื™โ€ ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืึดื“โ€“ื“ื•ืจโ€ ื‘ืงืฆื” ื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžืขืจื‘ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื˜ืจื›ื•ื ื.โ€“ [ื•ืจืงื ื“ื—ื’ืจื] (ื ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ืจืฉื™ืžื” ืคื” ืฉืœื ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื•), ื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžื•ืกึทื”โ€. โ€“ โ€œื•ื˜ืจื›ื•ื ื ื“ืžืชื—ื ืœื‘ืฆืจื”โ€ ื”ื™ื ื—ื‘ืœ, ืืจื’ื‘" (ืืœโ€“ืœึถื’ึทโ€™ื) ื—ื‘ืœ ืืจืฅ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœืฆืคืžโ€œืข ื”ืจื™ โ€œื—ื•ืจืŸโ€, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื›ืœ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื–ื”, ื›ื™ ื‘ื• ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืขืžื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืืžืจื•: โ€œื“ืžืชื—ื ืœื‘ืฆืจื”โ€, ืœืืžืจ, ื—ืœืง ืžืŸ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื–ื” ื”ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ืฆืจื” (ื‘ื•ืกึฐืจึทื”, Bostra). โ€“ โ€œื•ื™ื’ืจ ืฉื”ื’ื•ืชืโ€ (ืกื›ื•ืชื), ื”ื™ื โ€œืจืžื•ืชโ€ ืื• โ€œืžืฆืคื” ื’ืœืขื“โ€ (ื’ึถโ€™ื‘ึทืœ ืขึถืฉึทื) ยฝ1 ืฉืขื” ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื”ื™ื‘ื•ืง. โ€“ โ€œื•ื ืžืจื™ืŸโ€, ื ืงืจื ื‘ืฉื ื–ื” ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื”ื•ื ืœื“ืžโ€ืข โ€œืึดื ืกึทืœึฐืชึฐโ€ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ยฝ3 ืฉืขื”, ื•ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ. โ€“ โ€œื•ืžืœืชื ื“ื–ืจื•ืื™โ€ (ืžื•ืœื™ื ื“ื–ืจื‘ืื™, ื“ื–ืจื›ืื™) ื”โ€œื” ืคืœืคืœ ื‘ื–ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ืื™ ื•ืชืœื” ื”ืจ ื ื•ืคืœ ื‘ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืฉืขืจื” ื•ืœื“ืขืชื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื โ€œืžื‘ืฆืจโ€ ืขืœ ื™ื“ ื ื”ืจ โ€œื–ึถืจึฐื›ึทื”โ€ (ื”ื™ื‘ืง). โ€“ โ€œื•ื™ื‘ืงืโ€, ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื‘ืง, ื•ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื” ืคื’ืฉ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื™ื“ื•ืข ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื”ื ื—ืœ ื”ื–ื”. โ€“ โ€œื•ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸโ€, ื”ื•ื โ€œื—ึทืกึฐื‘ึทืŸโ€. โ€“ โ€œื•ื ื—ืœ ื“ื–ืจืจโ€, ื”ื•ื โ€œื•ืึทื“ึดื™ ืึดืœโ€“ื—ึทืืกึดื™โ€ ืืฉืจ ืจืืฉื™ืชื•, ื‘ืคืืช ืงื“ื™ื, ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ โ€œืงึฐื“ึตื™ืžื•ืชโ€ ืืฆืœ โ€œืžืกืœืช ื”ื”ึทืื’'โ€ ื•ืžืฉืชืคืš ื‘ืงืจืŸ ื“ืจืžโ€ื– ืฉืœ ื™ืโ€“ื”ืžืœื—, ืื‘ืœ ืคื”, ื™ืจืžื•ื– ืจืง ืขืœ ืจืืฉื™ืชื•. โ€“ (ืคื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื–ื›ื™ืจ ืืช โ€œืจืงื ื“ื—ื’ืจืโ€ ื“ืœืขื™ืœ). โ€“ โ€œื•ืจืคื™ื— ื“ื—ื’ืจืโ€, ื”ื™ื โ€œืจืคืึทื—โ€ ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” 22 ืžื™ืœ (7 ืฉืขื”) ืœืžืขโ€œื“ โ€œืขื–ื”โ€. โ€“ โ€œื•ืจืงื ื’ื™ืื”โ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืขโ€ ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื‘ืืจืชื™ื” ืœืžืขืœื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื, ื•ืœืคื™ ื”ืกื“ืจ ื”ื’ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืงื“ื™ืžื” ืœืคื ื™ โ€œืจืคื™ื—โ€, ื›ื™ ืžืŸ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื”โ€ ื™ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืžืขืจื‘ื” ื•ืคื’ืข ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื‘ืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืข, ื•ืžืฉื ื™ื‘ื ืœืงืฆื” ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืขืจื‘โ€“ืœืจืคื™ื—. โ€“ โ€œื•ื’ื ื™ื ื“ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸโ€, ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื›ืจืชื™ ื–ื”, ื•ืคื” ืœื ืืžืจื•: โ€œืคืจืฉืช ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸโ€, ื›ื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืฉโ€ืคืจืฉืช" ืžื•ืจื” ืขืœ โ€œื’ืœื™ืœโ€ ื•ืœืžืขืœื” ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื’ืœื™ืœ ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืืจืฅ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืจืชื™, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืืžืจื• ืฉื โ€œืคืจืฉืชโ€, ื•ืคื” ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื ื•ืช ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžืกึดื‘ึตื™ ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื ื›ื ืกื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืื‘ืœ ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ืขืฆืžื” ื ืฉืืจืช ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ื”ืืจืฅ. ื•ืžโ€œืฉ ืื—โ€ื›: โ€œื•ื“ืจืš ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื”ื”ื•ืœื›ืช ืœืžื“ื‘ืจโ€ ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ื›ื™ ื”ืžืœื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื•ืžืŸ ืคื” ืจืง ืœืžืขืœื”, ืื—ืจ โ€œื˜ืจื›ื•ื ื ืœืžืชื—ื ืœื‘ื•ืฆืจื”โ€ ืœืคื ื™ โ€œื™ื’ืจ ืฉื”ื“ื•ืชืโ€ ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจื™ โ€œื—ื•ืจืŸโ€ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืจืฅ ื’ืœืขื“ ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื”ืžืกืœื” ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื”ื ืงืจืืช โ€œื“ึถืจึฐื‘ึฐ ืืœ ื—ึทืื’ึฐ'โ€ ื”ื”ื•ืœื›ืช ืœืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขืจื‘. ื”ื ื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืืคื•ื ื›ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื”ืฉืชืจืข ืขืœ ืืจืฅ ืจื‘ื” ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ื›ืœ ืืจืš ื•ืจื—ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ื ื›ื‘ืฉื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืžืฉื” (ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ) ื•ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข (ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื•). ื›ื™ ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืจ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื•ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ื”ืœื ืœื ื ื›ื‘ืฉื• ื’ื ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื™ื“ ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื™ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ืžืงื•ืžื• ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ืงืกืจื™ืŸ ืขื“ ื™ืคื•, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ืœื ื ื›ื‘ืฉื” ื’ื ืฉืคืœืช ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื”; ืื“ืจื‘ื, ืžืœืคื ื™ื ืœื ื ื—ืœื• ืจืง ืขื“ ื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ ื•ืขืชื” ืคืจืฆื• ื”ื ื’ื‘ื” ืขื“ ื ื—ืœ ื–ืจื“82, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื” ืฉืืžืจ ืจ' ืืœืขื–ืจ ืœืจ' ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ืจืžืกืงื™ืช: โ€œื›ืš ืžืงื•ื‘ืœื ื™ ืžืจื™ื‘โ€ื– ืฉืฉืžืข ืžืจื‘ื• ื•ืจื‘ื• ืžืจื‘ื• ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™, ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ืžืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉืจ ืขื ื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช, ืžื” ื˜ืขื? โ€“ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ืจื›ื™ื ื›ื‘ืฉื• ืขื•ืœื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ, ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืงื“ืฉื” ืœืฉืขืชื” ื•ืœื ืงื“ืฉื” ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ื•ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืกืžื›ื• ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช" (ื—ื’ื™ื’ื” ื’, ื‘; ื™ื‘ืžื•ืช ื˜ื–, ื,; ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื–, ื) ื•ื–ื” ื™ืคืœื, ื›ื™ ืืช ืืจืฅ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ื”ืœื ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื• ื’ื ืขื•ืœื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื! ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืื ื ื‘ืืจ ื›ืจืฉโ€œื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ืืจืฅ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ืฉื˜ื™ื”ืจื” ื‘ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ, ืœืืžืจ, ืžื” ืฉื›ื‘ืฉ ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ืžื”ื, ื”ื™ื™ื ื•: ื—ืฆื™ ืืจืฅ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ืžืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ื’ื ืจืฆื•ืขืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉื›ื‘ืฉ ืžืืช ืžื•ืื‘ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ ื ื’ื‘ื” (ื›ืžื• ืฉื‘ืืจืชื™ ืœืžืขืœื”) ื•ื‘ืืžืช ื ืจืื” ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ื—ื•ื˜ ืชื—ื•ื ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจ ืžื‘ืฆืจื” ื“ืจืš ืžืกืœืช ื”ื—ืึทื’' ืืœ ื”ื™ื‘ืง, ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ ืžืฆืคื” ื’ืœืขื“, ื•ืžืฉื ืืœ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ, ื ืžืจื™ืŸ, ื ื—ืœ ื–ืจื“, ื”ื›ืœ ื“ืจืš ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ, ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื‘ืง ืขื“ ื–ืจื“, ื•ืโ€ื› ื ืฉืืจื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ื”ืืจืฅ, ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ื’ืจ (ื”ื”ืจื™ื) ืœื“ืขืช ืจืฉ"ื™,83 ื•ืขืชื” ื ืจืื” ื ื ืžืชื™ ื”ืชืจื—ื‘ื” ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉื ื™ ืขื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ื ื”ืจื—ื‘ื™ื ื”ืืœื”? ื›ื™ ืขื“ ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื”ืชื›ื ืกื” ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื—ื•ื’ื” ื”ืฆืจ ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืขืช ื”ืขืœื™ื” ืžื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื ื—ืžื™ื”, ื‘ื–ื” ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืกืคืง; ื•ื ื”ืคื•ืš ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ืชืคืจืฆื• ื”ืื“ื•ืžื™ื ืขื“ ืœื”ืœืื” ืžื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ, ืขื“ ื›ื™ ื ืืœืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืžื›ื‘ื™ ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื—ื™ื• ืœื‘ืฆืจ ืืช โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฆื•ืจโ€ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœืžื—ืกื” ืขื•ื– ืœื”ืืจืฅ ื ื’ื“ ืืจืฅ ืื“ื•ื (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื, ื“, ืกื; ื™ื“, ืœื’; ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื™ื‘, ื–,ื–) ื•ื›ืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ืืจืฅ ื”ื™ื ื ืงืจื ืื– โ€œืฉื“ื” ืื“ื•ืโ€ (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื’, ื›ื“) ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ื‘ืฉ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืช ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืœื—ืžืชื• ืฉื ืขื ื”ืื“ื•ืžื™ื (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืฉื ื”, ืกื”; ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื—, ื•) ื’ื โ€œื“ื•ืจืโ€ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ืขืœ ืืจืฅ ืื“ื•ื ืชื—ืฉื‘ (ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื™ื’, ื•'; ื˜, ื) ื•ื‘ืžืœื—ืžืชื• ืขื โ€œืžืจืฉื”โ€ (ื‘ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื˜ืขื•ืช โ€œืกืžืจื™ืโ€) ื•โ€œืืฉื“ื•ื“โ€ ืžืคื•ืจืฉ ื‘ืก' ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืคืขืžื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ื™ืชื” โ€œืืจืฅ ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ ืืœื™ืœื™ืโ€ (ื”ื™ื™ื“ืขืŸ). ื•ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืœื ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื”โ€œืฉื•ืžืจื•ื ื™ืโ€ ืกื™ืœื•ืŸ ืžืžืื™ืจ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ! ื’ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื•ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื™ืฉื‘ื•, ื›ื ืจืื”, ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื ืœืโ€“ืจื‘ื™ื, ื›ื™ ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืืกืคื• ืืช ื›ื•ืœื ื•ืืช ื ืฉื™ื”ื ื•ื˜ืคื ื•ื™ื‘ื™ืื•ื ืืจืฆื” ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืฉื, ื›ื’; ืžื”) ืžื” ืฉืœื ื™ื›ืœื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืœื• ื”ื™ื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื ื”ืžื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžื•ื ื™ื, ื•ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื™ื” ืื– ืžื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืขืžืื•ืก (ืขืžื•ืืก Nicopolis) ื›ื™ ืฉื ื ืœื—ืžื• ืขื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”; ืกื™ืจื•ืŸ, ืœื™ื–ื™ืืก, ื•ื ื™ืงื ื•ืจ (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืฉื ื’, ื™ื’; ืž; ื–, ืœื˜; ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื–, ื; ื’; ื•, ื”), ื’ื ื‘ื›ื—ื™ื“ืก ื‘ื ื” ืขืจื™ ืžื‘ืฆืจ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื‘ื“ื” ื•ื”ืŸ: ื™ืจื—ื•, ืขืžืื•ืก, ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ, ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ, ืชืžื ืช, ืคืจื”, ืชืงื•ืข, ื’ื–ืจ, ื‘ื™ืช ืฆื•ืจ (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืฉื ื˜, ื โ€“ื ื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื™ื’, ื, ื’. ื•ื‘ื—ืจืชื™ ืืช ื”ื ื•ืกื—ื ื”ื ื›ื•ื ื” ืžืฉื ื™ื”ืŸ), ืื•ืœื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ืžื›ื‘ื™ ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื• ืœืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขื•ื“ ืฉืœืฉ ื ืคื•ืช ืžืืจืฅ ืฉืžืจื•ืŸ ื•ื’ืœื™ืœ ื•ื”ืŸ: ืืคืจื™ืžื”, ืœื“ ื•ืจืžืชื84 (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืฉื ื™, ืœ; ืœื—; ื™ื, ื›ื—; ืœื“) 85 (ืจืื” ื‘ืก' ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืจโ€œื– ื™ืขื‘ืฅ ื—โ€ื“ ืฆื“ 21). ืื‘ืœ ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ื”ืžืœืš ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ืก ื‘ืŸ ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจ ืฉื ืืช ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื—ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืœืคืงื™ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžื—ื‘ืœ ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืฉื ื™ื, ื ื˜; ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื, ื”, ื“)86. ืขื•ื“ ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ื—ื™ืœ ืฆื‘ืื•ืชื™ื• ืขืœ ื ื”ืจ ืคืจืช, ื“ืžืฉืง, ืขื–ื” ื•ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื•ื™ื‘ื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืขืžื™ื ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืฉืžื” ื‘ืžืกื•ืจืช ื‘ืจื™ืช ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ื•ืก, ื•ื’ื ื ืœื—ื ื‘ืงื“ืฉ ื•ื‘ื—ืžืช ื•ื‘ื ื—ืœ ื”ืœื™ื˜ืจื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืขืจื‘ื™ื ืžืžื˜ื” ื–ื‘ื“ื™ (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืฉื, ืกโ€“ืกื‘; ื™ื‘, ื›ื”โ€“ืœื‘; ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื, ื”, ื™.) ื’ื ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื ืœื—ื ื‘ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืคื• ื•ื™ืœื›ื“ื” ื•ื™ื‘ืฆืจ ืืช โ€œื—ื“ื™ื“ื”โ€ (ื—ื“ื™ื“) ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฉืคืœื” ื•ืืช ื’ื–ืจ ืœืขืžืช ืืฉื“ื•ื“ ื•ืืช ื™ืžื ื™ื” (ื™ื‘ื ื”) (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ืฉื ื™ื‘, ืœื’; ืœื—; ื™ื“, ืœื“; ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื, ื™; ื•, ื•); ืื•ืœื ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืœืึทืชื ื‘ื™ื•ืก ืฆื™ืจ ื”ืžืœืš ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ื•ืก, ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ื’ื ื”ื•ื ืœื ื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ืืช ื™ืคื• ื•ืืช ื’ื–ืจ ื‘ืชื•ืจ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืฆืžื” (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื˜ื•, ืœื’โ€“ืœื”). ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื ืœื—ื ื‘ื™ื‘ื ื”, ืงื“ืจื•ืŸ, ื’ื–ืจ, ืืฉื“ื•ื“ ื•ื™ืœื›ื“ืŸ, ื”ื•ื ืœื›ื“ ื’ื ืืช ืžื™ื“ื‘ื ื•ืืช ืฆืžื—, ืืช ืฉื›ื ื•ืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื•ืžืจื•ื ื™ื, ืืช ืื“ื•ืจื” ื•ืืช ืžืจืฉื” ื•ืืช ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ืื“ื•ื, ืืช โ€œืกื‘ืกืชื”โ€ (ืฉื•ืžืจื•ืŸ) ื•ืืช ื‘ื™ืกืืŸ (ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸ Scytopolis) (ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื˜, ื; ื™, ื‘โ€“ื’). ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจ ื™ื ืื™ ื›ื‘ืฉ ืืช ื’ื“ืจื” ืœืฆืž"ื– ื™ื ื›ื ืจืช ื•ืืช ืืžืชื•ืก ื‘ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืžื–ืจื—ื” (ืฆืคื•ืŸ) ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืกื›ื•ืชโ€ ื•ืืช โ€œืจืคื™ืโ€ (ืจืคื™ื— ื“ื—ื’ืจื) ื•ืืช ืื ืชื“ื•ึนืŸ (Agripias) ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขื–ื” (ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื, ื™ื’, ื’), ื›ื‘ืฉ ื’ื ืืช ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ืืช ืืจืฅ ื’ืœืขื“ (ืฉื, ื“) ืืš ื ืชื ืŸ ืžื”ืจ ืœืžืœืš ืกื•ืจื™ื” (ืฉื ื™ื“, ื‘), ื•ื’ื ื ืœื—ื ืขื: "ื“ื™ื•ื, ืึถืกืึท, ื’ื•ืœืŸ, ืกื™ืœื™ืงื™ืึธ, ืขืžืง ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ืก (ื—ื•ืœืช ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ื) ืžื‘ืฆืจ ื’ืžืœื, ื•ืœืื—ืจื•ื ื” โ€“ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื™ื• ืื– ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื โ€œืขืจื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžืกื•ืจื™ื, ืคื™ื ื™ืงื™ื, ืฉืžืจื•ืŸ, ื•ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืœื”ื: ืžื’ื“ืœ ืกื˜ืจื˜ื•ืŸ (ืงืกืจื™ื), ืืคื•ึนืœื•ึนื ื™ื, ื™ืคื•, ื™ืžื ื™ื” (ื™ื‘ื ื”), ืืฉื“ื•ื“, ืื ืชื“ื•ึนืŸ, ืจืคื™ื, ืจื”ื™ื ื•ึนืงื•ึนืจื•ืจืึท (ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื). ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื™ื• ืœืžื• ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจืฅ ืื“ื•ื: ืื“ื•ืจื”, ืžืจืฉื”. ื’ื ืฉื•ืžืจื•ืŸ, ื”ื›ืจืžืœ, ืชื‘ื•ืจ, ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸ, ื’ื“ืจื”, ื’ื•ืœื•ืŸ, ืกื™ืœื™ืงื™ื, ื’ื‘ืœื” (ื”ื’ื‘ืœืŸ). ื‘ืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘: ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ, ืžื™ื“ื‘ื, ืœึถืžึฐื‘ึตื, ืื•ืจื•ื ึถื”, ืชึถืœื™ืชื•ืŸ, ืฆึทืจึทื” ืคึถืœึทื”โ€ (ืฉื ื˜ื•, ื’โ€“ื“). ืคื” ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืื ื• ืขืœ ืžืจื•ื ืคืกื’ืช ื”ืื•ืฉืจ ืœืขืžื ื• ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืžืœื›ื™ ื”ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื•ื”ื ื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ื›ื™ ื’ื ื›ืœ ื—ื‘ืœ ืืจืฅ ื”ื—ื•ืฃ, ืžื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื (ืจื”ื™ื ื•ืงื•ืจื•ืจื) ืขื“ ืงืกืจื™ื, ื’ื ื›ืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™, ื’ื ืงืฆืช ืžืืจืฅ ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ืื“ื•ื ื•ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ืฉืžืจื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื•ื’ื ื‘ืงืขืช ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื”ืจืจื™ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื•ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื™ื“ ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื (ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืžืœื‘ื“ โ€œืขืฉืจ ื”ืขืจื™ืโ€ (Decapolis) ืืฉืจ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื™ื•ื ื™ื ื•ื”ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ื›ืจืงื‘ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”), ื•ืœื›ืŸ, ืื ืœืคื™ ืจืฉื™ืžืช ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื“ื—ื–"ืœ ื™ื•ืฆืื•ืช ืขืจื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ื”ืืจืฅ, ืื™ืŸ ื–ืืช, ืจืง ื›ื™ ื”ื ื™ื“ืขื• ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืœื ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื“ื ื” ืœืืจืš ื™ืžื™ื ืชื—ืช ื™ื“ ืžืžืฉืœืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ. ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืื“ื•ื ื™ ืื‘ื™ ืžื•ืจื™ ื”ืจื”โ€œื’, ื”ื—ื›ื ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื, ื—ื•โ€ื‘, ื™ืจื ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ืืžืช, ืื™ืฉ ื”ืืžืช ื‘ื’ืŸ ืฉืœ ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื•' ื›ืงืฉโ€œืช ืžื•ื”ืจโ€ืจ ืคื ื—ืก ื”ืœื•ื™ ืื™ืฉื ื”ื•ืจื•ื•ื™ืฅ ืฉืœื™ื˜"ื ื‘ืŸ ื”ืจื‘ ื”ืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ื›ื•' ื›ืžื•ื”ืจโ€œืจ ืžืจื“ื›ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื™ื™ื–ื™ืง ื‘ืŸ ื”ืจื‘ ื”ื’ืื•ืŸ ื•ื›ื•' ื›ืžื•ื”ืจโ€ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื–ืื‘ ืื‘ื“ืงโ€œืง ืื•ื”ืขืœ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืื•ื ื’ืืจืŸ ื‘ื”ืจโ€ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ื”ืจโ€œืจ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื–ืื‘. ืžืฆืืฆืื™ ื”ื’ืื•ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ืฉืœโ€ื” ื–ืฆื•ืงืœืœ"ืช ืื‘ื™ ืื”ื•ื‘ื™! ืืช ืจื•ื— ืื”ื‘ืช ื”ืืžืช ื”ื ื˜ื•ืขื” ื‘ืš ืฉืžืชื™ ืœื™ ืœืงื•, ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ื ืจ ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื‘ืกืคืจื™ ื–ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืชืจ ืกึฐืคึธืจึทื™, ื•ื›ืœ ืขื•ื“ ื ืฉืžืช ืฉื“ื™ ืชื—ื™ื™ื ื™ ืœื ืืขื–ื‘ื ื”. ื•ื”ื ื ื™ ืžื’ื™ืฉ ืœืš ื‘ื™ืจืืช ื•ื‘ื”ื“ืจืช ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืืช ืจืืฉื™ืช ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ ื”ืขื˜ ืฉืœ ื‘ื ืš ื‘ื›ื•ืจืš. ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืขืœ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื–ื›ืจ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืื”ื•ื‘ื™ ื—ื•ืชื ื™ ื”ื™ืงืจ ื”ืจื”โ€œื— ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื, ื™ืงืจ ืจื•ื— ืื™ืฉ ืชื‘ื•ื ื”, ื™ืจโ€ื ื›ืžื•ื”ืจ"ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื”ืœื•ื™ ื˜ื™ื™ื˜ืœื‘ื•ื™ื ืฉืœื™ื˜"ื ื›ื™ ืœืžืจื•ืช ืขื ื™ื• ื•ืœื—ืฆื• ืขืžืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ื›ื—ื• ื•ืžืื•ื“ื• ืœืชืžื›ื ื™ ื‘ืจื•ื— ื ื“ื™ื‘ื”, ืœืžืขืŸ ืื•ื›ืœ ืœืฉืงื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืจื™ืข. ื–ื›ืจื” ืœื• ืืœื”ื™ ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื”! ื”ืžื—ื‘ืจ ืœืคื™ ื—ื–โ€œืœ ื”ื™ื” โ€ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืœืชื™ืŸโ€œ ืžืงื•ื ื‘ืงืฆื” ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ (ืจื”โ€œืฉ ืคโ€ื‘ ืž"ื“) ื•ื‘ื’ืž' ืืžืจื• ืฉื”ื™ื โ€ื‘ื™ืจืโ€œ ื•ื‘ืกื ื”ื“' (ืง"ื— ื) ืืžืจื• ืฉื™ืฉ ืฉื ืžืขื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ื—ืžื™ื ื›ืžื• ื—ืžื™ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื (ื•ืขื™โ€˜ ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืคืœโ€ื’ ืื•ืช ื“โ€™) ื•ื”ืจโ€ื™ ืฉื•ื•ืืจืฅ (ืชื‘ื•ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ, ืœื•ื ืฅ ืฆื“ ืฉื™"ื˜) ืฉืžืข ื›ื™ ืืฆืœ ื ื”ืจ ืคืจืช ื™ืฉื ื• ืžืขื™ืŸ ื—ื, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืžืฉืขืจ ื›ื™ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื™ืจื=ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืœืชื™ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื•ื ืืฆืœ ืขื™ืจ โ€œื”ื™ื˜โ€ ืขืœ ื”ืžืกืœื” ื”ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืžื“ืžืฉืง ืœื‘ื’ื“ื“, ื•ืื ื ื›ื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื ืฉืžื•ืขืชื• ืžื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืื ืœื ื ืžืฆืื• ืฉื ื‘ืืจืฅ ืืจื ืืฆืœ ื ื”ืจ ืคืจืช ืขื•ื“ ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ื—ืžื™ื. ย โ†ฉ ืžืกื•ืฃ ืก' ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืื•ืจืš ื”ืืจืฅ ืžื“ืจื•ื ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขื•ืœื” 975 ืžื™ืœ ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”, ืœืืžืจ ืืœืคื™ื ืืžื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื™ืœ ื‘ืืžืช ื‘ืช ืฉืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื, ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ืฉืขืจืชื™ ื”ื™ื˜ื‘ ืžืฆืืชื™ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ืืžื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ืžื“ืชื” ืฉืชื™ ืจื’ืœ ืื ื’ืœื™ื•ืช, ื•ืœืค"ื– ืขื•ืœื” ืœื›ืœ ืžื™ืœ 1333 ื™ืืจื“ ืื• 75 ื™ืืจื“ ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืžื™ืœ ืจื•ืžืื™ ื•ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื•ืขื˜ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื“ืงื“ืง ื‘ื• ื‘ืžื“ื™ื“ืช ืฉื˜ื—ื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื, ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ืžื™ืœ ืจื•ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื ืคื—ื•ืช ื—ื•ืžืฉ ืื• ืžืžื™ืœ ืื ื’ืœื™ ืขื•ืœื” ืื™ืคื•ื ืื•ืจืš ื”ืืจืฅ 780 ืžื™ืœ ืื ื’ืœื™ื ืื• 195 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ื•ืช. ย โ†ฉ ืœื“ืขืช ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ืžื’ืœื” ื’, ื; ืกื•ื˜ื” ืžื‘, ื‘; ื‘ืžื“ื‘โ€œืจ ืคื˜โ€ื– ืื•ืช ื˜"ื•) ื”ื™ืชื” ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืชโ€˜ ืคืจืกื” ืขืœ ืชโ€™ ืคืจืกื”, ื•ื”ืคืจืกื” ื”ืชืœืžื•ื“ื™ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืคืจืกื” ืืฉื›ื ื–ื™ืช (ืคื—ื•ืช ื—ื•ืžืฉ) ืโ€ื› ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ืืจืฅ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” 160,000 ืคืจโ€˜ ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช, ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื—ืžืฉ ืคืขืžื™ื ืžืฉื˜ื— ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ืชื•ืจืงื™ื! ื•ืืฃ ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืฆื” ื”ืืจืฅ ื›ื“ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ื ื–, ื) (ื•ืขื™' ืœืขืžืช ื–ื” ื‘ืจื”โ€œืฉ ื›โ€ื‘, ื‘; ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืžืขืฉืจ ืฉื ื™ ืคโ€œื” ื”โ€ื‘), ืืš ื”ืœื ื’ื ืขืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืืžืจื• ืฉืžื—ื–ืงืช ืชโ€ืค ืขืœ ืชโ€œืค (ืคืกื—ื™ื ืฆื“, ื; ืชืขื ื™ืช ื™, ื'), ื•ืขืœ ื›ื•ืฉ ืืžืจื• ืฉื ืฉื”ื™ื ืฉืฉื™ื ืคืขื ื›ืžื•ื”, ื‘ืกโ€ื” 9,600,000 ืคโ€œืž, ื•ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจื• ืฉื ืชื›ื•ื•ืฆื•. ื•ืืืžื•โ€ืจ ื”ืจืจ"ืค ืฉื™ื—ื™โ€™ ืืžืจ, ื›ื™ โ€œืชโ€ืค ืขืœ ืชโ€œืคโ€ ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื•, ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ื›ืœื” ืชโ€˜ ืคืจโ€™ ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ืฉืชืžืฉื• ื—ื–โ€œืœ ืขืœ ื”ื•ืจืืช โ€ืžืจื•ื‘ืขโ€œ ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ โ€ื›ืš ื•ื›ืš ืขืœ ื›ืš ื•ื›ืšโ€œ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื›ื•ื•ื ื• ื‘ื–ื” ืœื›ืคื•ืœ ืชโ€˜ ืคืจโ€™ ืขืœ ืชโ€˜ ืคืจโ€™. ื•ื‘ืืžืช, ื›ื™ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื ื›ื‘ืฉื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื ื”ื—ื–ื™ืงื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ 30 ืคืจโ€˜ ื‘ืืจืš ืขืœ 14 ืคืจโ€™ ื‘ืจื—ื‘, ืฉื”ืŸ ืžืขื˜ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ ืชโ€˜ ืคืจโ€™ ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช. ื•ืขืœ ืื“ื•ืช ืžื” ืฉืืžืจื• ื—ื–โ€ืœ (ืชื ื—ื•ืžื ืค' ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื ื•ืขื•ื“) ืฉืืจโ€œื™ ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื™ื ืขื™' ืžโ€ืฉ ืข"ื– ื‘ืคื™' ืื•ืฆืจ ื ื—ืžื“ ืœื”ื›ื•ื–ืจื™ (ืžโ€œื‘ ืก' ื™โ€ื˜). ย โ†ฉ ื•ืืžื—ื–โ€œืœ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘"ืจ ืค' ื˜ื–) โ€ืฉื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื™ืฆืื• ื•ื ื—ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ื ื— ืืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืื—ืจ ื”ืžื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื ื‘ื ื• ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืชื—ืœื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ืฉื‘ื— ืืœื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ืคืกื•ืœืช ืฉืœ ืโ€œื™โ€. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื–ื” ื™ื‘ื ืขืœ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืžืฉื—โ€œื–ืœ (ืžื•ื‘ื ื‘ืจืฉ"ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื‘, ื•) โ€ื”ื™ื” ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ื›ื•ื‘ืฉ ืืช ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื–ืจืขื• ืฉืœ ืฉื ืฉื‘ื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ืฉื ื ืคืœื”". ย โ†ฉ ื›ืžื• ืฉืžืฆืื ื• ืขื•ื“ ืžืงื•ื ื›ื–ื” ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ืงืจื ื‘ื“ื—ื–โ€œืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืฆึทื™ึฐื“ึธื ืื• โ€ืฆื™ื™ื“ืŸ" ืื• ื”ึทืฆึดื“ึดื™ื ื‘ืžืงืจื, ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื ื›ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืึทืœึพื˜ึทื‘ึผึฐื—ึทื ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ืฆื™ื“ ื“ื’ื™ื ืžื”ืœืœ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื“ื•ืจ ืœื ืคืช ื“ื•ืจ ืื™ื ื ื” ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื, ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื›ื—ืชื™ ื‘ืจืื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื”. ย โ†ฉ ื ื˜ื™ืชื™ ื‘ื–ื” ืžื“ืจืš ื”ืžื‘ืืจื™ื ื–โ€œืœ ืฉื‘ืืจื•ื”ื•: ื—ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืืฆืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ืœื”ืงื•ื•ืช ืืช ืžื™ืžื™ ื”ื™ื ืœืชื•ื›ืŸ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ื—ืจื‘ื• ืžื—ื•ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื•ื™ืฉืื™ืจื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืœื—. ืขืคโ€ื™ ืชโ€œื™ ืฉืชืจื’ืžื• ื—ึทืจึฐืฆึตื™ ื™ึทืžึธื, ื›ื™โ€ ื) ืžืŸ ื”ืžืงืจื ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืงื•ื ืžึฐืกึปื™ึธื (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื, ื—; ื™ื’, ื•), ื•ื”ืชืขืœื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ื‘ื”ืžื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ืœื›ืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื™ืžื™ื. ื‘) ืื—ืจื™ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ื‘ืืจ ืžืชื—ืœื” ืืช ื›ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ืืฉืจ ืœื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืคื” ืื™ื–ื” ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื‘ื•ื“ื“ื” ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื”ื™ื, ื•ืื ื‘ืืžืช ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžื“ื•ืข ืœื ืื—ื– ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืงืฆืจื”: ืžืŸ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ื™ื? ืฉื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžืกื™ื. ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉื›ืฉื ืฉืฆื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืืช ื”ืฉืคืœื” ืžื ื’ื‘ ื•ืกื™ื™ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื’ึฐื‘ึทืœ, ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ื•ืืช ื”ื‘ืงืขื” ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ื’โ€œื› ืžื“ืจื•ื (ื‘ืขืœ ื’ื“) ืขื“ ืฆืคื•ืŸ (ื—ืžืช), ื›ืŸ ืžื•ื›ืจื—ื™ื ืื ื—ื ื• ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื• ืžืŸ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ืกื™ื™ื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœื• ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ, โ€ื•ื—ืจืฆื™ ื™ืžืโ€œ ืฉืชืจื’ื ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืื™ื ื ื• โ€ืชืขืœื•ืชโ€œ ื›ื™ ืขโ€ื– ื”ื™' ืฆ"ืœ ื—ึฒืจึดื™ืฆึตื™, ื•ื—ึทืจึฐืฆึตื™ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื”ื•ืจืืช ืžึธืชึฐื ึตื™ ื•ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ื‘ืื•ืจ ืื—ืจ. ย โ†ฉ ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื โ€“ ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื”ืจืžื‘โ€œืŸ ื–โ€ืœ ืžื•ื›ื™ื— ืžื–ื” (ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื™ื‘; ื›ื’) ืฉื—ื•ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื—ื•ืจื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืžโ€œืฉ โ€ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื•ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ ื•ื”ื—ื•ื™ ื™ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ื”ืจ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืžื”ืจ ื‘ืขืœ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืœื‘ื•ื ื—ืžื”โ€œ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื’, ื’) ืื™ืŸ ืœื‘ืืจ ืฉื”ื—ื•ื™ ืœื‘ื“ื• ื™ืฉื‘ ืขื“ ืœื‘ื•ื ื—ืžืช, ื›ื™ ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื–ื”, ืื—ืจื™ ืืฉืจ ื›ื‘ืจ ื‘ืืจื ื• ืฉื”ืฆื™ื“ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืื“ื•ื ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื›ืœื”. ืจืง ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ืฉื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื•ื”ื—ื•ื™ ื›ื•ื ื ื• ืœืžื• ืžื•ืฆืื•ืช (ืงืืœืื’ื™ืขืŸ) ื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืฉืžื” (ื•ืžื•ืฆื ื›ื–ืืช ื”ื™ืชื” ืื•ืœื™ ื’ื ืœื™ืฉ โ€“ ื“ืŸ ื‘ื˜ืจื ืฉื›ื‘ืฉื•ื” ื‘ื ื™ ื“ืŸ, ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื™ื—) ืื‘ืœ ืจื•ื‘ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื” ื”ื™ื• โ€ืฆื™ื“ื ื™ืโ€œ, ื›ืŸ ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ื ื‘ืฆืจืคืช (ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื”, ื›) ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ (ืžืœ"ื ื™ื–, ื›ื˜). ื•ื›ืŸ ืžืฆืื ื• ืืช โ€ื”ื—ื•ื™โ€œ ื’ื ืืฆืœ โ€ื”ืขืจืงื™โ€œ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™, ื™ื–) (ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œืขืจืงื ื“ืœื™ื‘ื ืŸโ€ ื‘ื“ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืคืœโ€ื–) ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืขื™ืจ โ€ื˜ืจื™ืคื•ืœื™ืก โ€“ ื˜ืึทืจืึทื‘ืœื•ืกโ€œ, ื•ื”ื™ื•ื ืฉืžื” โ€ืชืœ ืขืจืงื") ื•ื‘ืžื“ืจืฉ (ืฉื) ื™ืงืจื โ€ื—ืœื“ื™ืŸโ€œ ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€ื—ื•ืœื“ื”โ€œ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืื™ื–ื” ืฉืขื•ืช ืžื ื’ื‘ โ€ื‘ื™ืจื•ื˜โ€œ, ื•ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื• ืฉื”ื—ื•ื™ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจ ื‘ืคืกื•ืง ื–ื” ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื›ืคืจ โ€ื—ื•ืœื“ื”โ€œ, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื™ื›ื•ืŸ ืืœ ื–ื” ืžโ€ืฉ โ€œื•ื™ื‘ืื• ืžื‘ืฆืจ ืฆืจ ื•ื›ืœ ืขืจื™ ื”ื—ื•ื™โ€ (ืฉืž"ื‘ ื›ื“, ื–) ื›ื™ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืฆื•ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืขืจื™ื ื ื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืžื‘ื ื™ ื”ื—ื•ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืœืคื™ ื“ืจืฉืช ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ืกื•ื˜ื” ืžื‘, ื‘; ืจื•ืช ืคโ€œื‘; ืžื“ืจืฉ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืคโ€ื›) ื”ื™ืชื” โ€ืขืจืคื”โ€œ, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ื’ื ื”ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืจืคืื™ื ื‘ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ืขื’ืœื•ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื” ืื• ืขื ืืžื”, ื›ืžืฉโ€ื‘ ื”ืจืžื‘"ืŸ ืฉืื‘ื™ื ื‘ื”ืขืจื” ื“ืœืงืžืŸ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื‘โ€œืจ (ืคื›"ื•) ืืžืจื•: โ€ื–' ืฉืžื•ืช ื ืงืจืื• ืœื”ื: ืื™ืžื™ื, ืจืคืื™ื, ื’ื‘ื•ืจื™ื, ื–ืžื–ื•ืžื™ื, ืขื ืงื™ื, ืขื–ื™ื, ื ืคื™ืœื™ืโ€œ ื•ืื—โ€ื› ื‘ืืจื• ืืช ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื”, ื•ื›ืชื‘ ืขโ€œื– ื”ืจื‘ ื‘ืขืœ ื™ืคื” ืชื•ืืจ: โ€ืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžื•ื›ืจื—ื™ื ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ืืœื• ื ืชื ื• ืœืขื ืื—ื“ ื•ืœืžืฉืคื—ื” ืื—ืช, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื“ืจืฉ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื•; ืื‘ืœ ื’ื ืื ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื•ืขืžื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžโ€œืž ื“ื•ืจืฉ ืœืžื” ื ืงืจืื• ื‘ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื”โ€ ื•ื”ืจืžื‘โ€œืŸ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื™ื‘), ื›ืชื‘: โ€ื•ื”ื ื” ืืจืฅ ืจืคืื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžืื“ ื•ืœืงื—ื• ืžื”ื ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ืœืงื—ื• ืžื”ื ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ื ืฉืืจื” ืžืžื ื” ืœืจืคืื™ื ืขืฆืžืโ€ฆโ€œ ื•ืœืคื ื™ ื–ื” ื•ืœืื—ืจ ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ืืจืš ื›ื™ ื”ื—ื•ืจื™* ื•ื”ืขื–ื™ื ื•ื”ืจืคืื™ื ืฉื‘ื˜ ืื—ื“ ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื”ื, ื•ืœื“ืจื›ื• ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœืืžืจ ืฉื”ืขื ืงื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื• ื‘ืขื–ื” ื•ื‘ื’ืช ื•ื‘ืืฉื“ื•ื“ ื”ื ื”ื โ€ื”ืขื–ื™ื" ื”ื ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื (ื’, ื›ื’) ื•ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข (ื™ื’, ื’) ืืฉืจ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื ื•ื™ื‘ืื• ื”ื›ืคืชืจื™ื ื•ื™ื’ืจืฉื•ืŸ (ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”). ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื โ€“ ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื“ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ื•ื™ืงโ€œืจ ืคื™โ€ื–): โ€ืฉื‘ืขื” ืขืžืžื™ืŸ ื”ื ื•ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืืจืฅ ื›ื ืขืŸ, ืจ' ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื›ื ืขืŸ ืื‘ื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื›ื•ืœื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจื™ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื›ื•ืœื ืชื’ืจื™ืŸโ€œ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืืžืจื•: โ€ืžื”ื• ื›ื ืขืŸ? ืืจืฅ ืฉืœ ืคืจืงืžื˜ื™ื ืฉื‘ื” ืกื—ื•ืจื”" (ื‘ืžื“ื‘"ืจ ืค' ื› ื’). ย โ†ฉ ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ื›ื™ ืชืคืกื• ืœื”ื ืžืงื•ื ื’ื ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื‘ืขืจื“, ืขื“ โ€œื—ืจืžื”โ€ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œืกื•ืคื”โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื ืโ€“ื’) ืื• โ€œืฆืคืชโ€ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ื™ื–) ืืš ื—ื–"ืœ ืฉื“ื• ื‘ื™ื” ื ืจื’ื, ื›ื™ ืืžืจื• ื‘ืžื“ืจืฉ (ืฉื ื•ืขื•ื“ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช) ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ืขืžืœืงื™. ย โ†ฉ ืขื™' ืจืžื‘"ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™, ื™ื“. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื–ื” ื โ€œืœ ืœื‘ืืจ ืžืฉโ€ื› (ื“ื”"ื ื–, ื›ื): โ€œื•ื‘ื ื™ ืืคืจื™ื ืฉื•ืชืœื—โ€ฆ ื•ื”ืจื’ื•ื ืื ืฉื™ ื’ืช ื”ื ื•ืœื“ื™ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื›ื™ ื™ืจื“ื• ืœืงื—ืช ืžืงื ื™ื”ืโ€ ื›ื™ ืืœื” โ€œืื ืฉื™ ื’ืชโ€ ื”ื ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืฉื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื“ืืžื™ืื˜ (ื›ืคืชื•ืจ) ื•ื ืงืจืื• โ€œืื ืฉื™ ื’ืชโ€ ืื•ืœื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื‘ืื• ืœืฉื ืžืขื™ืจ โ€œื’ืชโ€, ืื•ืœื ืœื‘ืœ ื ื˜ืขื” ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ืจื’ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืืคืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืชื ื‘ืขืฆืžื ืฉื‘ืื• ืžืขื™ืจ โ€œื’ืชโ€ ืœื›ืŸ ื›ืชื‘ โ€œื”ื ื•ืœื“ื™ื ื‘ืืจืฅโ€, ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื”ื ืฉื ื•ืœื“ื• ื‘ืืจืฅ ื“ืืžื™ืื˜ ื”ื ื”ื™ื• ื”ื”ื•ืจื’ื™ื, ื•ืœืคื™ ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืฆื‘, ื‘; ืฉืž"ืจ ืค' ื› ืื•ืช ื™ื), ืงืจื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืฉื ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื™ืฆื™ืืช ืžืฆืจื™ื. ืโ€ื› ื™ืฆืื• ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืžื›ืคืชื•ืจ ืื—ืจื™ ื–ืžืŸ ื–ื”; ืื•ืœื ืžืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืžื›ืœืชื (ื‘ืฉืœื— ื) ื ืจืื” ืฉืžืœื—ืžื” ื–ืืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ืขืฆืžื”, ืฉืืžืจื•: โ€œืฉืœื ื™ืจืื• ืขืฆืžื•ืช ืื—ื™ื”ื ืžื•ืฉืœื›ื™ื ื‘ืคืœืฉืช ื•ื™ื—ื–ืจื• ืœื”ืโ€, ืืš ืžื™ ื™ืฆื‘ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื‘ืคืืช ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืชึพืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช? ื•ืžื” ืžื ื• ื™ื”ืœื•ืš ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื’ื ื“ืืžื™ืื˜ ื ื—ืฉื‘ื” ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจืฆื ื”ืงื“ื•ืžื”, ืื—ืจื™ ืฉื’ื ื‘ื” ื’ืจื• ื”ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืืจืฅ ืื—ืจืช ืžืคืกืงืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืืœื”? ย โ†ฉ ื•ืœื“ืขืช ื‘ืจื•ื’ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื ื—ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืžื–ืจื—, โ€œืฉื™ึพื—ื•ืจโ€ ืขืœ ื™ื“ ืœืฉื•ืŸึพื™ื ืกื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื โ€œืคืœื•ื–ื™ื ืโ€. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€ื•ื™ื›ืจืชื• ื‘ืจื™ืช ื‘ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืขโ€ฆ ื•ื™ืฉื•ื‘ื• ืืœ ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ืโ€œ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›ื, ืœื‘), ื•ืขื•ื“: โ€ื•ืขื ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฉืจ ื’ืจืชื” ื‘ื”โ€œ (ืฉโ€˜, ืฉโ€™ ื›"ื’) ืžื•ื›ื— ืžื–ื” ืฉื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืื™ื ื ื” ืžื’ื•ืฃ ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื. ื’ื ืžืขื ื™ืŸ ื™ืฆื—ืง (ืฉื ื›ื•) ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื™ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื•ืžืžโ€ืฉ: ื•ื™ื’ืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ืโ€œ (ืฉื, ืœื“) ื ืจืื” ืฉื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ื”ื™ื ืžืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ืขื™ืจ ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืขืฆืžื” ื”ื™ื ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœ, ืื‘ืœ ืžืกื‘ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ, ื”ื™ื™ื ื• โ€ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืขโ€œ (ืฉื ื›ื, ื™ื“) ื ื›ื ืก ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื—ื•ื ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื•ืื‘ืจื”ื ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื• ืจื•ืขื” ืฆืืŸ ื•ื™ืœืš ืžืžืจืขื” ืœืžืจืขื”, ื•ื‘ืœื ืชืคื•ื ื” ื‘ื ื’ื ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืืจืฅ ืขื ืฆืื ื•, ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœืืžืจ ืฉื’ืจ โ€ื‘ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ืโ€œ ืืฃ ื›ื™ ืžื•ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืงื‘ื•ืข ื”ื™ื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื (ื•ืขื™' ืจืžื‘"ืŸ ืฉื) ื•ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื˜ืจื— ื”ืžืงืจื ืœื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืืฉืจ ืœื™ื”ื•ื“ื”" (ืžืœ"ื, ื™ื˜, ื’), ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืฆืจ ืœื ื ื˜ืขื” ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื”ื™ื ืžืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืขื™โ€˜ ื‘ื–ื‘ื—ื™ื ื ื’, ื‘ ื‘ืจืฉโ€œื™ ื“โ€ื” ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืœืžื‘ื ื™ื™ื”, ืžื‘ืืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืขื™ืŸ ืžื™ ื ืคืชื•ื—, ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื™โ€™ ืืฆืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืžืžืฉ (ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”). ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉืกื•ื‘ืจ ื›ื™ โ€œืขื™ืŸ ืขื™ื˜ืโ€ ืื™ื ื ื• โ€œืขื™ื˜ืโ€ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจืช ื‘ื“ื”โ€œื ื“, ืœื‘ ื•ื‘ื“ื”โ€ื‘ ื™ื, ื•) ย โ†ฉ ื•ืื™ื ื ื” โ€œื’ื‘ืชื•ืŸโ€ ืื• โ€œื’ื‘ืชโ€ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจื” ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืžื’ืœื” ื) ื•ื‘ื‘ืœื™ (ื™ื‘ืžื•ืช ืกื’, ื‘), ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื โ€œื’ืึทื‘ืึทื”ื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€œืฆืคื•ืจื™โ€, ื•ืžืžื ื” ืขื“ ืึทื ื˜ื™ืคื˜ืจื™ืก. (ืื ื˜ื™ืคืึทื˜ืจื™ืก, ื›ืคืจ ืกื‘ื, ืืฆืœ ืจืึทืก ืืœโ€“ืขื™ืŸ, ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ืคื•) ื‘ื›ืœ ืื•ืจืš โ€œื”ืจ ืืคืจื™ืโ€, ื”ื™ื• ืœืคื™ ืžืกื•ืจืช ื—ื–"ืœ ืก' ืจื‘ื•ื ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืื™ื ื ื• ื™ื•ื“ืข ืžื” ื”ื—ืœื•ื ืืฉืจ ื—ืœื ืœืจโ€œื™ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื’ ืฉื›ืชื‘: โ€ืขืœ ืฉื ื‘ืŸ ื›ื ืขืŸ ื–ื” ืชืงืจื ืœืคืขืžื™ื ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื›ื ืขืŸ โ€“ ืืจืฅ ื”ื—ืชื™ื (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื, ื“'). ืžืœื›ื™ ื”ืชื™ื (ืžโ€œื ื•, ื›ื˜; ืžโ€ื‘ ื–, ื•; ื“ื”"ื‘ ื, ื™ื–)โ€œ, ื›ื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ืจืžื– ืขืœ ื›ืœืœ ืืจืฅ ื›ื ืขืŸ, ืขโ€ืฉ, ื•ืขืœ ืืจืฅ ื”ื—ืชื™ื ื›ื‘ืจ ื ื›ืชื‘ ื”ืจื‘ื” (ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื ืจืื” ืžืฉโ€œื› ืขโ€ื– ื”' ืกืคื™ืจ ื‘ืกืคืจ ื”ืฉื ืชื™ โ€œื”ืืจืฅโ€ ืฆื“ 161โ€“8 ืฉื”ื•โ€œืœ ื”ื—ื›ื ืจโ€ื– ื™ืขื‘ืฅ ืคืขื™ื”"ืง). ย โ†ฉ ื•ืžื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืื ืœื ื”ืชื—ื•ืœืœื ื” ืื– ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ืชืจ ืขืžื™ ื›ื ืขืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื—ืจื™ื ื•ืืœื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ื ืืœืฆื• ืœื ื•ืข ืžืฉื ื•ืœื‘ื ืืœ ืื—ื™ื”ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ื”ืจ ืฉืขื™ืจ, ื›ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ื ืชืขื›ื‘ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื‘ืกื›ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืฉื›ื ื›ืฉื ืชื™ื, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉืขืช ื—ื™ืจื•ื, ื•ืžื‘ืœืขื“ื™ ื–ื” ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืคืชื•ืจ ืืช ืกื‘ืช ื”ืขื›ื‘ื” ื”ื–ืืช, ืื ื”ืฉืชื•ืงืง ื›ื” ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ืืช ืืžื•. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืขโ€œื– ืคโ€ื‘ ื”"ื) ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื โ€œืœื ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื”ืœืš ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื‘ื™ื ื• ืœืฉืขื™ืจโ€, ื•ื›ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจโ€˜ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื‘"ืจ (ืชื ื—ื•ืžื ืชืจื•ืžื”) ื•ื›ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจโ€™ ืื‘ื”ื• (ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืค' ืขโ€ื— ืื•ืช ื™ื“) ื•ื›ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจ' ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘โ€œืจ ื ื—ืžืŸ (ื“ื‘"ืจ ืค' ื ืื•ืช ื›), ื•ื™โ€ืœ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื“ืงื“ื•ืงื ื”ื•ื ืžืžื” ืฉืœื ืžืฆืื ื• ื‘ืžืงืจื ื‘ืคื™ืจื•ืฉ ืฉื”ืœืš ืœืฉืขื™ืจ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ืขื™ืจื•ื‘ื™ืŸ (ื›ื‘, ื‘), ืืžืจื• ืขืœ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจโ€œื™ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”โ€ืจ: โ€œืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืกื•ืœืžื ื“ืฆื•ืจ ืžื”ืš ื’ื™ืกื ื•ืžื—ืชื ื ื“ื’ื“ืจ ืžื”ืš ื’ื™ืกื ื•ื›ื•'โ€ ื•ืžื–ื” ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืชืคืกื• ืœื”ื ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆืคื•ืŸ (ืกื•ืœืžื ื“ืฆื•ืจ) ื•ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื’ื‘ (ืžื—ืชื ื ื“ื’ื“ืจ), ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื•ื โ€œืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€ ืื• โ€œืžืกืœืช ืกื•ืคื”โ€, ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ื”ืœืื”, ื•ื”ืขืœื™ื” ื”ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื”, ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ืืฉืจ ืงืจืื•ื” ื—ื–โ€œืœ โ€ืžื—ืชื ื ื“ื’ื“ืจโ€œ, ืœืืžืจ: ืžื•ืจื“ ื’ื“ืจโ€, ื•ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช ืžืงื•ื ื–ื” ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื ื•ื–ื” ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ืจ"ื™ ืฉื˜ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื’. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืืืžื•โ€œืจ ื”ืจื“โ€ืค ืฉืœื™ื˜โ€œื ื‘ืืจ, ื›ื™ ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืกืœื” ื”ื”ื•ืœื›ืช ืืฉื•ืจื”, ื•ื–ื”ื•: โ€ื‘ืื›ื” ืืฉื•ืจื”" ื•ืžืกืœื” ื›ื–ืืช ืžืจื•ืžื–ืช ื’ื ื‘ื™ืฉืขื™ื” ื™ื, ื˜ื–; ื™ื˜, ื›ื’. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื–ื” ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœื”ืืžืŸ, ื›ื™ ื”ืœื ื”ื’ืจ ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืฆืจื™ืช (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื˜ื–, ื; ื’; ื›ื, ื˜; ื›ื”, ื™ื‘) ื•ืœืคื™ ืจืฉื‘"ื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืชื• ืฉืœ ืคืจืขื” (ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืคืžโ€ื” ืกื™' ื), ื•ื”ื•ื, ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ, ื”ืœื ื ืฉื ืืฉื” ืžืืจืฅ ืžืฆืจื™ื (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›ื, ื›ื), ื•ื”ื™ืคืœื ืืคื•ื ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืจื™ืช ื›ืจื•ืชื” ื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืื—ื™ ืืžื• ื•ืืฉืชื•? ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ ื” ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ืขืœ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืžโ€œืฉ ืืฆืœื: โ€ืืœื” ื”ื ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืืœื” ืฉืžื•ืชื ื‘ื—ืฆืจื™ื”ื ื•ื‘ื˜ื™ืจื•ืชื ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ืœืื•ืžื•ืชื (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›ื”, ื˜ื–), ื›ื™ ื—ืฆื™ ื”ืžืงืจื ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ืฉืคืช ื™ืชืจ, ื›ื™ ื”ืื ืœื ื™ื“ืขื ื• ืฉื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื—ืฆืจื™ื”ื (ื‘ื›ืคืจื™ื”ื) ื•ื‘ื˜ื™ืจื•ืชื ื•ืœื ื‘ื›ืคืจื™ ืื—ืจื™ื? ื•ืื ื”ื™ื• ืœื™โ€œื‘ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืื ืœื ื ื“ืข ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ื ืฉื™ืื™ื? ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ, ื›ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืขืฉื• ืœื”ื ืฉื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจืชื ื•ื™ืืกืคื• ืืœื™ื”ื ื’ื“ื•ื“ื™ ืื ืฉื™ ื—ื™ืœ, ื•ื›ืœ ืื™ืฉ ืžื”ื ื”ื™ื” ืœืจืืฉ ื•ืœืงืฆื™ืŸ (ืึถืžื™ืจ) ืขืœ ื’ื“ื•ื“ื•, ื•ื™ื‘ืŸ ืœื• โ€ื˜ื™ืจื”โ€œ (ืฉืœืึธืกื) ื•ืื ืฉื™ ื—ื™ืœื• ื ื˜ื• ืื”ืœื™ื”ื ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœโ€ื—ืฆืจื™ืโ€œ (ื›ืคืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ืื”ืœื™ื). ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืžโ€ืฉ: โ€œื•ืœื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืฉืžืขืชื™ืšโ€ฆ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ื™ื•ืœื™ื“โ€ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื™ื–, ื›), ื”ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฆโ€œืœ โ€ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืœืื•ืžื™ื ื™ื•ืœื™ื“"?, ืืš, ื‘ืื•ืจื• ื”ื•ื: ื›ื™ ืžืชื—ืœื” ื™ื”ื™ื• ื ืฉื™ืื™ื ืœืขืžื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื, ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ื™ืคืจื• ื•ื™ืจื‘ื• ื’ื ื”ื ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื’ื•ื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืœืคื™ ื—ื–โ€œืœ ื”ื™ื โ€ื“ื•ืฉื ื ืฉืœ ื™ืจื—ื•" (ืกืคืจื™ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ, ืœื‘ ื•ืื“ืจโ€œื  ืคืœโ€ื”). ย โ†ฉ ื•ื—ื–โ€œืœ ืืžืจื•: โ€ื•ื™โ€œื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื–ื• ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื ืชื’ื“ืœ ื‘ื” ืžืฉื” ืฉื–ื• ื‘ืฆื“ ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื ื—ืจื™ื‘ื” ืขื“ ืขื›ืฉื™ื•โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืคื›"ื‘ ืื•ืช ื“), ื•ืœืคื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœืืžืจ ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืืฆืœ ื”ืงื™ื ื™ ื›ื™ ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืฉื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉื. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื˜ืขื•ืช ื‘ืžโ€œืฉ: โ€ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ ืžืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื ืžื”ืกืœืข ื•ืžืขืœื”โ€œ (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ืœื•) ื›ื™ ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ โ€ืกืœืขโ€œ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื”โ€œ ืืฆืœ โ€ื”ืจ ื”ื”ืจโ€œ, ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ืขืจื‘ื”, ืœืฆืœืข ื”ืจ ืขืฉื•, ืœื“ืจื•ื ืžื–ืจื— ื™ื ื”ืžืœื—, ื›ื™ ืขโ€ื– ืœื ื™ืคื•ืœ ืœืฉื•ืŸ โ€œื•ืžืขืœื”โ€, ื›ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€œื”ืจ ื”ืืžืจื™โ€ (ื”ืจื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€œ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื”โ€œ ืชืคืจื™ื“ โ€ื”ืขืจื‘ื”โ€œ, ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืื•ืจื• ื”ื•ื ื›ืžื• ืฉื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืคื”, ื•ืกืœืข ื–ื” ืื™ื ื ื• ืฉื ืขื™ืจ ืคืจื˜ื™ืช, ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื”, ืจืง ืชื•ืืจ ืœื’ืœื™ืœ ืžืขืจื‘ โ€ืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€œ ืฉื”ื•ื ืกืœืขื™ ืžืื“, ื•ืขื•ื“ ืื“ื‘ืจ ืื“ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ืœืื” ืื™โ€ื”. ื•ืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืขโ€œืฉ ื”ืžืงื•ื โ€ืงืจื ื‘โ€œ ืืŸ โ€ืงืจืงื‘" ื‘ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ื”ืขโ€˜ ื•ืกื™โ€™ ื”ืจื‘ื™ื โ€“ ื™ื ื•ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืช ื โ€˜ ืื• ืงโ€™. ย โ†ฉ ื‘ืžืคื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืฆื•ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืืฆืœ โ€œืงืจืงื‘โ€ โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืึดืœ ื™ึถืžึถืŸโ€ โ€œื ึปืงึฐื‘ึผึฐ ืึดืœ ืžึปื–ึตื™ื›ึผึทื”โ€, โ€œื•ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืึดืœึพืžื•ื ึฐื’ึท'ืจโ€ ื•ื”ื˜ื™ื‘ื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช, ื›ื™ ืื—ืจื™ ืฉื‘ืืจืชื™ ื›ื™ โ€œื•ื ืกื‘โ€ ืžื•ืจื” ืจืง ืขืœ ื‘ืœื™ื˜ื” ื›ืขื™ืŸ ืงืจืŸ, ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ื”ื•ื ืฉื”ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ื—ืœ ืžืฉื ืžื™ื“ ืœื”ืชื›ื ืก ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ื•ืžืฆืื ื•: โ€œื•ื™ืจื“ ื”ืขืžืœืงื™ ื•ื”ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื”ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ื”ื•ื ื•ื™ื›ื•ื ื•ื™ื›ืชื•ื ืขื“ ื”ื—ืจืžื”โ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื“, ืžื”) ื•ื—ืจืžื” ื”ื™ื โ€œืฆืคืชโ€, ื•ืœื“ืขืชื™ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืฆืคืช ื”ื™ืโ€œืกืึทืคื”โ€ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจืช (ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื ืžื—ืœื™ืคื™ื ื‘ืžื‘ื˜ืื ืฆโ€˜ ื‘ืกโ€™), ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื”ืœื ื™ืฉื‘ ื”ืขืžืœืงื™ ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช โ€ืกื•ืคืชโ€œ. ื›ื‘ืจ ืจืื™ื ื• ื›ื™ ื”ืงื™ื ื™ ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืขื™ืจ โ€ืชืžืจโ€œ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืขืคโ€ื™ ื”ืคืฉื˜, ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื”ื™ื” ืฉื›ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขืžืœืง (ืฉืž"ื ื˜ื•, ื•), ืโ€œื› ื”ื›ืจื— ื”ื•ื ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€ืชืžืจโ€œ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืขืคโ€ื™ ื”ืคืฉื˜, ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ืฉื”ื™ื” ืฉื›ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขืžืœืง (ืฉืž"ื ื˜ื•, ื•), ืโ€œื› ื”ื›ืจื— ื”ื•ื ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€ืชืžืจโ€œ ืฉื”ื™ื โ€ืฆื™ืŸโ€œ ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช โ€ืžืขืœื” ืขืงืจื‘ื™ืโ€œ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€ืกึธืคึทื”โ€œ ืื• โ€ืฆืคืชโ€œ (ืขโ€œืฉ ื”ืชืžืจื™ื ืฉื’ื“ืœื• ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ื”ื™ื ื ืงืจื ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื‘ืœ ื”ื”ื•ื โ€ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืŸ"). ื•ื‘ื“ื—ื–โ€ืœ: โ€œืืžืจ ืจโ€˜ ืžืจื™ื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจโ€™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ืฉืชื™ ืฆืžืจื•ืช ื™ืฉ ื‘ื’ื™ ื‘ืŸ ื”ื ื ื•ืขื•ืœื” ืขืฉืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื•ื–ื”ื• ืฉืฉื ื™ื ื• ืฆื™ื ื™ ื”ืจ ื”ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื›ืฉืจื•ืช ื•ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืคืชื—ื” ืฉืœ ื’ื™ื”ื ืโ€ (ืขื™ืจื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื˜, ื; ืกื•ื›ื” ืœื‘, ื‘), ื•ืขื•ื“ ืืžืจื•: โ€œื”' ืฉืžื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื• (ืœื”ืจ ืกื™ื ื™) ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืŸ ืฉื ืฆื˜ื•ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืœื™ื•, ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ืชืงื“ืฉื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืœื™ื•, ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืžื•ืช ืฉื ืชื ื” ืงื“ื™ืžื” ืขืœื™ื•, ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืคืืจืŸ ืฉืคืจื• ื•ืจื‘ื• ืขืœื™ื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืกื™ื ื™ ืฉื™ืจื“ื” ืฉื ืื” ืœืขื›ื•โ€ื ืขืœื™ื• (ืฉื‘ืช ืคื˜, ื) ื•ืขื™' ืื’ื“ื•ืช ืžื”ืจืฉ"ื ืฉื. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื ื ืจืื” ืฉื™ืฉ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ื ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืกื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื–ื”ืจ (ื—โ€œื’ ืงืคโ€ื’) ื›ืชื•ื‘: โ€œืžืจื™ื ื‘ืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืœื“ืจื•ื, ืื”ืจืŸ ืœืกื˜ืจ ื™ืžื™ื ื, ืžืฉื” ื›ื“ืงื ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื”, ืื—ื™ื“ ื”ื•ื ื˜ื•ืจื ืœื˜ื•ืจื ื“ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ื›ื ืฉ ืœืงื‘ื•ืจืชื ื“ืžืจื™ื ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ื”ื•ื ื˜ื•ืจื, ืื—ื™ื“ ืœืชืจื™ ืกื˜ืจื™, ื•ืขืœ ื“ื ืืชืงืจื™ ื”ืจ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื ื“ืชืจื™ ืกื˜ืจื™ ื“ืžืขื‘ืจื™ ื•ืื—ื™ื“ ืœืกื˜ืจื ื“ื ื•ืœืกื˜ืจื ื“ืโ€ ื”ืจื™ ื›ื™ ื’ื ืœื“ืขืช ื”ื–ื”ืจ, โ€œืงื“ืฉโ€ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืฉืœืฉืœืช ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืœืžื–ืจื— ื”ืขืจื‘ื” ื‘ืงื• ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจ ื”ื”ืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ื. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื”ืจโ€œื™ ืฉื•ื•ืืจืฅ ื›ืชื‘ ืืช ืชื›ื•ื ืชื” ื‘ื•ืึทื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืจึตื™ื™ืŸ, ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื—ื•ืง ืžื—ืœื•ืฆื” ื‘ืขืจืš ยฝ10 ืฉืขื” (32 ืคืจโ€˜ ืื ื’โ€™) ื“ืจื•ืžื”, ืกืžื•ืš ืœื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœึพืขืจื™ืฉ, ืขืœ ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ ืฉื ืงืจื โ€˜ื•ืื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืจืขึตื™ืŸโ€™, ื•ื‘ื—ืœื•ืฃ ืืชื•ื•ืŸโ€“ โ€ื‘ืจื ืข:โ€œ, ื•ื”ื•ื ืจืง โ€ืคืฉื˜'ืœโ€œ ื›ื™ ื‘ืืžืช ื ืงืจื โ€ื‘ื™ืจื™ืŸ", ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ืกืžืŸ ื”ื–ื•ื’ื™ ืœืฉื ื™ ื‘ื•ืจื•ืช. ย โ†ฉ ื”ืขืจืช ื”ืฉื•ืœื™ื™ื ืœื ืžืกื•ืžื ืช ื‘ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืื‘ืœ ืœืคื™ ื”ืชื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืฉื™ื™ื›ืช ืœื ืงื•ื“ื” ื–ืืช โ€“ ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ื•ื‘ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ (ืจืื” ื”ืœืื”) ื ืžื ื•: ืจืงื ื“ื”ื’ืจื, ืจืงื ื’ื™ืื”, ืจืคื™ื— ื“ื”ื’ืจื, ื•ืฆโ€œืœ ื›ื“ืขืช ื”ืชื•ืกโ€˜ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืฉืชื™ ืจืงื ื•ื—ื’ืจ ื”ื™ื•, ื‘ืงืฆื” ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืชึพื“ืจื•ืžื™ืช ื•ื’ื ื‘ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืชึพืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช, ื”ืโ€™ ื”ื•ื โ€ื•ืื“ื™ ืžื•ืกื”โ€œ ื•ื”ื•ื ื ืงืจื: โ€ืจืงื ื“ื—ื’ืจืโ€œ ืœืืžืจ โ€ืจืงืโ€œ ืฉื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ ืขื™ืจ โ€ืกืœืขโ€œ (ืคื˜ืจื), ื•ื”ื‘' ื”ื™ื โ€ืจืงื ื’ื™ืื”โ€œ, ืœืืžืจ: โ€ืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจื ืขโ€œ, ื•ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื”ื•ื ืขื“ ืขื–ื” ื ืงืจื โ€ื—ื’ืจืโ€œ ืขโ€ืฉ ืชื›ื•ื ืชื• ื”ืกืœืขื™ืช, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืงืจืืช โ€œืจืคืื—โ€ ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื ื‘ืฉื: โ€œืจืคื™ื— ื“ื—ื’ืจืโ€. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื”ืจโ€œื™ ืฉื•ื•ืืจืฅ ื—ื•ืœืง ืขืœ ื”ื›ืคื•โ€ืค ื‘ืขื ื™ืŸ โ€œืขื–ืงื”โ€ ื•ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืฉื”ื•ื โ€œืชืœ ืขื–ืืงืืจื™ืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œืชืœ ืกื•ืคื”โ€ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื•ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ, ื ื•ื˜ื” ืžืขืจื‘ื”, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืฉื’ื’ (ื‘ืžื—ื™ืœื” ืžื›ื‘ื•ื“ื•), ื›ื™ ื‘ืืžืช ื™ืงืจื ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” โ€œืชืœ ื–ื›ืจื™ื”โ€, ื•ื”ื•ื ืœื“ืขืชื™, โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื–ื›ืจื™ื”โ€ ืื• โ€œื‘ื™ืช ื–ื›ื”โ€ (ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื, ื•; ืœื‘; ื–, ื™ื˜) ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืขืช ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ื•ืช (ื™ื‘, ื˜, ื“) ื”ื™ื ืจื—ื•ืงื” 70 ืฉื˜ืื“ื™ืขืŸ (ืจื™ืก, 14 ืงื™ืœื•ืžืชืจ) ืžื‘ื™ืช ืฆื•ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื, โ€œื‘ืงืขืช ืขื™ืŸ ืกื•ื›ืจโ€ (ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืคโ€œื™ ืžโ€ื‘) ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืœื›ื—ื“ ื›ื™ ืืžื ื ื”ื™ื• ืฉืชื™ โ€œืขื–ืงื”โ€, ื”ืื—ืช ื›ื ื–', ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืืจืฅ ืืฆืœ โ€œืฉื•ื›ื•โ€. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืื ืœื ืชืื‘ื” ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืงื•ืจื ืœืงื‘ืœ ื–ืืช ื‘ื˜ืขื ืช, ื›ื™ โ€œืงืจืงืขโ€ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ ืื™ื ื ื• โ€œื˜ืจื‘โ€. ืจืง โ€œืึทืจืฆโ€ ืื• โ€œืงืขืจโ€ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืš, ื›ื™ ื‘ื—ืงื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื“ื™ ืœื ื• ืจืง ืœืžืฆื•ื ืื™ื–ื” ื™ื—ืก ื•ืฉื•ื™ื•ืŸึพืžื” ื‘ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืฉืžื•ืช. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื—ื–โ€œืœ ืืžืจื• (ื‘ืจ"ืจ ืคโ€˜ ืกื“ ืกื™โ€™ ื’) ืฉื’ืจืจ ื”ื™ื โ€ื’ืจื“ื™ืงื™". ย โ†ฉ ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื ื—ืœ ื”ื–ื” ื ืงืจื โ€œืขืžืง ืกื›ื•ืชโ€. ื›ื™ ื‘ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ืžื•ืจื” โ€œืขืจื™ืฉโ€ ืขืœ โ€œืกื›ื•ืชโ€, ื•ื‘ื–ื” ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ืžโ€œืฉ ื”ืžืฉื•ืจืจ: โ€โ€ฆ โ€œืืขืœื•ื–ื”! ืื—ืœืงื” ืฉื›ืโ€ โ€“ ืœืืžืจ: ื‘ื—ืœืงื™ ืชืขืœื” โ€œืฉื›ืโ€ (ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืืฉืจ โ€œืฉื›ืโ€ ื”ื™ืชื” ืขื™ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื” ืฉืœื”ื, ื›ื™ื“ื•ืข), โ€œื•ืขืžืง ืกื›ื•ืช ืืžื“ื“โ€ ืœืืžืจ: ืฉืื›ื ื™ืก ื’ื ืืช โ€œื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœึพืขืจื™ืฉโ€ ื‘ืชื•ืš ืงื• ืžื“ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉืœื™,ืขโ€œื™ ืฉืื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืืช ื”ืขืžื™ื ื”ืฆื•ืจืจื™ื ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืฉืžื” โ€ืœื™ ื’ืœืขื“ ื•ืœื™ ืžื ืฉื”โ€œ (ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ) โ€“ ืืคืจื™ื โ€“ ื™ื”ื™ื” โ€“ ืžืขื•ื– ืจืืฉื™, ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” โ€“ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžื—ืงืงื™โ€ (ื•ืื–) โ€œืžื•ืื‘ โ€“ ื™ื”ื™ื” โ€“ ืกื™ืจ ืจื—ืฆื™โ€ ื•ื’ื•'. ื•ื—ื–"ืœ (ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืคืžโ€ื‘ ืกื™' ื”) ื“ืจืฉื•ื”ื• ื‘ื“ืจืš ืื—ืจืช. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืชืจื’ื ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™: โ€œื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืžื ื•ืกโ€ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืœื“ ื–โ€“ื—) ื•ื‘ืฉื”โ€œืฉ ืจื‘ื” (ืคโ€œื“ ืื•ืช ื™โ€ื— ืข"ืค ืชืฉื•ืจื™ ืžืจืืฉ ืืžื ื”) โ€ื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืžื•ื ื•ืกโ€œ, ื•ื”ื•ื ืงืฆื•ืจ ืžืŸ โ€ืืžื ื•ืกโ€œ, ื•ื โ€ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ื”ืงืจื™ืื” ื”ืžื“ื•ืงื“ืงืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื™ืชืจ ื”ืงืจื™ืื•ืช: "ืืžื ื”, ืืžื ื•ืŸ, ืื™ืžื ื•ืก, ืื•ืžื ื•ืก, ืกืžื ื•ืก, (ืจืื” ื›ืคื•โ€œืค ืœื•ื ืฅ ืฆื“ ืจืžโ€ื˜ ื‘ื”ืขืจื”) ื›ื™ ื”ืŸ ื”ื”ืขืชืงื•ืช ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžื“ื•ืงื“ืงื•ืช. ย โ†ฉ ื‘ืงื• ื™ืฉืจ ืขื ืžืงื•ื ื–ื”, ืžื–ืจื—ื”, ื ืžืฆื ื’ืœื™ืœ ืฉืฉืžื•: โ€œืขื™ืŸ ื˜ื‘โ€ ื•ืœืคื™ ืžื” ืฉืคื™ืจืฉโ€œื™ ื‘ืจื”โ€ืฉ (ื›ื”, ื) ื‘ืฉื ืžื•ืจื• ืฉื‘ื™ืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื’ื–ืจื• ืฉืžื“ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœื ื™ืงื“ืฉื• ืืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉ, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืื•ืœื™ ื›ื™ ืœื›ืŸ ืฉืœื— ืจื‘ื™ ืืช ืจ' ื—ื™ื™ื ืืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืขื™ืŸ ื˜ื‘ ืœืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ืืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉ, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืงืฆื” ื”ืืจืฅ ืขืœ ื”ืชื—ื•ื, ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื–ืจื” ืœื ื—ืœื” ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืคื ื™ืžื”, ืืš ืื™ื ื ื™ ืžื—ืœื™ื˜ ื‘ื–ื”. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืžื” ืฉืืžืจ ืœืžืชื•ื— ืืช ื”ืงื• ืžื ื’ื‘ ืื˜ืœื™ื, ื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืœืžืชื—ื• ืžื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ, ื”ื•ื ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžื•ืชื—ื™ื ืื•ืชื• ืžื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื™ืฉืจ ืืœ ื”ืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก, ืœืืžืจ, ืืœ โ€œืžืฆืจึพื™ื ื’ื™ื‘ืœื˜ืืจโ€, ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžื•ื›ืจื—ื™ื ืœื”ื›ื ื™ืก ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื’ื ืจืฆื•ืขื•ืช ืืจืฅ ืžื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œืขื“ืึทื ืโ€ โ€œืึทื“ืึทืœื™ืึทโ€ ื•ืงืฆืช ืžื ื’ื‘ ืืจืฅ ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ื›ื“ืช. ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื ื• ืจืง ืœืกืคื— ืืช ื”ืื™ื™ื ืืœ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืœื›ืŸ ืชืคืก ืœื• ืืช โ€œืงืœื‘ืจื™ืโ€ ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืžืฉื ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœืžืชื•ื— ืืช ื”ืงื• ื™ืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ื™ื ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœื’ืขืช ื‘ื™ื‘ืฉืชึพื”ืืจืฅ ืžืื•ืžื”, ื•ืžืŸ ื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืื˜ืœื™ื ืฆืจื™ืš ื”ืงื• ืœื”ืชืขืงืœ ืคืขืžื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ื•ืœื“ืขืช ืจืฉโ€œื™ (ืฉื) ื”ื™ืชื” โ€ืงืคืœื•ื“ื™ืโ€œ ื‘ื—ื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืจ ื”ื”ืจ, ื•ืื ืงื‘ืœื” ื”ื™ื ื ืงื‘ืœ. ื•ื›โ€ื– ื”ื•ื ืœื ื›ื“ืขืช ื”ืจโ€œื™ ืฉื•ื•ืืจืฅ ืฉื›ืชื‘ ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื โ€ืจืึทืก ืึดืฉ ืฉื•ืงึถื”โ€œ (Theuprosopon), ื›ื™: ื) ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื›ืœ ื™ื—ืก ืขื ื”ืฉื โ€ื˜ื•ืจื™ ืืžื ื•ืŸโ€œ ืื• โ€ื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืžื ื•ืกโ€œ, ื•ืื ืžืคืืช ื–ื” ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ืœืฆืคื•ื ื• ืžืงื•ื ื”ื ืงืจื โ€ืขืžื™ื•ืŸโ€œ ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ ื‘ืชืžื•ื ืชื• ืœืืžื ื•ืŸ, ืžื“ื•ืข ืœื ืงื‘ืขื• ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืืฆืœ โ€ืืœึพืžื™ื ื”โ€œ ื”ื“ื•ืžื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืœ โ€ืืžื ื•ืŸโ€œ? ื•ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€ืงืืœืืคืืจื™ืโ€œ (ื”ื ื“ืžื” ืœืงืคืœื•ืจื™ื) ืฉืžืฆื ื‘ืจืืฉื• ืžื•ื˜ืœ ืืฆืœื™ ื‘ืกืคืง ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ื›ื™ ืื ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืฆืืชื™ื• ืฉืžื”. ื‘) ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื›ืœ ืื™ ืฉื ื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ื›ื ื™ืกื• ื‘ืชื—ื•ืžื ื• ืื• ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ืื• ืžืžื ื•, ื•ืื ื™ืคืจืฉ โ€ื ืกื™ืŸโ€œ ืขืœ ืจืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื‘ืื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื™ื, ืœืืžืจ, ืงืจืŸ ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€ื‘ื™ืจื•ื˜โ€œ ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ, ืชื”ื™ื™ื ื” ื”ืจืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื”ืืœื• ืืคื•ื ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื•ื–ื” ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ. ื’) ื›ื™ ื”ืขืจืงื™ ื•ื”ืืจื•ื“ื™ ื”ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžื”, ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื—ืœื™ื˜ื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื, ื•ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื’, ื“) ื›ื™ โ€ื›ืœ ืฆื™ื“ื•ื ื™ืโ€œ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ื. ื•ื‘ื”ืขืจื” ืœืก' ื›ืคื•โ€ืค (ืœื•ื ืฅ ืฆื“ ืจื’ื‘) ืžื—ื–ืง ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืจื™โ€œืฉ ื‘ื˜ืขื ื•ืช: ื) ืฉืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื”ื›ืคื•โ€ืค ืชื”ื™ื” ืืคื•ื ื ื—ืœืช ืžื˜ื” ืืฉืจ, ืฉื’ื‘ื•ืœื” ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื”ื™ื” ืกืžื•ืš ืœืขื›ื•, ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืžืขื›ื• ืขื“ โ€œื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ืโ€, ื•ืžื“ื•ืข ื™ื—ื•ืœืง ื›ืŸ? ื”ืœื ืœืจื‘ ืชืจื‘ื• ื ื—ืœืชื•? โ€“ ื•ื”ื•ื ืœื ื˜ืจื— ืœื”ืชื‘ื•ื ืŸ ื›ื™ ืžืจืึทืก ืืฉึพืฉื•ืงื” ืขื“ ืขื›ื• ื™ืฉ ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ 110 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืื ื’ืœื™ื•ืช. ื•ืžืขื›ื• ืขื“ ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœึพืขืจื™ืฉ ื™ืฉ ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ 106 ืคืจืกโ€˜ ืื โ€™ ื•ืžื” ื”ื•ืขื™ืœ ืืคื•ื ื”ืจื™โ€œืฉ ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœืงื•ืฉื™ื ื–ืืช ื‘ืงื‘ืขื• ืืช ืงืฆื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ืจืึทืก ืืฉึพืฉื•ืงื”? ื’ื ืžื“ื•ืข ืœื ื–ื›ืจ ื”ื—ื›ื ื”ืžืขื™ืจ ืฉื’ื โ€ื—ืžืชโ€œ ื”ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ? ื•ื”ื™ื ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื”ืจื‘ื” ืœืคืืช ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืจืึทืก ืืฉึพืฉื•ืงื”. ื‘) ืžืงืฉื”, ื›ื™ ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืคืกื™ืงืชื ืคืจืฉื” ื›โ€ื’ ืฉืœื•ื“ืงื™ื ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื (ื‘ื‘โ€œืจ ืคื™โ€ื ื›ืชื•ื‘: ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืืจืฅ, ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืงื™"ื˜, ื›ืชื•ื‘: ืฉื‘ืฉืืจ ืืจืฆื•ืช) ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื“ ื”ื›ืคื•โ€ืค ื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ. โ€“ ื•ืฉื›ื— ื›ื™ ื’ื ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ื ืžืฆืื” โ€œืœื•ื“ืงื™ืโ€ ืื—ืช, ื•ื’ื ื”ื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื ื›ืžื• ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืืจ, ืืš ืื•ืชื” โ€œืœื•ื“ืงื™ืโ€ ืฉื”ื‘ื™ืื• ื—ื–โ€œืœ ืื—ืจืช ื”ื™ื, ื•ื”ื™ื ื‘ืื–ื™ื ื”ืงื˜ื ื” ื‘ืžื•ืจื“ ื ื”ืจ โ€ืžืขื ื“ืขืจโ€œ ื”ืžืฉืชืคืš ื”ื™ืžื” ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช โ€ืคื“ื•ืกโ€œ; ืื•ืœื ื‘ื–ืืช ื™ืฆื“ืง ื”ื—ื›ื ื”ื”ื•ื, ื‘ื˜ืขื ื• ื›ื™ ืจื•ื‘ ืขืจื™ ืึธืฉืจ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฆื“ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”, ื•ืœื ื”ืœืื” ืžืžื ื” ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ืืš ืžื“ื•ืข? ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืœื ืขืฆืจื• ื›ื— ืœื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ืœืื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ืขื“ ืจืึทืก ืืฉึพืฉื•ึนืงื”, ื•ื’ื ืœื ืขื“ ื‘ื™ืจื•ื˜ ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ, ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื• ืจืง ืขื“ ื’ืœื™ืœ ืฆื™ื“ื•ืŸ ืœื›ืŸ ื ืชื ื• ืืช ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื–ื” ืขื“ ืขื›ื•, ืฉืื™ื ื ื• ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ืœื‘ื ื™ ืืฉืจ, ืื‘ืœ ืœื• ื›ื‘ืฉื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืขื“ โ€ื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืืžื ื•ืกโ€œ ื”ื™ื• ืžื—ืœืงื™ื ื‘ืœื™ ื”ืคื•ื’ื” ืœื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืฉื‘ื˜ ื—ืœืงื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืคื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืื• ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืžื”ื—ืœืงื™ื ืฉื ืชืงื‘ืœื•, ื•ืœืคื™โ€ื– ืžื“ื•ืข ื ื”ื™ื” ืฆืจื™ึพืขื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ืœื”ืืจื™ืš ืืช ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืขื“ ืืกื›ื ื“ืจื•ื ื? ื‘ืฉื’ื ื›ื™ ืžื•ื›ืจื—ื™ื ืื ื—ื ื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื›ื›ื”, ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ืชื‘ืชื™. ย โ†ฉ ื›ื™ ื ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืืœ ื–ื”, ื›ื™ ื–ื” ื”ืžืงื•ื โ€“ ืงืจืึท ื”ื•ื ืขืœ ื”ืจ โ€œืžื•ืœ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸโ€ ื”ื ืงืจื ื‘ืขืจื‘ื™ืช: โ€œื’'ื‘ืœ ืืฉโ€“ืฉืจืงื™โ€, ืœืืžืจ: โ€œื”ืจ ื”ืงื“ืโ€ ื•ืื ื ืฉื™ื ืขื•ื“ ืœื‘ ืœืžื” ืฉื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืกืคืจ ื›ื™ ืžืชื—ืœื” ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื ื™ ืฉื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื˜ื— ื”ืจืจื™ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ื”ืžืงืจื ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืืฆืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืงื˜ืŸ: โ€œื•ื™ื”ื™ ืžื•ืฉื‘ื ืžืžืฉื ื‘ืื›ื” ืกืคืจื” ื”ืจ ื”ืงื“ื, (ื‘ืจืฉื™ืช ื™, ืœ) ื›ื™ โ€ืžืฉืโ€œ ื”ื™ื ื”ืขื™ืจ โ€ืžื•ืกืโ€œ ืืฆืœ ื™ื ืกื•ืฃ (ืจืื” ื‘ื”ืขืจื” ืœืก' ืชื‘ื•ืื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ, ืœื•ื ืฅ ืฆื“ ืฉื˜) ื•ืกืคืจื” ื”ื™ื โ€ืกืคืจื•ื™ืโ€œ (ืจืื” ืช' ื™ื‘"ืข ืœืคืกื•ืง ื–ื”) ืืฉืจ ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ืงื“ื, ืœืืžืจ, ืžื•ืœ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ. ื›ืœ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืœืคื™ ื”ืคืฉื˜, ืื‘ืœ ืœืคื™ ื—ื–โ€ืœ ื”ื™ื โ€œืžื™ืฉืŸโ€ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื‘ื‘ืœ (ืขื™โ€˜ ื‘ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืขโ€œื, ื‘, ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื ืคโ€ื“ ื•ื‘ื‘ืจ"ืจ ืคโ€™ ืœื— ืกื™' ื—). ื•ื ืžืฆืืช ืขื•ื“ โ€œืžื™ืฉืโ€ ื‘ืจืฉื™ืžืช ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ืข"ืฉ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื ื–ื›ืจื• ืฉืžื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื ืชื—ืชื™ื”ื, ื•ื”ื: ื’ื‘ืชื ื“ื—ื˜ืžื•ื ื, ื›ื™ืจื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ืกื›ืœ, ืžืฆื™ืขื•ืช ื“ืจืชื ืจื‘ืชื, ื˜ื™ืจืช ืขื™ื ื•ื•ืชื, ื•ื”ื ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ื”ืขืชืง ื”ืฉืžื•ืช: โ€œื›ืจื•ืชื, ืกื‘ืจื™ืก,ื—ืฆืจ ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ, ื—ืฆืจ ืขื™ื ืŸ. ื•ืžโ€ืฉ ื‘ืชืจื’โ€˜ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืขืœ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืœื“, ื—โ€“ื˜, ืืคืฉืจ ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื›ื•ื•ื ืช ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ื™ื ืฉืจืืฉ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ืืฆืœ โ€œืฆื•ืจโ€, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื›ืชื‘: โ€œืžื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืื•ืžื ื•ืก ืชื›ื•ื•ื ื•ืŸ ืœื›ื•ืŸ ืžืขืœืš ืœื˜ื‘ืจื™ืโ€, ืœืืžืจ, ื›ื™ ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ืขืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืžื˜ื•ื•ืจื•ืก ืืžื ื•ืก ืขื“ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื, โ€œื•ื™ื”ื•ืŸ ืžืคืงื ื•ื™ ื“ืชื—ื•ืžื ืžืŸ ืชืจื™ืŸ ืฆื™ื˜ืจื•ื™ ืžื›ื•ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืœื›ืจื›ื•ืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ืขืžื” ื•ืœื›ืจื›ื•ืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืกื ื™ื’ื•ืจืโ€, ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ืงืฆื”ื• ื”ืื—ื“, ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™, ื ืžืฆืืช โ€œื›ืจื›ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ืขืžื”โ€,ื•ื”ื™ื ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™โ€œืฉ โ€ืงืœืขืช ืกืขืžืื”โ€œ ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื”ื™ื ืœื“ืจื•ื ืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืขืจืš 3 ืฉืขื”, ืืฆืœ โ€ืจืึทืก ืืœ ืึทื‘ื™ืึทื“โ€œ, ื•ื‘ืงืฆื”ื• ื”ืื—ืจ, ืžืžื–ืจื—, ื ืžืฆืืช: โ€ื›ืจื›ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืกื ื™ื’ื•ืจืโ€œ ื•ืฆโ€ืœ โ€œืกื•ื’ื ืโ€ ื•ื”ื•ื "ืกื•ื’โ€™ื™ืŸโ€œ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸึพืžื–ืจื— โ€ื‘ื—ืจ ืืœึพื—ื•ืœื”โ€œ. ื•ืื—โ€ื› ื›ืชื‘ โ€œื•ื“ื•ื•ืงื™ื ื•ืกโ€ ื•ืฆโ€œืœ โ€ื•ื“ืงื™ื ื•ืกโ€œ ื•ื”ื•ื โ€ืขื™ืŸ ืงื•ื ื™ืโ€œ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€ื‘ื ื™ืืกโ€œ ื•ืื—โ€ื› ื›ืชื‘: โ€œื•ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ืขื“ ืงื™ืกืจื™ืŸโ€ ื•ืฆโ€œืœ โ€ื•ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ื“ืงื™ืกืจื™ืŸโ€œ ื•ื”ื•ื โ€ืงื™ืกืจื™ื ืคื™ื ื™ืึทืกโ€œ ื•ืฉื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื™ืช ืืœื™ืœ โ€ืคืืŸโ€œ ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื•ื โ€ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœโ€œ ืื• โ€ื ืจื’ืœโ€œ. ื•ืื—โ€ื› ื›ืชื‘ โ€œื•ืึทื‘ืœืโ€ ื•ื”ื™ื ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— โ€œืื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืžืขื›ื”โ€. ื•ืื—โ€œื› ื›ืชื‘ โ€ื•ืงื™ืœืงืื™โ€œ ื•ืฆโ€ืœ โ€œื•ืกื™ืœืงืื™โ€, ื•ื”ื™ื โ€œืกืœื•ืงื™ื”โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ืึพืžื–ืจื— โ€œื‘ื—ืจ ืืœึพื—ื•ืœื”โ€. ืืš ืื™ื–ื• ื”ื“ืจืš ืืฉืจ ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœื›ื•ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ืขื ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ื ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื‘ืžืงืจื? ื•ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืœื ื‘ื ื”ื ื” ืœืชืจื’ื ืืช ื›ื•ื ืช ื”ืžืงืจื, ื›"ื ื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ื•ื“ื™ืข ืคื” ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืฉื›ื‘ืฉ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข, ืื‘ืœ ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืืจ ื‘ืคืกื•ืง ืฉืื—ืจื™ื•. ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ืื—ืจืช ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ื›ื•ื•ื ืชื•. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืžื” ืฉืืžืจื• (ื—ืœื” ืคโ€œื“ ืžื™โ€ื): โ€œืืจื™ืกื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื• ืžืืคืžื™ื ื•ืงื‘ืœื• ืžืžื ื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืืžืจื• ื”ืงื•ื ื” ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื ื›ืงื•ื ื” ื‘ืคืจื•ื•ืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืโ€, ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืžโ€œื‘ื™ืช ืกื•ื›ืชโ€ ืขื‘ืจ ืงื• ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื“ืจืš โ€œืฉืคืโ€ ื–ืืช ืืœ โ€œื˜ืจื›ื•ื ื ื“ืžืชื—ื ืœื‘ื•ืฆืจื”โ€ (ืขื™' ื‘ืคืจืง โ€œืชื—ื•ืžื™ ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœโ€) ืโ€œื› ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” โ€ืืคืžื™ืโ€œ ื–ืืช ืžื›ืœืœ ืกื•ืจื™ื ื›ื™ ืื ืžืโ€ื™ ืขืฆืžื”, ื•ืืคืžื™ื ื“ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืื•ืชื” ืฉื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื ืกื•ืจื™ื. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืืžืจื• ื—ื–โ€œืœ: โ€ื•ืžื” ื”ื ื ืกื™ื ืฉืœ ื ื—ืœื™ ืืจื ื•ืŸ? ืื“ื ืขื•ืžื“ ืขืœ ื”ืจ ื–ื” ื•ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขื ื—ื‘ืจื• ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื•ื”ื•ื ืจื—ื•ืง ื–' ืžืœื™ื•" (ื‘ืžื“ื‘โ€œืจ ืคื™โ€ื˜ ืกื™' ื›"ื—). ย โ†ฉ ืขื™โ€˜ ืจืฉโ€œื™ ืฉื, ื•ืœืฉื•ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืชื™ืงื•ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื โ€ืขื“ ืืจื ื•ืŸโ€œ ืฆโ€ืœ ืœืคื™ ื– โ€œืขื“ ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืืจื ื•ืŸโ€ ื•ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื• ื‘ื›ืœืœ ืฆโ€œืข, ื›ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืœื ื—ื ื• ืื– โ€ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืžื•ืชโ€œ (ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘', ื›ื•) ื•ื”ื•ื ื›ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื•, ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ืคืืช ืžื–ืจื— ืืจืฅื”ืืžืจื™, ื•ื”ื•ื โ€ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืฆื ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืืžืจื™โ€œ ืžื–ืจื—ื”. ื•ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื—ื ื• ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื—ืœืง ืืฉืจ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืืจื ืŸ ืฆืคื ื”, ืœื‘ืœ ื™ื’ืขื• ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื•ืื‘ โ€ื›ื™ ืืจื ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื•ืื‘โ€œ (ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื, ื™ื’) ื–ื”ื• ืคื™ืจื•ืฉ ื”ืžืงืจื ืขืคโ€ื™ ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื•ืžื” ื–ื” ื“ื—ืง ืœืจืฉโ€œื™ ืฉืœื ืœื‘ืืจ ื›ืŸ? ื•ืคืืœืžืจ ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช โ€ื™ื”ื™ืŸโ€œ ืืฆืœ โ€ื’โ€™ื‘ืœ ืฉื™ื—ืŸโ€œ, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ืกื•ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื“ืขืช ืจืฉโ€ื™ ืฉื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืืฆืœ ื”ื”ืจ ื”ื”ื•ื, ื•ืœื™ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œื™ื—ืฅโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืฆื™ืฆืโ€ ืืฉืจ ืืฆืœ โ€œืื•ื ืงื•ืกืจโ€ ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œื‘ืขืœ ืžืขื•ืŸโ€ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ื ื–ื›ืจืช ื™ื—ื“ื• ืขื ืงื“ืžื•ืช ื•ืžื™ืคืขืช (ืขื™' ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื›ื, ื›ื’; ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘, ื›ื•; ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžื—, ื›ื) ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ ื”ื ื”, ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ โ€œื™ื—ืฆื”ึพืฆื™ืฆืโ€ ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื โ€œืฆื™ืฅโ€ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจืช ื‘ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืฉื, ื•ื‘ื–ื” ื™ื‘ื•ืืจ ื”ืžืงืจื ืฉื::ื•ื ืฉืžืจ ื”ืžื™ืฉื•ืจโ€œ. ื”ื ื™ื—ื• ืœืžืฆืขืจ ืžืฆื“ ื–ื” ืืช โ€ืฆื™ืฅ" ืคืชื•ื—ื” ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ื‘ืจื—ื• ื•ื™ืฆืื• ื“ืจืš ืฉื. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืžื” ื™ืฉ ืœื“ืงื“ืง ืข"ื– ืžืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื (ื™ื, ื›ื•; ื™ื’) ื•ื™ืฉื‘ืชื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ, ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืงื•ืžื•. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืื™ื ื ื” ืขืจื•ืขืจ ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื ื—ืœ ืืจื ื•ืŸ, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ืคืชื— ื‘ืฆืืชื• ืืœื™ื”ื ืœืžืœื—ืžื” ืžืžืฆืคื” ื’ืœืขื“ (ืฉื”ื•ื ื’'ื‘ืœ ืขืฉืึท) ืคื’ืข ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ืขืจื•ืขืจ ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื–ืืช โ€œื—ืฆื™ ืืจืฅ ื‘ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸโ€ ื™ื ืžื” ืฉื›ื‘ืฉ ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ืžื”ื ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื‘ืง ืขื“ ืขืจื•ืขืจ. ย โ†ฉ ืคื” ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืขื™ืจ ืขืœ ืžืฉโ€œื› ื”ืจืžื‘โ€ืŸ ื–โ€œืœ (ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืœื”, ื˜ื–): โ€ืจืื™ืชื™ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ืงื‘ื•ืจืช ืจื—ืœ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืœื—ื ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื™ืœโ€ฆ ื•ืœื ืจืฆื” ืœืงื‘ืจื” ืจืง ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื“ืจืš ืืฉืจ ื”ืžืฆื‘ื” ื‘ื” ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืืœ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืš ืืžืจื• ื‘ืกืคืจื™ ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืžืชื”โ€œ ื•ืจืืฉ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ืžืกื›ื™ื ืขื ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช, ืื‘ืœ ืขืœ ืกื•ืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ื™ืงืฉื”, ื›ื™ ืื™ื ื ื” ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืืœ, ื•ื’ื ืื™ื ื ื” ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ืื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื›ืชื‘ ืขืคโ€ื™ ื”ืฉืขืจื”, ื‘ื˜ืจื ืฉืจืื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื•, ื•ืจืืฉ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ื”ื ื”ื’ื”ื” ืžืื•ื—ืจืช ืฉื‘ืื” ืฉืœื ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื”. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืจืื™ื” ืœื–ื”, ืžืžโ€œืฉ (ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืคโ€ื› ืกื™' ื•) ืืจโ€ื ื‘โ€œืฉ: ื ื•ื— ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืœื’ื“ืœ ืœื’ื™ื•ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืœ ื–ืชื™ื ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื•ืœื ืœื’ื“ืœ ืชื™ื ื•ืง ืื—ื“ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœโ€ ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ื™ืคื  ืชืืจ: โ€œื›ื™ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื›ืœื›ืœื• ืขืฆืžื ื‘ื–ืชื™ื ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื”ื ื”ื˜ื•ืจื— ืœื’ื“ืœื ื•ื‘ืโ€ื™ ืืฉืจ ืœื ื‘ืžืกื›ื ื•ืช ืชืื›ืœ ื‘ื” ืœื—ื ื”ื™ื” ืœื”ื ื”ื˜ื•ืจื— ืœื’ื“ืœ ื‘ื ื™ื”ื, ื•ื–โ€œืฉ ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ืจื— ื‘ื ื™ ืโ€ื™ ื”ื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื˜ื•ืจื— ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœโ€œ ื•ื‘ืจืฉโ€ื™ ืคื™' ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืื—ืจ: โ€œื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืœืคืจื ืก ื—ื™ืœ ืื—ื“ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ืฉืฉื ื’ื“ืœื™ื ื–ืชื™ื ื”ืจื‘ื” (ืคื™', ื•ืžืชืคืจื ืกื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื•ื—). ื•ื‘ืโ€ื™ ื“ื•ื—ืง ืคืจื ืกื” ื•ืงืฉื” ืœืคืจื ืก ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ื ื•ืงโ€œ ืžื›ืœ ืืœื” ื ืจืื” ืฉืโ€ื™ ืœื—ื•ื“ ื•ื’ืœื™ืœ ืœื—ื•ื“. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืœื ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ื“ืขืช ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื–ื•ืŸ (ืคืœืกื˜ื™ื ื ื—"ื‘ ืฆื“ 591) ืฉืžืฉืขืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื โ€œืขื™ืŸ ื™ืึทืœื•ึนโ€ ื‘ื•ืึทื“ื™ ืืœ ื•ืจื“ ืื• โ€œืขื™ืŸ ื›ืจืโ€ ื‘ื•ืื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื ื™ื ื, ืื• ื“ืขืช ื”ืื—ืจื™ื ืฉืื•ืžืจื™ื ื›ื™ โ€œื ืคืชื•ื—โ€ ื”ื•ื โ€œืœื™ืคื˜ื”โ€, ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ืžืฉืชื•ื™ื ื‘ื—ืœื•ืฃ ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ืงืœ, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ืืœื” ื‘ืขืžืงื™ื ื”ืžื” ื•ื”ื ืฉืคืœื™ื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืื“ ืžื”ืจ ื”ืžื•ืจื™ื”. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืขื™โ€˜ ืžโ€œืฉ ื‘ื”ื’ื”โ€ื” ื‘ืจืฉโ€œื™ ืจืืฉ ื ื—ื•ื (ื‘ืงืฆืช ื“ืคื•ืกื™ื ืื™ื ื ื”), ื•ื”ืจโ€ืฉ ื‘ืœืืš ื‘ืกโ€™ ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ ืขื•ืœื ื—"ื  ืืฆืœ ืืจื ื ื”ืจื™ื. ื•ืื™ื ื ื• โ€œืœื›ื™ืฉโ€ ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื”ืฉื ื”ื–ื” ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื–ื”, ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืช โ€œืขื’ืœื•ืŸโ€ ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืžื ื” ืจืง 20 ื“ืงื™ื ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืœืืžืจ ืฉืฉื ื™ ืžืœื›ื™ื ืžืœื›ื• ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ืขืœ ืืจืฅ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื›ื›ืฃ ืื™ืฉ, ื•ืื ื›ื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ื›ื™ โ€œืœื›ื™ืฉโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื›ืœื•ืกโ€. ย โ†ฉ ืื‘ืœ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื™ื™ื›ืช ืคืขื ืœื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื—, ื›ื‘) ื•ืคืขื ืœืืคืจื™ื (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ื›ื‘; ื“ื”ื™"ื ื–,ื›ื‘) ื›ืืฉืจ ืงืจื” ืœืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืขืจื™ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืื™ื ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ื”ืื™ืš ื–ื” ืขืœืช ืขืœ ืœื‘ ื”ืจื™โ€œืฉ ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ ื›ื™ โ€ื“ื•ืจื™ืกโ€œ ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื โ€ื“ื•ึนืจโ€“ืชื ืชื•ืจืึท ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œื ื—ืœ ืงื ื”โ€, ื•ืžื–ื” ื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืชื•ืœื“ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื“ื ื™ื ื”ืฉืชืจืขื• ืขื“ ืฉื•ืžืจื•ืŸ, ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืคืจื™ื ื”ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ืžื’ื–ืจ ื”ื™ืžื” ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืžื ืฉื” ืขื‘ืจ ืžื ื—ืœ ืงื ื” ื”ื™ืžื”, ื•ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื›ื™ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ื›ืœืœ ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€œื“ื•ืจื™ืกโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื“ื•ืจโ€“ืชื ืชื•ืจื”โ€. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืžืขื™ืŸ ื–ื” ื›ืชื‘ ื”ืžืคืจืฉ ื‘ื“ื”ื™"ื (ื‘, ื ื’): ืฆืจืขื” ื•ืืฉืชื•ืœ ื”ื™ื• ืžื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื”ืขื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื“ืŸ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื“ืขืช ืื™ื™ื–ื‘ื™ื•ืก ื›ื™ ืžื›ืžืชืช ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืฉื›ื 15 ืžื™ืœ ื•ืžื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸ 6 ืžื™ืœ ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื”ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ โ€ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸโ€œ, ื›ื™ ืขืœ ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ 15 ืžื™ืœ (ืžื”ืœืš 4 ืฉืขื•ืช) ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ โ€ืขืœ ืคื ื™" ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืื ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ ืงืจื•ื‘ ืœื• ื™ื•ืชืจ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืจื–"ืœ (ื–ื‘ื—ื™ื ืงื™ื—, ื‘) ื“ืจืฉื•ื”ื• ืขืœ ืฉื™ืœื” ืขืฆืžื”. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืœื“ืขืชื™, ื”ื™ื ื”ืจื›ื‘ืช ืฉื ื™ ืฉืžื•ืช: ืขื™ืŸ ื—ื“ื” โ€“ ืจืžืช (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ื›ื), ืืฃ ื›ื™ ืขื™ืŸ ื’ื ื™ื ืžืคืกืงืช ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื, ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ! ื›ื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื™ืžื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื‘ืงืขืช ืžื’ื“ื• ืฉืชื™ ืขืจื™ื: ืขื™ืŸ ื—ื“ื” ื•ืจืžืช ื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื”ื™ืชื” โ€œืขื™ืŸ ื’ื ื™ืโ€ ืื• ืœืขื•ืžืชืŸ ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื• ืœืขื™ืจ ืื—ืช. ย โ†ฉ ื‘ืžื’ืœื” (ืฉื) ืืžืจื• ื›ื™ โ€œืฆืคื•ืจื™โ€ ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื ื—ืœืชื• ื•ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ืฉืœื” ื”ื™ื” โ€œื–ื‘ืช ื—ื•โ€ื“โ€œ ื•ื”ื—ื–ื™ืง 16X;16 ืžื™ืœ, ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื—): โ€ืจโ€˜ ื™ื•ื ื” ืจโ€™ ื–ืขื™ืจื ื‘ืฉโ€œืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื: ืฉืฉื” ืขืฉืจ ืžื™ืœ ื—ื™ื–ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื–ื•ืจ ืœืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ืŸ ื”ืŸ ื”ืŸ ืืจืฅ ื–ื‘ืช ื—ืœื‘ ื•ื“ื‘ืฉ. ืืžืจ ืจ' ื™ื•ื ื”: ืžืืŸ ื“ืžืงื“ืจ ืื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื™ื’ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื” ื“ื‘ื™ืฉืŸ ืžื™ื ื”ื•ืŸ, ืžืืŸ ื“ืžืงื“ืจ ื”ื“ื ื‘ืงืขืช ื’ื™ื ื•ืกืจ ืžื™ื ื”ื•ืŸโ€ (ืขื™' ืค"ืž) ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ ืœื’ื™ื ื•ืกืจ ื•ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืžื“ืจืฉืช ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ื‘ืจ"ืจ ืคโ€˜ ืคื‘ ืกื™โ€™ ื”) ืขโ€ืค ืขืžื™ื ื”ืจ ื™ืงืจืื•, ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ, ืื• ืžืงืฆืชื•, ื”ื™ื” โ€œื”ืจื• ืฉืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸโ€, ืขื™' ื›ื™ืคื” ืชื•ืืจ. ย โ†ฉ ืืš ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ื ื“ื” ื›ื, ื): ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื’ื ื‘ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืฉื• ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช, ืฉืืžืจื• ืฉื: โ€ืโ€œืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื“ื™ืžื™ ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื•ื“ืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืืœื ื‘ื›ื•ืก ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜, ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื? ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™: ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื•, ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ืœื•ื’โ€“ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืžืžื ื”, ืฉื ื™ ืœื•ื’ื™ืŸ โ€“ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืžืžืืชื™ื; ื›ื•ืก ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืืคื™' ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ืฉื ื™ ืœื•ื’ื™ืŸ โ€“ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืžืžื ื”, ืื™ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืงืœื™ืฉ ื™ื“ื™ืข ื‘ื™ื” ื˜ืคื™โ€ ื”ืจื™ ืฉืขืฉื• ืฉืžื” ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช ืžื•ื‘ื—ืจืช; ืืš ื›ื™ืฆื“? ื”ืœื ืื™ืŸ ืฉื ื—ื•ืœ ืœืžืœืื›ืช ื”ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืงื“ื. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื”ื—ื›ื ื”ืžืขื™ืจ ื‘ืชื‘ื•ื”โ€œื (ืฆื“ ืจื™"ื– ืœื•ื ืฅ) ื›ืชื‘ ื›ื™ โ€ื“ื‘ืฉืชโ€œ ื”ื™ื ืืฆืœ ื›ืคืจ โ€ืชืจืฉื™ื—ืโ€œ, ื•ืงืฉื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ื•, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื›ืคืจ ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืœืžืขืœื” ืขื•ื“ ืžโ€ืื›ื–ื™ื‘" ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื–ื‘ื•ืœื•ืŸ ื”ืœื ื”ื’ื™ืข ืจืง ืขื“ ืขื›ื•. ย โ†ฉ ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื. ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืคืขื•ืจโ€ (ืื• ื”ื’ื™ ืฉืืฆืœื•) ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื ื—ืœืช ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ, ืžืžื” ืฉืืžืจื• ื—ื–โ€œืœ (ืกื•ื˜ื” ื™ื’, ื‘; ืกืคืจื™ ื‘ืจื›ื”, ืื•ืช ื›ื): โ€ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืžืช ืžืฉื”? ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ (ื”ืจ ื ื‘ื•)โ€ฆ ื•ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืžืฉื” ืงื‘ื•ืจ? ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื’ื“ (ืžื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืคืขื•ืจ)โ€ฆ ื•ืžื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ืœื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื’ื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื™? ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ. ืื•ืชืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžื™ ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื•? ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื” ืžื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ื›ื ืคื™ ืฉื›ื™ื ื”". ย โ†ฉ ื‘ืฉืคืช ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื: โ€œืžืชื ืŸโ€ ื‘ื—ื™ืœื•ืฃ ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ืžืžโ€˜ ืขืœ ื‘โ€™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื”ืจืžื‘โ€œื ื–โ€ืœ:: ื•ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ื™ืจื“ื• ืžืžืขืœื•ืช ืโ€œื™? ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื›ื‘ืฉ ืื•ืชื ืงื“ื ืฉื™ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื›ืœ ืโ€ื™ ืืœื ื ืฉืืจ ื‘ื” ืžืฉื‘ืขื” ืขืžืžื™ื, ื•ืื™ืœื• ืชืคืฉ ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ื›ื ืขืŸ ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืื—โ€œื› ื›ื‘ืฉ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื” ื›ื‘ื•ืฉื• ื›ืœื• ื‘ืโ€ื™ ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจโ€œ (ืชืจื•ืžื•ืช ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื’) ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืกืคืจื™ ืค' ืขืงื‘ ื•ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืจืคโ€ื‘ ื“ื—ืœื”. ย โ†ฉ ื”ืจื™ โ€œืฉ ื›ืชื‘ ืฉื”ื™ื โ€ืืœ ืกืื‘ื™ืโ€œ 1 ืฉืขื” ืœืžืขืจื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ, ืืš ืื ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืฆืืชื™ ืฉื ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืืช ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€ืกึดืจึถืžึดื™ึถื”" (Capharsalma) ย โ†ฉ ื•ืขื™โ€˜ ื‘ืžืกโ€™ ื‘"ืž (ื“ืฃ ื›ื— ืข"ื) ื‘ื—ืœื•ืงืช ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ื‘ืขื ื™ืŸ ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ืžืก' ืžืขืฉืจ ืฉื ื™ (ืคโ€œื” ืžโ€ื‘) ืืžืจื•: โ€œื›ืจื ืจื‘ืขื™ ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืœื” ืœื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืžื”ืœืš ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœื›ืœ ืฆื“, ื•ืื™ื–ื• ื”ื•ื ืชื—ื•ืžื”? โ€“ ืื™ืœืช ืžืŸ ื”ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืขืงืจื‘ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ, ืœื•ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ ื•ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื—โ€ ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ื ื•ืกื—ื” ื–ืืช ื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ืฉื‘ืžืฉื ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ืœื‘ื›ืจ ืื•ืชื” ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื ื•ืกื—ืช ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™ (ื‘ื™ืฆื” ื—, ื; ืจื”"ืฉ ืœื, ื‘), ื•ืื ื ื—ืœื™ื˜ ื›ื“ืขืช ื”ืจื™โ€œืฉ ื›ื™ โ€ืขืงืจื‘ื”โ€œ ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื โ€ืขืงืจื‘ืชื ื”โ€œ ืืฉืจ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื”ืฉืจื•ืŸ โ€ืืœโ€“ืžื›ื ื”" ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืฉื›ื, ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื” 13 ืฉืขื” ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื. ืœื ื™ืงืฉื” ื›ืœืœ ืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื”ื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืืจืฅ ื”ืฉืžืจื•ื ื™ื, ื›ื™ื“ื•ืข, ื›ื™ ื”ืชืงื ื” ื”ื–ืืช ืžื•ืฆืื” ืื•ืœื™ ืžื™ืžื•ืช ื”ืžืœืš ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื•ืจืงื ื•ืก ื”ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ ืฉื’ืœื™ืœ ืฉืžืจื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืื– ืชื—ืช ื™ื“ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”; *) ืืš ื’ื ืืช ื ื•ืกื—ืช ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื“ื—ื•ืช ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื, ืฉื’ืจืกื•: โ€œืื™ืœืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขืงืจื‘ื” ื‘ื“ืจื•ืโ€ ื›ื™ โ€œืื™ืœืชโ€ ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืื™ืœื•โ€ ืืฉืจ ืœืฆืžโ€œืข โ€ื’โ€˜ื™ืคื ื”โ€œ ื•ืœืžืขืจื‘ โ€ื‘ื™ืจ ื–ื™ืชโ€œ ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€ืจืึทืกืงืจืงืึทโ€œ ื•ืขืžืง โ€ื•ืื“ื™ ืขื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืœื™ื‘โ€œ ื•ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€ืชื‘ื ื”โ€œ, ื•ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ืœื ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืœื•ื“, ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ! ื›ื™ ื‘ืื™ืœืช ื™ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ืคืืช ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ, ื•ื‘ืœื•ื“ โ€“ ืืช ืคืืช ื™ื, ื•ืื™ืœืช ื–ื• ืจื—ื•ืงื” ื‘ืืžืช ืจืง 9 ืฉืขื” ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื (ืฉื–ื”ื• ืžืฉืš ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ืชืžื™ื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ืงื“ื) ื›ืžื• ืœื•ื“ ื•ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ, ื•ืขืงืจื‘ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื“ืจื•ื, ื”ื•ื โ€ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื" ื”ื™ื“ื•ืข, ืืš ื”ืœื ืžืฉื ื•ืขื“ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื™ืฉ ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ 12 ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืืฉโ€™, ืื• ืžื”ืœืš 18 ืฉืขื”,ื•ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ื”ืœื ื ืืžืจ: โ€œืžื”ืœืš ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœื›ืœ ืฆื“โ€! ืืš ืœื‘ืืจ ื–ื” ื ืฉืืœ, ืžื“ื•ืข ื”ืขืœื• ืืช ื”ื›ืจื ืจื‘ืขื™ ื“ื•ืงื ืžืžืจื—ืง ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“, ืœื ืคื—ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ? ื•ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ืขื ื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื™ื, ื›ืžโ€œืฉ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™, ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ื›ืฉืจื‘ื• ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืชืงื™ื ื• ืฉื™ื”ื ื ืคื“ื” ืกืžื•ืš ืœื—ื•ืžื”, ื•ืœื ื—ืฉืฉื• ืื– ืฉืžื ื™ืขืฉื• ื›ืœื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื˜ื”ืจื” ืœื ืกื›ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืขื ื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื™ื? ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ื›ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืืจืฅ ืงื˜ื ื” ืžืฆื•ืžืฆืžืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื” ืฉื‘ืืจืชื™, ื›ื™ ื™ืจื—ื• ื•ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืžืงื“ื ื•ืื™ืœืช ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืœื•ื“ ืžื™ื ื•ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื ืžื ื’ื‘ ื”ื’ื‘ื™ืœื• ืื•ืชื” ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืกื‘ื™ื‘, ื•ืžืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ ืœื ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ื›ืœ ืคืจื™ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื” ื ืืœืฆื• ืœืชืงืŸ ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืืช ื”ืขื ื‘ื™ื ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื” ื•ืœื ื™ืขืฉื• ืื•ืชื ืœื™ื™ืŸ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ื”ื™ื• ืขื ื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื, ืื‘ืœ ืื—โ€ื› โ€œืžืฉืจื‘ื• ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืชโ€, ืœืืžืจ, ื›ืืฉืจ ืจื—ื‘ื• ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื ื‘ืืจ ื”ืœืื”, ื•ื”ืขืœื• ืœื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื’ื ืžืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื, ืœื ื—ืฉืฉื• ืขื•ื“ ืœืคื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื”ืชืงื™ื ื• ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ื ืคื“ื™ื ื’ื ืกืžื•ืš ืœื—ื•ืžื”, ืื‘ืœ ืชื ืื™ ื”ืชื ื•, โ€œืฉืื™ืžืชื™ ืฉื™ืจืฆื• ื™ื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืœื›ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื”โ€, ืœืืžืจ, ืฉืื ื™ื’ื‘ืจ ื”ืื•ื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืืช ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ื™ืขืœื• ืืช ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื” ื›ืžืงื“ื, ืื‘ืœ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืœื ื™ื—ื•ืœ ื”ืชื ืื™ ื”ื–ื”, ื›ื™ ืื– ื™ื”ื™ื• ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ื, ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื—ืฉื•ืฉ ืคืŸ ื™ืขืฉื• ืžื›ืœื ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื ืกื›ื™ื ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืœื ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ื ืกื›ื™ื ืจืง ืžื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืœื ืžืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ ื›ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื“ืžืื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื ื•ื‘ื‘ืœื™ (ืคืกื—ื™ื ืžื‘) ื•ื›ืŸ ืžื” ืฉืืžืจื• ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ืžื ื—ื•ืช (ืคื•, ื‘) โ€œืžืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ื™ืŸ? ืงืจื•ืชื™ื ื•ืขื˜ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืืœืคื ืœื™ื™ืŸ, ืฉื ื™ื” ืœื”ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ืจื™ืžื” ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืœื‘ืŸ ื‘ื”ืจ ื•ื›ืคืจ ืกื™ื’ื ื ื‘ื‘ืงืขื”. ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื›ืฉืจื•ืช ืืœื ืžื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸโ€ ืฆโ€œืœ ืฉื›ืœ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื ื›ื”ืจื™โ€ืฉ ืฉื—ืคืฉ ืื•ืชื ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ (ืชื‘ื•ื”โ€œื ืœื•ื ืฅ ืจื˜โ€ื–), ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื ื’ื“ ื”ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืžื—ื–โ€œืœ ืฉืœื ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ื ืกื›ื™ื ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ืžื™ื”ื•ื“ื” (ื•ืžืžื” ืฉืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื (ื—ื’ื™ื’ื” ื›ื”, ื; ื ื“ื” ื•, ื›): โ€ื—ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื“ื›ืŸ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœืโ€œ ื•ืคื™ืจืฉโ€ื™: โ€œื—ื‘ืจื™ ืฉื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ืžื˜ื”ืจื™ื ื™ื™ื ื ืœื ืกื›ื™ื ื•ืฉืžื ื ืœืžื ื—ื•ืช ืฉืžื ื™ื‘ื ื” ื‘ื™ื”ืžโ€ืง ื‘ื™ืžื™ื”ืโ€œ ืื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื”, ื›ื™ ืœืื—ืจ ื”ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืจื•ื‘ ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื•ืœื ื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”. ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ืžื” ืฉืืžืจื• โ€ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœื›ืœ ืฆื“โ€œ ื›ื•ื•ื ืชื ื”ื™ื ื›ื™ ื›ืŸ ื”ื—ื–ื™ืงื” ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืœืคื ื™ื, ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืžืฉืœืฉืช ืขื‘ืจื™ื”, ืงื“ืžื” ืฆืคื•ื ื” ื•ื™ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื™ื•ื ืื—ืจ, ื•ื‘ื—ื“ื ืžื—ืชื ืžื—ืชื™ื ื”ื•. (ืขืœื™ ืœื”ืขื™ืจ ืขื•ื“ ื›ื™ ืžโ€ืฉ ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื ื“ืžืขโ€œืฉ ืคโ€ื” ืฉื›ืจื ืจื‘ืขื™ ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืœืจโ€œื ื‘ืฆื“ โ€ื›ืคืจ ื˜ื‘ื™โ€œ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ืžื•ืกื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื›ืคืจ โ€ื˜ืื™ื‘ื”โ€œ (ืขืคืจื” ืฉื›ืคื™ ืฉื‘ืืจืชื™ ืœืžืขืœื” ื”ื™ื” ื’ื ื”ื•ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืืจืฅ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื•ื“ ืœืืžืจ, ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืœื™ ืชืคื•ื ื” ื’ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉื ื™, (ื•ืโ€ืฆ ืœื’ืจื•ืก ืฉื โ€œื‘ืžื–ืจื— ืœื•ื“โ€ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืฉื•ื•ืช ื’ื™ืจืกืชื” ืขื ื’ื™' ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™. ืฉืžืฆืื ื• ื‘ืกื•ื˜ื” (ืžื—, ื) ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืœื‘ ืœืคืงื— ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ื”ืชืจื•ืžื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืขืฉืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื•ืขื™' ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืฉื ืข"ื“ ื”ืคืงื™ื“ื™ื ืฉื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืขืœ ื–ื”. ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื. ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ืžืกื•ื’ื™ืช ื”ื’ืžืจื ืฉื ืžื•ื›ื— ืฉื›ืœื ื—ื–ืจื•, XXXX ืื™ืš ื™ื›ืœื• ืœืžื ื•ืช ื™ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ืื– ื”ืจื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงืจืืชื ื“ืจื•ืจ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืœื›ืœ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื” ื•ื“ืจืฉื• ืขืœ ื–ื” ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื›ืœ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื” ืขืœื™ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื’ืœื• ืžืงืฆืชืŸ? ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ืฆโ€ืข ืžื” ืฉื›ืชื‘ ืจืฉโ€œื™ ื‘ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ (ืงื™ ื‘) ืฉื™ืจืžื™ื” ืœื ื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ื›ืœื ืจืง ืžืงืฆืชื; ื•ืœืขื•ืžืช ื–ื” ืืžื—ื–โ€ืœ (ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืคโ€œื™ ื”โ€ื”; ื‘ืจโ€œืจ ืค' ืขื’ ืื•ืช ื™; ื‘ืžื“ื‘โ€ืจ ืค' ื˜ื– ืื•ืช ื›ื”; ืื™ื›"ืจ ื‘, ื”) ื›ื™ ื’โ€˜ ื’ืœื™ื•ืช ื’ืœื• ื™โ€™ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื: ืœืคื ื™ื ืžื ื”ืจ ืกืžื‘ื˜ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื›ื•' ื•ืžืฉื ื”ืœื ืœื ื—ื–ืจื• ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื›ื“ืžื•ื›ื— ืฉื ย โ†ฉ ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื. ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื. ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืฉื: โ€œืจโ€˜ ืกื™ืžืŸ ื‘ืฉื ืจโ€™ ื—ื•ืœืคื™ื: ืจื‘ื™, ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘โ€ืจ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ื‘ืŸ ื—ืงืคืจ ื ืžื ื• ืขืœ ืื•ื™ืจ ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื•ื˜ื™ื”ืจื•ื”ื• ื›ืคื™ ืจโ€˜ ืคื ื—ืก ื‘ืŸ ื™ืื™ืจ, ื“ืืžืจ: ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืœืกื™ืจืงื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื•ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืขื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœืขื™ืจื ื• ื•ื˜ื•ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžืชื ื•.ืœืžื—ืจ ื ืžื ื• ืขืœื™ื” ืœืคื•ื˜ืจื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจื•ืช", ื•ืจโ€™ ื™ืฉืžืืขืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ ื”ืฉืชืžื˜ ืžื–ื” ื‘ืืžืจื•: โ€œืืชืžื•ืœ ืื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื˜ืžืืชื™ ืื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื˜ื”ืจืชื™. ื•ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืžื ื ืชื›ื‘ืฉื” ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื”, ื•ื”ื™ืืš ืื ื™ ืคื•ื˜ืจื” ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื”?โ€ ื•ืืช ื”ืžืืžืจ ื”ื–ื”, ื”ืกืชื•ื, ืืคืฉืจ ืœื‘ืืจ ืื ื ืขืชื™ืง ืคื” ืืช ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ืื”ื™ืœื•ืช ืค ื™ื—)*, ืฉื ืžื•ื‘ื ื”ืขื ื™ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื–ื”: โ€œืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืจ' ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจโ€ื™ ื•ืจโ€˜ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ืงืคืจ ืฉืฉื‘ืชื• ื‘ื—ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืขื›ื•"ื ื‘ืœื•ื“ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืจโ€™ ืคื ื—ืก ื‘ืŸ ื™ืื™ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืœืคื ื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจื• ืœื•: ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ, ืžื” ืืชื ื‘ื”? ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ: ืžื•ื›ืจื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืกื™ืœืงืื•ืช ืฉืœื”ื ื•ื˜ื•ืคืœื™ืŸ (ื’ื™' ื”ื’ืจ"ื; ื•ื˜ื•ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ?) ืืช ืคืกื—ื™ื”ื ืœืขืจื‘. ืืžืจื• ืœื•: ืžื”ื• ืฉื ื”ื’ ื‘ื” ืžืืจืฅ (ื’ื™ ื”ื’ืจ"ื: ืžื“ื•ืจ) ื”ืขืžื™ื? ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ: ื›ืฉื™ืฉื”ื” ืžโ€˜ ื™ื•ื. ืืžืจื• ืœื•: ืโ€œื› ื‘ื•ืื• (ื’ื™' ื”ื’ืจโ€œื: ืโ€ืœ ื‘ื) ื•ื ืžื ื” ืขืœื™ื” ืœืคื•ื˜ืจื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจื•ืชโ€. ื•ืขืœื™ื ื• ืืคื•ื ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืžื” ืฉื›ืกื” ื–ื” ื’ืœื” ื–ื” ื•ื ืจื›ื™ื‘ ืืช ืฉืชื™ ื”ืžื•ืกื—ืื•ืช ื”ืืœื• ื™ื—ื“ื•, ื•ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืช ืืจโ€œื™ ืชื—ืช ืžืžืฉืœืช ืžืœื›ื™ื ืจื•ืžืื™ื ืขืจื™ืฆื™ื ื™ืจืื• ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื ืœื’ื•ืจ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื ื’ื‘ื”, ื–ื•ืœืชื™ ื‘ืœื•ื“ ื•ื™ื‘ื ื”, ืฉื”ืŸ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ื•ืจืง ื‘ืชื—ืœืช ื™ืžื™ ืจื‘ื™, ืฉืื– ืžืœืš ืื ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื•ืก, ื ืžืฆื ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ื ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื”ืืจืฅ, ื•ืื™ืŸ ืคื” ื”ืžืงื•ื ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ื–ืืช ื‘ืจืื™ื•ืช. ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืžืื“ ื›ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืจื™ื‘ืจโ€ื™ ื•ืจืื”โ€œืง, ืฉื”ื™ื• ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื ืื– ืœื™ืžื™ื, ื•ืจืื• ืฉื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืชืคืฉื˜ ื’ื ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ื”ืœื›ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ืœืขื ื™ื ื™ ื˜ื”ืจื” ื•ืžืขืฉืจื•ืช, ื”ืœื›ื” ืฉืขื“ ื”ื ื” ืœื ื”ืขืกื™ืงื” ืืช ื”ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ืœืœ, ื›ื™ ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื“ืจื•ืฉื” ืœื”ื ื•ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ื›ืœื• ืœื“ืขืช ื–ืืช? ืื ืœื ื™ื“ืขื• ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืชื ื”ื’ื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื–ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืžืื– ื•ืขื“ ื”ื ื” ื”ืจื™ ืขื‘ืจื• ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืคโ€ื‘ ืฉื ื” (ื›ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื ื•ืœื“ ื "ื‘ ืœื—ืจื‘ืŸ ื•ื ืชืžื ื” ืœื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื• ื‘ืŸ ืœ), ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืฉื›ื—ื• ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืžื” ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืฉืืœื• ืœื”ื–ืงืŸ ืจืคื‘โ€œื™ ืฉื”ื™ื”, ืื•ืœื™ ื™ืœื“ ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขืช ื”ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ. ื•ื”ื•ื ืขื ื” ืœื”ื, ื›ื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ืจื“ื• ืœื’ืœื™ืœ ื–ื” ื˜ื‘ืœื• ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืื›ื™ืœืช ื”ืคืกื— ื•ื”ืชืจื•ืžื”. ืื•ืœื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ื“ืขื• ื”ืฉื•ืืœื™ื ืื ื”ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืคืืช ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžื™ื, ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื ื”ื’ื• ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืฉื‘ืขื”, ืื• ืžืคืืช โ€ืžื“ื•ืจ ื”ืขืžื™ืโ€œ ืฉืื™ื ื ื• ืžื˜ืžื ืจืง ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืขืจื‘, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืฉืืœื•ื”ื• ืฉื•ื‘, ืื ื™ื ื”ื’ื• ื‘ื” ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืื• ืžื“ื•ืจ ื”ืขืžื™ื? (ื‘ื’ื™' ื”ื’ืจ"ื), ื•ื”ื•ื ืขื ื” ืœื”ื โ€ื›ืฉื™ืฉื”ื” ืžโ€™ ื™ื•ืโ€œ ืคื™' ืฉื™ื˜ืžืื•ื” ืžืฉื•ื โ€ืžื“ื•ืจ ื”ืขืžื™ืโ€œ. ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ืขื‘ืจื• ืž' ื™ื•ื ืžืฉืขืช ื”ื’ื–ืจื”, ื›ื™ ื™ื—ืฉื‘ ืฉืืš ื–ื” ืขืชื” ื‘ืื• ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ืœื”ืชื™ืฉื‘ ืฉืžื”, ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ื•ืจ ื”ืขืžื™ื ื˜ืžื ื›โ€ื ืื—ืจื™ ืžโ€˜ ื™ื•ื ืœื™ืฉื•ื‘ื ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืžืงื•ื, ืื‘ืœ ืขื“ ื”ื ื” ื ื—ืฉื‘ืช ื›ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ. ื•ื‘ืฉืžืขื ื›ื–ืืช โ€œื ืžื ื• ืขืœ ืื•ื™ืจื” ื•ื˜ื™ื”ืจื•ื”ื•โ€, ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ืฆโ€ืœ ื›ื™ ืžื” ืฉืฉืืœื• ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ โ€œืื™ืžืชื™ ื”ื™ื ื˜ืžืื” ืžืฉื•ื โ€ืื•ื™ืจ ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžื™ืโ€œ ืœืืžืจ, ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืฉื‘ืขื”, ื›ื™ ื–ื” ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ืืžืจ ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืจืชื™. ื•ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื” ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ืœื›ืŸ ื ืืกืคื• ืœืžื—ืจ ื•ื ืžื ื• ืขืœื™ื” ืœืคื•ื˜ืจื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจื•ืชโ€, ืคื™โ€™ ืœืคื•ื˜ืจื” ืœื’ืžืจื™, ื›ืืฉืจ ืคื˜ืจื• ืืช โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸโ€, ื•ืจ' ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจโ€œื™ ืœื ื”ืกื›ื™ื ืœื–ื”, ื‘ืืžืจื•: ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื•ื˜ื”ืจื” ื™ื›ื•ืœืชื™ ืœืฉื ื•ืช ืืช ืžื ื”ื’ื™, ื›ื™ โ€ืืชืžื•ืœ ืื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื˜ืžืืชื™โ€œ ืืช ืื•ื™ืจื” ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื™ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ืœื” ื“ื™ืŸ ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžื™ืโ€ โ€œื•ืื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื˜ื”ืจืชื™ ืืช ืื•ื™ืจื”, ื•ืื™ื ื ื™ ืคื•ื’ืข ื‘ื–ื” ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื”ืœื›ื” ืงื™ื™ืžืช, ืื‘ืœ ืขืชื” ื›ืฉื ื‘ื ืœืคื•ื˜ืจื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจื•ืช ื”ืจื™ ื ืคื’ืข ื‘ื“โ€ืช ื›ื™ ืฉืžื ื ื›ื‘ืฉื” ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ืขโ€œื™ ืขื•ืœื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืื™ืš ื ืคื˜ืจื ื” ืœื’ืžืจื™ ืžืžืขืฉืจ? ื”ืจื™ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ืขื›โ€ืค ื“ื™ืŸ ืืจืฅ ืฉื›ื‘ืฉื•ื” ืขื•ืœื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื” ื•ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ื‘ืžืขืฉืจ ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ. ื•ืคื” ื™ืฉ ืžืงื•ื ืืชื™ ืœื”ืขื™ืจ ืขืœ ืžื” ืฉืืžืจื• (ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืž"ื”) ืโ€œืœ ืจื—ื‘โ€ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™: ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืขื•ืคื•ืช ืฉื‘ื‘ื‘ืœ ืฉืžื ื™ื? ืโ€œืœ: ื ืœืš ืœืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขื–ื” ื•ืืจืืš ืฉืžื ื™ื ืžื”ืโ€ ื”ืจื™ ื›ื™ โ€œืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขื–ื”โ€ ื”ื•ื ืžืืจโ€œื™, ื•ื›ืŸ ืคื™ืจืฉโ€ื™: ื•ืœืงืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืจ' ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ: โ€œืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืขื•ืคื•ืช ืฉื‘ื‘ื‘ืœ ืฉืžื ื™ื?โ€“ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื ื’ืœื•โ€, ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ืฆโ€ืœ ื’โ€œื› ื›ื™ ืžื˜ืขื ื–ื” ืฉืžื ื™ื ื’ื ื”ืขื•ืคื•ืช ืฉื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขื–ื”. ื”ืจื™ ืžื•ื›ื— ืžื–ื” ื›ื™ โ€ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขื–ื” ืื™ื ื ื• ืžืืจโ€œื™. ื•ื›ืŸ ืžื•ื›ื— ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ืคโ€œื’ ื—โ€ื’), ืฉืืžืจื•: โ€ืจื™ื‘โ€œื  ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืขื–ื” ื•ืžื ื•ื ื™ื” ืขโ€ืž ืœื—ื–ื•ืจโ€œ, ื•ื™ืจื™ื“ ืขื–ื” ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉืœ ืขื›ื•โ€ื (ื™ืจื•ืฉโ€˜ ืขโ€œื– ืคโ€ื ื”โ€œื“; ื‘ืจโ€ืจ ืคโ€™ืžื–) ื•ื›ืŸ ืขื˜ืœื•ื–ื ืฉืœ ืขื–ื” (ืข"ื– ื™ื, ื‘) ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืชืขื•ืจืจ ืขโ€œื– ืžื”ืจืฉโ€ื ื•ื—ืจืฅ ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื• ืžืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื ื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ืฆื“ ืžื” ืžืืจโ€œื™ ื•ื‘ืฆื“ ืžื” ืžื—ื•โ€ืœ (ื›ืŸ ื ืฉืžืข ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื•), ื•ื”ื ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ื—ื•ืžื” ื”ื™ื ื•ื ื‘ื ื” ืขืœื™ื” ื˜ื™ืจืช ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื ืืžืจ ื‘ืฉื™ื˜ืชื•, ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื“ื™ืŸ ื—ื•โ€œืœ ื‘ืฆื“ ืžื”, ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื“ื™ืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื” ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ. ื•ื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืžืจืฉโ€ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื•ืช ื›ื• ื“โ€œื” ื•ื”ื ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื•ืžืจืฉโ€ื™ ืชืขื ื™ืช (ื™ื˜ ื ื“"ื” ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ), ืข"ืฉ. ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ื–ื” ื โ€œ ืœ ืœื‘ืืจ ืืช ื”ืกื•ื’ื™ื ื“ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช) ื”ื โ€ืœ, ืื—ืจ ืขื ื™ืŸ ืคืจืฉืช ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ืฉืืžืจื•: โ€œืจโ€˜ ืกื™ืžื•ืŸ ื•ืจโ€™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื”ื•ื•ืŸ ื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ืŸ. ืืžืจื™: ื”ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืœื›ื•ื“ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืช ืขื–ื” ื•ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื”. ืœื™ืชื™ ืขื–ื”? ืืช ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื•ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื”, ืœื™ืชื™ ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ? ืžืขืชื”, ื”ื”ืŸ* ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื, ืœื™ืชื™ ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื?โ€ ืคื™ ืžื“ืžื‘ื•ืืจ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืฉื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื‘ืฉ ืืช ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ืโ€œื› ืชื”ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื–ืืช ื‘ื›ืœืœ ืืจโ€ื™, ื•ืœืžื” ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื•ื” ืžื›ืœืœื”? ื•ืืช ืขื–ื” ืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ ื•ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืชืคืกื• ืจืง ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื, ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืืžืช ื›ื•ื•ื ื• ืœื”ืงืฉื•ืช ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืืจืฅ ืคืœืฉืชื™ื, ื•ืื—โ€œื› ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืžืืžืจ ืžืขื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืจื™ื‘โ€ืœ ืขืœ โ€œืกื•ืกื™ืชืโ€ ืฉืคื˜ื•ืจื” ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจ ื•ืขโ€œื– ื”ืง' ืื™ืžื™: ืžื“ื•ืข ื”ืคื˜ื•ืจ? ื”ืœื ื”ื™ื ืžืžืขืœื™ ืžืกื™ืŸ ืœืืจโ€ื™ (ื”ื’ื™โ€˜ โ€œืžื‘ืขืœื™ ืกื™ืกื™ืŸโ€ ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉืช, ื•ื‘ื“ืžืื™ ืคโ€œื‘ ื”โ€ื ื’ื•โ€™ โ€œืžืžืขืœื™ ืžืกื™ืŸโ€, ื•ื›ืฆ"ืœ) ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื”ื—ืฉื‘ ื›ื’ื•ืฃ ืืจโ€œื™ ื›ืžื• ืืจืฅ ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ื ื™ื. ื•ืื—โ€ื› ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืขื•ื“ ืžืืžืจ ืื—ื“ ืžืขื™ืŸ ื–ื”: โ€œืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืœื ื’ื–ืจื• ืขืœ ืื•ืชื• ื”ืจื•ื— ืฉื‘ื’ืจื“ื™ืงื•?โ€ ืคื™โ€˜ ื’ืจื“ื™ืงื• ื”ื™ื โ€œื’ืจืจโ€ ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืชื‘ืืจื” ืชื›ื•ื ืชื”, ื•ืฉืืœื•, ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืœื ื’ื–ืจื• ืขืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื‘ืืจืฅ ืฉืžืฆื“ ื’ืจืจ? ื”ืœื ืžืืจโ€œื™ ื”ื™ื, ื“ืืœโ€ื› ื”ืื™ืš ื’ืจ ืฉื ื™ืฆื—ืง. โ€“ "ืจโ€™ ืกื™ืžืŸ ื‘ืฉืจื™ื‘โ€œืœ: ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ื•ื™ื” ืจืขโ€ ืคื™โ€˜ ืื™ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ื ื’ืจื™ื ืฉื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืืงืœื™ื ืจืข, ื•ืœื ื”ื™โ€™ ืขืœ ืžื™ ืœื’ื–ื•ืจ. โ€“ ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ื™ืŸ? ืคื™โ€˜ ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื ื•ื™ื” ืจืข? โ€“ "ืจโ€™ ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉโ€œืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจโ€ื™: ืขื“ ื ื—ืœ ืžืฆืจื™ืโ€œ. โ€“ โ€ื•ื”ืจื™ ืขื–ื” ื ื•ื™ื” ื™ืคื”โ€œ ืคื™' ื•ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืœื ื’ื–ืจื• ืฉื ืขืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช? ืฉื”ืจื™ โ€“ โ€ืคืฉืคืฉื” ืืžืจ ืจโ€˜ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืฉืืœื™ืช ืœืจโ€™ ืื—ื (ืขืœ ื—ื™ื•ื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื‘ืขื–ื”) ื•ืฉืจืโ€œ*. ื•ืื—โ€ื› ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืขื•ื“ ื“ื•ื’ืžืื•ืช ืœื–ื” ืžืจโ€˜ ื–ืขื™ืจื ื•ืžืจ"ื™ ืฉืœื ื’ื–ืจื• ืขืœ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื”ื ืœื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื•ืœื ื—ื™ื•ื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช, ื•ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืคืœื™ืื•ืช ื”ื”ืŸ ืขื ื” ืจโ€™ ืื‘ื”ื•: โ€œื™ืฉ ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื›ื•ืชื™ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืžื™ืžื™ ื™ื‘โ€ื  ื•ื”ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื•ืชโ€œ, ืคื™' ืฉื”ื™ืชืจ ืืœื• ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืื™ื ื• ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ืจื•ืข ื”ืืงืœื™ื, ืจืง ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืŸ โ€ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ืโ€œ, ื•ืžื–ื” ื“ืžื” ืจ' ื™ื•ืกื™ ื›ื™ ืžื˜ืขื ื–ื” ื”ื ื ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื›ื—ื•โ€ืœ ืœื’ืžืจื™, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืฉืืœ: โ€œืžืขืชื” ืœื ื™ื—ื•ืฉื• ื›ื”ื ื™ื (ืฉื‘ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืืœื•) ืขืœ ื—ืœืชืŸ, ื•ืื ืŸ ื—ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื•ืฉืฉื™ืŸโ€, ืคื™โ€˜ ื›ื™ ื”ืœื ื“ื™ืŸ ืžืคื•ืจืฉ ื”ื•ื ืฉืœืฉ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื—ืœืช ื•ื›ื•โ€™ ื•ืขโ€œื– ืขื ื” ืœื• ืจื™ื‘โ€ืค: โ€œืœื ื‘ื’ื™ืŸ ืžืœืชื ื“ืืช ืืžืจืช ืืœื ื‘ื’ื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื—ืœื˜ื•ืŸ ืžืœื›ื•ืชื ื‘ื™ื“ืโ€ ืคื™' ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ื‘ืฉื, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื ืฉืืจื• ืชื—ืช ืžืžืฉืœืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืจืชื™ ืœืžืขืœื”. ื•ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžืฉื ื” (ืกื“, ื‘) โ€œืืžืจ ืจ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœื ืคืกืง ืœื” ืฉืขื•ืจื™ื ืืœื ืจ' ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืกืžื•ืš ืœืื“ื•ืโ€ ื•ืืžืจื• ืขโ€œื– ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™: โ€ืžื”ื• ืกืžื•ืš ืœืื“ื•ื? โ€“ ืœื“ืจื•ืžื”โ€œ. ื•ืžืฆืื ื• ื›ื™ ืžืงื•ื ืžื’ื•ืจื™ ืจโ€˜ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื”ื™โ€™ โ€ื›ืคืจ ืขื–ื™ืŸโ€œ ืื• โ€ืขื–ื™ื–โ€œ (ืชื•ืกืคืชื ื›ืœืื™ื ืคโ€œื“; ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ ื›ืœืื™ื ืคโ€ื• ื”"ื’) ื•ื”ื•ื โ€ื“ื™ืจ ืืœ ืขื–ืœโ€œ ยฝ2 ืคืจโ€˜ ืืฉโ€™ ืœื“ืจื•ืโ€“ื“ืจื•ืโ€“ืžืขืจื‘ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ, ื•ืืฆืœื• ื ืžืฆืื” โ€ืื“ื•ืจื™ืโ€œ ื•ื ืงืจืื” โ€ื“ื•ืจืโ€œ ื•ื”ืœืื” ืื‘ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื™ ืฉื ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื’ื•ื™ื, ื•ื”ื•ื ืื•ืœื™ โ€ื“ืจื•ืโ€œ ืฉืœ ื—ื–โ€ืœ (ืขื™' ื›ืคื•โ€œืค ืคื™โ€ื). ืื ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืขื™ืจ ืคืจื˜ื™ืช, ื•ืื ื ืืžืจ (ืžื” ืฉื™ืชื›ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ) ื›ื™ โ€œื“ืจื•ืžืโ€ ื‘ื—ื–โ€œืœ ืžื•ืกื‘ ืขืœ ื›ืœ โ€ื ื’ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”โ€œ ื›ืžื• ืฉื ืงืจื ื‘ืžืงืจื ื‘ืกืชื โ€ื”ื ื’ื‘โ€œ ื’ื ืื– ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืžื” ืฉืงืจืื•ื” โ€ืื“ื•ืโ€œ ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืฉืžื” ื™ืฉื‘ื• โ€ืื“ื•ืžื™ืโ€œ, ื•ื›ื ืจืื”, ื ืฉืืจื• ืฉืžื” ื’ื ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื—ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื•ื™ืชื—ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆื•ืจืจื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื•ืขโ€ื– ืืžื—ื–โ€œืœ (ื‘ืจ"ืจ ืค ืขื• ืกื™' ื’): โ€ืื ื™ื‘ื ืขืฉื• ืืœ ื”ืžื—ื ื” ื”ืื—ืช ื•ื”ื›ื”ื• โ€“ ืืœื• ืื—ื™ื ื• ืฉื‘ื“ืจื•ื, ื•ื”ื™ื” ื”ืžื—ื ื” ื”ื ืฉืืจ ืœืคืœื˜ื” โ€“ ืืœื• ืื—ื™ื ื• ืฉื‘ื’ื•ืœื”โ€œ (ื "ืœ ื›ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœื’ืจื•ืก: ืฉื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ) ื•ืฉื (ืคโ€˜ ืก"ื– ืกื™โ€™ ื’)* ืžื•ื›ื— ื›ื™ โ€ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ" ื”ื™ืชื” ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ื‘ื ื™ ืขืฉื•. ื•ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ื“ืžืื™ ืค"ื) ืืžืจื•: โ€œืื—ืจื™ ืฉื”ื•ืจื™ืชื ืœื ื• ืขืœ ืื•ืฆืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ืœืคื ื™ ืžืœื—ืžื” (ื›ืฆโ€œืœ ื•ืคื™' ืœืคื ื™ ืžืœื—ืžืช ืืกืคืกื™ืื ื•ืก, ื›ื™ ื‘ืฉืขืช ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ื ืชื ื” ืœืจื™ื‘โ€ื– ื•ื ืชื™ืฉื‘ื” ื›ื•ืœื” ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ) ืฉื”ื™ื ื“ืžืื™ ื•ืจื•ื‘ืŸ ื›ื•ืชื™ืโ€ ื”ืจื™ ืฉื’ื ื™ื‘ื ื”, ืœื“ืจื•ื ื™ืคื•, ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช. ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืกื•ืฃ ืขืจืœื”) ืืžืจื•: โ€œืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืขื ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื›ืœืื™ืโ€ฆ ืื‘ืœ ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ื‘ืœืขื•ืช ื‘ืืจโ€ื™ ื›ื’ื•ื ื‘ืื™ื ื” ื•ื‘ืื™ืžื” ื•ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื•ืชื™ื” ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืขืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœืื™ืโ€œ ื•ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ื›ืœืื™ื ืค"ื‘) ื’ื•': โ€ื‘ื™ืช ืขื ื”, ืื™ืžื”. ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืขื ื” ื”ื•ื โ€œื‘ื™ืช ืขื ืืŸโ€ ยฝ8 ืคืจ' ืœืฆืžโ€œืข ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื, ืืฆืœ ื’ื‘ืขื•ืŸ, ืžืฆืคื” ื•ืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ื. ื•ืฆโ€ืœ ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื›ื™ โ€ืื™ืžื”โ€œ ื”ื•ื โ€ืืœโ€“ืขืžื•ืŸโ€œ ืœืžืขืจื‘ ืงืจื™ืช ื™ืขืจื™ื, ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ืฉื ื”ื™ืชื” โ€ื’ื‘ืขืช ืืžื” ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื’ื™ื— ื“ืจืš ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื’ื‘ืขื•ืŸ" (ืฉ"ื‘ ื‘, ื›ื“) (ื•ืœื ืื›ื—ื“ ื›ื™ ื™โ€œืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื โ€ื‘ื™ืช ืขื ืชโ€œ ืฉืœ ื ืคืชืœื™ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ืœื—) ืืฉืจ ืœื ื”ื•ืจื™ืฉื” (ืฉื•ืคื˜ื™ื ื, ืœื’) ื•ืืฆืœื” ื ืžืฆืืช โ€ืขืžื”โ€œ ืฉืœ ืึธืฉืจ (ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื™ื˜, ืœ), ื•ื”ื™ื โ€ืื™ืžื”" ื”ื ื–', ื•ื”ื‘ื•ื—ืจ ื™ื‘ื—ืจ). ื•ืขืชื” ื ืฉื™ื ืคื ื™ื ื• ืืช ืฉืคืœืช ื”ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืจ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ. ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ื“ืžืื™ ืก"ื”) ืืžืจื•: โ€œื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉืขืฉื• ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื›ื•ืชื™ื ื“ืžืื™, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื™ืจืง ืฉื‘ื›ืคืจ ืขื•ืชื ื™ ืžืขืฉืจ ืžื”ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืœื™ืŸโ€ ื•ื”ื›ืคืจ ื”ื–ื” ื ื–ื›ืจ ื’ื ื‘ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื ื” (ืขื•, ื) ืืฆืœ โ€œืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืกโ€, ื•ื›ืชื‘ ืจืฉโ€œื™ ืฉื: โ€ืกืžื•ื›ื™ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื‘ืกืคืจ. ื–ื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื–ื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ื’ืœื™ืœโ€œ, ื•ืขื ื”ื ื—ืชื™ ืžื›ื‘ืจ ื›ื™ โ€ืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืกโ€œ ื”ื•ื โ€ื›ืคืจ ืกื‘ืโ€œ ืฆืจื™ืš โ€ื›ืคืจ ืขื•ืชื ืื™โ€œ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืืคื•ื ืกืžื•ืš ืœื•, ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ืฉืืจ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ืจืง ืงืฆืช ืžืงื•ื ืคื ื•ื™ ื•ืœืคื™โ€ื– ื”ื•ื โ€œืขืชื™ืœโ€ ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€œื›ืคืจ ืงืงื•ืŸโ€, ื•ื›ืคืจ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืœืคื™โ€œื– ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœื”ื’ื•ื™ื; ืื•ืœื ืโ€ื ืžืฆื“ ืื—ืจ ืœืืžืจ ื›ืŸ, ื™ืขืŸ ื›ื™ ืžื›ืคืจ โ€œืขืชื™ืœโ€ ืขื“ โ€œืฆืคื•ืจื™โ€ ื™ืฉ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืฉืœืฉื™ื ืžื™ืœ, ื•ื–ื” ื ื’ื“ ื”ืฉโ€œืก (ื‘ื›ื•ืจื•ืช ื ื”, ื; ื™ืจื•ืฉ' ื—ืœื” ืคโ€œื“ ื”โ€ื‘) ืฉืžื‘ื•ืืจ ืฉื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื›โ€ื ื˜โ€œื– ืžื™ืœ, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื ืจืื” ืœื™ ืืœ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื›ื™ โ€ืขื•ืชื ืื™โ€œ ื”ื•ื โ€ืงื•ืชืžืชโ€œ ืืฉืจ ืœืžื–ืจื— โ€ืชื ืชื•ืจืโ€œ, ืœืจื’ืœื™ ื”ืจ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ ื™ืžื” ื›ืฉืฉื” ืžื™ืœ ืจื•ืžืื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื. ื•ืžืงื•ื ื–ื” ืจื—ื•ืง ืžืฆืคื•ืจื™ ื‘ืืžืช ืจืง ื˜โ€ื– ืžื™ืœ, ื•ืฆืคื•ืจื™ ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืŸ ื›ืคืจ โ€œืขื ืขืึทโ€ (ื—ื ื ื™ื”) ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ ืฆืคืช ื’โ€œื› ื˜โ€ื– ืžื™ืœ ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื–โ€œืœ, ื•ืœืคื™โ€ื– ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ โ€œืขื•ืชื ืื™โ€ ื”ื•ื ืงืฆื” ื ื’ื‘ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื‘ืฉืคืœืช ื”ื™ื ื•ืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืก ื”ื•ื ืงืฆื” ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืฉืคืœื” ื–ื•. ื•ื”ืฉืคืœื” ืฉื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื™ื™ื›ืช ืœื”ื’ื•ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืชื—ื•ื ืงื‘ื•ืข ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื’ืœื™ืœ. ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉโ€˜ (ื™ื‘ืžื•ืช ืคโ€œื— ื”โ€ื’): "ืืžืจ ืจโ€™ ืื‘ื”ื•: ืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื ืฉืชืงืขื• ื‘ื›ื•ืชื™ื ื‘ื™ืžื™ ื”ืฉืžื“, ืืžืจื™ืŸ, ื”ื“ื ืขื™ืจื• ื“ืžื•ืฉื”ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื”ื•ืŸโ€œ*. ื•ื โ€ืœ ื›ื™ ืฆโ€œืœ ื“ืžื•ืฉืœืŸ ื•ื”ื•ื โ€ืชืœ ืžื•ืชึถืกึถืœึถืโ€œ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€ืงืชื ื”โ€œ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ โ€ืœื’ื™ื•ืŸโ€œ (ืžื’ื™ื“ื•) ื•ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ื›ื™ ื™โ€ื’ ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืืœื• ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ โ€œืงืกืจื™ืŸโ€ โ€“ ืžืงื•ื ืžื’ื•ืจื™ ืจโ€˜ ืื‘ื”ื•. ื•ื‘ื—ื’ื™ื’ื” (ื›ื”, ื) ืืžืจื•: โ€œืจืฆื•ืขื” ืฉืœ ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืžืคืกืงืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื’ืœื™ืœโ€ ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ืจืฆื•ืขืช ืฉืคืœืช ื”ื™ื ื”ื–ืืช, ืืฉืจ ื”ืžืกืœื” ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื’ืœื™ืœ ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืฉื, ื•ื“ืจืš ื”ืจื™ื ืืคืฉืจ ืœื ืกื•ืข ืจืง ื‘ืงื•ืฉื™, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื”ื‘ื™ืจ ืœื’ืœื™ืœ ืืคืจ ืคืจื” ืื• ืœืขืœื•ืช ืžืฉื ืœืจื’ืœ ืœื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืืœืฆื• ืœื ืกื•ืข ื“ืจืš ื”ื”ืจื™ื, ืœื‘ืœ ื™ื˜ืžืื• ื‘ืฉืคืœื” ื›ืขืคืจ ืืจืฅ ื”ืขืžื™ื, ื•ืžืชื•ืจืฆืช ื‘ื–ื” ืงื•ืฉื™ืช ื”ืจ"ืจ ืืœื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืกโ€™ ืฉื. ื•ื‘ืžืฉื ื” (ื—ืœื” ืคโ€œื“ ืžโ€ื•) ืืžืจื•: ื ืชืื™ ืื™ืฉ ืชืงื•ืข ื”ื‘ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืช ืžื‘ื™ืชืจ ื•ืœื ืงื‘ืœื• ืžืžื ื•โ€œ ื•ืงืฉื” ืžืื•ื“ ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื โ€ื‘ื™ืชื™ืจโ€œ ื”ืจื—ื•ืง ืžื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื‘ืขืจืš 10 ืงื™ืœื•ืžืชืจ, ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื โ€ื‘ื™ืชืจโ€œ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ืœื“ืจื•ื โ€ื ื—ืœ ืงื ื”โ€œ ื•ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžื™ืœ (ืื™ื›โ€œืจ ืคโ€ื‘ ืขืœ ืคืกื•ืง ื‘ืœืข ื”') ื•ื”ื™ื ื ื—ืฉื‘ื” ื›ื—ื•โ€ืœ. ื•ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ื“ืžืื™ ืค"ื) ืืžืจื•: โ€œื”ืœื•ืงื— ืžืŸ ื”ืกืคื™ื ื” ื‘ื™ืคื• ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืกืคื™ื ื” ื‘ืงืกืจื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ (ืคื™' ืืขโ€œืค ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ืžืืจโ€ื™, ื—ื–ืงืช ืคืจื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืฉื‘ื ืžืืจ"ื™). ืจโ€ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ืคืช ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื•ื›ื™ืคืช ืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืก ื•ืฉื•ืง ืฉืœ ืคื˜ืจื•ืก ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื• ื“ืžืื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื—ื–ืงืชืŸ ืžื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืšโ€œ ื•ื›ืคื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ื ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืžืงื•ื โ€ืคื•ื ื“ืงืโ€œ ืฉื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืฉื”ื‘ืืชื™ ื‘ืคื ื™ื), โ€ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘โ€œ ืฆโ€ืœ โ€œื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื”โ€ ื•ื”ื•ื โ€œื˜ืื™ื‘ื”โ€ ื”ื โ€œืœ. โ€ืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืกโ€œ ื”ื•ื โ€ื›ืคืจ ืกื‘ืโ€œ ื”ื โ€ืœ, โ€œืคื˜ืจื•ืกโ€ ื”ื•ื ืคื•ื ื“ืง ืคืจืึทื˜ื”" ืืฉืจ ืœืžืขืจื‘ ื”ืจ ื’ืจื–ื™ื. ื•ื”ืชื‘ื•ืื” ืฉื‘ื”ื, ื—ื–ืงืชื” ืžื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš, ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ื ื•ื™ ื›ืœืœื™ ืœื”ืจื™ ืืคืจื™ื. ื•ืืฃ ืื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ืืœื• ื›ืžื• ืฉื›ืชื‘ืชื™ ืืš, ืœืžืฆืขืจ, ื–ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื›ื™ ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื ื• ืžื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš, ืœืืžืจ, ื”ืฉืคืœื”, ืื™ื ื ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืชื—ื•ื. ื•ื‘ืžืฉื ื” (ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืคโ€œื˜ ืžโ€ื‘) ืืžืจื•: โ€œื’' ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื‘ื™ืขื•ืจ: ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ, ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืฉืœืฉ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“: ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ ื•ื”ืขืžืง. ืžื›ืคืจ ื—ื ื ื™ื ื•ืœืžืขืœืŸ, ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื’ื“ืœ ืฉื™ืงืžื™ืŸ โ€“ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ, ื•ืžื›ืคืจ ื—ื ื ื™ื ื•ืœืžื˜ืŸ, ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื’ื“ืœ ืฉืงืžื™ืŸ โ€“ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ. ื•ืชื”ื•ื ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื” โ€“ ื”ืขืžืง. ื•ื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”: ื”ื”ืจ ื•ื”ืฉืคืœื” (ืก"ื ื•ื”ื ื’ื‘) ื•ื”ืขืžืง. ื•ืฉืคืœืช ืœื•ื“ โ€“ ื‘ืฉืคืœืช ื”ื“ืจื•ื ื•ื”ื”ืจ ืฉืœื” โ€“ ื‘ื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš. ืžื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืื—ืชโ€. ื”ืจื™ ืื ื—ื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ืœื ื ื–ื›ืจื” ื›ืœ โ€œืฉืคืœื”โ€ ืœืืžืจ, ืฉืคืœืช ืืจืฅ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื, ื•ืื ื ืฉื™ื ืืœ ืœื‘ื ื• ื›ื™ ืืจืฅ ื’ืœื™ืœ, ืžืคืืช ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืžืชื—ืœืช ืืฆืœ ืœื•ื“ ืื• ื™ืคื• (ืขื™โ€˜ ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ืขื• ื•ืคื™โ€™ ื”ื’ืจ"ื ืœืจืืฉ ืกโ€˜ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื•ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ืืœื™โ€™), ื™ืงืฉื”, ืžื“ื•ืข ืœื ื”ื–ื›ื™ืจื• ื‘ืืžืช ืืช ืฉืคืœืชโ€“ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ? ื—ื•ืฃ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืจืžืœ? ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื”ืฉืคืœื” ื”ื–ืืช ืื™ื ื ื” ืžื›ืœืœ ืืจโ€œื™. ื•ืื ื™ืฉืืœ ื”ืฉื•ืืœ, ื”ืœื ืืžืจ ืจืฉื‘โ€ื’ (ื‘ืชื•ืกืคโ€˜ ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉโ€™): โ€œืกื™ืžืŸ ืœืฉืคืœื” ืฉืงืžื™ืโ€ ื•ืžื“ื ืงื˜ ื”ืชื ื ืกื™ืžื ื ืืฆืœ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื’ื“ืœ ืฉืงืžื™ืโ€œ ื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื” ืฉื”ื™ื ืฉืคืœืช ื”ื™ื โ€“ ืืขื ื” ืœื•: โ€ื›ื™ ื”ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื ื™ืจืื” ืฉื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจืฉื‘โ€œื’ ืžื•ืกืคื™ื ืขืœ ืžโ€ืฉ ืฉื: ืจืฉื‘โ€œื ืื•ืžืจ: ืื™ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ืจ ืฉื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ? โ€“ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืจื™ืโ€ฆ ื•ื—ื‘ืจื•ืชื™ื”. ืฉืคืœื” ืฉืœื”? โ€“ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืขืจื™ื” ืฉื‘ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ, ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืžื•ืช ื•ื‘ืขืœ ืžืขื•ืŸ. ืขื•ืžืง ืฉืœื” โ€“ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื ืžืจื”, ืจืžืชื” ื•ื—ื‘ืจื•ืชื™ื”โ€ ื•ืขืœ ื”ืฉืคืœื” ื”ื–ืืช ืืžืจ ืจืฉื‘โ€œื’ โ€ืกื™ืžืŸ ืœืฉืคืœื” ืฉืงืžื™ืโ€œ ื•ื›ื™ ื ืชื‘ื•ื ืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ, ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืŸ ื•ื›ื•' ื”ืŸ ื‘ืืจืฅ ื”ืจื™ื, ืœื ื‘ืฉืคืœื”! ื•ืžื“ื•ืข ืงืจืื• ืœืžืงื•ื ื–ื” โ€ืฉืคืœื”โ€œ? ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ ื ืงืจื โ€ืฉืคืœื”โ€œ ืœืขืžืช ื”ื”ืจื™ื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื–ื”, ื•ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื›ื–ื” ื’ื“ืœื™ื ืฉืงืžื™ื, ืœืคื™ ืจืฉื‘โ€ื’, ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ื–ื” ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืกื™ืžืŸ ื”ืฉืงืžื™ื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœืคื•ืœ ื’ื ืขืœ ื”ืจืจื™ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ, ื”ืฉืคืœื™ื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ. ืืš ืคื” ืชืชืขื•ืจืจ ืฉืืœื”, ืžื“ื•ืข ืืคื•ื ืœื ืงืจืื• ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื‘ืืžืช ืœื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื โ€ืฉืคืœื”โ€œ? ื•ืขโ€ื– ืืขื ื”, ืฉืื ื”ื™ื• ืงื•ืจืื™ื ืœื• ื‘ืฉื ื”ื›ืœืœื™ โ€“ โ€œืฉืคืœื”โ€ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ื‘ื–ื” ื’ื ืืช ืฉืคืœืช ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ื”ื โ€œืœ ืœื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ื›ืœืœ ืืจโ€ื™, ื•ื–ื” ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ, ืœื›ืŸ ื‘ื—ืจื• ืœืกืžื ื• ื‘ืฉื ืžื“ื•ื™ืง ื™ื•ืชืจ โ€“ โ€œื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸโ€. ื•ื—ืœื•ืงื™ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ื ื ืžื‘ื•ืืจื™ื ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ื”ื™ื˜ื‘, ืจืง ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื, ื•ื‘ื ื•ืกื—ื ืžื“ื•ืงื“ืงืช ื™ื•ืชืจ โ€“ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™. ืฉื ืืžืจื•: โ€œืื™ื–ื” ื”ืจ ืฉื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”? โ€“ ื–ื” ื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš, ื•ืฉืคืœืชื•? โ€“ ื–ื• ืฉืคืœืช ื“ืจื•ื, ื•ืขืžืง ืฉืœื•? โ€“ ืžืขื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื™ ื•ืขื“ ื™ืจื—ื•โ€, ืคื™โ€˜ ื›ื™ ืืจืฅ ื”ื”ืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืจืขืช ืœืื•ืจืš ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ, ืžืขืžืง ื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื‘ื™ืช ืืœ, ื ืงืจืืช ื’ื ื”ื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืขื‘ืจื” โ€“ โ€œื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืšโ€, ื•ื”โ€œืฉืคืœื”โ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œืฉืคืœืช ื“ืจื•ืโ€, ืœืืžืจ, ื’ืœื™ืœ ื‘ืืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืขื“ ื’ืจื“ โ€“ ืกื•ืฃ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ืฉื ืงืจื ื’ื ื‘ืžืงืจื: โ€œื”ื ื’ื‘โ€, ื›ื โ€œืœ, ื•ืœืคื™โ€ื– ืชื”ื™ื™ื ื” ืฉืชื™ ื”ื’ื™ืจืกืื•ืช ืฉื‘ืžืฉื ื” (ืฉืคืœื”=ื”ื ื’ื‘) ืืžืชื™ื•ืช. ืื‘ืœ ืฉืคืœืชโ€“ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ื ื ื” ืžื›ืœืœ ืืจโ€œื™. ืื—โ€ื› ืืžืจื•: โ€œืฉืคืœืช ืœื•ื“ ื›ืฉืคืœืช ื”ื“ืจื•ืโ€, ืคื™โ€™ ืื—ืจื™ ืฉื‘ืืจืชื™ ื›ื™ โ€œืœื•ื“โ€ ืœื‘ื“ื” ื”ื™ื ืžื›ืœืœ ื”ืืจืฅ, ื•ืœื ืžื” ืฉืกืžื•ืš ืœื”, ืœืืžืจ, โ€œื›ืคืจ ืœื•ื“ื™ืโ€, ืโ€œื› ืื ื• ืžื•ื›ืจื—ื™ื ืœืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ืžื™ืฉื•ืจ โ€ืžืจื’โ€˜ ืื‘ืŸ ืขื•ืžื™ืจโ€œ ื”ื ื›ื ืก ืœืœื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ, ืžืŸ ืœื•ื“ ื“ืจื•ืžื”โ€“ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืขื“ ืื™ืœื•ืŸ, ื”ื ืงืจื โ€ืฉืจื•ืŸโ€œ ืื• โ€ืฉืคืœืช ืœื•ื“โ€œ ื”ื•ื ืžื›ืœืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื•ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื“ื™ืŸ โ€ืฉืคืœืช ื”ื“ืจื•ืโ€œ ืฉื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”, ื•ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืฉืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื“ื™ืŸ โ€ื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืšโ€œ ื”ื โ€ื–. ืื—โ€œื› ืืžืจื•: โ€ืžื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืื—ืชโ€œ. ื•ืขโ€ื– ืืžืจื• ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™: โ€œืคืจื ื›ื•ืจื™ืŸโ€, ืคื™โ€™ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ. ื•ื”ืขืจื•ืš ืคื™โ€˜ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืœืขื™ืจ. ืขื•ื“ ืฉื: โ€œืืžืจ ืจโ€ื™: ืขื•ื“ ื”ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ื”ืจ ื•ืฉืคืœื” ื•ืขืžืง, ืžื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ืืžืื•ืกโ€“ื”ืจ, ืžืืžืื•ืก ื•ืขื“ ืœื•ื“โ€“ ืฉืคืœื”, ืžืœื•ื“ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื โ€“ ืขืžืงโ€œ ื•ื“ื—ื• ื–ืืช ื‘ื˜ืขื ื”, ื›ื™ โ€ื ื™ืชื ื™ ืืจื‘ืข", ืคื™โ€™ ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื™ืฉ ื“โ€˜ ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื ื—ืœืงื•ืช ืœื’โ€™ ืœื’', ื•ืขื•ื“ โ€ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืŸโ€œ. ืคื™' ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ืžื’ื‘ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ื–ื” ืžื—ื‘ืจื™ื• ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ืจืื•ื™ ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ืœื• ืฆื‘ื™ื•ืŸ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื•ืœืขืฉื•ืชื• ืœืืจืฅ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช, ื•ืœืคื™โ€ื– ื ืฉืืจื” ื”ื“ืขื” ื›ื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืžื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื, ืœืืžืจ, ืฉืคืœืช ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื, ืฉื’ื‘ื•ืœื” ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™โ€“ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ื”ื•ื, ื”ืจืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจื•ืŸ (ื‘ืฉื ื–ื” ื™ืฆื™ื™ื ื• ืืช ืฉืจืฉืจืช ื”ื”ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืช โ€œืžืจื’' ืื‘ืŸ ืขื•ืžื™ืจโ€ ืฆืคื•ื ื”, ืขื“ ืœื•ื“) ื”ื™ื: โ€œืคืจื ื›ื•ืจื™ืŸโ€ ื›ื โ€œื–, ื•ืžื” ืฉื—ืฉื‘ื• ืืช โ€ืชื”ื•ื ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื”โ€œ, ืœื”ืขืžืง ืฉืœ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื•ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ืืฉืจ โ€ืžืขื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื™ ืขื“ ื™ืจื—ื•โ€œ ืœื”ืขืžืง ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืœื ื”ื–ื›ื™ืจื• ื›ืœืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ืจื—ื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชื”ื•ื ื˜ื‘ืจื™ื. ื”ื•ื ืœื“ืขืชื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืฉื ื”ื™ื• โ€ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื›ื•ืชื™ื ืฉืขืœ ื™ื“ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸโ€œ (ืชื•ืกืคืชื ื“ืžืื™ ืค"ื”) ื•ื”ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืช โ€ืขืฉืจ ื”ืขืจื™ืโ€œ (Decapolis) ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ืŸ ื”ื ื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืืฆืœ โ€ื›ืคืจ ืฆืžื—" ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืค"ื“) ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ื“ืžืื™ ืคโ€œื“ ื”โ€ื) ืฉืืขืชื™ืง ื‘ื”ืขืจื” ื“ืœืงืžืŸ, ื›ืŸ ืคื™' ื”ืžืฉื ื” ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ื™ืชื•ืช ื”ืืœื•. ื•ืœืคื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจ ื‘ื–ื” ื™ื‘ื ืžืื•ื“ ืขืœ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืžืฉื—ื–โ€œืœ ื‘ืžื’ืœื” (ื•, ื): โ€ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื‘โ€œื” ืืจโ€ื™ ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ ื–ื‘ืช ื—ืœื‘ ื•ื“ื‘ืฉ ื“ื›ืœ ืืจืขื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื”ื•ื™ืโ€ฆ ืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ื•ืชืจืชื™ืŸ ืคืจืกื™ ืื•ืจื›ืโ€œ ื•ืœืคื™ ืคื™ืจืฉโ€ื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื–ื” ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“, ืืจ ื›ืืŸ ืžืขื˜ ื•ื›ืืŸ ืžืขื˜. ื•ืœืคื™โ€œื– ื™ืงืฉื”, ืœืžื” ืชืคืฉ ืจโ€ื™ ื“ื•ืงื ืžืจื•ื‘ืข ืฉืœ 22X6? ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืœืชืคื•ืฉ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข ื™ื•ืชืจ ืคืฉื•ื˜ โ€“ ยฝ11 X ยฝ11, ื›ื“ืจืš ื—ื–โ€œืœ ืชืžื™ื“. ืืš ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื, ื›ื™ ืžื“ืช ื”ืจื•ื—ื‘ โ€“ ืฉืฉ ื”ื•ื ื“ื•ืงื, ื›ื™ ืื ื ื’ืจืข ืืช ืฉืคืœื•ืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื’ืœื™ืœ ื™ืฉืืจ ืจื•ื—ื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ื›ืžืขื˜ ืชืžื™ื“ ืจืง 6' ืคืจ; ื‘ืœื™ ื›ื›ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืื•ืจืš ื”ืืจืฅ, ืžืฆื“ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ื’ืจืจ, ืขื•ืœื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ 40 ืคืจืกืื•ืช, ื•ื‘ืฉื˜ื— ื”ืื•ืจืš ื”ื–ื” ื™ืฉ ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ืช ื–ื‘ืช ื—ื•โ€ื“, ื•ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืขืœื” ืœืคื™ ืงื‘ืœืชื 22 ืคืจ' ืฉืœ ื–ื‘ืช ื—ื•"ื“. ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื โ€“ ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื โ€“ ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื”ืขืจื” ืœื ืงื™ื™ืžืช. ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื”ืคื™ืกืงื” ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื”ืขืจื” ื”ืงื•ื“ืžืช ื”ื™ื ื”ืขืจื” ื–ื•. ืœื ืœืคื™ ื”ืชื•ื›ืŸ ืืœื ื‘ื’ืœืœ ื”ื”ื–ื—ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜. ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื‘โ€œืง (ืข"ื˜, ื‘) ืืžืจื•: ืื™ืŸ ืžื’ื“ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื“ืงื” ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืžื’ื“ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ืกืคืจ ืขื›ื•โ€ ื•ืขโ€œื– ืืžืจื• ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ืฉื; ืคืกื—ื™ื ืคโ€œื“ ื”โ€ื’; ืขโ€œื– ืคโ€ื): โ€ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืžื”ื™ืจ ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜โ€œื– ืžื™ืœโ€. ื•ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ โ€œืžื”ื™ืจโ€ ื–ืืช ื”ื™ื โ€œืžื™ืืจโ€ ืืฆืœ โ€œื•ืื“ื™ ื—ืœื–ื•ืŸโ€, ยผ2 ืคืจโ€˜ ืืฉโ€™ ืœืžื–ืจื— ืขื›ื•, ื•ื”ื™ืงืฃ 16X16 ืžื™ืœ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื ื—ืฉื‘ ืœโ€œืกืคืจ ืขื›ื•โ€ ื•ืื•ืœื™ ืžื•ืกื‘ ื–ื” ืขืœ ืžโ€œืฉ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ื’ื˜ื™ืŸ ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื‘): โ€ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ืŸ ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืขื›ื•, ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืขื›ื• ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืฆืคื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื” ืืช ืขื‘ื“ ืœื•ืŸ? ื›ืขื›ื• ื›ืฆืคื•ืจื™ืŸ", ืคื™', ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืขื›ื• (ื›ื’ืœื™ืœ ืžื”ื™ืจ) ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืŸ ื“ื™ืŸ ืขื›ื•, ื•ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืŸ ื“ื™ืŸ ืฆืคื•ืจื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœืžื™ (ื“ืžืื™ ืคโ€œื‘ ื”โ€ื) ืืžืจื•: โ€œืืœื• ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืืกื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืฆื•ืจ: ืฉืฆืช ื•ื‘ืฆืช ื•ืคื™ ืžืฆื•ื‘ื” ืขืœื™ื™ืชื ื•ื—ื ื•ืชื ืชื—ืชื™ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืจืืฉ ืžื ื ืืžื™ืŸ ื•ืžื–ื™. ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžื ื: ื”ื“ื ื“ืืช ืืžืจ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื”. ืื‘ืœ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื™ืฉ: ืกื•ืกื™ืชื, ืขื™ื™ื ืฉ ื•ืขื™ืŸ ืชืจืข ื•ืจื ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืขื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืขืจื•ื˜ ื•ื›ืคืจ ื•ื—ืจื•ื‘ ื•ื ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ื›ืคื™ื” ื•ื›ืคืจ ืฆืžื—. ืจื‘ื™ ื”ืชื™ืจ ื›ืคืจ ืฆืžื—. ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ื‘ืขื™, ื•ืœื ืžืžืขืœื™ ืžืกื™ืŸ ื”ืŸ? ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืžื™ ืžืžืขืœื™ ืžืกื™ืŸ ื›ืžื™ ืฉื ืชื›ื‘ืฉื•. ืืœื• ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื”ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืฆืจ: ื ื‘ื™ ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืฆื™ื™ืจ ื•ื’ืฉืžื™ ื•ื–ื™ื–ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ื’ื“ื• ื—ืžืช ื•ืจื‘ื‘ ื—ืจื‘ืชื™ ื•ื›ืจื‘ื ืจื‘ื” ื—ื–ืจื’โ€: ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืค"ื“) ื›ืŸ ื”ื’ื™ืจืกื: โ€œืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื’ื™ื—ื• ื•ื ืืกืจื•: ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฆื•ืจ ื•ืฆื™ื™ืจ ื•ื’ืฉืžื™ ื•ื–ื™ื–ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื™ื’ืจื™ ื˜ื‘ [ื•ื“ื’ื] ื—ื•ืจื‘ืชื ื•ื‘ืจื›ืช ื“ื‘ื™ืช ืจืจื‘. ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืืกื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืฆื•ืจื: ืฉื ืฅ ื•ื‘ืฆืช ื•ืคื•ืžื ืฆื™ื‘ื ื•ื—ื ื™ืชื ืขื™ืœื™ืชื ื•ื—ื ื™ืชื ืืจืขื™ืชื ื“ืืฉืžื™ืขื ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืžื–ื™ืœ ื›ืจื™ื ื•ืขืžืง ืžื–ื™ืœ. ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื—ื™ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžืขืฉืจ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืฆื•ืฆื™ืชื: ื•ืขื™ื ืฉืช ื•ืขื™ืŸ ืชืจืขื ื•ืจื•ืžื ืจืš ืขื™ืŸ ืžืขืจื™ื ื•ื›ืคืจ ื™ืขืจื™ื ื“ื›ื‘ ื—ืฆืคื™ื ื›ืคืจ ืฆืžื—. ืจื‘ื™ ื”ืชื™ืจ ื›ืคืจ ืฆืžื—โ€ ย โ†ฉ ื•ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืชื (ื“ืžืื™ ืคโ€œื‘ ื”โ€ื) ืืžืจ ืจโ€˜ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘โ€œืจ ื™ื•ืกื™. โ€ืื•ืจื– ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืœืช (ืœืคื™ ื’ื™' ื”ื’ืจโ€œื ื•ืื•ื”โ€ื’) ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื ืขื“ ื‘ื•ืจื•" ืคื™โ€™, โ€œื—ื•ืœืช ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ืโ€ ื”ื™ื โ€œื‘ืงืขืช ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸโ€ (ืฆืœื–ื™ืจื™ืŸ), ื•ื”ืื•ืจื– ื”ื’ื“ืœ ืฉื ืื™ื ื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื“ืžืื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืโ€œื™ ื•ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืขื“ โ€ื‘ื•ืจื•โ€œ ื•ื”ื•ื โ€ื‘ื•ืจืขโ€˜ื•ื–", ื›ืฉืชื™ ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืืฉโ€™ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ โ€œืžืจื’' ืขื™ื•ืŸโ€, ื•ืžืฉื ื•ื”ืœืื” ื”ื ื’ื‘ื” ื™ืฉ ืœื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืืช ื”ืื•ืจื– ื‘ื“ืžืื™, ื›ื™ ื™ืฉ ืœื—ืฉื•ืฉ ืฉื‘ื ืœืฉื ืžืโ€œื™, ืœืืžืจ, ืžืŸ โ€ืžืจื’' ืขื™ื•ืŸ". ย โ†ฉ ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื. ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืจืื” ืžื” ืฉื”ืงืฉื” ืจโ€œืช ื–โ€ืœ ื‘ืชื•ืกโ€˜ ื—ื’ื™ื’ื” (ืฉื) ื•ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื‘ืื•ืจ ื‘ืชื•ืกโ€™ ื™ื‘ืžื•ืช (ืฉื) ื•ืžื” ืฉื‘ืืจ ืขื•ื“ ืฉื ื›ื™ ืžโ€œืฉ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ืจื›ื™ื ื•ื›ื•' ืื™ื ื ื• ืžื•ืกื‘ ืขืœ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ (ืขื™ื™"ืฉ) ื ืจืื”, ื›ื™ ื‘ืฉื˜ื” ื–ื• ื”ืœืš ื’ื ื”ืจืžื‘โ€ื (ื”' ืชืจื•ืžื•ืช ืคโ€œื ื”โ€ื•) ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ื–"ืœ ืœื ื—ืœืง ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื” ืฉื›ื‘ืฉ ืžื”ื ืกื™ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื” ืฉืœื ื›ื‘ืฉ ืžื”ื, ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื‘ืืจ ื”ื•ื ืืช ืจืฉื™ืžืช ื”ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื›ื–ื” ืืฉืจ ืœืคื™ื”ื• ืœื ื™ืฆืื” ืืจืฅ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ื’ื“ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื. ย โ†ฉ ื”ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืกื™ืžื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื. ื”ืขืจืช ืคื‘"ื™. ย โ†ฉ ืื‘ืœ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื–ื” (ืฉื ื‘, ื’; ื“, ื˜) ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ืฉืœืฉืช ื”ื ืคื•ืช: ืฉื•ืžืจื•ืŸ ื’ืœื™ืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื ืกืคื—ื•, ืืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืœืคื™ื”ื• ื™ืงืฉื” ืžื“ื•ืข ืœื ื ื–ื›ืจ ืฉื ืฉื ืชืŸ ื”ืžืœืš ื“ืžื˜ืจื™ื•ืก ื‘ืŸ ืœืกื˜ื ืก ืœื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืืช ื‘ืงืฉืชื• ืฉื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžื ื• ืœื”ืฉืชืคืง ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจ 300 ื›ื›ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ื™ืฉืœื— ืœื• ื‘ืขื“ ืชืจื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืœืฉ ื”ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ืืœื• ื•ืชื—ืช ื–ื” ื ื–ื›ืจ ืฉื ืฉื ืชืŸ ืœื• ื”ืžืœืš ืืช ืฉืœืฉืช ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื ื–ื›ืจื•ืช ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœืŸ, ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ. ย โ†ฉ ื•ืžื” ืฉื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ื ื‘' (ื™ื’, ื›ื“) ื›ื™ ื”ืžืœืš ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ื•ืก ืึทืื•ืคื˜ืจ ืฉื ืืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื ืฉื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžื—ื‘ืœ ืขื›ื• ืขื“ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื’ืจื™ื ื™ื (ื’ืจืจ?) ืžื•ื˜ืœ ืืฆืœื™ ื‘ืกืคืง. ย โ†ฉ ืืช ื”ื˜ืงืกื˜ ืœืขื™ืœ ื”ืคื™ืงื• ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื‘ืŸึพื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื”ื•ื ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื‘ืื”:https://benyehuda.org/read/47032
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https://raw.githubusercontent.com/projectbenyehuda/public_domain_dump/master/txt/p1449/m47039.txt
ืžืฉื ืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื
ื™ืขืงื‘ ืงืœืฆืงื™ืŸ
216576
ืžืฉื ืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžืฉื ืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื: ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ืžื‘ื•ื ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ืขื“ ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืจื•ื‘ื” ื›ื›ื•ืœื” ืื•ืคื™ ืฉืœ ืคืชื’ืžื™ื, ืฉืœ ืžืืžืจ ืงืฆืจ, ืฉืœ ืืคื•ืจื™ื–ืžื”. ืขื“ึทื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืฆืขื™ืจื” ื•ืจืขื ื ื”, ืžืคืจื›ืกืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ ืคืจื›ื•ืกื™ื” ืฉืœ ืฉืขืช ื™ืฆื™ืจื”, ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื” ืœื” ืืช ื”ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ื ืกืชื‘ื›ื” ื‘ืกื‘ืš ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ื™ื” ื”ืžืกื›ืกื›ื™ื ื•ืœื ื ืชืงืจืจื” ื‘ื ื•ืกื—ื•ืชื™ื”, ื•ืชืœืžื•ื“ื” ืœื ื ืงื”ื” ืขืœื™ื”. ื ืื” ื”ื™ื ื‘ื’ืžื’ื•ืžื™ื” ื•ืžืœืžื•ืœื™ื”, ื•ืืฃ ืคื’ื™ืžื•ืชื™ื” ืžื•ืกื™ืคื•ืช ืœื” ืœื•ื™ืชึพื—ืŸ; ืื ื• ื ืขืฉื™ื ืขื“ื™ึพืจืื™ื” ืœื—ื‘ืœื™ึพืœื“ื” ืฉืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื•ืฉื•ืชืคื™ื ืœืžืขืฉื™ึพื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช. ืœืคื ื™ื ื• ืคืชื’ืžื™ื ืงื˜ื•ืขื™ื, ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื—ืฆื•ื™ื, ืฉื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ื‘ืงื™ืขื” ืœื” ื“ืจืš ื‘ืชื•ื›ื ื•ื ืชืคืจืฆื” ื—ืจึตื“ื” ื‘ืงื•ืœ ืฆื ื•ืข ื•ืžืจื•ืกืง, ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื ืœื” ื›ืœื™ื ื•ืฆื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืขืจื™ื ืืช ื ืคืฉื” ื•ืžื ื™ื—ื™ื ืืช ื“ืขืชื”; ืื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ืžื›ื•ึผื•ืŸ ืœื” ื•ื”ื™ื ืขื•ื“ืคืช ืขืœื™ื”ื. ื•ืžืฉื•ื ื›ืš ื ืฉืžืขืช ืœื ื• ื™ืคื” ื–ืขืงืชื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ื”ื‘ื•ืงืขืช ื•ืขื•ืœื” ืžืชื•ื›ื, ื”ืจื•ืชื—ืช ืžืชื•ืš ืงืจื‘ึพืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื•ื™ืกื•ืจื™ึพืœืฉื•ืŸ. ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ื˜ืขืžื” ื˜ืขื ืฉืœื•ื” ืฉืœ ื™ืžื™ ืขืžื™ื“ื” ื•ืฉื•ื‘ืข, ืขื•ื“ื ื” ืจืขื‘ื” ื•ืฆืžืื” ื•ืžืชืœื‘ื˜ืช ื›ืขืจืคืœื™ื”. ืขื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื‘ื‘ืชื•ืœื™ื”. ืคืชื’ืžื™ื ืงื˜ื•ืขื™ื, ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื—ืฆื•ื™ื™ื โ€“ ืืฃึพืขืœึพืคื™ึพื›ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืœื›ืื•ืจื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ื ืคึตืจื•ืฉ ื•ื”ืกื‘ืจ. ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื”ื ื”ืคึผึทืฉื˜ื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื“ ืœื ื ืชื—ืœืœื” ืชื•ืžืช ื”ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืฉึดื˜ื•ืช ืžืกื•ืœืกืœื•ืช ื•ืฆื ื•ืคื•ืช ื›ืคืงืขืช, ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆื•ืจืš ืœื ืขืจ ืืช ื”ืงืคื•ืœ ื•ืœึทืžื”ื•ึนืช ืืช ื”ื—ื•ื˜ื™ื. ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ื” ื”ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื: ื™ื“ื™ืขืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืข, ืจืคื•ืื”, ื”ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื”, ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื”, ื•ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื”ืŸ, ืกืžื•ื›ื•ืช ื–ื• ื‘ืฆื“ ื–ื• ืื• ืžืžื•ื–ื’ื•ืช ื–ื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ื–ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืžืขื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”. ื‘ื“ืจืš ืขื‘ื•ื“ืชื™ ื‘ืจืจืชื™ ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืžื ื•ืžืจ ืืช ืืœื” ื”ืžืืžืจื™ื, ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ื ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืกื•ื“ ืฉืœ ื”ืกืชื›ืœื•ืชึพื‘ืขื•ืœื. ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื ื”ืฉืžื˜ืชื™ ืืœื” ื”ืžืืžืจื™ื ื”ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ื โ€“ ื‘ื™ื—ื•ื“ ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืข ื”ื”ืฉืงืคื•ืช ืขืœ ื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข โ€“ ืฉืื™ื ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื“ ืขืจื›ื ื”ืขื™ื•ื ื™ ื•ืฉื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืช ืฉืžื•ืฉื™ื•ืช ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืคืกืœื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื“ืข. ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื ื–ืงืงืชื™ ืœืคื™ึพืจื•ื‘ ืœืื•ืชื ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ืื•ืคื™ ืฉืœ ืคืชื’ืžื™ื ืงืฆืจื™ื ื•ืœื ืฉืœ ืžื—ืงืจื™ื ืžืžื•ืฉื›ื™ื. ืžื˜ืขื ื–ื” ื”ืจืฉื™ืชื™ ืœื™ โ€“ ืจืง ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืกืคื•ืจื•ืช โ€“ ืœืงืฆืจ ืื™ื–ื” ืžืืžืจื™ื, ืœืืžืจ ืœื”ืคืกื™ืงื ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื•ืฉืœื ืœืชืจื’ืžื ื‘ืฉืœืžื•ืชื1 ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื”ื•ื ืชืจื’ื•ื ื—ืคืฉื™ ืฉื ืขืฉื” ื‘ื”ืฉื•ืื” ืขื ื”ืชืจื’ื•ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ืœืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช, ื‘ื™ื—ื•ื“ ืžืฉึถืœ ื“ึดื™ืœืก ื•ื ึถืกื˜ึฐืœึถื”. ืชืจื’ื•ื ื—ืคืฉื™ โ€“ ืžื›ืืŸ, ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืชืจื’ื•ืžื™ ืขืจืš ืžื“ืขื™. ืื•ืœื ืœื ื”ืชืจืชื™ ืœื™, ื›ืžื“ื•ืžื ื™, ืืœื ืžื“ื” ืงืœื” ืฉืœ ื—ืจื•ืช ืกืคืจื•ืชื™ืช ื•ืœื ื ื”ื’ืชื™ ื–ืœื–ื•ืœ ื‘ึทืชื•ื›ืŸ, ืืขืค"ื™ ืฉื”ืงืคื“ืชื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืฆื™ืขื• ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ืžืคืจืฉืช ื‘ืžืงืฆืช ืืช ื”ืกืชื•ื ื•ืžืฉืœืžืช ืืช ื”ื—ืกืจ ื•ื ื–ื”ืจืชื™ ืฉืœื ืœืงืคื— ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™ ืืช ื”ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืขื‘ืจื™ืช ื“ืจืš ืชืจื’ื•ื ืžื—ื•ืกืคืก, ื”ืžื›ื‘ื™ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืชืคื™ืกืช ื”ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืจืงึพื—ื•ื“ื ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื”ื. ื‘ืกืคืจื•ืชื ื• ืœื ืžืฆืืชื™ ืชืจื’ื•ืžื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ืคืชื’ืžื™ ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ืขืชื™ืงื”; ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ืึทื‘ืจึถืœื™ื•ืก, ืฉื”ืฉืชืžืฉืชื™ ื‘ืชืจื’ื•ืžื ื‘ืžืงืฆืช ื•ืœื ื‘ื›ื•ืœื•. ื‘ื”ืชืืžื” ืœืืคื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื, ืชืจื’ื•ื ืกืคืจื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื ืžื“ืขื™, ืฆืžืฆืžืชื™ ืืช ื”ืžื‘ื•ืื•ืช ื‘ืžืกื’ืจืช ืฆืจื” ืฉืœ ื”ืจืฆืืช ืขืงืจื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ืœื ื• ื‘ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื“ื‘ึผืจื™ื”ืŸ. ืืœืžืœื™ ื‘ืืชื™ ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื‘ื•ืื•ืช ืžืจื•ื•ื—ื™ื, ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ โ€“ ืžื—ืžืช ืฉื”ืจืฉื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžืกื•ืจื” ื”ื”ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ืขืœ ืชืงื•ืคื” ื–ื• ืจื•ื‘ืŸ ืžื•ื˜ืœื•ืช ื‘ืกืคืง โ€“ ืœื—ื˜ื˜ ื‘ื—ืงื™ืจื•ืช ืžื“ืขื™ื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ื™ ืžื•ืžื—ื” ืœื”ืŸ ื•ืœื”ื›ื ื™ืก ืืช ืจืืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื. ื•ืœื ืจืื™ืชื™ ื˜ืขื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื“ืฉ ื›ืกื•ืžื ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื ืื• ืœืงืฉืงืฉ ืขื™ืกืช ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืกื‘ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืฉืขืจื•ืช ืงืœื•ืฉื•ืช ืžืฉืœื™. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ื”ืกืชืคืงืชื™ ืœื”ืจืฆื•ืช ื›ืืŸ ืจืง ืืœื• ื”ื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืขื˜ื•ืช, ืฉื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื•ื“ืื•ืช ื•ืžื•ืกื›ืžื•ืช. ื›ืžื” ืžืŸ ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืœื ื›ืชื‘ื• ืกืคืจื™ื ื•ืœื ื”ื ื™ื—ื• ืื—ืจื™ื”ื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื. ื ืฉืชื™ืจื• ืื™ึพืืœื• ืงื˜ืขื™ื, ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืงื•ืคื—ื™ื, ืžืคื•ื–ืจื™ื ืœืคื™ึพืจื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืš ืกืคืจื™ ืกื‘ื•ืจืื™ื ื•ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื โ€“ ื•ื‘ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืฉืืœื” ื”ื”ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ื”ื›ืจื•ื›ื” ื‘ื”ื, ืื ื•ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ื ืžืื•ืžืชื™ื ืื• ืžื–ื•ื™ืคื™ื, ืกืžื›ืชื™ ืขืœ ื”ืžื“ืขื ื™ื ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื ืœื›ืš. ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœืคื ื™ ืกื•ืงืจึทื˜ืก ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืžึดื™ืœึถื˜ ืžื™ืœึถื˜, ืขื™ืจ ืขืชื™ืงื” ื‘ื™ื•ึนื ึดื™ื” ืฉื‘ืืกื™ื” ื”ืงื˜ื ื”, ืขื™ืจ ืžืกื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืชืขืฉื™ื”, ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืจื›ื– ืœื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžืฉืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉื ื—ืจื‘ื” ืข"ื™ ื”ืคืจืกื™ื. ื. ืชึผึทืœึถืก ืžื™ืกื“ ื‘ื™ืชึพื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืฉื‘ืžื™ืœึถึถื˜ ื•ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื—ื›ืžื™ ื”ืงื•ืกืžื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื”. ื”ื•ื ื ืžื ื” ืขืœ ืฉื‘ืขืช ื—ื›ืžื™ึพืขื•ืœื. ืืจื™ืกื˜ื• ืžื›ื ื” ืื•ืชื•: ืื‘ื™ ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื. ื”ื•ื ืจื›ืฉ ืœื• ื‘ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืฆื•ืจ ื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืช ืžืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื—ื›ืžืช ื”ืฉืขื•ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืืฆื˜ื’ื ื ื•ืช. ืžื™ื—ืกื™ื ืœื• ืชื’ืœื™ื•ืช ืžื“ืขื™ื•ืชึพืฉืžื•ืฉื™ื•ืช, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืฆืื” ืœืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื”ืคึถืจืžื™ื“ื•ืช, ื•ืžืกืคืจื™ื ืขืœื™ื• ืฉืฆืคื” ืžืจืืฉ ืœืงื•ื™ึพื—ืžื”. ื”ื•ื ื”ืฉืชืชืฃ ื’ื ื‘ืขื ื™ื ื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื–ืžื ื•: ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืจื›โ€œื“ ื•ืชืงืžโ€ื” ืœืขืจืš, ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชืืจื™ืš ื”ืจื’ื™ืœ; ื‘ืŸึพื“ื•ืจื ืฉืœ ื›ื•ืจืฉ ื•ืกื•ึนืœื•ึนืŸ. ืขึดืงืจ ืชื•ืจืชื•: ื”ืžื™ื ื”ื•ื ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืžื•ืŸ, ืฉืžืžื ื• ื ืชื”ื•ื” ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื•. ื“ืขื” ื–ื• ื ืชื—ื“ืฉื” ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืžืื” ื”ื˜โ€œื– ืขโ€ื™ ืคึผึทืจึทืฆึถืœืกื•ืก. ื‘. ืึทื ึทื›ึผึฐืกึดื™ืžึทื ึฐื“ึถืจ ื‘ืŸึพืืจืฆื• ืฉืœ ืชึผึทืœึถืก ื•ื—ื‘ืจื• (ืชืจโ€œื™โ€“ืชืงืžโ€ื–). ืžื™ื—ืกื™ื ืœื• ื”ืžืฆืืช ืžืคืชึพื”ืืจืฅ ื•ืฉืขื•ืŸึพื”ืฉืžืฉ. ืขึดืงืจ ื—ื“ื•ืฉื•: ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืžื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžึธื’ื‘ืœ, ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžืกื•ื™ื ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืชื•, ื•ืื™ื ื• ืœื ื‘ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื‘ื”ืคืกื“ื”. ื”ื•ื ื”ืคืงื™ืข ืžืชื•ื›ื• ืชื—ืœื” ืืช ื”ืงืจ ื•ื”ื—ื, ืฉื”ื•ืœื™ื“ื• ืืช ื”ืฉื•ื˜ืฃ, ื•ืื—ืจ ื ื‘ื“ืœื• ืžื”ื ื”ืจื•ื— ื•ื›ื“ื•ืจึพื”ืืฉ ื”ืžืงื™ืฃ ืืช ืฉื ื™ื”ื. ื’. ืึทื ึทื›ึผึฐืกึดื™ืžึถื ึถืก ื™ืœื™ื“ ืžื™ืœึถื˜, ื ืžื ื” ืขืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืึทื ึทื›ึผืกึดื™ืžึทื ื“ึถืจ, ื–ืžื ื• ืœืขืจืš: ืชืงืคโ€œื—โ€“ืชืงื›โ€ื“. ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืžื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื, ืœื“ืขืชื•, ื”ืื•ื™ืจ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžึธื’ื‘ืœ ื•ื”ืžืœื ืชื ื•ืขื”. ืชึผึทืœึถืก ื ื”ืื“ืžื” ืฉื•ื—ื” ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืžื™ื. ื‘ ื”ืžื™ื ื”ื ื™ืกื•ื“ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ื’ ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืœืื™ื ืึตืœื™ื. ื”ืื‘ืŸึพื”ืฉื•ืื‘ืช ื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ืจื•ื—ึพื—ื™ื™ื, ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื›ื—ื” ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ืืช ื”ื‘ืจื–ืœ ืœื™ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืขื”. ืึทื ึทื›ึผึฐืกึผึดื™ืžึทื ึฐื“ึถืจ ืจืืฉื™ืช ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื•ื ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžึธื’ื‘ืœ. ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ื”ื ื ืคืกื“ื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืžื” ืฉื”ื ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ืžืชื•ื›ื•. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื”ื ื ืขื ืฉื™ื ื–ื” ื‘ื’ืœืœ ื–ื” ื•ืžื›ืคืจื™ื ื–ื” ืขืœ ื–ื” ืœืคื™ ืกื“ืจ ื”ื–ืžื ื™ื. ืึทื ึทื›ึผึฐืกึดื™ืžึถื ึถืก ื ื”ืžืชื›ื•ืฅ ื•ื”ืžืชืขื‘ื” ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืžืจ โ€“ ื–ื” ื”ืงืจ, ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื”ืจื›ืจื•ื›ื™ โ€“ ื–ื” ื”ื—ื. ื‘ ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื”ื ืฉืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื ืึทื•ื™ืจ ื”ืžื‘ืจื™ื— ืื•ืชื ื•, ื›ืš ื ืฉื™ืžื” ื•ืึทื•ื™ืจ ืžืงื™ืคื™ื ืืช ืกื“ืจึพื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื•. ื”ึถืจึทืงืœึตื™ื˜ื•ึนืก ื”ืกืชื•ื ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืึถืคึถืกื•ึนืก ืฉื‘ืืกื™ื” ื”ืงื˜ื ื”, ื‘ืŸ ืืฆื™ืœื™ื, ื›ื”ืŸ ืฉืžื—ืœ ืขืœ ื›ื”ื•ื ืชื• ื•ื”ืชื‘ื•ื“ื“ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ื‘ื‘ื™ืชึพืชืคืœื”. ื–ืžื ื• ืœืขืจืš: ืชืงืœโ€œื—โ€“ืชืขโ€ื—. ื”ื•ื ืฉื•ืคืš ืืช ืœืขื’ื• ืขืœ ื”ืžืฉื•ืจืจื™ื ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื, ื”ื•ึนืžึถืจื•ึนืก, ื”ึถืกื™ื•ึนื“ ื•ืึทืจึฐื›ึดื™ืœื•ึนื›ื•ึนืก, ื•ืงื•ืจื ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืช ื”ืฉื: ืžื ื”ื™ื’ื™ื ืขึดึดื•ืจื™ื ืœืขึดึดื•ืจื™ื. ื”ื•ื ื‘ื– ืœื—ื›ืžืช ื”ื“ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ื”ืžืœื™ืฆื” ื•ืœืžื“ืขื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข, ื–ื•ืจืง ืžืจื” ื’ื ื‘ืืžื•ื ืช ื”ื”ืžื•ืŸ ื”ืชืžื™ื ื’ื ื‘ืืžื•ื ืช ื”ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื”ื™ื”ื™ืจื™ื, ืžืขื™ื– ืœื”ืœื—ื ืืฃ ื‘ืคื•ืœื—ืŸ ื”ืžืงื•ื‘ืœ. ืžืืžืจื™ื• ืงืฆืจื™ื ื•ืฉื ื•ื ื™ื. ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื•ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ืฉื‘ื”ื ื”ื•ื ืžืืžืจื•: ื”ื›ืœ ืฉื•ื˜ืฃ. ื”ื›ืœ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืžืฆื‘ ืฉืœ ื”ืฉืชื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืชื—ืœืคื•ืช โ€“ ืื•ืœื ื™ืฉ ืงื‘ืข ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืฉื˜ืฃ ื”ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช. ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื›ืš: ื”ืงืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ืื‘ื™ ื”ื›ืœ, ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืžืœื ื ื’ื•ื“ื™ื ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ื”ื•ื ื—ื™ โ€“ ืื•ืœื ื™ืฉ ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ืžืžืขืœ ืœื”ื. ื”ืจืงืœื™ื˜ื•ืก ื ืงืจื โ€œื”ืคึดึดืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืกืชื•ืโ€ ืขืœ ืฉื•ื ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืชื™ืŸ ื”ืขืžื•ืงื™ื; ืกื•ืงืจื˜ืก ื”ื™ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœื™ื”ื, ืฉื”ื ื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืœืฉึทื™ึผึธื˜ ืžื•ืžื—ื” ื”ื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืฆืœื•ืœ ื•ืœืจื“ืช ืœืกื•ืฃ ื›ื•ื ืชื. ืืฃ ื ืงืจื ื”ืจืงืœื™ื˜ื•ืก ื‘ืฉื โ€œื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ื‘ึผึทื›ื™ืŸโ€, ืžืฉื•ื ืฉืชืคืก ืขืœ ื”ื™ื•ืฆืจ ื•ื™ืฆื•ืจื• ื•ื’ืœื” ืืช ืขืœื‘ื•ืŸ ื”ืงื™ื•ื ื•ื”ืฉืคื™ืœ ืืช ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืื“ื ื•ื”ื‘ืœื™ ืขื•ืœืžื•. ื”ึถืจึทืงืœึตื™ื˜ื•ึนืก ื”ืกืชื•ื ื ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ืฉืืžืฉื ื—ื“ืฉื”. ื‘ ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื—ื‘ืจื•. ื’ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืžืชืคืจื“, ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืžืชืึทื—ื“ ื•ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื ึดื’ื•ื“ื™ื ืžืชื”ื•ึธื” ื”ืื—ื“ื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื™ืคื”, ื•ื”ื›ืœ ื‘ื ืžืชื•ึนืš ื”ืงืจึธื‘. ื“ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื, ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ื•ื™ื•ืฆื ืžืชืึทื—ื“ ื•ืžืชื›ื ืก: ืื—ื“ื•ืช ืฉืืœ ืžืชื™ื—ื•ืช ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ืงืฉืืช ื•ื ึตื‘ืœ. ื” ื”ืงืจึธื‘ ื”ื•ื ืื‘ื™ ื”ื›ืœ, ืžึถืœืš ื”ื›ืœ. ื”ืœืœื• ื ืขืฉื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื• ืึตืœื™ื ื•ื”ืœืœื• โ€“ ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื, ื”ืœืœื• โ€“ ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืœืœื• โ€“ ืื“ื•ื ื™ื. ื• ื“ืข, ื”ืงืจึธื‘ ืžืฉืื•ืชืฃ ืœื›ืœ. ืฆึถื“ืง ื‘ืจื™ื‘, ื•ืžืชื•ืš ืจื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื›ืจื— ื ื•ืœื“ ื”ื›ืœ. ื– ืืœื” ื”ืŸ ื”ื”ืจื›ื‘ื•ืช: ืฉืืœื ื•ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืฉืืœื, ื”ืกื›ื ื•ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช, ื”ืชืึธืžื” ื•ื”ืคืจื“ื” โ€“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื›ืœ ื•ื”ื›ืœ ืžืŸ ืื—ื“. ื— ืืชื” ื™ื•ืจื“ ืœืชื•ืฃ ืžื™ืžื™ื• ืฉืืœ ืื•ืชื• ื–ืจื, ื•ื›ืœ ืจื’ืข ืžื™ื ื—ื“ืฉืื™ื ืฉืื•ื˜ืคื™ื ื•ื‘ืื™ื ื›ื ื’ื“ืš. ื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืืชื” ื™ื•ืจื“ ืคืขืžึทื™ื ืœืชื•ืš ืื•ืชื• ื ื—ืœ ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืืชื” ื ื•ื’ืข ืคืขืžึทื™ื ื‘ืขืฆืžื•ืชื• ืฉืืœ ืื•ืชื• ื”ืขืฆื ื”ื—ื•ืœืฃ; ื•ืžืชื•ืš ืขื•ื– ืชืžื•ืจื•ืช ื•ืจื”ื˜ ื—ืœื™ืคื•ืช ื”ื™ื ืžืคื–ืจืช ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ื•ื›ื•ื ืกืช, ืžืชืงืจื‘ืช ื•ืžืชืจื—ืงืช. ื™ ืื ื• ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ื ืœืชื•ืš ืžื™ ื ื—ืœ ื•ืื™ึพืื ื• ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ื ืœืชื•ื›ื•; ื”ืจื™ ืื ื• ื•ื”ืจื™ ืื™ืŸ ืื ื•. ื™ื ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ืจื“ืช ื“ืจืš ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื. ื™ื‘ ื“ืจืš ื”ื’ืœื™ืœ, ื”ื™ืฉืืจื” ื•ื”ืขืงื•ืžื”, ื“ืจืš ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื. ื™ื’ ืืœื”ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืึพืœื™ืœ, ื—ื•ืจืฃึพืงื™ืฅ, ืžืœื—ืžื”ึพืฉืืœื•ื, ืฉืืคืขึพืจืขื‘. ื™ื“ ืงื•ืจ ืžืชื”ืคืš ืœื—ื•ึนื, ื—ื•ึนื ืœืงื•ึนืจ, ืœื— ืœื™ื‘ืฉื, ื™ื‘ืฉื ืœืœื—. ื˜ื• ื”ืฉืื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื ื• ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื ืชื“ื™ืจ: ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืžื•ืช, ืขืจ ื•ื™ืฉืืŸ, ืฆืขื™ืจ ื•ื–ืงืŸ, ื›ืฉืื”ื•ื ืžืชื”ืคืš, ื–ื” ืžืชื’ืœื’ืœ ื‘ื–ื” ื•ื–ื” ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืืœ ื–ื”. ื˜ื– ื‘ื ื™ึพืึทืœืžื•ืช ื”ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื”, ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ื”ื ื‘ื ื™ ืึทืœืžื•ืช: ืืœื• ื•ืืœื• ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื•ืžืชื™ื ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื”ื, ื—ื™ื™ื ื›ืฉื”ื ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื•ืžื™ื. ื™ื– ืžื›ืฉืื”ื ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืœืึทื•ื™ืจ ื”ืขื•ืœื, ื”ื ืžืชืขืชื“ื™ื ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขื ื–ื” ืœืžื•ืช ืื• ืœื”ื ึธืคืฉื. ื•ื”ื ืžื ื™ื—ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื”ื ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœื›ื• ื’ื ื”ื ืœืžื™ืชื”. ื™ื— ืžื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืืึทืชื” ืจื•ืื” ื‘ื”ืงื™ืฅ, ืฉืึตื ื” ื”ื™ื ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืืืชื” ืจื•ืื” ื ึธืึพื•ืœืึพื ึธื. ื™ื˜ ื”ืื“ื ืžื“ืœื™ืง ืœื• ื ืจ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืฉืื”ื•ื ืžืช ื•ืขื“ื™ืŸ ื—ื™. ื›ืฉืื”ื•ื ืžืชื ืžื ื ื•ืื•ืจ ืขื™ื ื• ื›ื‘ื”, ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื’ืข ื‘ืžืช. ื‘ื”ืงื™ืฅ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื’ืข ื‘ืžืชื ืžื ื. ื› ืฆืคื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื ื‘ืžื•ืชื ืœืžึทื” ืฉืืœื ืฆืคื•ื™ ืœื• ื•ืœื ื”ืืžื™ื ื• ื‘ื•. ื›ื ื›ืœ ืฉืื”ืžื™ืชื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื”, ืฉื›ืจื” ื’ื“ื•ืœ. ื›ื‘ ืฉืื ื”ืงืฉืช โ€“ ื—ื™ื™ื, ืคืขื•ืœืชื” โ€“ ืžื•ืช. ื›ื’ ื”ืืฉื ื—ื™ื” ืขืœ ืžื•ึผืช ื”ืื“ืžื” ื•ื”ืึทื•ื™ืจ ื—ื™ ืขืœ ืžื•ึผืช ื”ืืฉื; ื”ืžื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื ืขืœ ืžื•ึผืช ื”ืื•ื™ืจ ื•ื”ืื“ืžื” ื—ื™ื” ืขืœ ืžื•ึผืช ื”ืžื™ื. ื›ื“ ืกื“ืจึพืขื•ืœื ื–ื”, ืื—ื“ ืœื›ืœ ื”ื™ืงื•ื, ืœื ืืœ ื•ืœื ืื“ื ื™ืฆืจื•, ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ืžืขื•ืœื ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ึนื•ื” ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืืืฉ ื—ื™ื” ืœืขื•ืœืžื™ึพืขื•ืœืžื™ื; ื”ืชืœืงื—ื•ืชื” ื•ื”ืฉืืชืงืขื•ืชื” ื”ืŸ ืฉืืชื™ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื”. ื›ื” ื”ืืฉื ืžื—ื•ื ื ืช ื‘ื“ืขืช. ื‘ืืฉื ื™ืกื•ื“ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื ื”ื’ืชึพืขื•ืœื. ื›ื• ื”ื›ืœ ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืžืชื’ืœื’ืœ ื‘ืืฉื ื•ื”ืืฉื ื”ื•ืœื›ืช ื•ืžืชื’ืœื’ืœืช ื‘ื›ืœ, ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืื”ื›ืกืฃ ืžืชื—ืœืฃ ื‘ืกื—ื•ืจื” ื•ื”ืกื—ื•ืจื” ื‘ื›ืกืฃ. ื›ื– ื”ืืฉื ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืกื•ืจ ื•ืฉืืคืข, ื‘ืจื™ืืช ืขื•ืœื โ€“ ืžื—ืกื•ืจ, ืฉืจึตืคืช ืขื•ืœื โ€“ ืฉืืคืข. ื›ื— ืืœ ื ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื•ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื™ืฉืึตื ื™ื. ืื›ืŸ ื’ื ื‘ืฉืึตื ื” ื ึดื“ืžื” ืœื ื• ืฉืืื ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื•ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ื›ื˜ ื•ืืœ ื ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืื‘ื•ืช, ืฉืื–ื• ื“ืจื›ื: โ€œื›ืš ืœืžื“ื ื•โ€. ืœ ืขื•ืœื ืžืฉืื•ืชืฃ ืœื›ืœ ื”ืขึตืจื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ืฉืึตื ื™ื ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ืขื•ืœื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื•. ืœื ื”ื™ืฉืื ื™ื ืืฃ ื”ื ื ื•ื˜ืœื™ื ื—ืœืง ื‘ืžืื•ืจืขื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื. ืœื‘ ืชืขื ื•ื’ ืื• ืžื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืœื ืฉืืžื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœื—ื”. ื•ืื™ืŸ ืชืขื ื•ื’ื” ืืœื ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื” ืืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื. ืœื’ ืžื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืœื ืฉืืžื” ื›ืฉืื”ื™ื ืžืชื’ืœื’ืœืช ื‘ืžื™ื, ืžื•ืช ืœืžื™ื ื›ืฉืื”ื ืžืชื’ืœื’ืœื™ื ื‘ืขืคืจ. ืžืขืคืจ ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ืžื™ื, ืžืžื™ื โ€“ ื ืฉืืžื”. ืœื“ ื”ื ืฉืืžื” ื”ื™ื‘ืฉืื” ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื—ื›ืžื” ื•ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื”. ืœื” ื›ืฉืืื“ื ืฉืื•ืชื” ืœืฉืื›ืจื”, ื ืขืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ ื‘ื•. ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืข ื™ื ื•ืข ื•ืืช ื“ืจื›ื• ืœื ื™ื“ืข! ื›ื™ ื ืฉืืžืชื• ืœื—ื”. ืœื• ืžื—ืฉืื‘ื•ืช ื’ึถื‘ืจ โ€“ ืžืฉื—ืง ื™ืœื“ื™ื. ืœื– ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ืขืจ ืžืฉื—ืง, ื”ื•ืคืš ื•ื”ื•ืคืš ื‘ืœื•ื—ื•ืชึพืื‘ื ื™ื; ืžืžืฉืืœืชึพื ืขืจื™ื! ืœื— ื–ึถืื•ึผืก ื‘ืจื ืืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืžืชื•ืš ื‘ื“ื™ื—ื•ืชึพื”ื“ืขืช. ืœื˜ ื›ื™ ืœื ื™ื“ืข ืจื•ื— ื”ืื“ื ืืช ื”ืชื›ืœื™ืช. ืื›ืŸ ืจื•ื— ืืœื•ื” ื™ื“ืขื ื”. ืž ื–ื” ืกื“ืจึพืขื•ืœื ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ืื”: ื’ืœ ืฉืืœ ืืฉืืคื” ืฉื ืขืจื ื‘ื”ืกื—ึพื”ื“ืขืช ื•ืœืœืึพืชื›ืœื™ืช. ืžื ื™ืคื” ืื—ื“ื•ืช ืžืกื•ืชืจืช ืžืื—ื“ื•ืช ื’ืœื•ื™ื”. ืžื‘ ืงื•ืจืชึพืจื•ื— ืœื˜ื‘ืข โ€“ ืœื”ืกืชื™ืจ ืืช ืขืฆืžื•. ืžื’ ืžืฆื•ึผื•ื” ื•ืขื•ืžื“ ื”ืื“ื ืœื”ืœื—ื ืขืœ ื—ื•ืงื• ื›ืฉืื ืฉืื”ื•ื ื ืœื—ื ืขืœ ืžื‘ืฆืจื•. ืžื“ ื—ื•ืง, ืžืฉืืžืขื• ืœืคืขืžื™ื: ืœื”ื›ื ืข ืžืคื ื™ ืจืฆื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ื™ื—ื™ื“. ืžื” ืื—ื“ ื—ืฉืื•ื‘ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ื›ืขืฉืจืช ืืœืคื™ื, ืื ื”ื•ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉื‘ื”ื. ืžื• ื™ืœื“ ื”ืื“ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืืœื”ื™ื, ื›ื ืขืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื’ื‘ืจ. ืžื– ืืฃ ื”ื—ื›ื ืžื›ืœ ืื“ื ื”ื•ื ื›ืงื•ืฃ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ื—ื›ืžื” ื•ื‘ื™ื•ืคื™. ืžื˜2 ื›ืœ ื”ืจื•ืžืฉ ื›ืืŸ, ืฉืื•ื˜ ืืœื”ื™ื ืžื›ื” ื‘ื•: ืฆื ื•ืคืจื ืก ืืช ืขืฆืžืš. ื  ื”ืžื—ืฉืื‘ื” ื”ื™ื ืžืขืœืช ื”ืžืขืœื•ืช. ื•ืจืืฉืื™ืชึพื—ื›ืžื” โ€“ ืœื“ื‘ึผืจ ืืžืช, ืœืฆื™ึผึตืช ืœื˜ื‘ืข ื•ืœื”ืชื ื”ื’ ืขืœ ืคื™ื•. ื ื ื”ื›ืœ ื™ืฉื ื‘ื• ื—ืœืง ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ื ื‘ ืื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื ืคืฉืืš ืœื›ืœื›ืœ ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ืš ื‘ื“ืขื”, ืฆื ื•ื”ื–ื“ื™ึตืŸ ื‘ื–ื• ื”ืžืฉืื•ืชืคืช ืœื›ืœ, ื›ืขื™ืจ ืžื–ื•ื™ื ืช ื‘ื—ื•ืงื™ื. ื ื’ ื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ืื“ื ืžืชืคืจื ืกื™ื ืžื—ื•ืงื™ ืืœื•ื”. ื ื“ ื”ืขื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืื•ื–ืŸ ื”ื ืขื“ื™ื ื’ืจื•ืขื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื, ื›ืฉืื ืฉืืžื•ืชื™ื”ื ืื™ื ืŸ ืฉืื•ืžืขื•ืช ืืช ืœืฉืื•ื ื ืฉืœ ืืœื•. ื ื” ืœื ืชืžืฆื ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ ื”ื ืคืฉื ื•ืœื ืชืžื“ื•ื“ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื‘ืœื™ื”. ื›ื” ืขืžื•ืงื” ื”ื™ื! ื ื• ื ึดืชืŸ ืœื›ืœ ืื“ื ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืœื”ื—ื›ื™ื. ื ื– ืื™ืŸ ืœื ื• ืชืคื™ืกื” ื‘ื”ื›ืจืช ืืœื”ื™ื, ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžืืžื™ื ื™ื ื‘ื”. ื ื— ื’ืื•ื” ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœืชึพื ื›ืคื™ืŸ. ื ื˜ ื”ื“ึดื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื ืฉืืžื” ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื’ื“ึตืœ ืžืืœื™ื•. ืก ื”ื ืฉืืžื•ืช ืฉื‘ืฉืืื•ืœ โ€“ ื ื•ืชื ื•ืช ืจื™ื—. ืกื ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœืื“ื ื›ืฉืžืฉืืืœื•ืช ืœื‘ื• ืžืชืžืœืื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืŸ. ืกื‘ ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืžื—ืœื” ืื ื• ื ื”ื ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช, ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืจืข โ€“ ืžืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘, ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืจืขื‘ โ€“ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื•ื‘ืข, ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื™ื’ื™ืขื” โ€“ ืžืŸ ื”ืžื ื•ื—ื”. ืกื’ ืงืฉืื” ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ื ื’ื“ ื”ืœื‘. ืฉืื”ืจื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฉืืืœื” ื•ืžืฉืืืœื” ืฉืืœื• ืขื•ืœื” ืœืš ื‘ื ืฉืืžื”. ืกื“ ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื”ืขื›ื‘ื™ืฉื ื”ื™ื•ืฉืื‘ ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ืืจื™ื’ืชื• ื•ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื ื‘ื–ื‘ื•ื‘ ื”ืงื•ืจืข ืื™ื–ื” ื—ื•ื˜ ื‘ืจืฉืืชื•, ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื–ืจื™ื– ื•ืžืžื”ืจ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืงื•ื ื›ืึดืœื• ื—ืก ืขืœ ืชืงื•ื ื• ืฉืืœ ื”ื—ื•ื˜, ื›ืš ื›ืฉืื‘ื ื ื–ืง ืœืื™ื–ื” ื—ืœืง ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ืžื–ื“ืจื–ืช ื ืคืฉื ื”ืื“ื ื•ืžืžื”ืจืช ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืงื•ื ื›ืึดืœื• ื“ื•ืื’ืช ื”ื™ื ืœื ื–ืง ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉืื”ื™ื ืงืฉื•ืจื” ื‘ื• ืงืฉืืจ ืืžื™ืฅ ืขืœึพืคื™ ืกื“ืจ ืžืกื•ื™ื. ืกื” ื”ืžื ื”ื’ ื–ื” ืึตืœื• ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื. ืกื• ื™ืฉื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื”ืžืขื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื ื• ืžื‘ื›ืจื™ื ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื—ืคืฅ: ื›ื‘ื•ื“ึพืขื•ืœืžื™ื ืœืขื•ืžืช ืžื” ืฉืื”ื•ื ื—ื•ืœืฃ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ. ืื•ืœื ืจื•ื‘ื ืฉืืœ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ืกืจื•ื—ื™ื, ืคื˜ื•ืžื™ื ื›ื‘ื”ืžื•ืช. ืกื– ื™ื•ืชืจ ืจืื•ื™ ืœื›ื‘ื•ืช ืืช ืชื‘ืขืจืช ื”ืจึถืฉืืข ืžืœื›ื‘ื•ืช ืื™ื–ื• ื“ืœืงื”. ืกื— ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืืœื”ื™ื ื”ื›ืœ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื ืื” ื•ื™ืฉืจ. ืื•ืœื ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื ืกื‘ื•ืจื™ื: ื–ื” ื ืขืฉื” ื›ืฉืื•ึผืจื” ื•ื–ื” ืœื ื›ืฉืื•ึผืจื”. ืกื˜ ื›ื™ ื‘ื”ืงืฃึพื”ืขื’ื•ืœ ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจื•ืช ืจืืฉืื™ืช ื•ืื—ืจื™ืช. ืข ืืคื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื ื”ื•ื ื’ื•ืจืœื•. ืขื ืื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื ื–ืืช ืืฃ ืื ืฉืืžืขื• ื–ืืช. ื›ื›ื” ื”ื ืžืฉืื•ืœื™ื ืœื™ื•ึนื ื™ื. ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ื ืืžืจ: ื›ืฉืื”ื ื ื•ื›ื—ื™ื ื”ื ื ืขื“ืจื™ื. ืขื‘ ื‘ืงืฉืืชื™ ืืช ืขืฆืžื™. ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืงื˜ืขื™ื ื”ืžืกื•ืคืงื™ื ืึทืœ ืชืจื‘ื” ืœืขื’ ืขื“ ืœื”ื™ื•ืชืš ืœืœืขื’. * ืื•ืชื•ืชึพื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืžืฉืืขึทื‘ื“ื™ื ื’ื ืืœื™ื ื’ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื. * ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ืงืฆืจื”, ื”ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื” ืœื™ื“ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“, ื”ื™ื: ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘. * ื’ืื•ื” ื”ื™ื ื ืกื™ื’ื” ืฉืื‘ื”ืชืงื“ืžื•ืช. * ื”ื”ืฉื›ืœื” ื”ื™ื ืœืžืฉื›ื™ืœื™ื ืฉืืžืฉื ืฉืื ื™ื”. * ืื ื™ืฉื ืืœื™ื, ืœืžื” ืืชื ืžื‘ื›ื™ื ืื•ืชื? ื•ืื ืืชื ืžื‘ื›ื™ื ืื•ืชื, ืึทืœ ื™ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื›ื ื›ืืœื™ื. ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื”ึทืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ึนืจึธืึดื™ื ื›ืฉื”ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืฉืžืฉืžื ืฉืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ื•ึนื ื™ื” ืœืฉืงื•ืข ื‘ืžื—ืฆื™ืช ื”ืžืื” ื”ืฉืฉื™ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชืืจื™ืš ื”ืจื’ื™ืœ โ€“ ื–ืจื—ื” ืฉืžืฉ ื”ืžื“ืข ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื” ืฉืืœ ื™ื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืขืจื™ ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ืื˜ืœื™ื” ื•ืื™ ืกื™ืฆื™ืœื™ื”. ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ึนืจืก ื‘ื ืœื’ื•ืจ ื‘ืื—ืช ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ืืœื”, ื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ื ืขืฉื” ื‘ืžืฉืืš ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื ื•ืฉื ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ ืœืกืคื•ืจื™ ืื’ื“ื•ืช ืขืœ ืžืขืฉื™ ื ืกื™ื ื•ืžื•ืคืชื™ื. ื. ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืกึทืžื•ึนืก, ื‘ืฉื ืช ืชืง"ืฃ ืœืขืจืš, ืขื–ื‘ ืืช ืืจืฆื• ื•ืงื‘ืข ืืช ื“ื™ืจืชื• ื‘ืงืจื•ึนื˜ื•ึนืŸ ืฉื‘ืื˜ืœื™ื” ื”ืชื—ืชื•ื ื”. ื›ืืŸ ื™ืกื“ ื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื“ืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ึพืžืกืชื•ืจื™ืŸ, ืฉื”ื˜ื™ืคื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ืคืฉื˜ื•ืช ื•ื”ืกืชืคืงื•ืช, ืœืกื‘ืœื ื•ืช ื•ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉืช ื”ื™ืฆืจ, ื•ื”ื™ื• ืžื—ื‘ื‘ื™ื ืขืœื™ื”ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืช ืœืžื•ื“ื™ ื”ืžืชืžื˜ื™ืงื” ื•ื”ืžื•ืกื™ืงื”. ื”ืืžื•ื ื” ื‘ื’ืœื’ื•ืœ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื•ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ื•ืขื•ื ืฉ ื”ื™ื ืžื’ื•ืคื™ ืชื•ืจืชื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื” ืื’ื•ื“ื”. ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก ื•ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ื”ืขืžื™ื“ื• ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ืขืœ ืขึดืงืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื–ื”: ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื‘ื• ืžื”ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ืœืืžืจ, ื”ื›ืœ ื‘ืžื“ื” ื•ื‘ื—ืฉืื‘ื•ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืžืชืงื™ื ืืœื ื‘ื—ื•ืงื• ื•ืกื“ืจื• ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™. ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืœื™ื“ื™ ื”ื›ืจืช ื”ืจื‘ื•ืขื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžืกืคืจื™ื ื•ื”ื•ืจื• ืืช ื”ื”ื•ืจืื” ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžืช, ื”ืงืจื•ื™ื” ืขืœ ืฉืื ืจื‘ื: ื”ื•ืจืืช ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก (ืื’ื‘, ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื›ื‘ืจ ืœื—ื›ืžื™ ื”ื•ื“ื•). ื”ื ื’ื ื”ื‘ื—ื™ื ื• ื‘ืืคื™ื” ื”ืžืกืคืจื™ ืฉืืœ ื”ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ื”ืžื•ืกื™ืงืœื™ืช. ืืฃ ื”ื”ื›ืจื” ื‘ืฆื•ืจืช ื”ืขื’ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื•ื‘ืงื•ืจื‘ื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ึพื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื ืžื ื™ืช ืขืœ ื—ื“ื•ืฉื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื”ืคืชื’ื•ืจืื™ืช. ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก ืขืฆืžื• ืœื ื”ื ื™ื— ืื—ืจื™ื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื. ื‘. ืคึดื™ืœื•ึนืœึธืื•ึนืก ื™ืœื™ื“ ื˜ึทืจึถื ื˜ ืื• ืงืจื•ึนื˜ื•ืŸ, ืฉื‘ื ืœืืจืฅ ื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื”ืžืื” ื”ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช, ื•ื ืชื•ื“ืข ืœืืคืœื˜ื•ืŸ. ื”ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืคืจืกื ื‘ื›ืชื‘ ืืช ืขืงืจื™ ืชื•ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ืจืก ื•ื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื•. ื’. ืึทืœืงึฐืžึตืื•ึนืŸ ื™ืœื™ื“ ืงืจื•ื˜ื•ืŸ, ืจื•ืคื ื•ืคืœืกื•ืฃ. ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืขื™ื– ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื ืชื•ื— ื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ื ื’ื ืฉื”ื›ื™ืจ ื‘ืžึนื— ืืช ืžืจื›ื–ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื ืคืฉ. ื›ื ืจืื” ื”ื•ื ืื‘ื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื”, ืฉื‘ื ืคืฉ ื ืžืฆืื™ื ืขื’ื•ืœื™ื ื”ืžืกืชื•ื‘ื‘ื™ื ื›ื“ืจืš ืกื‘ื•ื‘ื ืฉืœ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื. ื“. ื™ื•ืŸ ืžึดื›ึดื™ื•ึนืก ืžืฉื•ืจืจ ืฉืœ ื—ื–ื™ื•ื ื•ืชึพืชื•ื’ื”, ืฉื—ื™ ื‘ืžื—ืฆื™ืช ื”ืฉื ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื”ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชืืจื™ืš ื”ืจื’ื™ืœ. ืึถืคึดื™ื›ึทืจึฐืžื•ึนืก ื–ืžื ื•: ืชืงโ€œืŸโ€“ืชโ€ืก. ืžื—ื‘ืจ ืงื•ืžื“ื™ื•ืช, ืฉื”ื•ืฉืคืข ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืข"ื™ ืชื•ืจืช ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ืจืก. ืคึดื™ืœื•ึนืœึธืื•ึนืก ื ื‘ืฉืขืช ืชืงื•ืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื” ื”ืชืจื›ื‘ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข, ื”ืŸ ืกื“ืจ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ื•ื”ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื ืžืฆื ื‘ื•, ืžืชื•ืš ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžึธื’ื‘ืœ ื•ืžึธื’ื‘ืœ. ื‘ ื‘ืขืœึพื›ืจื—ืš ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ, ืฉื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื”ื ืื ืžึธื’ื‘ืœื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ืื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ืื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื‘ื‘ืชึพืื—ืช. ืื•ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ืจืง ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœื™ื ืื• ืจืง ืžื’ื‘ืœื™ื. ื•ืžืื—ืจ ืฉืื™ื ื ืžึธืจื›ื‘ื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ืžื’ื‘ืœ ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืื• ืžืชื•ืš ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ื”ืจื™ ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืกื“ืจึพื”ืขื•ืœื ื•ื›ืœ ืžืœืื• ื”ืชืจื›ื‘ ื’ื ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ. ืืฃ ื”ืกืชื›ืœื•ืชื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืžืขื™ื“ื” ืขืœ ื›ืš. ื”ืŸ ื—ืœืงื” ื”ืžืชื”ื•ื” ืžืชื•ืš ืžื’ื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื’ื‘ืœ ื•ื—ืœืงื” ื”ืžืชื”ื•ื” ืžืชื•ืš ืžื’ื‘ืœ ื•ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืžืงืฆืชื• ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ. ื•ืึดืœื• ื–ื” ืฉืžืชื”ื•ื” ืžืชื•ืš ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ ื™ื”ื ืžืชื’ืœื” ื›ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ. ื’ ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื™ื” ื”ื›ื— ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ, ื”ืจื™ ืžืœืžืคืจืข ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืฉื•ื ืฉืœ ื”ื›ืจื”. ื“ ืืžื ื ื›ืœ ืฉื ึดืชืŸ ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ื”ื•ื ืžืกืคืจ. ื‘ืœืขื“ื™ื• ืื™ืŸ ืœืชืคื•ืก ืื• ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ. ื” ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืฉืชื™ ืฆื•ืจื•ืช ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื•ืช ืœื•, ื–ื•ื’ ื•ื ืคืจื“, ื•ืฆื•ืจื” ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื” ืžืชื•ืš ืขืจื•ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืฉืชื™ื: ื–ื•ื’ึพื ืคืจื“, ื›ืœ ืื—ืช ืžืฉืชื™ ื”ืฆื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ื”ื™ื ื‘ืช ื“ืžื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืจื•ื‘ื•ืช, ื”ืžืฉืชืงืคื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืืœื™ื•. ื• ื•ื–ื” ืžืฉืคื˜ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื•ื”ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื”. ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ืžื”ื•ืชื, ืฉื”ื™ื ื ืฆื—ื™ืช, ื•ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ืขืฆืžื• ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ื ื”ื‘ื—ื ื” ืืœื”ื™ืช ื•ืœื ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช, ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืืคืฉืจ ืœื ื• ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืฉื•ื ื”ื›ืจื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ืžืฆืื™ื, ืืœืžืœื ื”ื ื—ืช ืžื”ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื, ืฉืœ ื”ืžื’ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœื™ื, ืฉืžื”ื ื ืชื”ื•ื” ืกื“ืจึพื”ืขื•ืœื. ื•ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื”ื”ืชื—ืœื•ืช ื”ืืœื” โ€“ ืื—ื“ ื•ืฉื ื™ื โ€“ ื”ื•ื ื—ื• ืœืœืึพืฉื•ื•ื™ ื•ืœืœื ืงืจื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ, ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœื ื”ื™ื” ืืคืฉืจ ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ืขืœึพื™ื“ืŸ ืืช ืกื“ืจื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ ืกื™ื•ืขื” ืฉืœ ื”ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื”, ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื” ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ื™ื. ื”ืฉื•ื™ื ื•ื”ืงืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืžืขื•ืœื ืœื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื”, ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืฉื•ื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืงืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื“ื•ืžื™ื ื‘ืกื“ื•ืจื ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืœื”ืชื—ื‘ืจ ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื”, ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื”ื ื–ื• ืžืื—ื” ืื•ืชื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืกื“ืจึพื”ืขื•ืœื. ื– ืื—ื“ โ€“ ื–ื• ืจืืฉื™ืช ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ. ื— ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื”ืชืื—ื“ื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื ื•ืžืจื™ึพืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื›ึดื•ื•ึผืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ึพื›ึดื•ื•ึผื ื™ื. ื˜ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื•ื™ ืœื“ื•ืŸ ืขืœ ืžื”ื•ืช ื”ืžืกืคืจ ืœืคื™ ื”ื›ื— ื”ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื‘ืžืกืคืจ ืขืฉืจื”. ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ืœื” ืชืงื™ืฃ ื”ื•ื, ืžึทืฉืœื™ื ื”ื›ืœ, ืคื•ืขืœ ื”ื›ืœ, ืจืืฉื™ืช ื•ืžื•ืจื”ึพื“ืจืš ืœื—ื™ื™ ืืœื”ื™ื, ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืื“ื, ื‘ืœืขื“ื™ื• ื”ื›ืœ ืœืึพืžื’ื‘ืœ, ืœืึพื‘ื”ื™ืจ ื•ืœืึพื‘ืจื•ืจ. ืชื“ืข, ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืžืกืคืจ ืฉื•ืคืข ืœื ื• ืฉืคืข ื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืช. ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืจื” ื•ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืกื•ืคืง ืœื• ืื• ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ื“ื•ืข ืœื•. ืืœืžืœื ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื•ืžื”ื•ืชื• ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ึทื“ืื•ืช ืœืฉื•ื ืื“ื ื‘ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœื ื‘ื™ื—ื•ืกื ืืœ ืขืฆืžื ื•ืœื ื‘ื™ื—ื•ืกื ืืœ ื–ื•ืœืชื. ื”ื•ื ื”ืžึทืฉืœื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขื ื”ืžื•ื—ืฉื•ืช ืฉื‘ื ืคืฉ ื•ืขื•ืฉื” ืื•ืชื ืžืกื•ืžื ื™ื ื•ืžืชืื™ืžื™ื ื–ื” ืืœ ื–ื”, ืœืคื™ ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ื’ื ื•ึนืžื•ึนืŸ, ืขึดื ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืขื ื™ืง ืœื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ื™ื•ืช ื•ืžืคืจื™ื“ ืืช ื™ื—ืกื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืžื’ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœื™ื ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ึพืขืฆืžื•. ื ึดืชืŸ ืœืš ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื•ื›ื—ื• ืœื ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื›ืฉื”ื ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื“ืžื•ื ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ืืœื”ื™ื™ื ืืœื ื’ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืขืฉื™ ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื; ื•ืœื ืคื—ื•ืช ื‘ืชืงื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืœืื›ื•ืชื™ื™ื ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ืžื•ืกื™ืงื”. ื›ืœื•ื ืžืŸ ื”ื›ื–ื‘ ืื™ื ื• ื ืงืœื˜ ืœืชื•ืš ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื•ื”ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื”; ืœื›ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืžื”ื•ืชื. ื•ืึดืœื• ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ ื•ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื•ื—ืฉ ื•ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื•ืฉื›ืœ, ื”ืฉืงืจ ื•ื”ืงื ืื” ื”ื ืžืžื”ื•ืชื•. ืื™ืŸ ืืชื” ืžืคื™ื— ื›ื–ื‘ื™ื ืืœึพืชื•ืš ื”ืžืกืคืจ; ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ืฉืงืจ ืžืชืงื•ืžื ื•ืฆื•ืจืจ ืœื˜ื‘ืขื•, ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ืืžืช ื˜ื‘ื•ืขื” ื‘ืžืฉืคื—ืช ื”ืžืกืคืจ ืžืชื—ืœืชึพื‘ืจื™ืชื•. ื™ ื—ืžืฉื” ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื ื‘ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื: ืึตืœื• ืฉื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื’ืœื’ืœ, ืืฉ, ืžื™ื, ืขืคืจ, ืื•ื™ืจ ื•ื”ื—ืžืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ืงืœื™ืคืช ื”ื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืฆืžื•. ื™ื ื’ื ื”ืืœื”ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ื—ื•ื–ื™ื ืžืขื™ื“ื™ื: ื”ื ืคืฉ ื›ืคื•ืคื” ื•ืžืฉื•ืขื‘ื“ืช ืœื’ื•ืฃ, ื›ืึดืœื• ื–ื” ื‘ื ืœื” ื‘ืขื˜ื™ื” ืฉืœ ืื™ื–ื• ื’ื–ืจืช ื™ืกื•ืจื™ื, ื•ื”ื™ื ืงื‘ื•ืจื” ื‘ื• ื›ืžื• ื‘ืฉื—ืช. ื™ื‘ ืืœื”ื™ื ืื•ืกืจ ื”ื›ืœ ื›ืžื• ื‘ื‘ื™ืชึพืืกื•ืจื™ื, ื•ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื ื”ื ืจืง ื—ืœืงื” ืื—ืช ื‘ื ื—ืœืช ืืœื”ื™ื. ื™ื’ ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžื“ึดืžื•ื™ื™ื ื• ื•ื”ืคืขืœื™ื•ืชื™ื ื• ืื™ื ื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชื ื•. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืžืขืฉื™ื ื• ื›ืจื•ื›ื™ื ื‘ื“ึดืžื•ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ึทืคืขึธืœื™ื•ืช ื›ืึตืœื•. ืืœึฐืงึฐืžึตืื•ึนืŸ ื ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ื‘ื ื’ืœื” ื•ื‘ื ืกืชืจ ืจืง ืœื”ืืœื™ื ืœื‘ื“. ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื• ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื ืœื ื ึดืชื ื” ืืœื ื”ื”ืฉืขืจื”. ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื•ื›ืœื™ื ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื™ื“ื ืžื’ืขืช ืœืงืฉื•ืจ ืจืืฉื™ืช ื‘ืื—ืจื™ืช. ื’ ื™ืคื” ืœื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ืฉื•ื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื›ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœื—, ื™ื‘ืฉ, ืงืจ, ื—ื, ืžืจ, ืžืชื•ืง ื•ื›ื“ื•ืžื”. ื•ืึดืœื• ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸึพื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉื‘ื”ื ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืžื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื. ื“ ื ื•ื— ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืœื”ื–ื”ืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืื•ื™ื‘ ืžืืฉืืจ ืœื”ื–ื”ืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืื•ื”ื‘. ื™ื•ึนืŸ ืžึดื›ึดื™ื•ึนืก ื ืจืืฉื™ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™: ื”ื›ืœ ื”ื•ื ืฉืœืฉื”. ื•ืœื ืคื—ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืฉืœืฉื”. ืžืขืœืชื• ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื ืฉืœืฉ: ืฉื›ืœ, ื›ื—, ืื•ืฉืจ. ื‘ ื”ืื•ืฉืจ, ืืฃ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื“ื•ืžื” ื‘ืฉื•ื ืคื ื™ื ืœืžืœืื›ืชึพืืžื ื•ืช, ืžื•ืœื™ื“ ื›ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื ืœื–ื•. ืึถืคึผึดื™ื›ึทืจืžื•ึนืก ื ื. ืื ืชื•ืกื™ืฃ ืื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช ืขืœ ืžืกืคืจ ื–ื•ื’ื™ ืื• ืžืกืคืจ ื ืคืจื“ ืื• ืื ืชื—ืกืจ ืื‘ืŸ ืื—ืช, ื›ืœื•ื ืชืืžืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืขื™ื ื•? ื‘. ื—ืœื™ืœื”! ื. ื•ืขื•ื“. ืื ืชื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœ ืžื“ืช ืืžื” ืชื•ืกืคืช ืฉืœ ืื•ืจืš, ืื• ืื ืชื—ืชื•ืš ื—ืชื™ื›ื” ืžืžื ื”, ื›ืœื•ื ืชืขืžื•ื“ ืื•ืชื” ื”ืžื“ื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื”? ื‘. ื•ื“ืื™ ืœื. ื. ืขืชื” ืฆื ื•ื”ืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื. ื–ื” ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืขื•ืœื”, ื–ื” ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืคื•ื—ืช, ื›ื•ืœื ื—ืœื™ืคื•ืช ืœื”ื ืชื“ื™ืจ. ืื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉืžืชื—ืœืฃ ืœืคื™ ื˜ื‘ืขื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืžื“ ืจื’ืข ืขืœ ืžืงื•ืžื•, ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืฉื•ื ื” ืžืžื” ืฉื ืฉืชื ื”. ื‘. ืืฃ ืื ื™ ื•ืืชื” ื”ืจื™ ืื—ืจื™ื ืื ื• ืืชืžื•ืœ ื•ื”ื™ื•ื, ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ืื—ืจื™ื ื‘ืขืชื™ื“. ื•ื›ืš ืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ื ืฉืืจื™ื ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช ืื•ืชื ื”ืื ืฉื™ื, ืื•ืชื ืขืฆืžื ื•ืžืื•ืชื• ืื•ืคื™. ื‘ ืœื ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื ืืœื”ื™ึพื”ื—ื›ืžื”, ืืœื ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื™ ืžื—ื•ื ืŸ ื‘ืชื‘ื•ื ื”. ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืื™ื ื” ืžืžืœื˜ืช ืืคืจื•ื—ื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื ืืœื ื“ื•ื’ืจืช ืชื—ืœื” ืขืœ ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืชื™ื” ื•ืžืคืจื™ื—ื” ื‘ื”ืŸ ื ืฉืžื”. ืื•ืœื ืจืง ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืžื” ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ื—ื›ืžื” ื–ื•, ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœืžึตื“ ื–ืืช ืžืืœื™ื•. ื’ ื”ื•ื ื”ืชื—ื‘ืจ ื•ื ืชืคืจื“, ื—ื–ืจ ืืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื ืžืฉื: ืขืคืจ ืืœ ืขืคืจ, ื”ืจื•ื— ืืœ ืขึธืœ! ื•ื›ื™ ืชืžื•ื” ื”ื•ื? ื›ืœืœ ื•ื›ืœืœ ืœื. ื“ ืžื” ื”ื•ื ืืคื•ื ื˜ื‘ืขื• ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื? ืžืคื•ื— ืžืชื ืคื—. ื” ื”ื”ื›ืจื— ืœืžื•ืช โ€“ ืชื•ืขื‘ื” ืœื™. ืื•ืœื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืช โ€“ ืžื” ื‘ื›ืš? ื• ืื™ืŸ ืจื•ืื” ื•ืฉื•ืžืข ืืœื ื”ืฉื›ืœ ื‘ืœื‘ื“. ื›ืœ ื”ืฉืืจ ื”ื•ื ื—ึตืจืฉ ื•ืขื•ึตืจ. ื– ืคื›ื—ื•ืช ื•ืคืงืคื•ืง ื”ื ื”ื–ืจื•ืขื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืจื•ื—. ื— ืื•ืคื™ โ€“ ื–ื” ืžืœืื›ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื, ืื‘ืœ ืœื›ืžื” ืžื”ื ื”ื•ื ื ืขืฉื” ืžืœืืš ืจืข. ื˜ ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืŸึพืชืžื•ืชื” ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื ื•ืชึพืชืžื•ืชื” ื•ืืœ ื™ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืŸึพืชืžื•ืชื” ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืึทืœึพืžื•ืช. ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ืฆื“ื”ึพืœื“ืจืš ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื›ื“ืจืš ื™ืฉืจื” ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื. ื™ื ืื ืจื•ื— ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื‘ืงืจื‘ืš, ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคืš ื˜ื”ื•ืจ. ื™ื‘ ืื ื—ื›ืžื” ืืชื” ืžื‘ืงืฉ, ื”ืจื”ืจ ื‘ื” ื‘ืœื™ืœื”. ื™ื’ ืœื ื›ืฉืจื•ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ื•ืจ ื ึดืชืŸ ืœืš, ืืœื ื›ืฉืจื•ืŸ ื”ืฉืชื™ืงื” ื ึดืชืŸ ืœืš. ื™ื“ ื™ื“ ืจื•ื—ืฆืช ื™ื“; ืจืฆื•ื ืš ืœึดื˜ื•ืœ, ืฆื ื•ืชืŸ. ื˜ื• ืœื ื ื“ื™ื‘ ื”ื ืš, ื›ื™ ืื ื—ื•ืœื”. ื”ืŸ ืืชื” ื ื”ื ื” ื›ืฉืืชื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืžืชื ื”. ื˜ื– ื”ื ื‘ึธืœื” ื”ื™ื ื›ืœื™ึพื–ื™ืŸ ื™ืคื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ื ื‘ืœื™ื. ื™ื– ื”ื•ื™, ื ื‘ืœ! ืึทืœ ืชืฉื ืขื™ื ื™ืš ืืœ ื”ืจืš, ืคืŸ ื™ืคื’ืข ื‘ืš ื”ืงืฉื”. ื™ื— ื‘ืžื” ืฉื‘ื—ื” ืฉืœ ืืฉื” ื›ืฉืจื”? ืฉืœื ืœื’ืจื•ื ืฆืขืจ ืœื‘ืขืœื”. ื™ื˜ ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ื”ื ื”ื—ื›ื ืžื”ืจื”ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืœื ืœืื—ืจื™ื•. ื› ืžื™ื, ืขืคืจ, ืจื•ื— ื•ืฉืžืฉ โ€“ ืืœื” ื”ื ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืชื‘ืœ. ื›ื ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื”ื•ื ืขืคืจ, ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื”ื ืคืฉ โ€“ ืืฉ. ื›ื‘ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื”ื™ื ื›ื•ืœื” ื ืคืฉ. ื›ื’ ื”ืฉืžื™ื ื•ื”ืืจืฅ ื‘ืจืื• ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืงื•ื ืžืชื•ืš ื‘ืœื™ืœ ืฉืœ ืืฉ ื•ืžื™ื; ืฉื›ืŸ ืขืœึพื™ื“ื ืžื–ื•ึตื’ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื—ื ืขื ืงืจ ื•ื™ื‘ืฉ ืขื ืœื—. ื›ื“ ื”ืื“ืžื”, ืื ื›ืœ ื—ื™, ื”ืขืžื™ื“ื” ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฆื•ืช ื•ื”ื™ื ืื•ืกืคืช ืื•ืชื ืฉื•ื‘ ืืœ ื—ื™ืงื”. ื”ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืชื ืช ื˜ืจืฃ ืœื™ืงื•ื. ื›ื” ื—ื™ื™ ื”ืื“ื ื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืจืืฉื™ืชึพื›ืœ ืœื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื•ืœืžืกืคืจ. ืื ื• ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืžืกืคืจ ื•ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ. ืื›ืŸ ืขืœึพื™ื“ื ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืžืชืงื™ืžื™ื. ืžื‘ื™ืช ืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืึถืœึตืึธื” ื”ื•ื™ื” ืื• ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช? ื™ืฉื•ืช ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ื” ืื• ื”ืฉืชื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืชื—ืœืคื•ืช ืชื“ื™ืจื”? ืžื ื•ื—ื” ืื• ืชื ื•ืขื”? ืื—ื“ื•ืช ืื• ื”ืชื—ืœืงื•ืช, ืื—ื“ ืื• ืจื‘ื•ื™? ืืœื” ื”ืŸ ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ืžืขืกื™ืงื•ืช ืืช ื—ื›ืžื™ ืึถืœึตืึธื”, ื•ื”ืŸ ื‘ืขืงืจืŸ ืฉืืœื” ืื—ืช ืขืœ ื”ืขืฆื ื•ื”ื•ืคืขื•ืชื™ื•. ื. ื›ึผึฐืกึถื ื•ึนืคึทื ึถืก ื–ืžื ื• ืœืขืจืš: ืชืงโ€œืขโ€“ืชืขโ€ื˜. ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืงื•ึนืœื•ึนืคื•ึนืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื ืข ื•ื ื“ ื›ืžืขื˜ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ืขื“ ืฉืžืฆื ืœื• ืžืงื•ื ืžื ื•ื—ื” ื‘ืึถืœึตืื” ืฉื‘ืื˜ืœื™ื” ื”ืชื—ืชื•ื ื”. ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ืคืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ื•ืžืฉื•ืจืจ. ื‘ื™ื—ื•ื“ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื›ื—ื• ื‘ืกึทื˜ึดื™ืจื”, ื‘ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ืงืฉื•ืช ื‘ื”ื•ืžึถืจื•ืก ื•ื”ึถืกื™ื•ื“ ืขืœ ืฉืžึธื ื• ื‘ืืœื™ื ื—ื˜ืื™ื ืื ื•ืฉื™ื™ื, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืžืขืฉื™ ื’ื ื‘ื” ื•ื’ื–ืœื”, ื‘ื’ื™ื“ื” ื•ืชืจืžื™ืช. ื”ื•ื ื›ืคืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื•ื™ ืืœื™ื ื•ื”ื›ืจื™ื– ืขืœ ืืœ ืื—ื“, ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ื•ื ื”ื›ืœ, ืืœ ืœืœื ืชื ื•ืขื” ื•ืœืœื ืชืžื•ืจื”, โ€œืžืขื•ืฆื ื‘ืขืฆืžื•โ€. ืืจื™ืกื˜ื• ืื•ืžืจ, ืฉื›ืกื ื•ืคื ืก ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืฉืึพื“ื’ืœื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืื—ื“. โ€œืžืชื•ืš ื”ืกืชื›ืœื•ืช ื‘ืžืœื•ืึพื”ืขื•ืœื, ื”ืขืœื” ืขืœ ื”ืื—ื“ ืืช ื”ืฉื: ืืœื”ื™ืโ€ (ืืจื™ืกื˜ื•). ื‘. ืคึผึทืจึฐืžึถื ึดื™ื“ึถืก ืžืงื•ืžื• โ€“ ืึถืœึตืึธื”. ื–ืžื ื• โ€“ ืžื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืกืคืง. ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืฉื ืช ืชืงโ€œื, ื•ื™ืฉ ืžืฉืขืจื™ื ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืฉื ืช ืชืงื˜โ€ื• ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชืืจื™ืš ื”ืจื’ื™ืœ. ื”ื•ื ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ, ืฉื”ืœื‘ื™ืฉ ืืช ืžื—ืฉื‘ืชื• ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืฉืœ ืฉื™ืจื”. ืคืจืžื ื™ื“ืก ื”ื•ื ืื‘ื™ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ืฉื ืœื—ืžื” ืขืœ ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื™ึตืฉื•ืช ื”ืžืชืžื“ืช ื›ื ื’ื“ ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืชืžื•ืจื” ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืคื•ืกืงืช, ื‘ื ื™ืŸ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืฉืจืคืช ืขื•ืœื. ื–ืœื–ื•ืœ ื›ืœืคื™ ืขื“ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื•ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืขืจืฆื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื”ื›ืจืขื•ืชื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื“ืขืช, ื›ืคื™ืจื” ื‘ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื”ืคืกื“ื” ื•ืืžื•ื ื” ื‘ื”ื•ื•ื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ื” โ€“ ืืœื” ื”ื ื”ืงื•ื™ื ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจืชื•. ื”ื•ื ืžืœืžื“ ืขืœ ื–ึถื”ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ืฉื•ืช ื•ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ืจืง ื”ื™ืฉ ื™ืฉื ื•, ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ื™ืฉ โ€“ ื›ืš ื’ื•ื–ืจืช ื”ื“ืขืช. ื•ืึดืœื• ื™ืฉื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื” ืืœื ืžืจืื”ึพืฉื•ื. ืืคืœื˜ื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืคืจืžื ื™ื“ืก ื•ื‘ื ื™ึพืกื™ืขืชื•, ืฉื”ื ืžืขื›ื‘ื™ื ืืช ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืขื ืฉื”ื ืžืงืคื™ืื™ื ืืช ื”ื”ื•ื™ื”. ื’. ื–ึถื ื•ึนืŸ ืžืงื•ืžื• ื’โ€œื› โ€“ ืึถืœึตืึธื”. ื–ืžื ื• โ€“ ืœืขืจืš ืชโ€ืฅโ€“ืช"ืœ. ื”ื•ื ื™ืฆื ืœื—ื–ืง ืชื•ืจืช ืจื‘ื•, ืคืจืžื ื™ื“ืก, ืข"ื™ ืžื•ืคืชื™ื ืฉื ื•ื ื™ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื”ื ื—ืช ืจื‘ื•ื™ ื•ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช, ืชื ื•ืขื” ื•ื”ืชื—ืœืงื•ืช. ื”ื•ื ืžื•ื›ื™ื—, ืฉืœืคื™ ื”ื ื—ื” ื–ื•: ื. ืจืืฉื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืขื•ืช; ื‘. ืกื•ืคื” ืฉืœ ืชื ื•ืขื” ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืืคืฉืจ ื•ืึทื›ื™ืœืก ืงืœึพื”ืจื’ืœื™ื ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื“ื‘ื™ืง ื‘ืžืจื•ืฆื• ืืช ืฆื‘ึพื”ืฉืจื™ื•ืŸ, ืžืฉื•ื ืฉืจึถื•ื—ึพื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืžืชืงื˜ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื˜ืœ ื›ื•ืœื•; ื’. ื”ื—ืฅ ื”ืขืฃ ื ื—, ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœ ืจื’ืข ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืžื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื“ืจื›ื•. ืืจื™ืกื˜ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืขืœ ื–ื ื•ืŸ, ืฉื”ื•ื ื”ืžืฆื™ื ืืช ืžืœืื›ืชึพื”ื ืฆื•ื— (ื“ื™ืืœืงื˜ื™ืงื”). ื“. ืžึถืœึดื™ืกื•ึนืก ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืฉื ืช ืชืž"ื. ื™ืœื™ื“ ืกึทืžื•ืก, ืฉืจึพืฆื‘ื ื‘ืžืœื—ืžืช ืืจืฆื• ื ื’ื“ ืคึผึถืจื™ืงืœึถืก ื•ืกื•ืคื•ืงืœืก. ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืžื•ืคืชื™ื ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ืœื—ื–ื•ืง ืชื•ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ืคืจืžื ื™ื“ืก. ื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™, ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ, ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืชื ื•ืขื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ื ืคื—ืช ืื• ืžืชืจื‘ื”, ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื”ืจื’ืฉื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ืฉ ืœื ื‘ืฆืขืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ื”ื ืื”. ื”ืจื‘ื•ื™ ื”ื•ื ื—ื–ื™ื•ืŸึพืฉื•ื ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื™ืฉื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืชืขื” ืืช ื”ืื“ื. ื›ึผึฐืกึถื ื•ึนืคึทื ึถืก ื ื”ื•ืžึถืจื•ืก ื•ื”ึถืกื™ื•ื“ ืžื ื• ื‘ืืœื™ื ื›ืœ ืžืขืฉื™ ื ื‘ืœื” ื•ื—ืจืคื” ืฉืื ื• ืžื•ืฆืื™ื ื‘ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื: ื’ื ื‘ื” ื•ื ืื•ืฃ ื•ื”ื•ื ืืชึพืจืข. ื‘ ืืœืžืœื™ ื ึดืชึผึฐื ื• ื™ื“ื™ื ืœืฉื•ืจ ื•ืœืกื•ืก ื•ืืœืžืœื™ ื ึดืชึผึทืŸ ืœื”ื, ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื, ื”ื›ืฉืจื•ืŸ ืœืฆื™ึผึตืจ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื”ื ื•ืœืฆื•ืจ ืฆื•ืจื•ืช, ื”ื™ื” ื”ืฉื•ืจ ืฆืจ ืืช ื“ืžื•ืช ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ืฆืœื ืฉื•ืจ, ื”ืกื•ืก โ€“ ื‘ืฆืœื ืกื•ืก, ื•ื”ื™ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืœื”ื ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื‘ื“ืžื•ืช ืžื™ื ื•. ื’ ื™ืฉ ืืœื•ื” ืื—ื“ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื›ืœ ื”ืืœื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื, ื•ืื™ื ื• ื“ื•ืžื” ื‘ืฆื•ืจืชื• ืœื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืชื™ื•. ื“ ื”ืืœื”ื•ืช ื”ื™ื ื›ื•ืœื” ืขื™ืŸ, ื›ื•ืœื” ืจื•ึผื—, ื›ื•ืœื” ืื•ื–ืŸ. ื” ื”ื•ื3 ืขื•ืžื“ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“ ื•ืื™ื ื• ื–ื–. ืœื ื ืื” ืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืข ื•ื ื“ ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื. ื• ืื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ ืขืžืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ืืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ืจื•ื—ึพืชื‘ื•ื ืชื•. ื– ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืœื ื’ืœื• ื”ืืœื™ื ืืช ื”ืžื•ืคืœื ืœื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื”, ืื‘ืœ ืœืื˜ึพืœืื˜ ืžื•ืฆืื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ืืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื‘ื— ืขื ื›ืฉื”ื ืžื—ื–ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื•. ื— ื”ื›ืœ ื‘ื ืžืŸ ื”ืขืคืจ ื•ื”ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ ืืœ ื”ืขืคืจ. ื˜ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื”ื•ื” ื•ื’ื“ึตืœ ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืขืคืจ ื•ืžื™ื. ื™ ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื ื•ืœื“ื ื• ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืžืŸ ืขืคืจ ื•ืžื™ื. ื™ื ืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืœืจื’ืœื™ื ื• ืืช ื”ืงืฆื” ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืชื ื’ืฉ ื‘ืื•ื™ืจ, ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ืงืฆื” ื”ืชื—ืชื•ืŸ ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืžืชืžืฉืš ืขื“ ืœืื™ืŸึพืงืฅ. ื™ื‘ ืžืกืคืจื™ื ืขืœ ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก: ื›ืฉืจืื” ืื“ื ืžื›ื” ื›ืœื‘ ืงื˜ืŸ, ื ื›ืžืจื• ืจื—ืžื™ื• ื•ืงืจื: ื—ื“ืœ ืžืœื”ื›ื•ืชื•! ื‘ืงื•ืœื• ืฉืฉืžืขืชื™ ื”ื›ืจืชื™ ื ืฉืžืช ืจึตืขโ€ฆ ืคึผึทืจืžึถื ึดื™ื“ึถืก ื ืฉื•ืจ, ืžื” ืงืจื•ื‘ ื•ื ืืžืŸ ืœื‘ื™ื ืชืš โ€“ ื”ืจื—ื•ืง, ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ื, ื”ื‘ื™ื ื”, ืœื ืชืคืจื™ื“ ืืช ื”ื™ืฉ ืžืชื•ืš ืื—ื•ื“ึพื”ื™ืฉ, ืœื ื‘ื“ืจืš ืฉื™ื”ื ืžืชืžืกืžืก ื›ื•ืœื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ืžืกื’ืจืชื• ื•ืœื ื‘ื“ืจืš ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืžืชื›ื•ืฅ. ื‘ ืื•ืœื ืจื•ืื” ืื ื™ ืืช ื”ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ, ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉืื ื™ ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ื•. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ืื ื™ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืฉื‘ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืงื•ื. ื’ ื•ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ืœืฆืืช ื•ืœืœืžื“ โ€“ ื•ืขืœื™ืš ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืืช ืื–ื ื™ืš ื›ืืคืจื›ืกืช โ€“ ืื™ื–ื” ื”ืŸ ื“ืจื›ื™ ื”ืขื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืŸ ืœื‘ื“ืŸ ืจืื•ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื•. ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ืื—ืช: ื”ื™ืฉ โ€“ ื™ืฉ, ื•ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉืœื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื™ืฉ; ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ื”ื›ืจื” ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™ืช. ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ืฉื ื™ื”: ื’ื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ื™ืฉ, ื•ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ื–ื” ื™ืฉื ื• ื‘ื”ื›ืจื—; ื ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื” โ€“ ื›ืš ืื ื™ ืžืœืžื“ืš โ€“ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื•ืคืœื ืžืžืš. ืฉื›ืŸ ืœื ื ึดืชืŸ ืœืš ืœื ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ื•ืœื ืœื‘ื˜ืื•. ื“ ืชื“ืข: ืœื”ืฉื›ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ื™ืฉ ื•ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื™ืฉ โ€“ ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ื“. ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื•ื™ ืœืืžืจ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื•ื™ ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘: ืจืง ื”ื™ืฉ ื™ืฉ. ืฉื”ืจื™ ืžืฆื™ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื ื‘ื’ื“ืจ ื”ืืคืฉืจ. ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ ืžืฆื™ืื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ. ื•ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ืžืขื•ืจืจ ืื•ืชืš ืœึดืชืŸ ื“ืขืชืš ืขืœ ื›ืš. ื–ื• ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ ื”ื—ืงื™ืจื” ืฉื ื˜ื•ืœ ืขืœื™ืš ืœื”ื–ื”ืจ ืžืžื ื”. ืื•ืœื ื”ื–ื”ืจ ื’ื ืžืŸ ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ืฉื ื™ื”, ืฉืžืชืœื‘ื˜ื™ื ื‘ื” ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ื—ืกืจื™ึพื“ืขืช, ื‘ืขืœื™ ื“ื•ึพืจืืฉื™ื. ื”ืžื‘ื•ื›ื” โ€“ ื”ื™ื ื”ื ื•ื”ื’ืช ื‘ืจื•ื—ื ื”ืชืฉื•ืฉ; ื›ื›ื” ื ืขื™ื ื•ื ื“ื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื•ื›ื™ื ื—ืจืฉื™ื ื•ืขื•ืจื™ื, ื›ื ื•ืคื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ื”ืžืืžื™ื ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ืฉ ื•ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ื”ื ื’ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ื“ ื’ื ืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ื“; ื•ื”ืžื•ืฆืื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืื™ื–ื” ืฆื“ึพืฉื›ื ื’ื“. ื• ืจืง ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื ื”ื“ืจืš ืฉืื ื• ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื›ืจื™ื– ืขืœื™ื”: ื”ื™ืฉ ื™ืฉ. ื•ื›ืžื” ืกึดืžื ื™ื ืžืขื™ื“ื™ื ืขืœ ื–ื”: ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื”ื•ืœื“ื”, ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื”ืคืกื“ื” ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื, ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื”ื•ื™ืชื•, ืงื‘ื•ืข ื•ื‘ืœื™ึพืกื•ืฃ. ืžืขื•ืœื ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื•ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื”, ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื‘ืชึพืื—ืช ืจืง ื‘ื”ื•ึนื•ื”; ืฉืœื, ืžืื•ื—ื“, ืžืงื•ืฉืจ. ืืžื•ืจ, ืื™ ื”ืžืงื•ืจ ืฉืชื™ึทื—ืก ืœื™ืฉ? ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื•ืžื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื’ึดื“ื•ืœื•? ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื™ืฉ; ืฉืืœืžืœื™ ื›ืŸ ืงื“ื ืœื• ื™ืฉ ืื—ืจ. ืืฃ ืื™ื ืš ืจืฉืื™ ืœืืžืจ ืื• ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘, ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืชื”ื•ื” ืžืชื•ืš ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ; ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื–ื” ืชืคื™ืกื” ืœื ื‘ื“ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ื•ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ืžื ื™ืข ืฉื™ื”ื ืžื ื™ืขื• ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ืื™ืŸ, ืœื”ืงื“ื™ื ืื• ืœืื—ืจ, ื•ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ื’ื“ึตืœ? ืžืขืชื”, ืื• ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื ื‘ื›ืœึพืคื ื™ื ืื• ืฉืื™ื ื•ึน ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœึพืขึดืงืจ. ื’ื ืื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื›ืœ ืกื•ื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ, ืฉื™ืชื”ื•ื” ืžืŸ ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ. * ืืฃ ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื—ืœื•ืงื”, ืœืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืฉื•ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžื•, ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื ืื™ื–ื” ื™ืฉ ื—ื–ืง ืžืžื ื• ื•ื™ื”ื ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ืชื™ืจ ืืช ืงืฉื•ืจื™ื•, ื’ื ืœืœื ืื™ื–ื” ื™ืฉ ื—ืœืฉ ืžืžื ื•; ืืœื ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืžืœื ื™ืฉื•ืช, ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืžืงื•ืฉืจ, ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื”ื™ืฉื™ื ืจืฆื•ืคื™ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื”. ื‘ืœื™ ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ื•ื ืžื•ื ื— ื›ืคื•ืช ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืชื•ืช ืงืฉื•ืช ืœืœืึพืจืืฉื™ืช ื•ืœืœืึพืื—ืจื™ืช; ืžืื—ืจ ืฉื”ืชื”ื•ื•ึผืช ื•ื”ืคืกื“ื” ื’ืœื• ืœืืคืกื™ึพืžืจื—ืงื™ื, ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉื’ืจืฉื” ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ื”ื›ืจื” ื”ืืžืชื™ืช. ื•ื”ื•ื ื ื— ื‘ืชื•ืš ืขืฆืžื•, ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืขืฆืžื• ื‘ืขืฆืžื•, ื•ืžืชืžื™ื“ ื›ื— ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื; ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ื”ื›ืจื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ืชืงื™ืคื” ื›ื•ืคืชืช ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืชื•ืช ื”ืกื•ื‘ื‘ื•ืช ืื•ืชื• ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘. ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืงืฅ. ื”ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœื™ ืคื’ื™ืžื”; ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ื™ื” ื—ืกืจ ืืช ื–ื”, ื”ื™ื” ืคื’ื•ื ืคื’ื™ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื”. * ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื•ืžื’ืžื” ืฉืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”, ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื. ืฉืื™ึพืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ืืช ื”ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื‘ืœืขื“ื™ ื”ื™ืฉ, ื‘ื• ื”ื™ื ืžื’ืœื” ืืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ ืขืฆืžื”. ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื™ืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ, ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ื’ื•ืจืœ ื›ืคืชื• ืœืžื”ื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ื” ืžืชืคืจืงืช ื•ืื™ื ื” ื–ื–ื” ืžืžืงื•ืžื”. ื”ื•ึตื” ืื•ืžืจ, ืฉืžื•ืช ืจื™ืงื™ื ื”ื ื›ืœ ืื•ืชื ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉืงื‘ืขื• ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ื‘ืœืฉื•ื ื ืžืชื•ืš ืืžื•ื ื” ื‘ืืžืชืชื ืฉืœ ืืœื•: ื’ื ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ื’ื ื”ืคืกื“ื”, ื’ื ื™ืฉ ื’ื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ, ืฉื ื•ื™ ืžืงื•ื ื•ื—ืœื•ืคื™ ื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ืžื‘ืจื™ืงื™ื. ื•ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืžืชืงื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืื—ืจื•ืŸ, ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ืžืกื•ื™ื ืœื›ืœ ืฆื“ื“ื™ื• ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื”ืงืคื• ืฉืœ ื›ื“ื•ืจ ืžืขื•ื’ืœ ื›ืจืื•ื™, ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื–ืง ื‘ืฉื•ื” ืžื ืงื•ื“ืชึพืžืจื›ื–ื• ืœื›ืœ ืฆื“ื“ื™ื•. ื—ืก ืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืคื” ื•ืฉื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื• ืจืคื” ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ืคืจื™ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืงื™ื ื•ื’ื ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืœื™ืฉ ืฉื™ื”ื ื›ืืŸ ืžื•ืขื˜ ื•ื›ืืŸ ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื™ืฉ, ื›ึผึตื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœื™ ืฉื•ื ืœืงื•ื™. ืชื“ืข: ื”ืžืจื›ื–, ืฉื›ืœ ืฆื“ื“ื™ื• ืจื—ื•ืงื™ื ืžืžื ื• ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉื•ื”, ืฉื•ืืฃ ื‘ืฉื•ื” ืืœ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ื. ื– ืžืื—ืจ ืฉื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ื ืงืจื ืขืœ ืฉื ื”ืื•ืจ ื•ื”ื—ื•ืฉืš ื•ืœืคื™ ื›ื—ื•ืชื™ื”ื ื ืชื™ื—ืกื• ื”ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืื ืœืืœื• ื•ืื ืœืืœื•, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื”ื•ื™ื” ืžืœืื” ืื•ืจ ื•ื—ื•ืฉืš ืกืžื•ื™ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื‘ืชึพืื—ืช ื•ื”ื ืฉืงื•ืœื™ื ื–ื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ื–ื”. ืฉื›ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื—ืœืง ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื•. ื— ื”ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™ื™ื ื ืชืžืœืื• ืืฉ ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื•ืืช ืฉืžืื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ื ืชืžืœืื• ื—ื•ืฉืš, ืื•ืœื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ืžืฉืชืคืš ื ื—ืœ ื”ืืฉ. ื‘ืžืจื›ื–ื โ€“ ื”ืึตืœึธื” ื”ืžื ื”ื’ืช ืืช ื”ื›ืœ. ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื”ื™ื ืžืขื•ืจืจืช ื—ื‘ืœื™ึพืœึตื“ื” ื•ื—ื‘ืœื™ึพื–ื•ื•ื’, ืขื ื›ืฉื”ื™ื ืฉื•ืœื—ืช ืืช ื”ืืฉื” ืืœ ื”ืื™ืฉ ืœื”ื“ื‘ืง ื‘ื• ื•ื’ื ืœื”ืคืš, ืืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ืืœ ื”ืืฉื”. ื˜ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ื”ืืœื™ื ื‘ืจืื” ื”ืึตืœึธื” ืืช ืืœึพื”ืื”ื‘ื”. ื™ ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ื—ื•ืฉ ืžืชื™ื—ืก ื›ืœ ืคืขื ืืœ ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืื‘ืจื™ื• ื”ื ืชืขื™ื ืœืจื•ื‘, ื›ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื–ื“ืงืง ืืœ ื”ืื“ื ื‘ื›ืœืœ. ื”ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ืžื” ืฉื—ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื ื‘ื›ื•ืœื ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื. ืชื“ืข: ื”ืจื‘ื•ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ื–ึถื ื•ึนืŸ ื ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื™ื”ื ื ืžืฆื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœื ืฉืขื•ืจ ื•ืœื ื ึถืคื— ื•ืœื ืžืฉื•ื. ืฉืึดืœื• ื™ืฆื˜ืจืฃ ืœืฉืขื•ืจ ืื—ืจ, ืœื ื™ืฉื ื” ืืช ื–ื” ืฉื ื•ื™ ืืฃ ื‘ืžืฉื”ื•. ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืฆืจืฃ ืฉืขื•ืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ืืคืก ืœืื™ื–ื” ืฉืขื•ืจ ืื—ืจ, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื™ืชืจื‘ื” ืฉืขื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื–ื”; ื•ืžื›ึผึตื•ืŸ ืฉืื•ืชื• ืฉืขื•ืจ ืื™ื ื• ืžืชืžืขื˜ ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืคื—ืชื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืชืจื‘ื” ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ื•ืกืคื”, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ึถืชืจ ื•ื”ื—ึถืกืจ ื”ื ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืืคืก. ื‘ ื›ืฉืื™ืŸ ืฉืขื•ืจ ืœื™ืฉ, ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื; ื•ืื ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื, ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื™ื”ื ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื—ืœืงื™ื• ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ืื™ื–ื” ืฉืขื•ืจ, ื ึถืคื— ื•ืžืจื—ืง ื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื•. ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื›ืš ืืคืฉืจ ืœืืžืจ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื—ืœืง ื”ืงื•ื“ื ืœื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื; ืืฃ ื”ื•ื, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืฉืขื•ืจ ื•ื’ื ืœื• ืงื•ื“ื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื™ื–ื” ื—ืœืง. ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื—ืœืงื™ื. ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ื—ืœืง ืื™ื ื• ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ื™ื”ื ืื—ื“ ื‘ืœื™ ื™ื—ืก ืืœ ื—ื‘ืจื•. ืžืกืชื‘ืจ, ืื ื™ืฉ ืจื‘ื•ื™ ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื, ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื”ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ืชึพืื—ืช: ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืขื“ ืœืืคืก ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืขื“ ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ. ื’ ืื ื™ืฉ ืจื‘ื•ื™, ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ืžืกืคืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ืžืกืคืจื ืฉื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช, ืœื ืคื—ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื•ืื ืžืกืคืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื•ื ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื ืžึธื’ื‘ืœื™ื ื‘ืžื ื™ื ื. ืื ื™ืฉ ืจื‘ื•ื™, ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ ื”ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื’ื‘ืœ ื‘ืžื ื™ื ื•, ื›ึผึตื•ึธืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ืฉื•ื‘ ืื—ืจื™ื. ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžื’ื‘ืœ. ื“ ื”ื ืข ืื™ื ื• ื ืข ืœื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื• ื•ืœื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ื•. ืžึถืœึดื™ืกื•ึนืก ื ืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื”, ืžืขื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื•ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื”. ืฉืืœืžืœื™ ื ืชื”ื•ื”, ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื”ื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื”. ื•ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื™ื” ืึธื™ืŸ, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื” ื™ืฉ ืžืื™ืŸ. ื‘ ื•ืžืื—ืจ ืฉืœื ื ืชื”ื•ื” ื•ื‘ื›ืœึพื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ื”ื•ึนื•ื” ื•ืžืขื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื•ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื”, ื”ืจื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœื ืจืืฉื™ืช ื•ืœื ืื—ืจื™ืช, ืืœื ื”ื•ื ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™. ืฉืืœืžืœื™ ื ืชื”ื•ื”, ื”ื™ืชื” ืœื• ืจืืฉื™ืช: ื”ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื”ื™ื”, ืึดืœื• ื ืชื”ื•ื”, ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืขืชื•ืช, ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืœื• ืื—ืจื™ืช; ื”ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื”ื™ื”, ืืœื• ื ืชื”ื•ื” ืœื”ืกืชื™ึตื ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืขืชื•ืช. ื•ื›ึตื•ึธืŸ ืฉืœื ื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื•ืœื ื ืกืชื™ึผึตื, ืืœื ืชืžื™ื“ ื”ื™ื” ื•ืชืžื™ื“ ื™ื”ื™ื”, ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืคื•ื ืœื ืจืืฉื™ืช ื•ืœื ืื—ืจื™ืช. ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ื•ื™ืชืงื™ึผึตื ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ื˜ื‘ื•ืข ื›ื•ืœื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืฉ. ื’ ืžืฉืžืข, ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ืฉื ื• ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช, ื›ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™ ื‘ืฉืขื•ืจื•. ื“ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืขืœ ืจืืฉื™ืช ื•ืื—ืจื™ืช ื•ื™ื”ื ื ืฆื—ื™ ื•ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™. ื” ืืœื•ืœื ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“, ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉ ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืœื–ื•ืœืชื•. ื• ืื ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™ ื”ื•ื, ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื. ืฉืึดืœื• ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™ื, ืืœื ื”ื™ื• ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื”. ื– ื ืžืฆืืช ืœืžื“: ื”ื•ื ื ืฆื—ื™, ืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืคื™, ืื—ื“ ื•ืฉืœื ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉื•ื”. ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื™ื”ื ื ืคืกื“ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื–ืžื ื™ื ืื• ื™ื”ื ืžืชืจื‘ื” ืื• ืžืฉื ื” ืืช ืฆื•ืจืชื•. ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื—ืฉ ืœื ืฆืขืจ ื•ืœื ื”ื ืื”. ืฉืึดืœื• ื—ืฉ ืžืขื™ืŸ ื›ืš, ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืื—ื“. ื”ืŸ ืื ื ืขืฉื” ื”ื•ื ืื—ืจ, ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื™ื”ื ื ืคืกื“ ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื”ื•ื•ื” ื•ืžืชื”ื•ื” ืžื” ืฉืœื ื”ื™ื”. ื•ืื ื™ืฉืชื ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ ืจื‘ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื ื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืžืœื•ืึพื ื™ืžื”, ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื ืฆื—ื™ ื™ืคึผึธืกื“ ื›ื•ืœื•. ืื•ืœื ื’ื ืฉื ื•ื™ึพืฆื•ืจื” ื”ื•ื ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืขื•ืช. ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ืงื•ื“ืžืช ืื™ื ื” ื ืคืกื“ืช ื•ืฆื•ืจื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื‘ื”ื•ื•ื” ืื™ื ื” ืžืชื”ื•ื”. ื•ืžื›ึผึตื•ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ื ื•ืกืฃ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ืœืš ืœืื‘ื•ื“, ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืชื™ื—ืก ื–ื” ืขืœ ื”ื™ืฉ ืœื›ืฉืชืฉืชื ื” ืฆื•ืจืชื•? ื•ืืœืžืœื™ ื ืขืฉื” ื”ื•ื ืื—ืจ, ื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื ื” ืืช ืฆื•ืจืชื•. ื’ื ืื™ื ื• ื—ืฉ ืœื ืฆืขืจ ื•ืœื ื”ื ืื”. ืฉืึดืœื• ื”ื•ื ื—ืฉ ื‘ื›ืš, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ื˜ื‘ื•ืข ื›ื•ืœื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืฉ. ื”ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื—ืฉ ื‘ืฆืขืจ, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืฆื—ื™, ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื›ื—ื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื™ื. ืืฃ ืœื ื™ื”ื ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉื•ื”. ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื•ื ื—ืฉ ืฆืขืจ, ื”ื™ื” ื—ืฉ ืฆืขืจ ื‘ืขื˜ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื—ึถืกืจ ืื• ื™ึถืชืจ ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ, ื•ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืœื ื”ื™ื” ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉื•ื”. ืชืžื”ื ื™, ืื ื”ื‘ึผืจื™ื ื—ืฉ ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ืฆืขืจ. ืฉืื ื›ืŸ, ื”ื™ื” ื ืคืกื“ ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื ืžืฆื, ื•ืžืชื”ื•ื” ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื. ื’ื ืื™ืŸ ืจื™ืง. ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ืจื™ืง ื”ื•ื ืึธื™ืŸ, ื•ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ื™ืฉ, ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืžืฆื. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืžืฆื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืข. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืžืœื˜ ืœืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื. ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ื™ื” ืจื™ืง ื‘ืžืงื•ื, ื”ื™ื” ื ืžืœื˜ ืืœ ื”ืจื™ืง. ื›ึผึตื•ึธืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืจื™ืง, ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื•ื ืœื• ืœืคืœื™ื˜ื”. ื’ื ืื™ืŸ ืขื‘ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื“ืง. ื”ืŸ ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ื“ืง ืžืœื ื›ื”ืขื‘, ืืœื ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ื“ืง ืžืชื”ื•ื” ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืจื™ืง ืžืŸ ื”ืขื‘. ืื•ืœื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืœื ื•ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžืœื: ื›ืฉืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœืชืคื•ืก ืื• ืœืงืœื•ื˜ ืœืชื•ื›ื• ืขื•ื“ ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”, ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžืœื; ื•ื›ืฉืื™ื ื• ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœืชืคื•ืก ืื• ืœืงืœื•ื˜ ืœืชื•ื›ื• ืขื•ื“ ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”, ื”ืจื™ื”ื• ืžืœื. ืžื›ืœืœ ืฉืžืœื ื”ื•ื ื–ื” ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ืจื™ืง. ื•ืื ื”ื•ื ืžืœื, ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืชื ื•ืขื”. ื— ื”ืกื‘ึผึธืจื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ื”ื•ื›ื—ื” ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื™ื—ื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื™ืฉ. ืื‘ืœ ื’ื ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื ืจืื•ื™ื™ื ืœืฉืžืฉ ื”ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ืขืœ ื–ื”: ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื™ื• ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืจื‘ื”, ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉืชื”ื™ื™ื ื” ืœื”ื ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืกื’ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืžื ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืื—ื“. ืื ื™ืฉ ืขืคืจ, ืžื™ื, ืื•ื™ืจ, ืืฉ, ื‘ืจื–ืœ, ื–ื”ื‘, ื•ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืจื•ืื™ื ื›ืึดืœื• ื”ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืขืœ โ€“ ืื ื›ืœ ื–ื” ืžืชืงื™ึผึตื ื•ืื ื—ื•ืฉึพื”ืจืื™ื” ื•ื—ื•ืฉึพื”ืฉืžื™ืขื” ืื™ื ื ืคื’ื•ืžื™ื ื‘ื ื•, ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ืชื”ื™ื™ื ื” ืœื• ื›ืœ ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืกื’ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื™ื—ืกื ื• ืœื• ืžื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื”; ื–ืืช ืื•ืžืจืช, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืœื• ืœื”ืชื—ืœืฃ ืื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœืื—ืจ ืืœื ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื™ื”ื ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช ื›ืš ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ื•ื. ื•ืืฃึพืขืœึพืคื™ึพื›ืŸ ื ึดื“ืžื” ืœื ื• ืฉื”ื—ื ื ืขืฉื” ืงืจ ื•ื”ืงืจ ื ืขืฉื” ื—ื, ื”ืงืฉื” ื ืขืฉื” ืจืš ื•ื”ืจืš ื ืขืฉื” ืงืฉื”, ื”ื—ื™ ืžืช ื•ื—ื™ื™ื ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ืช; ื ึดื“ืžื” ืœื ื•, ืฉื›ืœ ืืœื• ื”ืชืžื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืŸ ื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื ืžืฆื ืชื—ืœื” ื•ืžืฆื•ื™ ืขื›ืฉื•, ื•ื™ื”ื ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืขืฆืžื•, ืืœื ื”ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ื ืžื—ืง ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืžื’ืข ืฉืœ ืืฆื‘ืข ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ื ืคืกื“ ืœืื˜ึพืœืื˜ โ€“ ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื‘ืื‘ืŸ ื•ื‘ืฉืืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ื—ืฉื‘ื™ื ืœืžื•ืฆืงื™ื โ€“ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืžื™ื ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ืขืคืจ ื•ืื‘ืŸ. ืžื›ืืŸ ืžืชื—ื™ึผึตื‘, ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื™ื ืืช ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช. ื”ืŸ ืขึดื ืฉืื ื• ืžื—ืœื™ื˜ื™ื ืขืœ ืžืฆื™ืื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื ืฆื—ื™ื™ื, ื‘ืขืœื™ ืฆื•ืจื•ืช ืžืกื•ื™ืžื•ืช ื•ื‘ื ื™ึพืงื‘ืข, ืžืœืžื“ืช ืื•ืชื ื• ืžืจืื™ืชึพื”ืขื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ืกื•ื“ ื ืกื™ื•ื ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ืฉื”ื›ืœ ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืžืฉืชื ื” ื•ืžืชื—ืœืฃ. ื”ืจื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื•ืช, ืฉืื ื• ืฉื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ืจืื™ืชื ื• ื•ืฉืžืจืื” ื”ืจื‘ื•ื™ ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืชืจืžื™ืชึพืขื™ื ื™ื. ืฉืึดืœื• ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืคื•ืขืœ, ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืชื—ืœืคื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืขื™ื ื• ื›ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื”. ื›ืœื•ื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ืชืงื™ืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ืืžืช ืฉื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช? ื•ืื ืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืชื—ืœืฃ, ื™ื•ืฆื ืฉื”ื ืžืฆื ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ื ืคืกื“ ื•ื”ืœืึพื ืžืฆื ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ืžืชื”ื•ื”. ืœืžื“ืช: ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื•ื™ ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื, ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืกื’ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืื—ื“. ื˜ ื•ื‘ื›ืœืœ, ืื ื”ื•ื ื™ืฉ, ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื”ื•ื ืื—ื“, ื•ืื ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืขืœ ื’ื•ืฃ. ืืœืžืœื™ ืขื•ื‘ื™ ืœื•, ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื• ื—ืœืงื™ื ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืื—ื“. ื™ ื›ืฉื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ืžื—ื•ืœืง, ื”ื•ื ื’ื ืžืชื ื•ืขืข. ืื‘ืœ ืื ื”ื•ื ืžืชื ื•ืขืข, ื”ืจื™ ืคืกืงื” ื™ืฉื•ืชื•. ืึถืžึฐืคึผึถื“ื•ึนืงึฐืœึถืก ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืึทืงึฐืจึทื’ึทืก (ืึทื’ืจื™ื’ึถื ื˜) ืฉื‘ืกื™ืฆื™ืœื™ื”, ื‘ืฉื ืช ืชโ€œืฅ, ืžืช ื‘ืฉื ืช ืชโ€ืœ ืœืขืจืš. ืคืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ื•ืžืฉื•ืจืจ, ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืจื•ืคื ื•ื’ื ื“ื‘ืจืŸ ืžืคื•ืจืกื. ื”ื™ื” ื ื•ื“ื“ ื•ืกื•ื‘ื‘ ืžืขื™ืจ ืœืขื™ืจ ื•ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืœืจืคื ืžื—ืœื•ืชึพื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื•ืžื—ืœื•ืชึพื”ื ืคืฉ. ื”ืฆื™ืขื• ืœื•, ื›ืคื™ ืขื“ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืืจื™ืกื˜ื•, ื›ืชืจ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื ืชืจืฆื” ืœืงื‘ืœื•. ืขืงืจื™ ืชื•ืจืชื•: ื”ืจื›ื‘ื” ื•ื”ืคืจื“ื” ื”ืŸ ืกื‘ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื ื•ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ืชืžื•ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ื”ื›ื—ื•ืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื”ื โ€“ ืื”ื‘ื” ื•ืื™ื‘ื”, ื›ื—ึพืžื•ืฉืš ื•ื›ื—ึพื“ื•ื—ื”, ื›ื— ื”ืจื›ื‘ื” ื•ื›ื— ื”ืคืจื“ื”. ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ืฉื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืช ืื™ื ื ื‘ื™ืกื•ื“ื ืืœื ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ืฉื‘ื›ืžื•ืช. ืึถืžึฐืคึผึถื“ื•ึนืงึฐืœึถืก ื”ื•ื ืœื›ืื•ืจื” ืื‘ื™ ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ืคึผึฐืจึธื“ื™ื. ื”ื•ื ืžื•ื ื” ืืจื‘ืขื” ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช, ืืจื‘ืขื” ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื: ืืฉ, ืžื™ื, ืื•ื™ืจ, ืขืคืจ. โ€“ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ืžื ื•ืคืฉ, ืžื—ื•ื ืŸ ื‘ื ืคืฉ; ื•ื›ืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ึพื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื ื•ืžืื•ื—ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื. โ€“ ื”ืžื—ื™ืฉื•ืช ื‘ืื•ืช ืžืชื•ืš ืฉื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืคืจื™ืฉื™ื ืžืชื•ื›ื ื—ืœืงื™ื ื“ืงื™ื, ื”ื—ื•ื“ืจื™ื ื“ืจืš ื ืงื‘ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื›ืœื™ึพื”ื—ื•ืฉื™ื. ื›ื‘ืจ ืืžืคื“ื•ืงืœืก ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ื•ึพื”ืžื™ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื. ืงืœืฆืงื™ืŸ1 ืืžืคื“ื•ืงืœืก.jpg ืึถืžึฐืคึผึถื“ื•ึนืงึฐืœึถืก ืึถืžึฐืคึผึถื“ื•ึนืงืœึถืก ื”ืกื›ืช ืคึผื•ึนืกึทื ื™ึทืก, ื‘ืŸ ืึทื ื›ึดื™ื˜ื•ืก ื”ื—ื›ื, ื•ืฉืžืข! ืžืฆื•ืžืฆืžื™ื ื›ืœื™ึพื”ื—ื•ืฉื™ื ื”ืžืฉืชืœื—ื™ื ื‘ืื‘ืจื™ ื”ืื“ื. ืงื•ืœื˜ื™ื ื”ื ืืœึพืชื•ื›ื ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœื•ื‘ื™ื, ื”ืžืงื”ื™ื ืืช ื‘ื™ื ืชื. ืขื“ ืฉื”ื ืกื•ืงืจื™ื ืขืœ ื—ืœืง ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ื”ื, ื›ื‘ืจ ืคืจื—ื• ื•ืื™ื ื; ื”ื’ื•ืจืœ ื”ืคื–ื™ื– ื”ื•ืœื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ ื›ืขืฉืŸ ื”ืžืชื ื“ืฃ ื•ืขื•ืœื”. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ืžืืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืจืง ื‘ืžื” ืฉื ืชืงืœ ื‘ื• ืคืขื ื‘ืžืฉืš ื ื“ื•ื“ื™ึพืฉื’ื™ืื•ืชื™ื• ื”ืจื‘ื™ื, ื•ืืฃึพืขืœึพืคื™ึพื›ืŸ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืชื‘ื— ืฉืžืฆื ืืช ื”ืฉืœึตื. ื”ืจื™ ืฉืœื ื ึดืชืŸ ืœืื“ื ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื–ื”, ืื• ืœืฉืžืขื• ืื• ืœื”ืฉื™ื’ื• ื‘ืจื•ื—ื•, ืืœื ื‘ืžื“ื” ื–ืขื•ืžื” ืžืื“. ืื•ืœื ืืชื” ืฉื‘ืืช ืœื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฆื“ื™ึพื“ืจื›ื™ื, ื‘ึนื ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ืื•ืชื•; ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืจืง ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ืฉื”ืฉื›ืœ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืชืจื•ืžื ืืœื™ื•. ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืœึตื“ื” ื‘ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืงืฅ ื‘ื ืขื ื”ืžื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื—ื™ืช. ืื™ืŸ ืืœื ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื—ืœื•ืคื™ึพื’ื•ืžืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื™ื. ืœึตื“ื” โ€“ ื–ื” ืจืง ืฉื ืฉื’ื•ืจ ื‘ืคื™ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช. ื’ ืืžื ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื”ืœืœื•: ื›ืฉื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื ืžืชืขืจื‘ื™ื ื•ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ื’ืœื•ื™ ื‘ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื ืื• ื‘ื—ื™ื•ืช ื˜ื•ืจืคื•ืช ืื• ื‘ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ื‘ืฆืคืจื™ื, ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ืœึตื“ื”. ื•ืื ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื ื ืคืจื“ื™ื ื–ื” ืžื–ื”, ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ืขืœ ืืกื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื•ืช, ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ืขืžื”ื. ืืฃึพืขืœึพืคื™ึพื›ืŸ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื’ื ืื ื™ ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช. ื“ ื”ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื! ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ืชื โ€“ ื–ึถืจึถืช. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ืžืืžื™ื ื™ื ื”ื, ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืชื”ื•ื” ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื ืื• ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืœืžื•ืช ืžื™ืชื” ื’ืžื•ืจื” ื•ืœื”ืคึผึธืกื“. ื” ื›ืฉื ืฉืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ื•ื™ืชื”ื•ื” ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœืœ, ื›ืš ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ื ืžืฆื ื ืคืกื“ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื–ืžื ื™ื, ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ืœ ืฉืขื” ื™ืžืฆื ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ืžืงื•ื ืฉื™ืขืžื™ื“ื• ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื• ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื”. ื• ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœืœึพื”ืขื•ืœื ืœื ืจื™ืง ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ืฃ. ื– ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœืœึพื”ืขื•ืœื ืฉื•ื ืจื™ืงื•ืช, ื•ืืึพื›ืŸ ืžื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ื™ืชืจื‘ื” ืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ? ื— ืฉื•ื ื‘ืŸึพื“ืขืช ืœื ื™ื‘ื•ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ื”ื–ื™ื” ืžืขื™ืŸ ื–ื•: ืฉืื ื• ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื•ืจื•ืื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืจืข ืจืง ื›ืœึพื–ืžืŸ ืฉืื ื• ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื—ื™ื™ื. ื•ืึดืœื• ืขื“ ืฉืื ื• ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื”, ื”ึธืจื›ื‘ื ื• ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื, ื•ืœืื—ืจื™ ืฉื ืชืคื•ืจืจื ื• โ€“ ืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื. ื˜ ื›ืฉื ืฉืฉื ื™ ื”ื›ื—ื•ืช, ืงืจึธื‘ ื•ืื”ื‘ื”, ื”ื™ื• ืžื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช, ื›ืš ื™ื”ื™ื• ื’ื ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื•ื, ื•ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ืชื”ื ื”ื ืฆื—ื™ื•ืช ื—ืกืจื” ืื•ืชื ื”ืฉื ื™ื. ื™ ื•ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ื‘ื ืœืœืžื“ ืขืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืฉื”ื ืื—ื“. ืจื’ืข ื•ื™ืฉ ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ืžืชืื—ื” ื•ืขื•ืœื” ืžืชื•ืš ืจื‘ื•ื™, ืจื’ืข ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ื™ ืžืชื•ืš ืื—ื“. ื•ืื ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ื”ื™ื ื›ืคื•ืœื”, ื”ืจื™ ื’ื ื”ืคื—ืชืชื ื›ืคื•ืœื” ื”ื™ื. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื”ื–ื“ื•ื’ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ืžื•ืœื™ื“ื” ื•ืžื›ืœื” ืืช ื”ืื—ืช; ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ืฉื ื™ื”, ืฉื’ึธื“ืœื” ื•ืขืœืชื” ื–ื” ืขืชื”, ื”ื•ืœื›ืช ื•ืžืชืคืจืงืช ืขื ืคืจื•ื“ื ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื. ืชืžื•ืจื” ืชื“ื™ืจื™ืช ื–ื• ืื™ื ื” ืคื•ืกืงืช ืœืขื•ืœื. ืจื’ืข ื•ื”ื›ืœ ืžืชืื—ื“ ืขโ€œื™ ืื”ื‘ื”, ืจื’ืข ื•ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ืžืชืคืœื’ื™ื ืฉื•ื‘ ืขโ€ื™ ืฉื ืืช ืžืœื—ืžื”. ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉืžืชื”ื•ื” ืื—ื“ ืžืชื•ืš ืจื‘ื•ื™ ื•ืžืชืคืจืฅ ืจื‘ื•ื™ ืžืชื•ืš ืคืจื•ื“ ื”ืื—ื“, ื™ืฉ ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ื•ื—ื™ื™ื”ื ืื™ื ื ื‘ืœื™ ื”ืฉืชื ื•ืช. ื•ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉืชืžื•ืจื•ืชื™ื”ื ื”ืชื“ื™ืจื™ื•ืช ืื™ื ืŸ ืคื•ืกืงื•ืช ืœืขื•ืœื, ื”ืจื™ ื”ื ืึตืœื™ื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืขืžื™ื“ืชึพืงื‘ืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ื’ืœื’ืœึพื”ื—ื•ื–ืจ. ื•ืขืชื” ื”ืกื›ืช ื•ืฉืžืข ืœื“ื‘ืจื™! ื›ื‘ืจ ืืžืจืชื™ ืฉืื ื™ ื‘ื ืœืœืžื“ ืขืœ ื›ึผึฐืคึตืœื•ืช. ืจื’ืข ื•ืื—ื“ ืžืชืื—ื” ื•ืขื•ืœื” ืžืชื•ืš ืจื‘ื•ื™, ืจื’ืข ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ื™ ืžืชื•ืš ืื—ื“: ืืฉ, ืžื™ื, ืขืคืจ ื•ืžืจื•ืžื™ึพืื•ื™ืจ ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ. ื‘ืฆื“ื ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื ื”ืืœื” โ€“ ื”ืงืจึธื‘ ื”ืžืฉื—ื™ืช, ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื”ื•ื ื—ื–ืง ื‘ืฉื•ื”. ื‘ืžืจื›ื–ื โ€“ ื”ืื”ื‘ื”, ื”ืฉื•ื” ื‘ืžื“ืช ืืจื›ื” ื•ืจื—ื‘ื”. ื”ืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ื” ื•ืื™ึพืืชื” ืขื•ืžื“ ื•ืชื•ื”ื”: ื”ื™ื ื”ืฉื•ื›ื ืช ื‘ืื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ื•ืคื•ืขืœืช ื‘ื”ื. ืขืœึพื™ื“ื” ื”ื ืžื”ืจื”ืจื™ื ื”ืจื”ื•ืจื™ึพืื”ื‘ื” ื•ืขืœึพื™ื“ื” ื”ื ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืžืขืฉื™ึพืื—ื•ื”; ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื”ื ืžืขืœื™ื ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื: ืขื’ื‘ื” ืื• ืืคืจื•ื“ื™ื˜ื™. ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ืžืกืชื•ื‘ื‘ืช ื—ืœื™ืœื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ืื•ืชื ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื. ืื•ืœื ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืœื ื–ื›ื” ืฉื•ื ื‘ืŸึพืชืžื•ืชื” ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืื•ืชื”. ื•ืืชื” ื‘ึนื ื•ืชืŸ ื“ืขืชืš ืขืœ ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืคืช ื”ื—ื•ืชืš! ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื”ื ื›ื•ืœื ื—ื–ืงื™ื ื‘ืฉื•ื” ื•ืžื”ื•ืงืฆืขื™ื ื‘ืฉื•ื”. ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ืชืคืงื™ื“ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื•, ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื•ืื•ืคื™ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื•. ืื•ืœื ื”ื ืžืชื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื—ืœื™ืคื•ืช ื–ื” ืขืœ ื–ื” ื‘ืชื•ืš ื’ืœื’ืœึพื”ื–ืžืŸ. ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืืœื• ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ื ื•ืกืฃ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ื ืคื—ืช. ืฉืึดืœื• ื”ื™ื• ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื•ื ืคืกื“ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช. ืžื” ื”ื•ื ื–ื” ืฉื™ื”ื ืžื•ืกื™ืฃ ืชื•ืกืคืช ืขืœ ื”ืฉืœื. ื•ืžืื™ืŸ ื™ื‘ื•ื ื–ื”? ื•ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ื”ื ื ืคืกื“, ื›ึผึตื•ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ืจื™ืง ืžืŸ ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื? ืœื! ืื™ืŸ ืืœื ืึตืœื• ื•ืขื ื›ืฉื”ื ืคื•ื—ื–ื™ื ื•ื—ื•ืœืคื™ื ื–ื” ื“ืจืš ื–ื”, ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ื—ืœื™ืคื•ืช ืขืชื™ื ื–ื” ืขืชื™ื ื–ื”. ื•ื›ืš ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื›ืš ื‘ืœื™ ื”ืคืกืง ืœืขื•ืœืžื™ึพืขื•ืœืžื™ื. ื™ื ื”ืชื—ืจื•ืช ื”ื–ื• ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื”ื›ื—ื•ืช ืคืจื•ืฉื” ื•ื’ืœื•ื™ื” ืœืคื ื™ื ื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ื’ื•ืฉื™ ื”ืื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื: ืขืชื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืœื™ื“ื™ ื’ื•ืคื ื™ื•ืช ืžืชืื—ื“ื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ืื”ื‘ื” ื‘ืžืจื•ืžื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื ื•ืฆืฆื™ื ื•ืขื•ืœื™ื, ืขืชื™ื ื•ื”ื ืžืชืคืจื“ื™ื ืข"ื™ ื›ื—ื•ืช ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื—ืœืงื•ืช, ืชื•ืขื™ื ืคืจื•ื“ื™ื ืขืœ ื—ื•ืคื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ื”ืœืš ื•ืฉื•ื‘. ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฆืžื—ื™ื, ื‘ื“ื’ื™ื ื”ื’ื“ึตืœื™ื ื‘ืžื™ื, ื‘ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื“ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ื”ืจื™ื, ื‘ืฆืคืจื™ึพื”ืžื™ื ื”ืžื˜ึทื™ืœื•ืช ื•ื˜ืกื•ืช ื‘ืื’ืคื™ื”ืŸ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ื’ืœื™ื. ื™ื‘ ืขื›ืฉื• ื‘ึนื ื•ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื”ืจืื™ื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื”ื•ืจื™ืชื™, ืื ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ืœืงื•ื™ ื‘ื”ืจืฆืืชื™ ื”ืงื•ื“ืžืช ื‘ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืฆื•ืจืช ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื. ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ืŸ ืืœ ื”ืฉืžืฉ, ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื”ื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื; ืืœ ื’ืจืžื™ ื”ืฉืžื™ื ืจื•ื•ื™ื™ึพื—ื ื•ืฉืคื•ืขื™ึพืื•ืจื•ืช; ืืœ ื”ืœื— ื”ืžืชื’ืœื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื•ื”ื•ื ืืคืœื•ืœื™ ื•ืงืจื™ืจ โ€“ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืขืคืจ ืžืชืคืจืฅ ื“ืฉื ื•ืžื•ืฆืง. ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ ื’ื•ื ื™ื ื•ื—ืฆื•ื™ื™ื ืžืชืจื•ืฆืฆื™ื ื›ืœ ืืœื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ืงืจึธื‘, ืื•ืœื ืžืชืื—ื™ื ื‘ืื”ื‘ื” ื•ื›ืžื”ื™ื ื–ื” ืืœ ื–ื”. ืฉื›ืŸ ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ืžืชื”ื•ื” ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื”, ื”ื•ึนื•ื” ื•ื™ื”ื™ื”; ืขืฆื™ื, ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื ืฉื™ื, ื—ื™ื•ืช ื•ืฆืคืจื™ื ื•ื“ื’ื™ื, ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืืœื™ื ืžืืจื™ื›ื™ึพื™ืžื™ื, ืฉื‘ืขื™ึพื›ื‘ื•ื“. ืื™ืŸ ืืœื ืืจื‘ืขืช ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื•ืขื ื›ืฉื”ื ืคื•ื—ื–ื™ื ื•ื—ื•ืœืคื™ื ื–ื” ื“ืจืš ื–ื”, ื”ื ื ืขืฉื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื“ืžื•ื™ื•ืชื™ื”ื. ื›ืœึพื›ืš ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื”ืชืžื•ืจื” ื”ื ื•ืœื“ืช ืžืชื•ืš ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืชึพื’ื•ืžืœื™ื. ื™ื’ ื›ืœ ืืœื•, ืฉืžืฉ, ืขืคืจ, ืฉืžื™ื, ื™ื, ืžืชืžื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื”ืชืงืฉืจื•ืชึพืจึตืขื•ืช ืขื ื—ืœืงื™ื”ื ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื• ื‘ืืคืกื™ึพืžืจื—ืงื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื‘ืŸึพืชืžื•ืชื”. ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื”ื ื›ืœ ืืœื• ื”ืžืกื•ื“ืจื™ื ื™ืคื” ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช, ื“ื•ืžื™ื ืื—ื“ ืœื—ื‘ืจื• ื•ืงืฉื•ืจื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืชื•ืช ืื”ื‘ื”. ืื•ืœื ืขื•ื™ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื›ืœ ืืœื• ื”ืจื—ื•ืงื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื–ื” ืžื–ื” ืžืจื—ืง ืžืงื•ื ื•ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื” ื•ืงื‘ืขึพื“ืžื•ืช. ื”ืœืœื• ืื™ื ื ืžื ื•ืกื™ื ื‘ืื—ื•ื” ื•ืขืœื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืžืฆื•ืชึพื”ืงืจึธื‘, ืฉื‘ื–ื›ื•ืชื” ื ืชื”ื•ื•. ื™ื“ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ืงืจึธื‘ ืžื’ื™ืข ืขื“ ืœืขืžืงื™ึพืžืขืžืงื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืขืœืขื•ืœ ื•ื”ืื”ื‘ื” ืžื’ืขืช ืขื“ ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ื–ื”, ืžืชืœื›ื“ ื”ื›ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื“ ืืช ื”ืื—ื“ื•ืช. ื•ืœื ื‘ืคืขื ืื—ืช ืืœื ื›ืคื™ ืฉื ื•ื—ื™ื ื”ื ืœื”ืื—ื– ืื—ื“ ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื•. ืžืชืŸืš ืชืขืจื•ื‘ืช ื–ื• ื”ืชืคืจืฆื• ื•ื”ืฉืชืคื›ื• ืžื—ื ื•ืช ืžื—ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ืฆื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื”. ืื‘ืœ ืขื“ื™ืŸ ื ืฉืืจ ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืขื•ืจื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืžืขื•ืจื‘, ืขื“ ืฉื”ืงืจื‘ ืฉื™ึผึตืจ ืื™ื–ื” ืฉื™ื•ืจ ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืชืœื•ื™ ื•ืขื•ืžื“. ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื ื™ืฆื ืžืชื•ื›ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืืœ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ื ื”ืงื™ืฆื•ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื’ืœื’ืœึพื”ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืืœื ื”ืชืžื™ื“ ืžืงืฆืชื• ื‘ืชื•ื›ื โ€“ ื•ืžืงืฆืชื• ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืฉืžื˜ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืื‘ืจื™ึพื”ืขื•ืœื. ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉืคื—ื– ื•ื ืžืœื˜ ืžื”ื ื”ืœืื”ึพื”ืœืื”, ื‘ื” ื‘ืžื“ื” ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ื”ืชืงืจื‘ื” ื”ืฉืื™ืคื” ื”ืืœื”ื™ืช, ื˜ื•ื‘ืชึพื”ืขื™ืŸ, ืืœ ืื”ื‘ื” ืœืึพืคื’ื•ืžื”. ื›ืš ืฆืžื—ื• ื•ื ื–ื“ืจื–ื• ืœื”ืชืคืจืฅ, ื‘ืชื•ืš ื—ืœื•ืคื™ึพืžืขืžื“ื•ืช, ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื” ืฉื”ื™ื• ืจื’ื™ืœื™ื ืชื—ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ึพืืœึพืžื•ืช ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื• ืฆืœื•ืœื™ื ืชื—ืœื”. ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ื”ืฉืชืคื›ื• ื•ื ื‘ืขื• ื”ืžื•ื ื™ึพื”ืžื•ื ื™ื ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ื™ืฆื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืชืžื•ืชื”, ื’ื•ื ื™ืึพื’ื•ื ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื•ื“ื‘ืงื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ื‘ื™ื—ื“ โ€“ ื—ื–ื™ื•ืŸึพืคืœืื™ื. ื˜ื• ื‘ึนื ื•ืื•ื“ื™ืขืš, ืื™ึพืืœื” ื”ื ื”ื˜ื‘ึธืขื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื, ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉื•ื”, ืฉืžื”ื ื ืชื™ืœื“ ื•ื ืชื’ืœื” ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืขืชื”: ื”ืขืคืจ, ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื›ื” ื’ืœื™ื, ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ืื•ื™ืจ ื”ืœื— โ€“ ื•ื”ืขื ืง ืึตืชึผึถืจ, ื”ืžื‘ืจื™ื— ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื’ืœื’ืœ ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘. ื˜ื– ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืขืคืจ ืฆืžื—ื• ื•ืขืœื• ืจืืฉื™ื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืœืœืึพืฆื•ืืจ, ื–ืจื•ืขื•ืช ืขืจื•ืžื•ืช ืœืœืึพื›ืชืฃ, ื ื“ื“ื• ืขื™ื ื™ื ืœืœืึพืžืฆื—. ื™ื– ื‘ื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืชืขื• ืื‘ืจื™ื ืžื‘ืงืฉื™ื ืœื”ื“ื‘ืง ื–ื” ืœื–ื”. ื™ื— ื—ืฆื•ื™ ืฉื•ืจืฉ ื”ืื‘ืจื™ื ืœืฉื ื™ื: ื–ื” ื›ึธื‘ื•ืฉ ื‘ื–ืจืข ื”ืื™ืฉ ื•ื–ื” ื‘ื–ืจืข ื”ืืฉื”. ื™ื˜ ืื•ืœื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื”ึตืจื™ื ืึตืœ ืื—ื“ ืืช ื™ื“ื• ืขืœ ื—ื‘ืจื• ื•ื‘ื ืขืžื• ืœื™ื“ื™ ืžืจื™ื‘ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” โ€“ ื”ืื”ื‘ื” ืขื ื”ืงืจึธื‘ โ€“ ื ืชื“ื‘ืงื• ื”ืื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื›ืคื™ ืฉื ื–ื“ืžื ื• ื‘ืžืงืจื”, ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืœื‘ื“ ืืœื” ื ื•ืœื“ื• ื•ื ืชื—ื‘ืจื• ื’ื‘ ืืœ ื’ื‘. ื› ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื ืžืฉืชื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื, ืขื•ืœื” ืขืœ ืจื•ื—ื ืคืชืื•ื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœืฉื ื•ืช ื’ื ืืช ื—ื–ื™ื•ื ื•ืชื™ื”ื. ื›ื ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืขืคืจ ืฉื‘ื ื•, ืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืืช ื”ืขืคืจ; ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ื ื• โ€“ ืืช ื”ืžื™ื, ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืื•ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ื ื• โ€“ ืืช ื”ืื•ื™ืจ ื”ืืœื”ื™, ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืืฉ ืฉื‘ื ื• โ€“ ืืช ื”ืืฉ ื”ืื•ื›ืœืช. ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืื”ื‘ื” ืฉื‘ื ื• ืื ื• ื—ืฉื™ื ื‘ืื”ื‘ืชึพื”ืขื•ืœื, ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฉื ืื” ืฉื‘ื ื• โ€“ ื‘ืฉื ืืชื• ืฉืœ ื–ื”. ืึทื ึทื›ึผึฐืกึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืงึฐืœึทื–ื•ึนืžึถื ึตื™ ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืกืžื™ืจื ื”, ื‘ืฉื ืช ืช"ืง ืœืขืจืš, ื•ื”ืชื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืืชื•ื ื”. ืœืกื•ืฃ ื™ืžื™ื• ืื ื•ืก ื”ื™ื” ืœืขืงื•ืจ ืืช ื“ื™ืจืชื• ืžื›ืืŸ, ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื ืชืคืก ืขืœ ืžื™ื ื•ืช ื‘ืขื˜ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืžืืžืจื•: ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื”ื™ื ื’ื•ืฉ ืืฉ ื™ื•ืงื“ืช. ื”ื•ื ืžืขืžื™ื“ ืืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืœื ืขืœ ืžืกืคืจ ืžืกื•ื™ื ืฉืœ ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช, ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ืืžืคื“ื•ืงืœืก, ื›ื™ ืื ืขืœ ืžืกืคืจ ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžืกื•ื™ื ืื• ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™ ืฉืœ ืขืฆืžื™ื ืื• ื–ืจืขื™ื. ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื ื–ื” ืขื ื–ื”, ื”ื›ืœ ื˜ื‘ื•ืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื›ืœ. ื•ืื™ื–ื”ื• ื”ื›ื— ื”ืžื ื™ืข ืื•ืชื? ื”ืฉื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœืžื™ (ฮฝฮฟฯฯ›); ืžืขื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืžืจ ืจื•ื—ื ื™, ืฉื”ื•ื ืขืœืช ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”, ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ืกื“ืจ ื•ืื—ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื”ื•ื™ื”. ืึทื ึทื›ึผึฐืกึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก ื”ื™ื” ืžืžืงื•ืจื‘ื™ ืคึถืจื™ืงืœืก ื•ืึถื‘ืจื™ืคึผึดื™ื“ืก ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืœื• ื”ืฉืคืขื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช ื”ืจื•ื— ื‘ื™ื•ืŸ. ืึทื ึทื›ึผึฐืกึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก ื ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื™ื—ื“, ื‘ื›ืžื•ืช ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ ื•ื‘ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ; ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™. ื•ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื ืžืฆืื• ื‘ื™ื—ื“, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ื”ื™ื” ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ืžื—ืžืช ืงื˜ื ื•ืชื. ื‘ ืชื“ืข, ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืœื ืชืžื™ื“ ื™ืฉ ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืงื˜ืŸ. ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืœื™ืฉ ืฉื™ืคึผึธืกืง ืžืœื”ื™ื•ืช. ืื‘ืœ ื’ื ื‘ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื™ืฉ ืชืžื™ื“ ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ื•ืžื ื™ื ื• ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื›ืžื ื™ื ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ. ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื›ืฉื”ื•ืึพืœืขืฆืžื• ื”ื•ื ื’ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื’ื ืงื˜ืŸ. ื’ ื•ื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื›ืŸ, ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ืš ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ: ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืื—ื“ ื›ื•ืœืœ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ื—ืžืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื•ืืช ื–ืจืขื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ ื”ื“ืžื•ื™ื•ืช, ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ ื”ื’ื•ื ื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ืขืžื™ื. ื•ื›ืš ืžืชืื—ื“ื™ื ื’ื ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื ื•ืฉืืจ ื‘ืขืœื™ึพื—ื™ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื ืคืฉ ืœื”ื. ืื•ืชื ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื ืืฃ ืœื”ื ืขืจื™ื ื ื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื•ืฉื“ื•ืช ื–ืจื•ืขื•ืช ื›ืžื• ืืฆืœื ื• ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ืฉืžืฉ ื•ื™ืจื— ื•ื™ืชืจ ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ื›ืžื• ืืฆืœื ื•, ื•ืืจืฆื ืžื’ื“ืœืช ืœื”ื ื’ึดื“ื•ืœื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ื ืžื›ื ื™ืกื™ื ืœื‘ื™ืชื ืืช ื”ืžืขื•ืœื™ื ืฉื‘ืืœื• ื•ืžืชืคืจื ืกื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื. ื”ืจื™ ืœืš ื”ืฉืงืคืชื™ ืขืœ ื”ื”ืชืคืœื’ื•ืช: ื ืชื”ื•ื” ื–ื• ืœื ืจืง ืืฆืœื ื• ืืœื ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื. ืœืคื ื™ ืื•ืชื” ื”ืชืคืœื’ื•ืช, ื›ืฉืขื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื”ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ื—ื“, ืœื ื ึดืชืŸ ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ื‘ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉื•ื ืฆื‘ืข: ื‘ืขื˜ื™ื” ืฉืœ ืชืขืจื•ื‘ืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื, ืฉืœ ื”ืœื— ื•ื”ื™ื‘ืฉ, ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื ื•ื”ืงืจ, ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืœื•ืœ ื•ื”ืขื›ื•ืจ; ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ืชื•ื›ื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืขืคืจ ื•ื–ืจืขื™ื ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ ื‘ืœื™ ืฉื•ื ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื. ื•ื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื›ืŸ, ื‘ืขืœึพื›ืจื—ืš ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ: ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ืœื•ืœื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ื›ื•ืœืœ. ื“ ืžืื—ืจ ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื” ื”ื”ืชื‘ื“ืœื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจืš ื–ื•, ื”ืจื™ ืืชื” ืœืžื“: ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื”ื›ื•ืœืœ ื™ื”ื ื ืคื—ืช ืื• ืžืชืจื‘ื”, ืืœื ื”ื›ืœ ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืขื™ื ื• ืชื“ื™ืจ. ื” ื•ื›ึตื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื” ืฉืœ ื—ืœืงื™ื ื”ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ื”ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ื”ืจื™ ื’ื ืœืคื™ ื”ืฉืงืคื” ื–ื• ื”ื›ืœ ื›ืœื•ืœ ื‘ื”ื›ืœ. ืืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉืชื”ื ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช ืœืขืฆืžื” ืืœื ื”ื›ืœ ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ ื‘ื›ืœ. ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืฉื™ื”ื ืงื˜ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืงื˜ืŸ ืœื•, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืœื• ืœืขื•ืœื ืฉื™ื”ื ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ืคื ื™ึพืขืฆืžื•, ืืœื ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื”ื›ืœ ื”ื•ื ืขื›ืฉื• ื‘ื™ื—ื“ ื›ืžื‘ืชื—ืœื”. ืื•ืœื ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ืœื•ืœื™ื ื—ืžืจื™ื ื™ืกื•ื“ื™ื™ื ื”ืจื‘ื”, ื•ืžืกืคืจื ื‘ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื›ืžืกืคืจื™ื ื‘ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืฉื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืžืชื‘ื“ืœื™ื ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื”. ื• ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื, ืœื ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช, ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ื›ืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืžืชื‘ื“ืœื™ื. ื– ื”ื—ืžืจื™ื ื”ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ืฉื‘ืกื“ืจึพืขื•ืœืžื ื• ื”ืžืื•ื—ื“ ืื™ื ื ืคืจื•ื“ื™ื ื–ื” ืžืŸ ื–ื” ืื• ืžืงื•ื˜ืขื™ื ื‘ื’ืจื–ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืชื•ืš ื–ื”, ืœื ื”ื—ื ืžืŸ ื”ืงืจ ื•ืœื ื”ืงืจ ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื. ื— ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืชื”ื•ื” ืฉืขืจ ืžืŸ ืœืึพืฉืขืจ ื•ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืŸ ืœืึพื‘ืฉืจ? ื˜ ื‘ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื™ืฉ ื—ืœืง ืžืฉึถืœ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“, ืคืจื˜ ืœืจื•ึผื— (ฮฝฮฟฯฯ›). ืื•ืœื ื‘ืื—ื“ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื’ื ืจื•ื—. ื™ ื”ืฉืืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื—ืœืง ื‘ื›ืœ ืื—ื“, ืื‘ืœ ื”ืจื•ื— ื”ื™ื ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™ืช, ืžื•ืฉืœืช ืœื‘ื“ื”, ืื™ื ื” ืžืขื•ืจื‘ืช ืขื ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ; ื”ื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื”, ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื‘ืขืฆืžื”, ื‘ืคื ื™ึพืขืฆืžื”. ืืœืžืœื™ ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืคื ื™ึพืขืฆืžื” ืืœื ืžืขื•ืจื‘ืช ืขื ืื™ื–ื” ืื—ืจ, ื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืฉื•ืชืคืช ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื; ืฉื›ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื™ืฉ ื—ืœืง ืžืฉึถืœ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื, ื›ืืžื•ืจ ืœืžืขืœื”. ืžืกืชื‘ืจ, ืฉื”ื—ืžืจื™ื ื”ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื™ื ืขืžื” ื™ื”ื™ื• ืขื›ื•ื‘ ืœื” ืขื“ ืฉืœื ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœืคืจื•ืฉ ืืช ืžืžืฉืœืชื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืžื“ื” ื›ืฉื”ื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ื‘ืคื ื™ึพืขืฆืžื”. ื”ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ื“ืง ืฉื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื” ื›ืœ ื”ื”ื‘ื—ื ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืœื” ื”ื›ื— ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ; ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ืœืจื•ื— ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžื—ื•ื ืŸ ื‘ื ืคืฉ, ืื ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ืื ื’ื“ื•ืœ. ื•ื›ืš ื”ื™ื ื”ืฉื•ืœื˜ืช ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืชื ื•ืขืชึพื”ืขืœืขื•ืœ ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ื“ื•ื—ืคืช ืื•ืชื”. ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื”ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืงื˜ื ื”, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ืœื›ื” ื•ื”ืชืคืฉื˜ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ืขืชื™ื“ื” ืœื”ืชืคืฉื˜ ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื ืชืขืจื‘ ื•ืคืจืฉ ื•ื ืชื‘ื“ืœ ื–ื” ืžื–ื”, ื”ื›ืœ ื™ื“ืขื” ื”ืจื•ื—. ื”ืจื•ื— ืกื“ืจื” ื”ื›ืœ, ืžื” ืฉื™ื”ื ืœืขืชื™ื“ึพืœื‘ื•ื ื•ืžื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืœืคื ื™ื ื•ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื”ื•ึนื•ื”; ืืฃ ื”ื™ื ืกื“ืจื” ืืช ืชื ื•ืขืชึพื”ืขืœืขื•ืœ, ืฉื‘ื” ืžืชื ื•ืขืขื™ื ืขื›ืฉื• ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื, ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื•ื”ื™ืจื—, ื—ืžืจื™ ื”ืื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืึถืชึผึตืจ ื”ืžืชื‘ื“ืœื™ื ื•ื ืคืงืขื™ื. ื”ืชื‘ื“ืœื•ืชื ื”ื™ื ืชื•ืœื“ื” ืฉืœ ืชื ื•ืขืชึพื”ืขืœืขื•ืœ. ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ื”ืขื‘ ืžืŸ ื”ื“ืง, ื”ื—ื ืžืŸ ื”ืงืจ, ื”ืขื›ื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืฆืœื•ืœ, ื”ื™ื‘ืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืœื—. ืื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืคื•ืจืฉ ืื• ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ื›ื•ืœื• ืžืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื•, ืคืจื˜ ืœืจื•ื—. ืื‘ืœ ื›ืœ ืจื•ื—, ืื—ื“ ืงื˜ื ื” ืื—ื“ ื’ื“ื•ืœื”, ื”ื•ื ืžืื•ืคื™ ืื—ื“. ื•ืžืœื‘ื“ ื–ื” ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ื‘ืืคื™ื• ืœื—ื‘ืจื•; ืืœื ื›ืœ ืฉืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื—ืœืงื• ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ, ื”ื•ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ืข ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉื˜ึธื‘ืข ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ึพื”ืžืื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื”ืžื•ื›ึผึธืจ ื”ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื™ื ืขื ืคืชื™ื—ืช ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืจื•ื—, ื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื™ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืขื”. ื•ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉื”ื‘ื™ืื” ื”ืจื•ื— ืœื™ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืขื”, ืคืจืฉื• ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื–ื” ืžื–ื”. ืื‘ืœ ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืขื” ื’ืจื ื”ืขืœืขื•ืœ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ื”ืชื‘ื“ืœื•ืชึพื’ื•ืžืœื™ื ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื—ื–ืงื”. ื™ื‘ ืชื“ืข, ื”ืจื•ื— ืฉื”ื™ื ื ืฆื—ื™ืช ื ืžืฆืืช ื’ื ืขื›ืฉื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืžืฆืื™ื ื‘ื• ื”ืื—ืจื™ื: ื‘ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืžืงื™ืฃ ืฉืœื ื ืชื‘ื“ืœ ืขื“ื™ืŸ, ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื ืชื‘ื“ืœ ืชื—ืœื” ื•ื—ื–ืจ ื•ื ืชื“ื‘ืง, ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื ืชื‘ื“ืœ ืžื›ื‘ืจ. ื™ื’ ื‘ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ื•ื”ืคืกื“ื” ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื˜ื•ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื ื›ื”ืœื›ื”. ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืชืขืจื‘ ื•ื ืคืกื“, ืืœื ื”ื›ืœ ืžืชืขืจื‘ ื•ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ืžืชื•ืš ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื›ื‘ืจ. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืฉื™ืืžืจื• ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช, ื”ืชื‘ื“ืœื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืคืกื“ื”. ื™ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ื—ื•ืœืฉืช ื”ื—ื•ืฉื™ื ืื™ึพืื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ืืžืช. ื˜ื• ื”ื ื’ืœื” ืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืกืชื›ืœื•ืชื ื• ื‘ื ืกืชืจ. ื“ึผึดื™ื•ึนื’ึถื ึถืก ืžึตืึทืคึผื•ึนืœื•ึนื ึดื™ึธื” ื™ืœื™ื“ ืงึฐืจึถื˜ึทื”, ื‘ืŸึพื“ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ืึทื ึทื›ึผึฐืกึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก, ื—ื™ ื‘ืืชึผื•ื ื” ื•ื›ื ืจืื” ื”ื™ื” ืจื•ืคื. ื‘ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœืชื•ืจืช ื”ืฉื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื ื›ืกื’ื•ืจืก ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืžื“ ื•ืžื’ึตืŸ ืขืœ ืื—ื“ื•ืช ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ื“ึผึดื™ื•ึนื’ึถื ึถืก ืžึตืึทืคึผื•ึนืœื•ึนื ึดื™ึธื” ื ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื, ืœืคื™ ื“ืขืชื™, ืชืžื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื• ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืžื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื ื›ื•ืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ื“. ื•ื™ื“ื™ื ืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื•ืช. ืฉืึดืœื• ืชื›ื ื• ืฉืœ ืกื“ืจึพื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื ื•ื›ื—ื™ โ€“ ืขืคืจ, ืžื™ื, ืื•ื™ืจ, ืืฉ, ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื’ืœื” ื‘ืกื“ืจึพืขื•ืœื ื–ื” โ€“ ื”ื™ื” ื›ื•ืœืœ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืฉื•ื ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืื—ืจื™ื, ื–ืืช ืื•ืžืจืช ืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ืžื”ื•ืชื•, ื•ืืœืžืœื™ ืœื ืขืžื“ ื‘ืขื™ื ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ื—ืœื•ืคื™ื• ื•ืชืžื•ืจื•ืชื™ื•, ื”ืจื™ ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉื™ืชืขืจื‘ื• ื–ื” ืขื ื–ื” ืื• ืฉื™ื‘ื™ืื• ืชื•ืขืœืช ืื• ื”ืคืกื“ ื–ื” ืœื–ื”. ืืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉื™ืฆืžื— ืฆืžื— ืžืŸ ื”ืื“ืžื” ืื• ืฉื™ืชื”ื•ื” ื‘ืขืœึพื—ื™ ืื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ, ืืœืžืœื™ ืœื ื ื‘ืจืื• ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉื”ื›ืœ ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“. ืืžื ื ื›ืœ ืื•ืชื ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื•ืžืชื‘ื“ืœื™ื ืžืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื—ื•ืžืจึพืงื“ืžื•ืŸ, ืคื•ืฉื˜ื™ื ืฆื•ืจื” ื•ืœื•ื‘ืฉื™ื ืฆื•ืจื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ื ืฉื•ื‘ ืืœ ื”ื—ื•ืžืจึพื”ืงื“ืžื•ืŸ. ื‘ ืืœื•ืœื™ ื›ื—ึพื”ืจื•ื—, ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื™ืชื—ืœืง ื”ื—ื•ืžืจึพื”ืงื“ืžื•ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉื™ืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืžื“ื” ืงื‘ื•ืขื” ืฉืœ ื™ื—ืก ืืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื•ืœื: ืืœ ืงื™ืฅ ื•ื—ืจืฃ, ืœื™ืœื” ื•ื™ื•ื, ื’ืฉื ื•ืกืขืจ ื•ืื•ืจึพื—ืžื”. ื•ืœื›ืฉืชืชืŸ ืืช ื“ืขืชืš ืขืœ ื›ืš, ืชืžืฆื ื’ื ืืช ื™ืชืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืกื•ื“ืจื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืžื ื•. ื’ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืจืื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื•ืช ืขืœ ื–ื”. ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื ื•ืฉืืจ ื‘ืขืœึพื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืžืชืงื™ืžื™ื ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืฉื”ื ืฉื•ืืคื™ื ืื•ื™ืจ ืืœึพืชื•ื›ื. ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืœื”ื ื ืคืฉ ื•ื›ื—ึพืจื•ื—; ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืคืจื“, ื”ื ืžืชื™ื โ€“ ื•ื’ื•ืข ื›ื—ึพื”ืจื•ื—. ื“ ื—ื•ืžืจึพืงื“ืžื•ืŸ ื–ื” ื”ืžื–ื•ื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ื—ึพืจื•ื— โ€“ ื”ื•ื, ืœืคื™ ื“ืขืชื™, ืžื” ืฉืงืจื•ื™ ื‘ืคื™ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช: ืื•ื™ืจ. ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ื”ื›ืœ ื•ืฉื•ืœื˜ ื‘ื›ืœ. ืฉื›ืŸ, ืกื‘ื•ืจื ื™, ื”ื•ื ื”ืืœื”ื™ื, ืžืœื ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฅ, ืžื›ืœื›ืœ ื”ื›ืœ, ื ืžืฆื ื‘ื›ืœ. ืื™ืŸ ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืฉื”ื• ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื ื—ืœืง ืœื• ื‘ืžื”ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ื–ื”. ืื•ืœื ื”ืฉืชืชืคื•ืช ื–ื• ืื™ื ื” ืฉื•ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืœื ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื” ืžื“ืจื’ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื•ื™ืจ ื›ืžื• ืฉืœ ื›ื—ึพื”ืจื•ื—. ืžื“ืจื’ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ืœื•: ืขืชื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื—ื ืขืชื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื ืงืจ, ืขืชื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื™ื‘ืฉ ืขืชื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื ืœื—, ืขืชื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉึธืœึตื• ืขืชื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื ืžืชืจื’ืฉ. ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื›ืš ื™ืฉ ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ืฉื ื•ื™ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ ืฉืœ ืžื“ืจื’ื•ืช ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื ื•ืœืฆื‘ืขื™ื. ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื™ื ืฉื•ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ึพื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ืœืืžืจ, ื”ื™ื ืื•ื™ืจ; ื•ื”ื•ื ื—ื ืžื”ืื•ื™ืจ ื”ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ ืฉืื ื• ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื‘ื•, ืื‘ืœ ืงืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืื•ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ืงืจื‘ืช ื”ืฉืžืฉ. ื—ื•ื ื–ื” ืื™ื ื• ืฉื•ื” ืืœื ืฉื•ื ื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ื›ืœ ื‘ืขืœึพื—ื™, ืื•ืœื ืœื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ื”ื ื”ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื. ืื›ืŸ ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืœืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ื”ื ื ืขืฉื” ื“ื•ืžื” ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื’ืžื•ืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืืœื ืืึพื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ืืœื• ื ืขืฉื” ืื•ืชื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ. ื•ืžืื—ืจ ืฉื”ืฉื ื•ื™ื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื ื™ ืžื“ืจื’ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช, ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื’ื ื‘ืขืœื™ึพื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื ื™ ืžื“ืจื’ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกืคืจื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ืฉื•ื•ืชื ื–ื” ืืœ ื–ื” ืœื ื‘ื“ืžื•ื™ื•ืชื™ื”ื ื•ืœื ื‘ืกื“ืจึพื—ื™ื™ื”ื ืืฃ ืœื ื‘ื›ื—ึพื”ืจื•ื— ืฉื‘ื”ื. ืืขืคื™"ื› ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ื›ื•ืœื ืืœื ื—ื•ืžืจึพืงื“ืžื•ืŸ ืื—ื“, ืฉืขืœึพื™ื“ื• ื”ื ืžืชืงื™ืžื™ื, ืจื•ืื™ื ื•ืฉื•ืžืขื™ื, ื•ื’ื ืžื” ืฉื‘ื”ื ืขื•ื“ ืžืฉืœ ื›ื—ึพื”ืจื•ื— โ€“ ื”ื›ืœ ืžืฉึถืœ ื–ื”. ื” ื›ืžื“ื•ืžื ื™, ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจ: ื”ื—ื•ืžืจึพื”ืงื“ืžื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืชืงื™ืฃ, ื ืฆื—ื™ ื•ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™ ื•ืจื‘ ื”ืžื“ืขื™ื. ื“ึถืžื•ึนืงึฐืจึดื™ื˜ื•ึนืก ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืึทื‘ึผื“ึถืจึทื” ืฉื‘ืชึผึฐืจึทืงื™ื”, ื‘ืฉื ืช ืชโ€œืก ืื• ืชโ€ืข ืœืขืจืš, ื•ื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื™ืžื™ ื–ืงื ื” ืžื•ืคืœื’ื” (ืžืช ื›ื‘ืŸ ืชืฉืขื™ื ืื• ื›ื‘ืŸ ืžืื”). ื”ื•ื ืจื•ืื” ืืช ื”ื™ืฉื•ืช ืžึธืจื›ื‘ืช ื—ืœืงื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžื•ื—ืฉื™ื ื•ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžืชื—ืœืงื™ื; ืœืืžืจ, ืคืจึธื“ื™ื, ืฉืื™ื ื ืœื ื‘ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืคืกึธื“ื”. ื”ื ื‘ืื™ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืขื” ืžื—ืžืช ืžืฆื™ืื•ืชื” ืฉืœ ืจื™ืงื•ืช: ืžืฆื™ืื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืจื™ืง, ืฉืœ ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ, ืื™ื ื” ืคื—ื•ืชื” ืžืฉืึถืœ ื”ื™ืฉ. โ€“ ืกื’ื•ืœื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื”ืŸ ืจืืฉื™ื•ืช, ื”ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืฉื‘ื ืฉื•ื, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื›ื•ื‘ื“, ืขื•ื‘ื™, ืงื•ืฉื™; ืžื”ืŸ ืฉื ื™ื•ึนืช, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฆื‘ืข, ื˜ืขื, ืžื–ื’, ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ืืœื ื“ื™ื•ืงื ื™ื ืžื•ื—ืฉื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ื‘ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ืžื•ืกืจ ืžื•ืจื” ื“ืžื•ืงืจื™ื˜ื•ืก ื“ืจื›ื™ึพื—ื™ื™ื ื”ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื•ืช ืœื™ื“ื™ ื“ืขืชื ื•ืช ื•ืฉืœื•ืชึพื”ื ืคืฉ. ื‘ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœื”ึถืจึทืงืœื™ื˜ื•ืก ื”ื•ื ื ืงืจื โ€œื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืฆื•ื—ืงโ€. ื“ึถืžื•ึนืงึฐืจึดื™ื˜ื•ึนืก ื ื—ืจื˜ื” ืขืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื ืžื’ื•ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื ืžืขื™ืŸ ืคืงื•ื—ึพื ืคืฉ. ื‘ ืื•ืžืœืœ ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืขื•ึถืœ ืžืžื™ ืฉื ืขืฉื” ืœื• ืขื•ึถืœ. ื’ ื˜ื•ื‘ โ€“ ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉืžืขื• ืฉืœื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืขื•ึถืœ ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืืฃ ื”ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืขื•ึถืœ. ื“ ื ื›ึผืจ ื”ืื“ื, ื‘ืขืœึพื”ื›ืฉืจื•ืŸ ื•ื—ืกืจึพื”ื›ืฉืจื•ืŸ, ืœื ืจืง ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ื• ืืœื ื’ื ื‘ืจืฆื•ื ื•. ื” ื”ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื™ื ื• ืžื•ืฆืื• ืืœื ืœืื—ืจ ื™ื’ื™ืขื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ืจืข ื ืžืฆื ื’ื ืœืžื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืื•ืชื•. ื• ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืœืš ืฉืชืงืฉื•ื˜ ืืช ืขืฆืžืš ืžืฉืชืงืฉื•ื˜ ืืช ื—ื‘ืจืš. ื– ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืฉืชื”ืจื”ืจ ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ืš ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืขืฉื™ืชื ื•ืœื ืชื”ืจื”ืจ ืื—ืจื™ื”. ื— ื›ืœ ืฉืชื›ื•ื ืชึพื ืคืฉื• ืžืกื•ื“ืจืช ื™ืคื”, ื’ื ื—ื™ื™ื• ืžืกื•ื“ืจื™ื ื™ืคื”. ื˜ ื”ืชืงืŸ ืขืฆืžืš ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ื•ืœื ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช. ื™ ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื” ืื ืฉื™ื ืฉื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืชื™ื”ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื”ื ื ื‘ืขืจื™ึพื“ืขืช. ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื” ืื ืฉื™ื ืฉืœื ืœืžื“ื• ืฉื•ื ื—ื›ืžื” ื•ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ื—ื›ืžื”. ื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ื”ื˜ื•ืจื— ืœื”ืงื ื•ืช ื—ื›ืžื” ืœืžื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื›ื ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืขืฆืžื•, ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืžื‘ืœื” ื–ืžืŸ ืœืจื™ืง. ื™ื’ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื”ืœืœ ืื ืฉื™ื ืงืฆืจื™ึพื“ืขืช, ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ืจืขื” ืขืœื™ื”ื. ื™ื“ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื—ืกืจึพื“ืขืช ืœืฆื™ึผึตืช ืžืืฉืจ ืœืฆื•ื•ืช. ื˜ื• ืื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ืžืชื—ื›ืžื™ื ืืœื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ื–ืงื• ื‘ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”. ื˜ื– ืœื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื‘ื•ืฉื™ื ืืœื ืคื’ืขื™ื ืจืขื™ื ื”ื ืžื•ืจื™ึพื“ืจืš ืœื›ืกื™ืœ. ื™ื– ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื•ืขื•ืฉืจ ื‘ืœื™ ื“ืขืช ื”ื ื ื›ืกื™ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช. ื™ื— ืฉื•ื ืืžื ื•ืช ื•ืฉื•ื ื—ื›ืžื” ืื™ื ื” ื ืงื ื™ืช ื‘ืœื™ ืžื“ืจืฉ. ื™ื˜ ืืœ ืชื‘ืงืฉ ืœื“ืขืช ื”ื›ืœ, ืฉืžื ืื™ืŸ ืืชื” ืœื•ืžื“ ื›ืœื•ื. ื› ื”ื”ืฉื›ืœื” ื”ื™ื ื›ืœื™ึพืชื›ืฉื™ื˜ ืœืžืื•ืฉืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืชึพืžืงืœื˜ ืœืื•ืžืœืœ. ื›ื ื’ื ื‘ืžื“ืขื™ืš ืืœ ืชื“ื‘ืจ ืจืขื•ืช ื•ืืœ ืชืขืฉื” ืจืขื•ืช. ื”ื•ื” ืžืจื’ื™ืœ ืขืฆืžืš ืœื”ืชื‘ื™ืฉ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžืš ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืื—ืจื™ื. ื›ื‘ ืžืฉืึธืœื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื™ื•ื“ืขื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœ, ื ืื•ืช ืœืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ื•ืœื ืœื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื. ื›ื’ ืื ืชืคืชื— ืืช ืžื—ื‘ื•ืื™ึพื ืฉืžืชืš, ืชืžืฆื ื‘ื” ืื•ืฆืจ ื‘ืœื•ื ืฉืœ ืชืื•ื•ืช ืจืขื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ. ื›ื“ ืชืื•ื•ืช ื”ืžื›ื•ึผื•ื ื•ืช ืืœ ืื™ื–ื• ืžื˜ืจื” ืžืกืžืื•ืช ืืช ืขื™ืŸ ื”ื ืคืฉ ืฉืœื ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื™ืชืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ื›ื” ืชืื•ื•ืช ืฉืœื ื‘ื–ืžื ืŸ ืžืขื•ืจืจื•ืช ื’ื•ืขืœึพื ืคืฉ. ื›ื• ื”ื•ื” ืžื“ื™ืจ ืขืฆืžืš ืžื›ืœ ื”ื ืื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื ื•ื—ื” ืœืš. ื›ื– ื”ื”ื ืื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ืื•ืช ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืกืชื›ืœื•ืช ื‘ืžืคืขืœื™ื ื ืื™ื. ื›ื— ืื™ืŸ ื–ื›ื•ืช ืืœื ืœืื•ืชื” ืื”ื‘ื”, ื”ืžื—ื–ืจืช ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื™ื•ืคื™ ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืขื•ืœ. ื›ื˜ ื›ืฉื”ืื ืฉื™ื ืžืชื’ืจื“ื™ื ื”ื ื—ืฉื™ื ืชืขื ื•ื’ ืฉืžืขื™ืŸ ืชืขื ื•ื’ึพื‘ืฉืจื™ื. ืœ ื ื•ื™ึพื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื™ื•ืช, ื›ืฉืื™ืŸ ื”ื“ืขืช ืžืฆื™ืฆื” ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ื•. ืœื ื—ื›ืžืชึพื”ืจืคื•ืื” ืžืจืคืืช ื ื’ืขื™ึพื”ื’ื•ืฃ, ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื’ื•ืืœืช ืืช ื”ื ืคืฉ ืžืฉืขื‘ื•ื“ ืชืื•ื•ืช. ืœื‘ ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืœื ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืžื™ ืฉื›ื•ื‘ืฉ ืืช ื”ืื•ื™ื‘ ืืœื ื’ื ืžื™ ืฉื›ื•ื‘ืฉ ืืช ื™ืฆืจื•. ืื•ืœื ืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ื›ืžื” ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ืžื•ืฉืœื™ื ืขืœ ืขืจื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ื•ืžืฉืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืขืฆืžื ืœื ืฉื™ื. ืœื’ ื›ื‘ื•ืฉึพื™ืฆืจ ืฉืœ ืื‘ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืชื•ื›ื—ืชึพื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืžืขื•ืœื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืœื“ ื‘ืชืคืœื•ืชื™ื”ื ืืœ ื”ืืœื™ื ืžื‘ืงืฉื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื ืขืœ ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช. ืื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชื. ืขื ื›ืฉื”ื ืฆื•ืจืจื™ื ืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืคืจื–ืชึพื—ืžื“ื”, ื”ื ื ืขืฉื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ืชืื•ื•ืชื™ื”ื ื‘ื•ื’ื“ื™ื ืœื‘ืจื™ืื•ืชื. ืœื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื•ื”ื—ื ื•ืš ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื–ื” ืืœ ื–ื”. ื”ื—ื ื•ืš ื˜ื•ื‘ืข ืฆื•ืจื” ืœืื“ื ื•ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ื˜ื‘ื™ืขืช ืฆื•ืจื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ื•ืจื ื˜ื‘ืข ืฉื ื™. ืœื• ื”ื”ื›ื ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื—ื•ืง, ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืจึธืฉื•ืช ื•ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื—ื›ื, ืžืขื™ื“ื” ืขืœ ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸึพืขืฆืžื•. ืœื– ืื›ืŸ ืงืฉื” ืœืื“ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืฉืžืข ืœืžื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืคื—ื•ึผืช ืžืžื ื•. ืœื— ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœื’ื‘ืจ ืขืœื‘ื•ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืฉืžืข ืœืืฉื”. ืœื˜ ื™ืฉ ื•ืื ืฉื™ื ื ืจืื™ื ืœื ื• ื›ื™ื“ื™ื“ื™ื, ื•ืื™ื ื ื›ืš. ื›ื ื’ื“ื ื™ืฉ ื•ืื™ื ื ื ืจืื™ื ืœื ื• ื›ืš, ื•ื”ื ื™ื“ื™ื“ื™ื ื•. ืž ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืจืขื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืคืงื— ืื—ื“ ืžืจืขื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื›ืกื™ืœื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ื‘ื™ื—ื“. ืžื ืžื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืื•ื”ื‘ ืฉื•ื ืื“ื ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ, ืœื“ืขืชื™, ืฉื™ื”ื ืื”ื•ื‘ ืขืœ ืื™ื–ื” ืื“ื. ืžื‘ ืžื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืฃ ื™ื“ื™ื“ ื”ื’ื•ืŸ ืื—ื“, ืื™ื ื• ื›ื“ืื™ ืฉื™ื—ื™ื”. ืžื’ ืืœ ืชืชืจืฆื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืžื—ื‘ืจืš ืืœื ืืึพื›ืŸ ื›ื•ื ืชืš ืœืฉืœื ืœื• ื›ืคืœื™ื. ืžื“ ื—ืกื“ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื‘ืฉืขืชื, ื”ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืฉื‘ื—ืกื“ื™ื. ืžื” ื—ืจืคื” ืœืื“ื ืœื˜ืจื•ื— ื‘ืฉึถืœ ื–ืจื™ื ื•ืฉืœื ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ื‘ืฉึถืœื•. ืžื• ืฆืจืช ืจื‘ื™ื ืงืฉื” ืžืฆืจืช ื™ื—ื™ื“. ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืชืงื•ื” ืœืžืฆื•ื ืœื” ืื™ื–ื• ืขื–ืจื”. ืžื– ืขื ื™ื•ืช, ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช โ€“ ืฉืžื•ืช ื”ื ืœืžื—ืกื•ืจ ื•ืœืขื•ื“ืฃ. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืกืชืคืง, ืื™ื ื• ืขืฉื™ืจ; ื•ืžื™ ืฉืžืกืชืคืง, ืื™ื ื• ืขื ื™. ืžื— ื’ื•ืจืœ ืื—ื“ ืœื›ื™ืœื™ ื•ืœื“ื‘ื•ืจื”: ืขืžืœื™ื ื”ื ื›ืึดืœื• ืขืชื™ื“ื™ื ื”ื ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ึพื ืฆื—. ืžื˜ ืœื“ืขืชื™, ืื™ืŸ ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื“ ื‘ื ื™ื. ืžืจื‘ื” ื‘ื ื™ื, ืžืจื‘ื” ืคื’ืขื™ื ืจืขื™ื ื•ื—ื‘ืœื™ึพืฆืขืจ. ื›ื ื’ื“ื ืฉื›ืจื ืžื•ืขื˜ ื•ื‘ืจื›ืชื ืงื˜ื ื”. ื  ื–ื›ื” ืื“ื ื ืขืฉื” ื—ืชื ื• ื‘ืŸ ืœื•. ืœื ื–ื›ื”, ื”ืคืกื™ื“ ื‘ืฉึถืœื• ื’ื ืืช ื‘ืชื•. ื ื ื”ื–ื•ื•ื’ ื”ื•ื ืžืขื™ืŸ ืฉึดืชึผื•ืงึพืื‘ืจื™ื. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื• ืžืฉืชืžื˜ ื•ื ืคืกืข ืื“ื ืžืชื•ืš ืื“ื, ื•ื›ืืœื• ืคืชืื•ื ื”ื•ื ืžืชืคืจื“ ื•ืžืชื‘ื“ืœ ืžืžื ื•. ื ื‘ ื–ึดืงื ื” ื”ื™ื ื”ืชื ื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื›ื•ืœื•: ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื”ื›ืœ, ื•ื”ื›ืœ ื—ืกืจ ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”. ื ื’ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ื‘ื•ืจื—ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืžื•ืช ืื™ื ื ืืœื ืจื•ื“ืคื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื•. ื ื“ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื™ืฆืจื• ืœื”ื ืืœื™ืœ ื‘ื“ืžื•ืช ื”ืžืงืจื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื›ืกื•ืช ืžืขืจื•ืžื™ ืžื‘ื•ื›ื•ืชื™ื”ื. ืื•ืœื ืจืง ืœืขืชื™ื ืจื—ื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ื ื”ืžืงืจื” ื‘ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœื—ื›ืžื”: ืขื™ืŸ ืคืงื•ื—ื” ื•ื—ื“ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ื™ืคื” ืœื›ืœื›ืœ ื›ืจืื•ื™ ืืช ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืจื•ื‘ื ื›ื›ื•ืœื. ื ื” ื”ืžืงืจื” ื”ื•ื ื ื“ื™ื‘ึพืœื‘, ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืจื•ื—ื• ื ืืžื ื”. ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ืžื™ื•ืกื“ ื‘ืชื•ืš ืขืฆืžื•. ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื”ื•ื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื™ื• ื”ืžืขื˜ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื”ื ืืžื ื™ื, ื™ื“ื• ืขืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ื ื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื˜ื—ื•ืชื™ื” ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืชืงื•ื”. ื ื• ื”ืžื•ืกื™ืงื” ื”ื™ื ืืžื ื•ืช ืฆืขื™ืจื”. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ืœื ื ื•ืœื“ื” ืžืชื•ืš ืžื—ืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืžืชื•ืš ืขื•ื“ืฃ. ื ื– ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ืฆื™ื•ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ื ื— ืืš ืžืจืื” ื”ื•ื ื”ืฆื‘ืข, ืžืจืื” ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืชื•ืง, ืžืจืื” ื—ืžืจ. ืื™ืŸ ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืืœื ืคืจึธื“ื™ื ื•ืจื™ืง. ื ื˜ ื”ืคืจึธื“ื™ื ื”ื ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ื ืงืœืขื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืจื™ืง ื•ืžึดื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ื ืœื›ืืŸ ื•ืœื›ืืŸ. ืก ืœื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื ื”ื›ืœื•ื ืžืŸ ื”ืœืึพื›ืœื•ื. ืกื ื”ื•ื™, ืฉื›ืœ ืื•ืžืœืœ! โ€“ ื˜ื•ืขื ื™ื ื”ื—ื•ืฉื™ื. ืžืคื™ื ื• ืืชื” ื—ื™ ื•ื”ื ืš ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ืฆื— ืื•ืชื ื•? ื ืฆื—ื•ื ืš ื–ื• ืžืคืœืชืš! ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ื”ื”ื˜ืขื” ืžืฉืžืขื• ื”ืงื“ื•ื ืฉืœ ืกื•ึนืคื•ึนืกื˜ื•ึนืก ื”ื•ื ื—ื›ื ืื• ืžื•ืžื—ื” ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืžื™ื•ื—ื“, ืื‘ืœ ืื—"ื› ื ืขืฉื” ืฉืึพืœื•ืื™ ืœืžื™ ืฉืžืงื‘ืœ ืฉื›ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื•ืจืืชื• ื‘ื—ื›ืžืชึพื”ื”ืœืฆื” ื•ื‘ืžืœืื›ืชึพื”ื ืฆื•ื—, ื•ื™ืฆื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืฉื ืฉืœ ื’ื ืื™. ื‘ืขื‘ืจื™ืช ื ืงืจืื• ื”ืกื•ืคื™ืกื˜ื™ื ื‘ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื: ื—ื›ืžื™ึพื”ื”ื˜ืขื” ืื• ื—ื›ืžื™ึพื”ื”ืชืขื”, ื”ื”ื˜ืขื™ื™ื, ื”ืžืชืขืงืฉื™ื, ื›ืชึพ ื”ืžืชื—ื›ืžื™ื, ื•ื›ื“ื•ืžื”. ืคึผืจื•ึนื˜ึทื’ื•ึนืจึทืก ื•ื’ื•ึนืจื’ึดื™ึทืก ื ืžื ื™ื ืขืœ ื–ืงื ื™ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื”, ืคึผืจื•ึนื“ื™ืงื•ืก, ื•ื”ึดืคึผึดื™ึทืก โ€“ ืขืœ ืฆืขื™ืจื™ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื”. ืคึผึฐืจื•ึนื˜ึทื’ึผื•ึนืจึทืก ื‘ืŸึพืขื™ืจื• ืฉืœ ื“ืžื•ืงืจื™ื˜. ื ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืฉื ืช ืช"ืฃ ืœืขืจืš. ื”ื•ื ื ืชืคืก ื‘ืืชื•ื ื” ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžื™ื ื•ืช ื•ืื ื•ืก ื”ื™ื” ืœืขื–ื•ื‘ ืืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ื•ื›ื‘ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืžืช ื‘ื“ืจืš. ื”ื•ื ืขืžื“ ืขืœ ืื•ืคื™ ื”ื ื•ืฉืื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื“ึผึดืžื•ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ืžื—ื™ืฉื•ืช ื•ืฉื ื”: ื”ืื“ื ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื•ืœื. ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื—ื•ืกื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืืคื ื™ ื”ื”ื›ืจื” ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืืžืจ, ืฉืฉืชื™ ื“ืขื•ืช ืžืชื ื’ื“ื•ืช ื–ื• ืœื–ื• ืขืœื•ืœื•ืช ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฆื•ื“ืงื•ืช ืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื›ืื—ืช. ื’ึผื•ึนืจึฐื’ึดื™ึทืก ื‘ืŸ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืœึถืื•ื ื˜ื™ื ื™ ืฉื‘ืกื™ืฆื™ืœื™ื”, ื‘ื ืœืืชื•ื ื” ื‘ืชื•ืจ ื‘ืึพื›ื—ื” ืฉืœ ืžืžืฉืœืช ืืจืฆื•. ื“ื‘ืจืŸ ืฉืขืฉื” ืืช ื—ื›ืžืช ื”ืžืœื™ืฆื” ื•ื”ื ืฆื•ื— ืื•ืžื ื•ืช ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ื‘ื”. ื“ืขื•ืชื™ื• ืžื’ื™ืขื•ืช ืขื“ ืœื™ื“ื™ ืกืคืงื ื•ืช ืžืœืื”. ื–ืžื ื• ืœืขืจืš: ืชืคโ€œื’โ€“ืฉืขโ€ื”. ื”ึดืคึผึดื™ึทืก ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืœื•ืžื“ ืฉื‘ื—ื›ืžื™ึพื”ื”ื˜ืขื”, ื‘ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ืขื•ืช ืจื—ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžืชืžื˜ื™ืงื”, ืืกื˜ืจื•ื ื•ืžื™ื”, ื”ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื”, ืืฃ ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื•ืจืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจืŸ. ื™ืœื™ื“ ืึถืœื™ืก ื•ื‘ื ืœืืชื•ื ื” ื‘ืชื•ืจ ื‘ืึพื›ื—ื” ืฉืœ ืžืžืฉืœืช ืžื•ืœื“ืชื•. ื”ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืคื˜ ื˜ื‘ืขื™, ื”ืงื™ื ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช, ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืคื˜ ื ืžื•ืกื™ ื”ืงื™ื ืจืง ืœืฉืขืชื•. ืคึผึฐืจื•ึนื˜ึทื’ึผื•ึนืจึทืก ื ื”ืื“ื ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืช ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืชื ื ืžืฆืื™ื, ื‘ืืฉืจ ื”ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื, ื•ืœื”ื™ื•ืชื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื ืžืฆืื, ื‘ืืฉืจ ืื™ื ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื. ื‘ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื ึดืชืŸ ืœื”ืชื‘ื—ืŸ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื‘ื—ื™ื ื•ืช, ื”ืžืชื ื’ื“ื•ืช ื–ื• ืœื–ื•. ื’ ืœื ื”ืจื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืžื•ื—ืฉื™ื ื›ื”ืจื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืžื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื”ื ื”ืžื”ื ื“ืก. ื”ืŸ ื‘ื ื“ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื•ื—ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ื™ืฉืจ ืื• ืขื’ื•ืœ. ื“ ื•ืืฉืจ ืœืืœื™ื ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ื›ืœืœ, ืื ืฉื”ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื•ืื ืฉืื™ื ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ืžื›ืฉื•ืœื™ื ื”ื—ื•ืกืžื™ื ืืช ื”ื“ืจืš ืืœ ื”ื›ืจื” ื–ื•: ืืคืœื•ืœื™ืช ื”ืขื ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืžื™ื• ื”ืงืฆื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ืŸึพืื ื•ืฉ. ื” ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžื ื•ืช ืœืœื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœืœื ืื•ืžื ื•ืช. ื‘ึผื•ึนืจึฐื ึดื™ึทืก ื ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื ืžืฆื; ื•ืื ื ืžืฆื ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”, ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžื•ืฉื’ ืœื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื. ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื”ืฉื’ื”, ืขืœึพื›ืœึพืคื ื™ื ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ื”ื™ื” ืœืœืžื“ื• ืื• ืœื”ืกื‘ื™ืจื• ืœื–ื•ืœืชื ื•. ื”ืŸ ืื ื ืžืฆื ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”, ื”ื•ื ืื• ื™ืฉ ืื• ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืื• ื–ื” ื•ื–ื” ื›ืื—ื“, ืื•ืœื ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื. ืฉืื™ืœื• ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ื ืžืฆื, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื™ืฉ ื•ืœื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื‘ืชึพืื—ืช. ื•ื”ืŸ ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ, ืฉื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ื™ืฉ ื•ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ื‘ื‘ืชึพืื—ืช. ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื. ืื‘ืœ ื’ื ื”ื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื. ืฉืึดืœื• ื ืžืฆื, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืื• ื ืฆื—ื™ ืื• ืžื”ื•ึผื•ื” ืื• ื–ื” ื•ื–ื” ื›ืื—ื“. ืื•ืœื ืฉืชื™ ื”ื”ื ื—ื•ืช ื”ืœื• ื‘ื˜ืœื•ืช. ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื. ืฉืึดืœื• ื”ื™ื” ื ืฆื—ื™, ื”ืจื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืจืืฉื™ืช. ื”ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื”ื•ื” ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืจืืฉื™ืช; ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื”ื ืฆื—ื™, ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช, ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืจืืฉื™ืช. ืื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืจืืฉื™ืช, ื”ื•ื ืœืœืึพื’ื‘ื•ืœ; ื•ืื ื”ื•ื ืœืœืึพื’ื‘ื•ืœ, ืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื. ืฉืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ืžืงื•ื, ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ื”ื ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื•, ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื. ืžืกืชื‘ืจ, ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืฉ ืœืœืึพื’ื‘ื•ืœ, ืžืื—ืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ืงืฃ ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ื–ื•ืœืชื•; ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืงื™ืฃ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ืงืฃ. ืื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ ื‘ืขืœึพื’ื‘ื•ืœ. ื•ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉื”ื‘ืœืชื™ ื‘ืขืœึพื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื. ื”ื•ื” ืื•ืžืจ: ืื ื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื ืฆื—ื™, ื”ื•ื ืœืœืึพื’ื‘ื•ืœ; ื•ืื ื”ื•ื ืœืœื ื’ื‘ื•ืœ, ืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื; ื•ืื ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืฉื•ื ืžืงื•ื, ืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœืœ. ืืฃ ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ืžื”ื•ึผื•ื”. ืฉืึดืœื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ื•ึผื•ื”, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื•ื” ืื ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืฉ ื•ืื ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ. ืื•ืœื ื”ื•ื ืœื ื ืชื”ื•ื•ื” ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื™ืฉ: ืฉืื ื”ื•ื ื™ืฉ, ื”ืจื™ ืœื ื ืชื”ื•ื” ืืœื ื”ื•ื ื™ืฉื ื• ื›ื‘ืจ. ื’ื ืœื ื ืชื”ื•ื•ื” ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ, ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื“ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ, ืžืื—ืจ ืฉื›ื—ึพื”ืœึตื“ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ ื‘ื™ืฉ ืžืื™ื–ื• ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ืฉื”ื™ื. ืžื›ืืŸ, ืฉื”ื™ืฉ ื’ื ืœื ื ืชื”ื•ื•ื”. ืืฃ ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ, ืฉื”ื•ื ื–ื” ื•ื–ื” ื‘ื‘ืชึพืื—ืช, ืœืืžืจ ื ืฆื—ื™ ื•ืžื”ื•ึผื•ื”. ืฉื›ืŸ ื–ื” ืกื•ืชืจ ืืช ื–ื”, ื•ืื ื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื ืฆื—ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืžื”ื•ึผื•ื” ื•ืื ืžื”ื•ึผื•ื” ืื™ื ื• ื ืฆื—ื™. ื•ืžื›ึผึตื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ืœื ื ืฆื—ื™ ื•ืœื ืžื”ื•ึผื•ื” ื•ืœื ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื‘ื‘ืชึพืื—ืช, ื”ืจื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœึพืขื™ืงืจ. ืืคื™ืœื• ืื ื ืžืฆื ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”, ืื™ื ื• ืžื•ืฉื’ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžื•ื›ึผืจ ืœื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื. ืฉืื ืžื” ืฉื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื ืžืฆื, ื”ืจื™ ืžื” ืฉื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ืฉ. ื•ื”ืŸ ืžื” ืฉื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื ืžืฆื: ืฉืึดืœื• ื ืžืฆื ืžื” ืฉื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื ืžืฆื ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื—ืฉื‘. ื•ื–ื” ืžืชื ื’ื“ ืœื ืกื™ื•ืŸ. ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืขืœื” ืขืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ืชืš ืื“ื ื˜ืก ื•ืžืจื›ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื˜ื•ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ื™ื, ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื”ืื“ื ื˜ืก ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืจื›ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื˜ื•ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ื™ื. ืžื›ืืŸ, ืฉืื™ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ืืฃ ื–ื•. ืื ื ืžืฆื ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ื”ืŸ ื ื’ื•ื“ื™ื ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืœื ื’ื•ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืŸ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื ื’ื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื™ืฉ; ื•ืื ืžื” ืฉื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ ืืœ ื”ื™ืฉ, ื”ืจื™ ืฉืžืงื‘ื™ืœ ืืœ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพื™ืฉ ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ื•ื–ื” ื‘ื˜ืœ, ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื’ื ืกืงื™ืœึทื” ื•ื›ื™ืžึถืจึทื” ื•ื›ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ืžืขืชื”, ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื•ืฉื‘ื” ืื™ื ื• ื”ื™ืฉ. ืื•ืœื ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ื ืจืื” ืงืจื•ื™ ื ืจืื” ืขืœึพืฉื•ื ืฉืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื•ื”ื ืฉืžืข ืงืจื•ื™ ื ืฉืžืข ืขืœึพืฉื•ื ืฉืื ื• ืฉื•ืžืขื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ื›ื•ืคืจื™ื ืœื ื‘ื ืจืื” ืžื—ืžืช ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืฉืžืข ื•ืœื ื‘ื ืฉืžืข ืžื—ืžืช ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืจืื” โ€“ ื›ืš ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”, ืืฃึพืขืœึพืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื ื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืฉื•ืžืขื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื ื•, ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื”ื•ื ื ืชืคืก ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืื•ืชื• ื”ื›ืœื™ ื”ืžืชืื™ื ืœื•. ื•ืื ืืชื” ืžืขืœื” ืขืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ืชืš ืžืจื›ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื˜ื•ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ื™ื, ืขืœื™ืš ืžื•ื˜ืœ ืœื”ืืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืจื›ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื˜ื•ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ื™ื; ื•ื–ื” ื‘ื˜ืœ. ืžืขืชื” ื”ื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ืื• ื‘ื”ืฉื’ื”. ืืฃ ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื”ืฉื’ื”, ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ื”ื™ื” ืœืœืžื“ ืื•ืชื” ื”ื›ืจื” ืœื–ื•ืœืชื•. ืฉืื ื”ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื•ื ื— ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจืื™ื” ื•ื‘ืฉืžื™ืขื” ื•ืžื•ื—ืฉ ืœื›ื•ืœื ื•, ื•ื”ื ืจืื” ื ืจืื” ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื›ืœื™ึพื”ืจืื™ื” ื•ื”ื ืฉืžืข ื ืฉืžืข ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ึพื›ืœื™ ื”ืฉืžื™ืขื” ื•ืœื ืœื”ืคืš โ€“ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื ืœืžื“ื• ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื›ืœื™ ืื—ืจ? ื”ืŸ ื›ืœึดื™ึพื”ืœืžื•ื“ ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืืžืจ, ื•ื”ื•ื ืื™ื ื• ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ ื•ื”ื ืžืฆื. ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืœื ื ึดืชืŸ ืœื ื• ืœืœืžื“ ืœื–ื•ืœืชื ื• ืืช ื”ื™ืฉ ืืœื ืืช ื”ืžืืžืจ, ื”ื ื‘ื“ืœ ืžืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ืกื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื–ื”. ืžื” ื”ื ืจืื” ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืฉืžื™ืขื” ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืคืš, ืืฃ ื”ืžืืžืจ ืฉืœื ื• ื›ืš, ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ. ื•ืžื›ึผึตื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืžืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืฉื‘ื™ืฉื•ืช, ืžืกืชื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืœืœืžื“ื• ืœืื—ืจื™ื. ื‘ ื”ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืจืื”, ืฉืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืœื” ืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืจืื”; ื”ืžืจืื” ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืจื•ืคืฃ, ืฉืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืœื” ืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื™ืฉ. ื’ ื‘ืจื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื“ื ื“ื•ืจืฉ ืžื™ื“ื™ื“ื• ืœืกื™ืข ืœื• ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ื”ื’ื•ื ื™ื. ืื•ืœื ื”ื™ื“ื™ื“ ื™ืกื™ืข ืœื• ืžืืœื™ื• ืืฃ ื‘ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ื”ื’ื•ืŸ. ื“ ืจืื•ื™ ืœืš ืœื ืฆื— ืืช ืชืงื™ืคืช ื“ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ืžืชื ื’ื“ืš ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืœืฆื ื•ืช, ื•ืืช ืœืฆื ื•ืชื• ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืชืงื™ืคืช ื“ืขืชืš. ื”ึดืคึผึดื™ึทืก ื ืชึผึทืœึถืก ื”ื™ื” ืžื™ื—ืก ืจื•ื—ึพื—ื™ื™ื ื’ื ืœื“ื•ืžื ื•ื‘ืงืฉ ืœืืžืช ื–ื” ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืื‘ืŸ ื”ืฉื•ืื‘ืช ื•ื”ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ืŸ. ื‘ ืžืฉื•ื ื” ื”ืขืœื™ืœื”, ืฉื›ึนืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื—ื•ืง ืžื˜ื™ืœ ืขืœื™ื” ืขื•ื ืฉ ื›ืขื ืฉื” ืฉืœ ื’ื ื‘ื”. ืื•ืœื ื”ืขืœื™ืœื” ื’ื•ื ื‘ืช ืžืืชื ื• ืืช ื”ืจื›ื•ืฉ ื”ื ืขืœื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ: ืืช ืื”ื‘ืชึพื”ืจึตืข, ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ื—ื•ืžืจ ื‘ืขืœื™ืœื” ืžื‘ืžืขืฉื™ ื—ื‘ืœื”, ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืื™ื ื ื ืขืฉื™ื ื‘ื—ืฉืื™. ื’ ืืœื™ื›ื ื’ื‘ืจื™ื, ื”ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ื›ืืŸ! ื“ืขืชื™, ืฉืื ื• ื›ื•ืœื ื• ื‘ื ื™ ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืื—ืช, ื—ื‘ืจื™ ืงื‘ื•ืฆื” ืื—ืช ื•ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืฉืœ ืืจืฅ ืื—ืช; ืœื ืœืคื™ ื ืžื•ืกื™ื ื• ืืœื ืœืคื™ ื˜ื‘ืขื ื•. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื•ื™ื ื–ื” ืืœ ื–ื” ื”ื ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืžื˜ื‘ืข ื‘ืจื™ืชื; ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ื ืžื•ืกื™ื ื”ืžืื ืกื™ื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื, ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ื“ ื—ื–ืงื” ืืช ื”ืžืชื ื’ื“ ืœื˜ื‘ืข. ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืกื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืงืœืฆืงื™ืŸ2 ืกื•ืงืจื˜ืก ื‘.jpg ืกื•ึนืงืจึฐึทื˜ึถืก ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื”ึทืงึดื™ื ึธืึดื™ื (ื›ืชึพื”ึทื›ึผึทืœึฐื‘ึผึดื™ื) ื”ืชื•ืืจ ืงื™ื ืื™ ื ึดืชืŸ, ื›ื ืจืื”, ืœื‘ื ื™ ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื–ื• ืขืœ ืฉื ื”ื’ืžื ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืงื™ื ื•ืกึทืจื’ึถืก, ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื•ืจื” ืื ื˜ื™ืกืชึผื ืก ืืช ืชื•ืจืชื•. ืื•ืœื ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืืŸ ื™ืฆื ืื•ืชื• ืฉืึพื”ืชื•ืืจ ืœื™ื“ื™ ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ืื—ืจืช, ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื• ื”ืœืฉื•ื ื™ืช, ืœืืžืจ ื›ืœื‘ื™, ืขืœ ืฉื•ื ืฉืžื™ืกื“ื™ ืื•ืชื” ื›ืชื” ื•ื‘ื ื™ึพืกื™ืขืชื”, ื‘ื—ืจื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ืขื•ื ื™ ื•ืžื—ืกื•ืจ, ื—ื™ื™ ื’ืœื•ืช ื•ื ื“ื•ื“ื™ื ืœืœื ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืœืœื ืžืฉืคื—ื”, ื•ื”ื™ื• ืžื–ืœื–ืœื™ื ื‘ืฆืจื›ื™ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืกืชืื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช. ื. ืึทื ื˜ึดื™ืกึฐืชึผึถื ึถืก ื–ืžื ื•: ืœืขืจืš ืชโ€œืžโ€“ืฉโ€ืข. ืชื—ืœื” ื”ื™ื” ืชืœืžื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื’ื•ึนืจึฐื’ึดื™ึทืก ื•ืื—ืจ ืœืžื“ ื‘ื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื• ืฉืœ ืกื•ึนืงึฐืจึทื˜ึถืก. ืกืคืงืŸ ื”ืžืขืจืขืจ ืืช ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืชื™ื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ โ€“ ื‘ื™ื—ื•ื“ ืืช ื”ื•ื“ืื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืงืฉื™ื ื•ืžื•ืคืชื™ื โ€“ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžื•ื“ื” ืืœื ื‘ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ึพื–ึถื”ื•ืช,ืœืืžืจ, ื‘ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืžื—ื“ืฉื™ื ืœื ื• ื›ืœื•ื. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืคืจ ื‘ืžื•ืฉื’ื™ื ืžึธืคืฉื˜ื™ื, ืžื•ืฉื’ื™ื ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื. ืืฃ ืžื•ืกืจื• ื˜ื‘ื•ืข ื›ื•ืœื• ื‘ืฉืœื™ืœื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื›ืœืœ ืžืŸ ื”ืžื“ื•ืช ื”ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื•ืช. ืฉืœื™ืœืช ื”ืฆืจื›ื™ื โ€“ ื‘ื” ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืฆื ืืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืืช ื”ืื•ืฉืจ ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ืขืœื”. ื”ื•ื ืฉืืžืจ: ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืฉืื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื’ืข ืžืฉืื”ื™ื” ืžืชืคื ืง ื‘ืชืขื ื•ื’ื™ื. ื”ื•ื ืžื˜ื™ืฃ ืœืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ืื•ืœื ื“ึดื™ื•ึนื’ึถื ึถืก ืžื’ื ื” ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืื” ื“ื•ืจืฉ ื•ืื™ื ื• ื ืื” ืžืงื™ื ื•ืžืžืฉื™ืœื• ืœืงืจื ื• ืฉืœ ืฉื•ืคืจ, ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืฉื•ืžืข ืืช ืงื•ืœ ืขืฆืžื• ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื”ืฉื•ืคืจ ื”ืชื•ืงืข ืœืื—ืจื™ื. ื‘. ื“ึดื™ื•ึนื’ึถื ึถืก ื™ืœื™ื“ ืกึดื™ื ื•ึนืคึถึผื”, ืžืช ื‘ืงื•ึนืจึดื™ื ืชึผ ื‘ืฉื ืช ืฉื›"ื’. ื”ื•ื ื”ื’ืฉื™ื ื‘ืžืขืฉื” ืืช ืชื•ืจืช ื”ื›ึผึทืœื‘ื™ื™ื ื•ืขืฉื” ืคืจืกื•ื ืœื” ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืœื™ื›ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื• ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ื›ื—ืชื• ื‘ืจื‘ื™ื, ืฉื”ืฆื˜ื™ื ื• ื‘ืขืงื™ืฆื•ืช ืฉื ื•ื ื•ืช. ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื•ื”ืคืงื™ืจ ืืช ื ื›ืกื™ื•, ื”ืฉืชื—ืจืจ ืžืงืฉืจื™ ืžืฉืคื—ื” ื•ืžืฉืขื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ, ืฉืขื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ื™ืช ื•ื ื—ืœื”, ื‘ื—ืจ ืœื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ืชืœื•ืฉ ื•ื’ืœื” ืœืจืฆื•ื ื• ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื•ื”ื™ื” ืžื—ื–ื™ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืคืชื—ื™ื ื•ื–ื•ืจืง ืžืจื” ื‘ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ืจื›ื•ืฉ, ื”ื‘ืขืœื™ื ื”ืžื“ื•ึผืžื™ื ื•ื”ืื“ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืจื•ึผืžื™ื. ืงืจื ืขืœ ืขืฆืžื• ืืช ื”ืฉื: ื›ืœื‘, ื•ื”ื™ื” ืื•ืžืจ: ืžื” ื”ื›ืœื‘ ื ื•ื‘ื— ื•ื ื•ืฉืš ื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื“ ืืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช, ืืฃ ืื ื™ ืœื ืืชืŸ ืžื ื•ื—ื” ืœืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ึตืขโ€ฆ ื“ื•ืžื”, ื“ื™ื•ื’ื ืก ื”ื•ื ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืขืžื“ ื”ืคืจื•ืœื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ. ืžื•ืกืจื• โ€“ ืžื•ืกืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื‘ืข. ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื˜ื‘ืขื™, ื”ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘. ื”ื—ืžื“ื” ื•ื”ืชืคื ื•ืงื™ื ืžืฉื—ื™ืชื™ื ืืช ื˜ื‘ืขื• ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื, ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ืขื ื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ื”ืกืชืคืงื•ืชึพื‘ืžื•ืขื˜ ืžืคืชื—ื•ืช ื•ืžืขืœื•ืช ืื•ืชื•. ื’. ืงึฐืจึทื˜ึผึถืก ื™ืœื™ื“ ืชึผึธื‘ึผึตืŸ. ื”ืžืขื•ืœื” ืฉื‘ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ึดื™ื•ึนื’ึถื ึถืก. ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ื”ืคืงื™ืจ ื›ืจื‘ื• ืืช [โ€ฆ]4 ื•ื‘ื—ืจ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื ื“ื•ื“ื™ื. ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืžืจื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืœืขื’ ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื•, ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืื™ืฉ ืฉื”ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืคื ื™ื ืœื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ื‘ื ื—ืช ื ืฉืžืขื•. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ื™ืฆื ืœื• ืฉืึพื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื ื›ืชืจ ื‘ืชื•ืืจ: ืคื•ืชื— ืฉืขืจื™ ืœื‘ื‘ื•ืช. ืชื•ืจืชื• โ€“ ืชื•ืจืช ื‘ื™ืชึพืจื‘ื•. ื“. ื‘ึดึผื™ื•ึนืŸ ื–ืžื ื•: ื”ืžื—ืฆื™ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช. [โ€ฆ] ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื™ื ื”ืฉื—ื•ืจ, ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืฉื™ืฆื ืœื—ืจื•ืช. ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืคืจ ื‘ื”ืฉืืจื•ืชึพื”ื ืคืฉ ื•ืžืœืขื™ื’ ืขืœ ืคื•ืœื—ืŸึพื”ืžืชื™ื. [โ€ฆ] ื‘ื– ืœืขื•ืฉืจ ื•ืœื ื•ืขืึพื—ื™ื™ื. ืžื•ืกืจื• โ€“ ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ื ื•ืช ืžืชื•ืš ื“ืขื” ืฆืœื•ืœื”. ื”. ืžื•ึนื ึดื™ืžื•ึนืก ืื—ื“ ืžืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื“ื™ื•ื’ื ืก. ืึทื ึฐื˜ึดื™ืกึฐืชึผึถื ึถืก ืงืœืฆืงื™ืŸ3 ืื ื˜ื™ืกื˜ื ืก ื‘.jpg ืึทื ื˜ึดื™ืกึฐืชึผึถื ึถืก ื ืจืืฉื™ืช ื—ื›ืžื” โ€“ ื—ืงืจ ืžืœื™ืŸ. ื‘ ื”ืžื•ืฉื’ ื”ื•ื ืกึดืžืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ืื• ืฉื‘ื”ื•ึนื•ื”. ื’ ืจื•ืื” ืื ื™ ืื ืฉื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืื ื•ืฉื•ืช, ืกื•ืกื™ื ื•ืœื ืกื•ืกื™ื•ืช. ื“ ืชื›ืœื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื•ืกืจ. ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ ื”ืžื•ืกืจ ืœื”ืงื ื•ืชื• ืœืื—ืจื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœืื‘ื“ื•. ื”ื•ื ื›ืœื™ึพื ืฉืง ืฉืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืœื’ื–ื•ืœ ืžืืชื ื•. ื• ืžื™ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื™ื“ื™ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉืช ืขืฆืžื•, ืืœ ื™ื˜ืจื™ื“ ืืช ื ืคืฉื• ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื, ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ืœื‘ืœื‘ืœ ืื•ืชื” ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื“ืขื•ืช ืžืฉึถืœ ืื—ืจื™ื. ื– ืงืฉื” ืœื ื• ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื—ื›ื. ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ืกื›ืœื•ืช ื”ื™ื ืงืœื” ื•ื ื•ื—ื” ืœื ื•, ื›ืš ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ื”ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืžื•ืฆื’ ื•ืขืงืฉื ื™, ื›ื‘ึทื“ ืžืฉืงืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืคื—ืช. ื— ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœื—ื›ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ื–ืจ ืื• ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืืคืฉืจื™ ืœื•. ื˜ ื”ื—ื›ื ื“ื™ ืœื• ื‘ื• ื‘ืขืฆืžื•. ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืฉึถืœ ืื—ืจื™ื ื”ื•ื ืžืฉึถืœื•. ื™ ืืœ ืชื›ื™ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืœืื“ื ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ื—ืš. ื™ื ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืฉืชืคื•ืœ ื‘ืคื™ ื”ืขื™ื˜ ืžืฉืชืคื•ืœ ื‘ืคื™ ื—ื•ื ืคื™ื; ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื”ืขื™ื˜ ืื•ื›ืœ ืžืŸ ื”ืคื’ืจ, ื•ื”ื—ื•ื ืฃ โ€“ ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื™. ื™ื‘ ื•ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ืคึผึฐืจื•ึนืžึตืชึผึตืื•ึผืก ืืœ ื”ึถืจึทืงึฐืœึถืก: ืžืขืฉื™ืš ืžื’ื•ื ื™ื. ืืชื” ืขื•ืกืง ื‘ื”ื‘ืœื™ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืžืกื™ื— ืืช ื“ืขืชืš ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ืขืœื™ื. ื•ื“ืข, ืื™ืŸ ืืชื” ื‘ืชื›ืœื™ืช ื”ืฉืœืžื•ืช ื›ืœึพืื™ืžืช ืฉืœื ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ื ืช ื‘ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืœื” ืขืœ ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื. ืจืง ืœื›ืฉืชืชื‘ื•ื ืŸ ื‘ื›ืš, ืชื›ื™ืจ ื’ื ืืช ืฉื”ื•ื ืื ื•ืฉื™. ื™ื’ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื•ื™, ืฉื™ื”ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืงืœ ืœืื“ื ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืฉืึพืจืข ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืื‘ื ื™ึพื‘ืœื™ืกื˜ืจืื•ืช. ื™ื“ ื”ืžืขื•ืœื” ืฉื‘ืžื“ืขื™ื ื–ื” ื”ืžื“ืข ืœื”ืฉื›ื™ื— ื‘ื ื• ืืช ื”ืจืข ืฉืœืžื“ื ื•. ื˜ื• ื›ืœ ืขึดืงืจื” ืฉืœ ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ื”ื™ื ืืžื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžื’ืขึพื•ืžืฉื ืขื ืขืฆืžื ื•. ื˜ื– ืื™ืŸ ื”ืชืขื ื•ื’ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืืœื ื›ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ื• ืžื•ืกืจึพื”ืœื‘. ื™ื– ืžื•ึผืชืจ ืœื ื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ืืคื™ื ืืœ ื”ืชืขื ื•ื’ ืฉืœืื—ืจื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžื™ื’ืขืช ื•ืœื ืืœ ืชืขื ื•ื’ ืงื•ื“ื ืœื”. ื™ื— ืœื• ืคื’ืขืชื™ ื‘ืืคืจื•ื“ึดื™ื˜ึตื™, ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืฉื•ืœื— ื‘ื” ืืช ื—ืฆื™ ืœื”ืžื™ืชื ื” ืขืœ ืฉื”ืกื™ืชื” ื•ื”ื“ื™ื—ื” ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžื ืฉื™ื ื• ื”ื™ืคื•ืช ื•ื”ื—ืจื•ืฆื•ืช. ื”ืื”ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื ืงืœืœื” ื”ืจื•ื‘ืฆืช ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื” โ€“ ื•ื”ืขืœื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ืœืœื•, ืฉื ื›ื ืขื• ืœื”, ืžืขืœื™ื ืขืœ ืื•ืชื” ืžื—ืœืช ื”ืชืื•ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื: ืืœื”ื•ืช. ื™ื˜ ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ื™ื”ื ืื™ืฉ ื ื•ืฉื ืœื• ืืฉื” ืืœื ืืึพื›ืŸ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื•ืœื™ื“ ื‘ื ื™ื, ื•ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืฉื™ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืœื• ืืช ื”ืžื›ื•ืขืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ื ืฉื™ื! ื”ืœืœื• ืžื•ื›ืฉืจื•ืช ืœืื”ื‘ื”. ื› ืจืง ื”ื—ื›ื ื™ื•ื“ืข, ืื™ื–ื• ื ืฉื™ื ืจืื•ื™ื•ืช ืœืื”ื‘ื”. ื›ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืชื ื”ื’ ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืงื”? ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืืชื” ื ื•ื”ื’ ื‘ืืฉ: ืืœ ืชืชืงืจื‘ ืืœื™ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™, ืฉืœื ืชื›ื•ื” ื‘ื”; ื•ืืœ ืชืชืจื—ืง ืžืžื ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™, ืฉืœื ืชื”ื ื”ืฆื ื” ืื•ื›ืœืช ืื•ืชืš. ื›ื‘ ื›ืฉืขืžื“ื” ืขื“ืช ืืจื ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžื•ืขืฆืชึพื”ืขื ื•ืชื‘ืขื• ืžืฉืคื˜ ืื—ื“ ืœื›ืœ ื”ื™ืงื•ื, ื”ืชืจื™ืกื• ื›ื ื’ื“ืŸ ื”ืืจื™ื•ืช: ื“ื‘ืจื™ื›ืŸ, ืืจื ื‘ื•ืช, ื—ืกืจื™ื ืฆืคืจื ื™ื ื•ืฉึดื ื™ื โ€“ ื•ื”ืŸ ืœื ื• ื”ืŸ. ื›ื’ ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืœื”ืœื—ื ื‘ืฆื“ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžื•ืขื˜ื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื”ืจืขื™ื ื•ื”ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืžืืฉืจ ืœื”ืœื—ื ื‘ืฆื“ื ืฉืœ ื”ืจืขื™ื ื•ื”ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ื”ืžื•ืขื˜ื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื. ื›ื“ ื‘ื‘ืงืฉื” ืžื›ื โ€“ ื”ืืกืคื• ื ื ื•ื”ื›ืจื™ืขื• ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืœื˜ืชึพืขื, ืฉื”ื—ืžื•ืจื™ื ื”ื ืกื•ืกื™ื! ืžื“ื•ืข ืื™ื ื›ื ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื›ื›ื”? ื”ืŸ ื’ื ืฉืจื™ึพื”ืฆื‘ื ืืฉืจ ืœื›ื ืื™ื ื ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื ื›ืœื•ื ืืœื ืฉื ืžื ื• ืœื›ืš ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ ืฉืœ ื”ืฆื‘ึผึธืขื”. ื›ื” ื ืื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืžื’ื•ื ื” ื”ืจืข. ื›ื• ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื™ืจื ืžืคื ื™ ืื—ืจื™ื, ื”ื•ื ืขื‘ื“ ืœืขืฆืžื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ืฉ. ื›ื– ืงื ึตื” ืœืš ื—ื›ืžื” ืื• โ€“ ื—ึถื‘ืœ. ื›ื— ืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื™ ื•ืื™ื–ื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ืฉืœื™? ืจื›ื•ืฉื™ ืื™ื ื• ืฉืœื™. ืงืจื•ื‘ื™, ืฉื›ื ื™, ืจืขื™, ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื™, ืžืงื•ืžื™, ืžืœืื›ืชื™ โ€“ ื›ืœ ื–ื” ืื™ื ื• ืฉืœื™. ื•ืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื™? ืชืฉืžื™ืฉืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืชื™. ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืฉืœื™ ืœืœื ืขื›ื•ื‘ ื•ืœืœื ืื•ื ืก. ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ื—ื• ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืœืžื ื•ืข ืื•ืชื™ ืžืŸ ืฉืžื•ืฉืŸ ืื• ืœื›ื•ืฃ ืื•ืชื™ ืฉืืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืฉืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืจืฆื•ื™ ืœื™. ื›ื˜ ืชืŸ ื“ืขืชืš ืขืœ ืฉื•ื ืื™ืš: ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื™ืคื” ื›ื—ื ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืืช ืžื•ืžื™ื ื•. ืœ ื›ื“ืจืš ื”ื–ื•ื ื•ืช, ื”ืžื‘ืงืฉื•ืช ืฉืขื•ื’ื‘ื™ื”ืŸ ื™ื”ื™ื• ืžื‘ื•ืจื›ื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืงื ื™ื ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื“ืขืช ื•ืชื‘ื•ื ื”, ื›ืš ื”ื—ื•ื ืคื™ื ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœืžื™ ืฉื”ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื™ื ืืฆืœื•. ืœื ืžื™ ืฉืจื•ืฆื” ื‘ืชืงื ืช ื ืคืฉื•, ื”ืœื” ื–ืงื•ืง ืื• ืœืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ื ืืžื ื™ื ืื• ืœืฉื•ื ืื™ื ืงืฉื™ื! ืึตืœื• ืขื•ืงืจื™ื ืืช ืžื•ืžื™ื ื• ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืชื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ื•ืึตืœื• ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื—ืจืคื•ืช. ืœื‘ (ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื”ืฉืืœื”, ืžื” ื™ื”ื ืžืœืžื“ ืืช ื‘ื ื•): ืจืฆื•ื ื• ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ืขื ืืœื™ื โ€“ ื—ื›ืžืชึพื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”. ืจืฆื•ื ื• ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ืขื ื”ืื“ื โ€“ ื—ื›ืžืชึพื”ื”ืœืฆื”. ืœื’ ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื”ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื”ื ืื›ืœ ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื—ืœื•ื“ืชื•, ื›ืš ื‘ืขืœึพืงื ืื” ื ืื›ืœ ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืชื›ื•ื ืชื•. ืœื“ (ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื”ืฉืืœื”, ืžื“ื•ืข ืื™ืŸ ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ืžืฉื›ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคืชื—ื ืฉืœ ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื ืืœื ืœื”ืคืš): โ€“ ืœืคื™ ืฉื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืžื” ืฉื“ืจื•ืฉ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื, ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ืื™ื ื ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ื–ืืช. ืœื” ื”ืœื•ืื™ ื•ื‘ื ื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื ืื™ ื™ื—ื™ื• ื—ื™ื™ื ืžืคื•ื ืงื™ื! ืœื• (ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžื™ ืฉืืžืจ: ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ืชื‘ื™ื ื›ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืขื ื™ื™ื): โ€“ ืื“ืจื‘ื, ื”ื™ื ืชื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœื™ื”ื ื›ื”ื ื” ื•ื›ื”ื ื”. ืœื– ื ืฉืืช ืืฉื” ื™ืคื”, ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื›ื•ืœื” ืฉืœืš; ื ืฉืืช ืืฉื” ืžื›ื•ืขืจื”, ื”ื™ื ื›ื•ืœื” ืฆืจื” ืœืš. ืœื— (ืœื›ึนื”ืŸ ืื•ืจืคื™, ืฉื ื‘ื ืœืื•ืฉืจ ืจื‘ ื‘ืขื•ืœืึพื”ื‘ื): โ€“ ื•ืžื“ื•ืข ืื™ืŸ ืืชื” ืžืช? ืœื˜ ื”ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื–ื›ื•ืช ืœืืœึพืžื•ืช, ืขืœื™ื• ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ ืฆื“ืง ื•ืืžื•ื ื”. ืž (ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื”ืฉืืœื”, ืื™ื–ื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉื‘ื—ื™ื™ื): โ€“ ืžื•ืช ืžืื•ืฉืจ! ื“ึผึดื™ื•ึนื’ึถื ึถืก ืงืœืฆืงื™ืŸ4 ื“ื™ื•ื’ื ืก ื”ืงื™ื ืื™ ื‘.jpg ื“ึฐื™ื•ึนื’ึถื ึถืก โ€œื”ึทืงึผึดื™ื ึธืึดื™โ€ ื ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ืข ืžื—ึธื“ืฉ ืืช ืžึทื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืขืจื›ื™ื ื”ืงื™ืžื™ื. ื‘ ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ืงืจ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื ืžื›ืจ ื‘ืืคืก โ€“ ื•ื’ื ืœื”ืคืš. ื’ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืžื›ื™ื ื™ื ืœื—ื ื›ื“ื™ ืžื—ื™ืชื, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื›ื“ื™ ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ื ืžืฉื•ื‘ื—ื™ื. ื“ ื”ืฉื’ืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ืœื™ืš ืืช ื”ื”ืžื•ืŸ, ื›ืจื•ืขื” ืืช ืขื“ืจื•, ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ืจื•ืฆื”. ื” ื™ืคื” ื’ื•ืฃ ืขืจื•ื ืžื›ืœ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ึพื—ืžื•ื“ื•ืช. ื• ืื™ืŸ ื”ืฆื“ืง ืฉื•ืจื” ืœื ื‘ืขื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื‘ืชื™ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื. ื– ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื ืš ื ืขืฉื” ืžื•ืจื”ึพื“ืจืš ืœืขืฆืžืš? ืื ืืชื” ืžื’ื ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžืš ืืช ื”ืžื•ืžื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืจื•ืื” ื‘ื—ื‘ืจืš. ื— ื—ื ื•ืคื” ื”ื™ื ื—ื‘ืœ ืขืฉื•ื™ ืžื“ื‘ืฉ. ื˜ ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืžืขื ึถื•ืช ืืช ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ื ืขื•ืจื™ื, ืžื ื—ืžืช ืืช ื”ื–ืงื ื™ื, ื•ื”ื™ื ืขืฉืจื ืฉืœ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื•ืขึถื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื. ื™ (ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืขืœ ืงื•ื‘ืœื ื”, ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื˜ืจื™ื“ ืขืฆืžื• ื‘ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืœืœื ื”ื‘ื ื” ื‘ื”): ื›ืฉืื ื™ ืžืขืžื™ื“ ืคื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืœื•ืžื“ โ€“ ืืฃ ื‘ื›ืš ื™ืฉ ืžืฉื•ื ืคืœืกื•ืคื™ื”. ื™ื ืื™ื–ื• ื”ืชื•ืขืœืช ืฉื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืžื‘ื™ืื” ืœืื“ื? ืœื›ืœึพื”ืคื—ื•ืช ื”ื™ื ืžื›ื™ื ื” ืื•ืชื• ืœืงืจืืช ื’ื•ืจืœื•. ื™ื‘ โ€œื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื ืฆืจื”โ€: ืœื, โ€“ ื”ืฆืจื” ื”ื™ื ื”ื—ื™ื™ื. ื™ื’ ืื ืฉื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ื ื“ื™ื•ืงื ื™ ืืœื™ื. ื™ื“ ืžื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืฆื“ื™ืง ื‘ืคื™ื• ื•ืœื ื‘ืžืขืฉื”, ื”ืœื” ืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืขื•ื’ื‘: ืืฃ ื–ื” ืื™ื ื• ืฉื•ืžืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ืฉ ื‘ืงื•ืœ ืขืฆืžื•. ื˜ื• ื’ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืฉื•ืœื—ืช ืืช ืงืจื ื™ื” ืœื›ืœ ืคื ื”, ื•ื‘ื›ืœึพื–ืืช ืื™ื ื” ืžืชืœื›ืœื›ืช. ื˜ื– ื”ื”ืžื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ื•ืื ืฉื™ื ืืš ืžืขื˜. ื™ื– ืื ื™ ืื–ืจื—ึพืขื•ืœื. ื™ื— ื”ืกื“ืจ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืจืื•ื™ ืœื›ืœ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืกื“ืจึพื”ืขื•ืœื. ื™ื˜ ื™ื—ื•ืก ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื•ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื”ื ืื™ื ื ืืœื ื›ืกื•ืชึพืคืืจ ืœืคื—ื•ืชื™ึพืขืจืš. ื› ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ื•ื ืจืขืฉ ืฉืžื˜ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื ืื—ื•ื–ื™ึพื–ื•ืขื”. ื›ื ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื•ื™, ืฉื”ื ืฉื™ื ืชื”ื™ื™ื ื” ืžืฉื•ืชืคื•ืช ืœื ื•; ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ืขืจืš ืœื ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ. ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื•ื™, ืฉื›ืœ ืื™ืฉ ื™ื–ื“ืงืง ืœื›ืœ ืืฉื” ื”ืžืชืจืฆื” ืœื• ืœื›ืš. ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ื’ื ื”ื‘ื ื™ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื ืœื›ื•ืœื ื•. ื›ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ืื” ืžื—ื•ืคืฉ ื”ื“ื‘ื•ืจ. ื›ื’ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืืช ื“ืขืชื ืขืœ ืžื” ืฉื”ื ืจื•ืื™ื ื‘ื”ืงื™ืฅ. ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืฉื”ื ืจื•ืื™ื ื‘ื—ืœื•ืžื, ื–ื” ืžื˜ืจื™ื“ ืืช ื“ืขืชื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื›ื“ ื›ืœื•ื ื”ืžื•ืช ืจืข ื”ื•ื? ื”ืจื™ ืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ื• ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ืฉื ื•. ื›ื” ื”ื›ืœ ืžืœื ืืœื”ื™ื. ืงึฐืจึทื˜ึผึถืก ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืื ื• ืœืฉืงื•ื“ ืขืœ ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืฉืจื™ึพื”ืฆื‘ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ื ืจืื™ื ืœื ื• ื›ื—ืžึธืจื™ื. ื‘ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉื ื—ืœืชื™ ืœื ื‘ื ืœื™ ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฉืจื™ ืืœื ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขื ื™ื•ืชื™. ื’ ื”ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืขืœื™ึพืชืื•ื” ืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืชืื ื™ื ื”ื’ึตื“ืœื•ืช ื‘ืžื•ืจื“ ื”ื”ืจ: ืื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ื ื•ืคืœื•ืช ื‘ื—ืœืงื• ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื ื•ื”ืŸ ืžืื›ืœ ืœืขื•ืจื‘ ื•ืœื–ืจื–ื™ืจ. ื“ (ืืœ ืึทืชึผึฐืœึตื˜ ืฆืขื™ืจ, ืฉืคื˜ื ืขืฆืžื• ื‘ื‘ืฉืจ ื•ื‘ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืคืชื— ืืช ื’ื•ืคื•): โ€“ ื”ื•ื™, ืื™ืฉึพืคืœืื™ื, ืขื“ ืžืชื™ ืชื‘ืฆืจ ื‘ืขืฆืžืš ืืช ื‘ื™ืชึพื”ืืกื•ืจื™ื ืฉืœืš? ื” (ืืœ ืขืฉื™ืจ ืฆืขื™ืจ, ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืฆื•ื™ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืžืกื‘ืช ื—ื•ื ืคื™ื): โ€“ ืœื‘ื™ ืขืœื™ืš, ืื‘ืจืš, ืขืœ ื‘ื“ื™ื“ื•ืชืš! ื• ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืœืื“ื ืœื”ื›ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื’ืœื• ืžื”ื›ืฉืœ ื‘ืœืฉื•ื ื•. ื– ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืคื™ื˜ื ื™ ื–ื”, ื”ืžืกื•ืจื‘ืœ ืžื“ื” ื’ื“ื•ืฉื” ืฉืœ ื ื™ื‘ื™ื ื•ืฆืขืฆื•ืขื™ึพื”ื’ื™ื•ื ื•ืช โ€“ ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื—ืžืกืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื–ื”. ื‘ึผึดื™ื•ึนืŸ ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื ื™ึพื—ื•ืจื™ื. ื‘ื ื™ึพื—ื•ืจื™ื ืจืขื™ื ื”ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื”ืชืื•ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื. ื‘ ื–ื• ืจืขื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ื›ืฉืจื•ืŸ ืœื™ืฉื ื‘ืžื ื•ื—ื” ืืช ื”ืจืขื•ืช. ื’ ืฉืœื˜ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื•ืคื™ ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ืฉืขืจื”. ื“ ื™ืื” ื’ื‘ื•ืจื” ืœืฆืขื™ืจื™ื, ื•ืชืคืืจืช ื–ืงื ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื‘ื™ื ื”. ื” ื”ื’ื•ืจืœ ืœื ื ืชืŸ ืœืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ืืช ืžืžื•ื ื ืชื•ืจืช ืžืชื ื” ืืœื ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืœื•ืื”. ื• (ืขืœ ื›ื™ืœื™): ืื“ื ื–ื” ืื™ืŸ ืžืžื•ื ื• ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชื• ืืœื ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ืžืžื•ื ื•. ื– ื”ื›ื™ืœื™ ื—ื•ืฉืฉ ืœืžืžื•ื ื• ื›ืึดืœื• ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื•; ืื‘ืœ ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื• ื›ืึดืœื• ื”ื•ื ืฉืœ ืื—ืจื™ื. ื— ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื›ื™ืก ืžื”ื•ื”ื”, ืฉื”ื•ื ืขืฆืžื• ืื™ื ื• ืฉื•ื” ื›ืœื•ื ื•ื›ืœ ืขืจื›ื• ืจืง ื‘ืขืจืš ื”ื›ืกืฃ ืฉื‘ืชื•ื›ื•, ื›ืš ืื ืฉื™ื ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื•ื ืงืœื™ื ื›ืœ ืขืจื›ื ื‘ืขืจืš ืจื›ื•ืฉื. ื˜ ื›ืฉืืœื”ื™ื ืžืฉื”ื” ืืช ื”ื’ืžื•ืœ ื•ืคื•ืงื“ ืขื•ืŸ ืื‘ื•ืช ืขืœ ื‘ื ื™ื, ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืขื•ื“ ืžื’ื•ื—ืš ืžืŸ ื”ืจื•ืคื ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ืกืžื™ึพืžืจืคื ืœื‘ื ื• ืื• ืœื‘ืŸึพื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื•ืœื”. ื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ื™ื ืืึพื—ื•ืจื’ืช ืœื‘ื ื™ึพืื“ื, ืื•ืœื ืื ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืœื—ึทื™ื•ืช ื ืขื“ืจื•ืชึพื“ืขืช. ื™ื ื›ืœึพื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืื“ื ืื™ื ื• ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉื•ื‘ืข, ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ื“ืข ืืš ืžื—ืกื•ืจ; ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชื•, ืื™ื ื• ืฉืœื•. ื”ืœื” ื ืžืฉืœ ืœืฉื•ืœื—ื ื™: ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื›ืกืฃ ืจื‘ ื•ืชืžื™ื“ ื”ื•ื ื–ืงื•ืง ืœื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื•. ืžื•ึนื ื™ืžื•ึนืก ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืœืื“ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ึตืจ ืžืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ืกืจึพื“ืขื”. ื”ืขื•ึตืจ ื ื•ืคืœ ืœืชื•ืš ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ื—ืกืจึพื“ืขื” โ€“ ืœืชื•ืš ืชื”ื•ื. ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืงึดื™ืจึถื ึตื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ึพืงึดื™ืจึถื ึตื™ ืงืจื•ื™ื™ื ื’ื ื—ื›ืžื™ ื”ื ืื”, ื”ึถื“ื•ึนื ึธืึดื™ื, ืขืœ ืฉื ืชื•ืจืชื, ืชื•ืจืช ื”ื—ืžื“ื”. ืขืœ ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื–ื• ื ืžื ื™ื: ืึทืจึดื™ืกื˜ึดืคึผื•ึนืก ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ, ืืจื™ืกื˜ืคื•ืก ื”ืฆืขื™ืจ, ืชึผึตืื•ึนื“ื•ึนืจื•ืก, ืึทื ื™ึถืงืจึดื™ืก, ื”ึถื’ึถืกึดื™ึทืก. ืึทืจึดื™ืกึฐื˜ึดืคึผื•ึนืก ืชืœโ€œื”โ€“ืฉื โ€ื—. ื™ืœื™ื“ ืงึตื™ืจึถื ื™ ืขืœ ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืืคืจื™ืงื” ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ื•ืžื™ืกื“ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื”ืงืจื•ื™ื” ืขืœ ืฉื ืžื•ืœื“ืชื•. ืื—ื“ ืžืฉื•ืžืขื™ ืœืงื—ื• ืฉืœ ืกื•ึนืงืจึทื˜ืก, ืฉื ื” ื•ืคืจืฉ ืžืชื•ืจืช ืจื‘ื•. ื‘ืชื• ื•ื ื›ื“ื•, ืึทืจึดื™ืกื˜ึดืคึผื•ึผืก ื”ืฆืขื™ืจ, ื”ื™ื• ืžืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ื”ืžื•ื‘ื”ืงื™ื, ืžื•ืกืจื• โ€“ ืžื•ืกืจ ื”ื—ืžื“ื”. ืจืื•ื™ ืœืื“ื ืœืฉืื•ืฃ ืืœ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื• ื”ื ืื” ื•ืœื”ืžื ืข ืžืŸ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื’ื•ืจื ืœื• ืฆืขืจ. ืื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ื”ื”ื ืื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืืœื ื"ื› ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื™ืชืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืžื“ื”. ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื™ืฉ ืœืฉืชืฃ ื—ืžื“ื” ืขื ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ื ื•ืช ื•ืฉืงื•ืœึพื”ื“ืขืช. ืึทืจึดื™ืกึฐื˜ึดืคึผื•ึนืก ื ืชืขื•ื“ืชื” ืฉืœ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื™ื ื”ื ืื”. ื›ืœ ื”ื ื”ื ื” ื”ืจื™ื”ื• ืžืื•ืฉืจ; ื•ืžื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื˜ื•ืขื ื˜ืขื ื”ื ืื”, ื”ืœื” ืงืฉื”ึพื™ื•ื, ืžืฉื ื”ึพืื•ืžืœืœ ื•ืื•ื‘ื“ ื‘ืขื ื™ื•. ื‘ ื”ื”ื ืื” ืื™ื ื” ื‘ืื” ืžืชื•ืš ืจืื™ื” ื•ืฉืžื™ืขื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“; ืฉื”ืจื™ ืงื™ื ื•ืช ืขืœ ื‘ืžืชึพื”ื—ื–ื™ื•ืŸ ื’ื•ืจืžื•ืช ืœื ื• ืจื’ืฉ ืฉืœ ื”ื ืื”, ื•ืึดืœื• ื‘ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื”ืŸ ืžืขื•ืจืจื•ืช ื‘ื ื• ืจื’ืฉ ืฉืœ ืฆืขืจ. ืžืฆื‘ึพื‘ื™ื ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืžืฆื‘ ื—ืคืฉื™ ืžืŸ ื”ื ืื” ื•ืฆืขืจ. ื”ืจื’ืฉ ืฉืœ ื”ื ืื” ื’ื•ืคื ื™ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื–ืง ืžืŸ ื”ืจื’ืฉ ืฉืœ ื”ื ืื” ื ืคืฉื™ืช, ื•ื›ืŸ ืคื’ืขื™ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ืงืฉื™ื ืžืคื’ืขื™ ื”ื ืคืฉ. ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืื•ื ื• ืžื˜ื™ืœื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืคื•ืฉืข ืขื•ื ืฉื™ื ืžืฉึถืœ ื”ืกื•ื’ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ. ื’ ื”ืžื“ื™ืจ ืขืฆืžื• ืžืŸ ื”ื”ื ืื” ืื™ื ื• ื ืขืฉื” ืื“ื•ืŸ ืœื”. ืื“ื•ืŸ ืœื” ืžื™ ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื” ื•ืฉืœื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื’ืจืฃ ื‘ืฉื˜ืคื”. ืžื™ ืจื•ืื™ ืœื”ืงืจื ืื“ื•ืŸ ืœืกืคื™ื ื” ืื• ืœืกื•ืก? ืœื ื–ื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื ืืœื ื–ื” ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ื”ื ื›ืจืฆื•ื ื•. ื“ ืขื•ื“ืฃ ื ื›ืกื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ืจืข ื›ืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ืฉืœ ื ืขืœ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืžื“ืชื•. ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ื ืขืœ ืื™ื ื• ืจืื•ื™ ื›ืœืœ ืœืฉืžื•ืฉ ืžื—ืžืช ืžื“ืชื• ื”ื™ืชืจื”, ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ื ื›ืกื™ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื ื‘ืฉืขืชึพื›ื•ืฉืจ ืื ื‘ื›ื•ืœื ื•ืื ื‘ืžืงืฆืชื. ื” ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ื ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื”ื ื ื›ืกื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ื ืœื”ื ืืช ื”ื—ื›ืžื”, ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืขื–ื‘ื•ืŸ. ื• ืืœ ืชื”ื ืฆื•ืขืง ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ ื•ืืœ ืชื”ื ืžืชื™ืจื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืขืชื™ื“ึพืœื‘ื•ื; ื–ื” ืกืžื ื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ื—ืชึพื ืคืฉ ื•ื‘ื›ืš ื ื›ึผืจืช ืฉืœื•ืช ืžื—ืฉื‘ื”. ืชืŸ ื“ืขืชืš ืขืœ ื”ืžืชืจื—ืฉ ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื, ื•ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื“ืขืชืš ืขืœ ืื•ืชื• ืจื’ืข ืฉืืชื” ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื• ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืื• ืžื”ืจื”ืจ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”. ืฉื›ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืœื ื• ืืœื ื”ื•ึนื•ื”, ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ื•ืœื ืขืชื™ื“: ื”ืขื‘ืจ ื›ื‘ืจ ืื™ืŸ, ื”ืขืชื™ื“ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื—ืชื•ืœ ื‘ืขืจืคืœ ื•ืžื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืื ื‘ื ื™ื‘ื•ื. ื– (ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืœืžื’ื“ืฃ): โ€“ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชืš ืืชื” ืœื”ืชืจื™ืก ื›ื ื’ื“ื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืงืฉื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชื™ ืื ื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ืžืข ืื•ืชื ื›ืจืื•ื™ ืœื”ื. ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืžึถื’ึทืจึทื” ื—ื›ืžื™ึพืžื’ืจื” ื ืงืจืื• ื’ื: ืคื•ืœืžื•ืกื ื™ื โ€“ ืขืœ ืฉื•ื ื—ื‘ืชื ื”ื™ืจื” ืœืžืœืื›ืชึพื”ื ืฆื•ื— ื•ืœื•ื›ื•ื—ื™ื ืžืคื•ืœืคืœื™ื. ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื ืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ืกื“ื•ืช ืžืฉึถืœ ื”ืงื™ื ืื™ื. ื. ืึถื‘ึฐืงึฐืœึดื™ื“ึถืก ืชโ€œืŸ โ€“ืฉโ€ืฃ ืœืขืจืš. ืื—ื“ ืžื‘ื ื™ึพืกื™ืขืชื• ืฉืœ ืกื•ืงืจื˜ืก, ืฉื‘ืจื—ื• ืœืžึถื’ึทืจื” ืœืื—ืจื™ ืžื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื. ืชื•ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ืื‘ืงืœื™ื“ื•ืก ื–ื” โ€“ ืืœ ืชื—ืœื™ืคื• ื‘ืื‘ืงืœื™ื“ืก ืขืœ ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ื”ื ื“ืกื” โ€“ ืกืžื•ื›ื” ื‘ื›ืžื” ืžืขืงืจื™ื” ืœืชื•ืจืช ื—ื›ืžื™ ืึธืœึตืึธื”. ืื•ืœื ื”ื™ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืžื–ื“ื•ื’ ื‘ื” ืขืื”ื˜ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ื”ื”ืกื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช; ื”ื™ืฉ, ื”ื˜ื•ื‘, ื”ืื•ืฉืจ ื•ืืœื”ื™ื ืขื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื” ืœื™ื“ื™ ืื—ื“ื•ืช ืขืœื™ื•ื ื”. ื‘. ื“ึผึดื™ื•ึนื“ื•ึนืจื•ึนืก ื›ึผึฐืจื•ึนื ื•ึนืก ื™ืœื™ื“ ื™ึทืกื•ึนืก ืฉื‘ืงึตืจื™ื”, ืžืช ื‘ืฉื ืช ืฉโ€œื– ืœืคื ื™ ืกืคื”โ€ื . ื”ื•ื ื“ืŸ ื‘ื™ื—ื•ื“ ืขืœ ืฉืืœืช ื”ืืคืฉืจ ื•ื”ื ืžืฆื ื•ืขืœ ื”ื™ื—ืก ืฉื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื. ื’. ืกึฐื˜ึดืœึฐืคึผื•ึผึนืŸึน ืฉ"ืฃโ€“ืฉ' ืœืขืจืš, ื™ืœื™ื“ ืžึถื’ึทืจึทื”, ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื‘ื—ื‘ื•ืจื”. ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืคืจ ื‘ืขืจืš ื”ืžืžืฉื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื•ืฉื’ื™ื ื•ืžืชื ื’ื“ ืœืชื•ืจืช ื”ืžืฉื•ื›ืœื™ื ืžื™ืกื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืืคืœื˜ื•ืŸ. ืžื•ืกืจื• โ€“ ืžื•ืกืจ ื”ื”ืกืชืคืงื•ืช ื•ืฉืœื™ืœืช ื”ืฆืจื›ื™ื. ืึถื‘ึฐืงึฐืœึดื™ื“ึถืก ื ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ืฉ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืžื ื•; ืื™ืŸ ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ืคืกื“ื” ืื• ืื™ื–ื• ืชื ื•ืขื” ืฉื”ื™ื. ื‘ ืื—ื“ื”ื•ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืจืง ืฉืžื•ืชื™ื• ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ื! ืคืขืžื™ื ื”ื•ื ืงืจื•ื™ ื‘ื™ื ื”, ืคืขืžื™ื โ€“ ืืœื”ื™ื, ื•ืคืขืžื™ื โ€“ ืจื•ื—, ื•ื›ื“ื•ืžื”. ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืฉื•ื ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœื•. ื’ ื›ืฉืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ: โ€œืฉืงืจ ื‘ืคื™โ€, ื•ื–ื” ืืžืช โ€“ ื”ืจื™ ืืชื” ื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืฉืงืจ. ื”ืŸ ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืฉืงืจ ื‘ืคื™ืš, ื•ื“ื‘ืจืš ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืืžืช; ืžืกืชื‘ืจ, ืฉืืชื” ื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืฉืงืจ. ื“. ืื ืœื ืื‘ื“ ืœืš ืื™ื–ื” ื“ื‘ืจ, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื™ืฉื ื• ืœืš. ื•ืžืื—ืจ ืฉืœื ืื‘ื“ื• ืœืš ืงืจื ื™ื, ืžืกืชื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืš ืงืจื ื™ื. ื“ึผึดื™ื•ึนื“ื•ึนืจื•ึนืก ื›ึผึฐืจื•ึนื ื•ึนืก ื ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ืชืจื—ืฉ ืืœื ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื ืื• ืขืชื™ื“ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืžืฆื. ื‘ ื›ืœ ื”ืขื‘ืจ ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืžืฆื. ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉืžืชื•ืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืืคืฉืจื™ ื™ื”ื ืžืชื”ื•ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืืคืฉืจื™. ื•ืžื”ื• ื”ืืคืฉืจ? ืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขืชื™ื“ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืžืฆื. ืืžื•ืจ ืžืขืชื”, ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉื™ื”ื ืžืชื”ื•ื” ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ืžืฆื ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขืชื™ื“ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ืžืฆื. ื’ ืœืขื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืชื ื•ืขืข ืืœื ื”ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืชื ื•ืขื”. ื”ืŸ ืคึผึฐืจึธื“ ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืžืจ ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ ืœื”ืžืฆื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืคึผึฐืจึธื“ ืฉืœ ืžืงื•ื ื•ืืึพื›ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืข ืฉื™ื”ื ืžืชื ื•ืขืข ื‘ืชื•ืš ื–ื” โ€“ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ืคึผึฐืจึธื“ ืžืžืœื ืืช ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ืžื• ื•ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื–ืงื•ืงื” ืœืžืจื—ื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ โ€“ ื•ื’ื ืœื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืคึฐืจึธื“ ืื—ืจ, ื”ืคื ื•ื™ ืžืžื ื•. ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืชื ื•ืขืข. ืื•ืœื ืœืคื™ ื”ืฉื’ืช ืฉื›ืœื ื• ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืชื ื•ืขื”; ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืชื—ืœื” ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ืจึพื›ืš ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื™, ื•ื–ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื ืžื ืขื•ืช ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื•ื ื ื—. ื‘ืจื ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื’ืข ื ืžืฆื ื”ื ืข ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“, ื•ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“ ืื™ื ื• ืžืชื ื•ืขืข. ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉื”ื ืข ืื™ื ื• ืžืชื ื•ืขืข. ื“ ื›ืฉืื™ื–ื• ื—ื•ืžื” ื”ื•ืœื›ืช ื•ื ืกืชืจืช, ื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ื ื”ื•ืœื›ืช ื•ื ืกืชืจืช ืื ื›ืœึพื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจื•ืช ื–ื• ื‘ื–ื• ื•ื—ืกื•ืžื•ืช ืื—ืช ื‘ื—ื‘ืจืชื” ืื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ืชืคืจื“ื• ื•ื ืชืคื•ืจืจื•. ืื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืžื” ื ืกืชืจืช ื›ืœึพื–ืžืŸ ืฉืื‘ื ื™ื” ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจื•ืช ื™ื—ื“ ื•ื—ืกื•ืžื•ืช ืื—ืช ื‘ื—ื‘ืจืชื” ื•ืœื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ืชืคืจื“ื• ื•ื ืชืคื•ืจืจื•. ืžื›ืืŸ, ืฉืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื ืกืชืจืช ื›ืœึพืขึดืงืจ. ืกึฐื˜ึดืœืคึผื•ึนืŸ ื ื›ืœ ื”ืื•ืžืจ: ืื“ื โ€“ ืœื ืืžืจ ื‘ื›ืš ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื. ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืชื›ื•ึตืŸ ืœื ืœื–ื” ื•ืœื ืœื–ื”. ืžืฉื•ืึพืžื” ื™ื”ื ืžืชื›ื•ืŸ ื“ื•ืงื ืœื–ื” ื•ืœื ืœืื—ืจ? ืžืกืชื‘ืจ, ืฉืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืชื›ื•ืŸ ื’ื ืœื–ื”. ื‘ ื”ื—ื›ื ื“ื™ ืœื• ื‘ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื–ืงื•ืง ืœื™ื“ื™ื“ื™ื. ื”ืงื ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ืขืœื” ื”ื•ื ื”ืขื“ืจึพื”ืจื’ืฉื”. ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืึถืœึผึดื™ืก ื•ึฐืึถืจึถื˜ึฐืจึดื™ึธื” ืชื•ืจืชื” ืฉืœ ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื–ื• ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืจื•ื‘ื” ื›ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืืกื›ื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ืžึถื’ึทืจึทื”, ืขื“ ืฉืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื ื›ืœืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ืื—ื“. ืžื™ืกื“ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื‘ืึถืœื™ืก ื”ื•ื ืคื™ื“ื•ืŸ. ื. ืคึตื™ื“ื•ึนืŸ ื™ืœื™ื“ ืึถืœื™ืก, ืฉื ืฉื‘ื” ื‘ืžืœื—ืžื” ื•ื ืžื›ืจ ืžืคื ื™ ื™ืคื™ื• ืœื‘ื™ืชึพื–ื ื•ื ื™ื ืฉื‘ืึทืชึผื•ื ื”. ืœื›ืฉื ืฉืชื—ืจืจ, ื›ื ืจืื” ื‘ื”ืฉืชื“ืœื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืกื•ืงืจืงื˜ืก, ื ืขืฉื” ืœืื—ื“ ืžืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื• ื”ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื™ื ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืชื•ืจืชึพืžื•ืกืจื• ืžืชึผึทื•ึถื›ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ืช ื”ื”ื—ืžื“ื” ืฉืœ ืึทืจื™ืกื˜ึดืคื•ึนืก ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ืช ื”ื”ืกืชืคืงื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืงื™ื ืื™ื. ื‘. ืžึถื ึถื“ึถืžื•ึนืก ื–ืžื ื•:ืฉื โ€œื‘โ€“ืจืขโ€ื— ืœืขืจืš. ื”ื•ื ืื‘ื“ ืขืฆืž ืœื“ืขืช ืžืชื•ืš ืฆืขืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžืื•ืจืขื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื™ื, ืฉืชืงืคื• ืขืœ ืขืžื• ื•ืืจืฆื•. ืžึถื ึถื“ึถืžื•ึนืก ื”ืจื‘ื™ืฅ ืืช ืชื•ืจืช ืคื™ื“ื•ืŸ ื‘ืึถืจึถื˜ึฐืจึดื™ึธื” ื•ื ืชื›ื•ืŸ ืœืงืขืงืข ืืช ื”ืžืกื•ืจื” ื›ื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืขืชื™ืงื”. ืคึตื™ื“ื•ึนืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืœื ื™ืžืฆื ืืช ืชืงื•ื ื• ื‘ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”. ื”ื™ื ืžื˜ื”ืจืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืืช ื“ืจื›ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื•, ืืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ืชื•, ืืช ืชืื•ืชื•, ื•ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื›ืš. ืžึถื ึถื“ึถืžื•ึนืก ื ืœื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื›ื”ืจื™ ื–ื”. ื”ืื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ? โ€“ ื›ืŸ. ืœื ื”ืจื™ ื”ืชื•ืขืœืช ื›ื”ืจื™ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘. ื”ืื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ? โ€“ ื›ืŸ. ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื™ื ื• ืชื•ืขืœืช. ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ืขืจืš ืœืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื ืฉืœื™ืœื™ื™ื. ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืขืžื™ื“ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื™ื; ื•ืจืง ื”ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ื•ืœื ื”ืžืจื›ื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ืžืกื•ื‘ื›ื™ื, ื“ื™ื ื ื“ื™ืŸ. ื’ ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื“ื”ึพื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื•ืจืง ืฉืžื•ืชื™ื” ืฉื•ื ื™ื. ืคืงื—ื•ืช, ื’ื‘ื•ืจื”, ืฆื“ืง โ€“ ืขื ื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื, ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ืื“ื ื•ื‘ืŸึพืชืžื•ืชื”. ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื” ืฉืœ ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ื”ืื’ื•ื“ื” ืฉื ื•ืกื“ื” ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืึทืคืœื˜ื•ึนืŸ ื•ืฉื ืชืคืจืกืžื” ื‘ืฉื ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื ืชืงื™ืžื” ื›ืžืขื˜ ืืœืฃ ืฉื ื”. ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ื ืœื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืฉืœืฉ ืชืงื•ืคื•ืช: ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื”ืขืชื™ืงื”, ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื”ืืžืฆืขื™ืช, ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื”ื—ื“ืฉื”. ื”ืืžืฆืขื™ืช ื•ื”ื—ื“ืฉื” ืžืกืžื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืชืงื•ืคื” ืฉืœืื—ืจื™ ืืจื™ืกื˜ื•. ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ืขืžื“ื•: ืกึฐืคึผื›ืกื™ืคึผื•ึนืก, ืงืจื•ื‘ื• ืฉืœ ืืคืœื˜ื•ืŸ, ื›ึผึฐืกึถื ื•ืงึฐืจึทื˜ึถืก, ืคึผื•ึนืœึฐืžื•ืŸ, ืงึฐืจึทื˜ึถืก. ื ืžื ื™ื ืขืœื™ื” ื’ื ื”ึถืจึทืงืœึดื™ื“ึถืก, ืคื™ืœื™ืคึผ ื”ึธืึทืคึผื•ืกึดื™, ื”ึถืจืžื•ึนื“ื•ึนืก, ืงึฐืจึทื ึฐื˜ื•ืจ. ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื”ืืžืฆืขื™ืช ืขืžื“ื•: ืึทืจื›ึผึถืกึดื™ืœึทืื•ึผืก ื•ึฐืงึทืจึฐื ึถืึทื“ึถืก. ืขืœ ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื”ื—ื“ืฉื” ืžืชื™ื—ืกื™ื: ืคึดื™ืœื•ึนืŸ ืžืŸ ืœึทืจึดื™ืกึทื” ื•ืื ื˜ื™ื•ื›ื•ืก ืžืืฉืงืœื•ืŸ. ื. ืกึฐืคึผึถื‘ึฐืกึดืคึผื•ึนืก ื–ืžื ื•: ืฉืž"ื–โ€“ืฉ. ืจืืฉ ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ืฉื‘ืืชื•ื ื” ืœืื—ืจ ืคื˜ื™ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ืืคืœื˜ื•ืŸ (ืฉืžโ€œื–โ€“ืฉืœโ€ื˜). ืื•ืœื ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืงืจื•ื‘ ื‘ืจื•ื—ื• ืœืคึผึดืชึทึผื’ึผื•ึนืจึธืึดื™ื. ืขืงืจื™ ืžืฉื ืชื•: ืืœื”ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื ืคืฉึพื”ืขื•ืœื, ืฉืžืฉื›ื ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืจื—ื‘. ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื•ื ื ืฆื—ื™ ื•ื™ืฉ ื”ืฉืืจื•ืช ืœื ืคืฉ. ื‘ืžื•ืฉื›ืœื™ื ื˜ื‘ื•ืขื” ื”ืžืžืฉื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ืชืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื”. โ€“ ื—ื™ื™ึพืžื•ืกืจ ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื ืžืชืื™ืžื™ื ืœื“ืจื›ื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ื‘. ื›ึฐึผืกึถื ื•ึนืงึฐืจึทื˜ึถืก ื™ืœื™ื“ ื›ึทืœืงึถื“ื•ืŸ. ืจืืฉ ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ ืกืคึผื‘ืกืคึผื•ืก (ืฉืœโ€œื˜โ€“ืฉื™โ€ื“). ืžื™ื—ืกื™ื ืœื• ื—ืœื•ืงืช ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืœืฉืœืฉื” ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช: ืคื™ืกื™ืงื”, ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ืžื•ืกืจ, ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ. ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื” ืกื•ื’ื™ื ืฉืœ ื™ืฉื•ืช: ื™ืฉื•ืช ืžื•ื—ืฉืช ืœื—ื•ืฉื™ื, ื™ืฉื•ืช ืชืคื•ืกื” ืœืžื—ืฉื‘ื”, ื™ืฉื•ืช ืžื•ื‘ื—ื ืช ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ืืžื•ื ื”. ื”ืžื•ืฉื›ืœื™ื ืื• ื”ืžืกืคืจื™ื ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ื™ืกื•ื“ ื”ืื—ื“ ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืกืชื•ืžื”; ืžืชื•ื›ื ืžืชื”ื•ื” ื ืคืฉึพื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืžืชื ื•ืขืขืช ืžืืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื•ืœื™ื“ื” ื›ื—ื•ืช ื•ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ืžื“ืจื’ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ, ืžืŸ ื”ืืœื™ื ื•ื”ืฉื˜ื ื™ื ืขื“ ื”ื™ืฆื•ืจื™ื ื”ืฉืคืœื™ื. ื’. ืงึฐืจึทื ึฐื˜ื•ึนืจ ื™ืœื™ื“ ืกื•ึนืœื•ึนืŸ ืฉื‘ืงึดื™ืœึดื™ืงื™ื”. ืชืœืžื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื›ึผึฐืกึถื ื•ืงืจึทื˜ืก ื•ืžืคืจืฉื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืืคืœื˜ื•ืŸ. ื–ืžื ื•: ืฉโ€œืœโ€“ืจโ€ืข ืœืขืจืš. ื”ื•ื ื ืœื—ื ื‘ื—ื›ืžื™ึพืฉื˜ื•ืื”, ืฉืžืฆืื• ืืช ืืฉืจื• ืฉืœ ื”ืื“ื ื‘ื”ืขื“ืจึพื”ืจื’ืฉื”, ื•ืžื•ื ื” ืืช ื”ืฆืขืจ ืขืœ ืฆืจื›ื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ื›ืจื—ื™ื”ื. ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื, ื”ื•ื ืžืกื‘ื™ืจ, ืื—ืจืื™ื ืขืœ ื’ื•ืจืœื ื•ื”ื ืขืฆืžื ืืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืคื’ืขื™ื ื”ืจืขื™ื ื”ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœื”ื, ื•ืฆืขืจื โ€“ ื–ื” ืขื ืฉื ืฉื‘ื“ื™ืŸ. ืกึฐืคึผึถื‘ึฐืกึดืคึผื•ึนืก ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ืขืฆืžื™ื. ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื”ื ื”ื•ื ื”ืื—ื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ืฆื•ืจื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช ืœื•, ืœืืžืจ: ืขืฆื ืฉืœ ืžืกืคืจ, ืขืฆื ืฉืœ ืฉืขื•ืจื™ ื›ืžื•ืช, ืขืฆื ืฉืœ ื ืคืฉ. ื‘ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ืงืจึพืขืจืš ื”ื•ื ื’ื ื™ืงืจ ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช. ืžืงื•ืžื• ื‘ื˜ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืขื•ืœื, ืื•ืœื ื’ื ื‘ืงืฆื•ื•ืช ืœืฉื ื™ ื”ืขื‘ึธืจื™ื. ื’ ื”ืžืกืคืจ ืฉื‘ื—ื›ืžืชึพื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ื ืžืฆื, ื ืคืจื“ ืžื›ืœ ื”ืžื•ื—ืฉื•ืช. ื“ ื™ืฉ ืื™ื–ื” ื›ื— ื—ื™, ื”ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ื‘ื›ืœ. ื” ื”ืžืงื•ื ื ืชื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ืฉืขื•ืจื™ ื”ื’ื•ืคื™ื ื•ื”ืžืกืคืจื™ื. ื• ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื•ื ืฉืขื•ืจ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืš ืชื ื•ืขื”. ื– ืืฃ ื”ื—ืœืง ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžืฉื›ื™ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืŸึพืืœืžื•ืช. ื— ื ืคืฉื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ืื ืฉื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืืฆื™ืœื™ื ื”ืŸ ื›ื—ื•ืช ืืœื•ื”, ืื•ืœื ื‘ืžื“ืจื’ื” ืคื—ื•ืชื” ื•ื‘ืคื’ื™ืžื•ืช. ื˜ ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืจ ืืœื ืฉืœืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžืฆื‘ื™ื ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื. ื–ื” ืžืฆื‘ ืฉืœ ื”ึทื˜ึธื‘ื”, ืžืฆื‘ึพื ืคืฉ, ืฉืืœื™ื• ืขื•ืจื’ื™ื ื›ืœ ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื: ื”ืžืจื’ื•ืข โ€“ ื•ื–ื” ืชื›ืœื™ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื. ืื•ืœื ื”ืžื“ื•ืชึพื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืŸ ืฉืžื•ืœื™ื›ื•ืช ืœื™ื“ื™ ืื•ืฉืจ. ื™ ื”ื—ื›ื ื”ื•ื ืชืžื™ื“ ืžืื•ืฉืจ. ื™ื ืื ื’ื ื”ืขืฆื‘ ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืจืข, ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื›ืืŸ ืจืื™ื” ืฉื”ืชืขื ื•ื’ ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘. ืฉื”ืจื™ ืจืข ืื—ื“ ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœืจืข ืฉื ื™, ื•ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืขืœื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœืจืข ืฉืœื™ืฉื™. ื›ึผึฐืกึถื ื•ึนืงึฐืจึทื˜ึผึถืก ื ืืœืžืœื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžื•ืฉื›ืœื™ื, ื”ื™ื• ื”ืœืœื• ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ืฉื”ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื ืขืฉื• ืฉื•ื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืื—ื“. ื‘ ื”ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ืฉื•ื”ึพื”ืฆืœืขื•ืช ืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืืœื”ื™ื, ื”ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืฉื•ื” ื‘ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• โ€“ ืœื‘ืŸึพืชืžื•ืชื”, ื”ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ืฉื•ื”ึพื”ืฉื•ืงื™ื โ€“ ืœืฉื˜ืŸ. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื”ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืœื• ืฉื•ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžื•,ื”ืฉื ื™ ื›ื•ืœื• ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืฉื•ื”, ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืžืงืฆืชื• ืฉื•ื” ื•ืžืงืฆืชื• ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืฉื•ื” โ€“ ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ืžื”ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ืฉื˜ื ื™ื, ื”ืžื–ื•ื’ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ืกื’ื•ืœื•ืช ืืœื”ื™ื ืขื ืกื’ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ืŸึพืชืžื•ืชื”. ื’ ื”ื”ื•ื™ื” ืžึธืจื›ื‘ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืื—ื“ ื•ืžืŸ ืื™ืŸึพื”ืกื•ืฃ. ื“ ืžื”ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื“ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื ืชื”ื•ื•, ื•ื”ื™ื ืชื ื•ืขื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืคื•ืกืงืช ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช. ื” ื”ืžื•ืฉื›ืœื™ื ื•ื”ืžืกืคืจื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื ื™ ื˜ื‘ืข ืื—ื“ ื•ืžืชื•ื›ื ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ื™ืชืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื: ืงื•ื™ื ื•ืฉื˜ื—ื™ื ืขื“ ื”ืขืฆื ืฉื‘ื’ืœื’ืœื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื”ืžื•ื—ืฉื•ืช. ื• ื–ื”ื‘ ืžืชื”ื•ื” ืžืŸ ื–ื•ืœืชึพื–ื”ื‘ ื•ืื‘ืŸ ืžืŸ ื–ื•ืœืชึพืื‘ืŸ, ื•ื›ืŸ ื™ืชืจ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืชื”ื•ื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ. ื– ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื•ื ื ืฆื—ื™ ื•ืœื ื ืชื”ื•ื”. ื— ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื™ื ืžืกืคืจ ื”ืžื ื™ืข ืืช ืขืฆืžื•. ื˜ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ืคืจื“ ื•ืœื”ืฉืชื—ืจืจ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ. ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื ืคืฉ ืžึธื›ื•ืŸ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื”, ืืœื ื”ื™ื ืจื•ึนื•ึทื—ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ. ื™ื ื”ื ืคืฉ ืื™ื ื” ื‘ื”ืคืกึธื“ื”. ื™ื‘ ื”ื ืฉืžื” ื ื›ื ืกืช ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ. ื™ื’ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืืชื” ืชื•ืงืข ืืช ืจื’ืœื™ืš ืœืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืช ื–ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉืืชื” ื ื•ืขืฅ ื‘ื• ืืช ืžื‘ื˜ืš. ืื•ืชื• ื—ื˜ื ื”ื•ื, ืื ืฉืืชื” ื”ื•ืœืš ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืœืš ืœื™ืœืš ื•ืื ืฉืืชื” ืžืกืชื›ืœ ื‘ืžื” ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืœืš ืœื”ืกืชื›ืœ. ื™ื“ ืจืง ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืืžืชื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ืžืจืฆื•ื ื• ืืช ืฉืื—ืจื™ื ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืžืื•ื ืก ื•ืžืชื•ืš ื›ืคื™ื” ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืงื™ื. ื˜ื• ืžื” ื’ืจื ืœื’ืœื•ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”? ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ืœืฉื™ื ืงืฅ ืœืื™ึพืกื“ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ื—ื™ื™ื. ืงึฐืจึทื ึฐื˜ื•ึนืจ ื ืื ืืชื” ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืš, ืฉืืชื” ืกื•ื‘ืœ ืืช ืกื‘ืœืš ืœื ื‘ื’ืœืœืš, ื”ืจื™ ื™ืฉ ืœืš ื‘ืฆืจืชืš ืžืฉื•ื ื—ืฆื™ ื ื—ืžื” ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื‘ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื™ื ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืžื•ืฉื›ืœ ื•ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืžืฆื•ื™ืจ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื”ืชืคื™ืกื” ื”ื—ื•ืฉื™ืช. ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื”ืžึทืฉึผืึธืึดื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื–ื• ืฉืœ ืืจื™ืกื˜ื• ืงืจื•ื™ื™ื ืคึผึธืจึดื™ืคึผึทื˜ึธืื™ื, ื˜ึทื™ึผึธืœื™ื ืื• ืžื”ืœื›ื™ื ืื• ืžืฉืื™ื, ืขืœ ืฉื ื”ืื›ืกื“ืจื” ืฉื‘ื” ืœืžื“ื• ื”ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื“ืจืš ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืขื ืจื‘ื. ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ืจืืฉื™ ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื–ื• ื•ื‘ื ื™ึพืœื•ื™ืชื ื”ื: ืชึผึตืื•ืคืจึทืกึฐื˜ึถืก, ืึถื‘ื“ึถืžื•ืก, ืึทืจึดื™ืกื˜ื•ึนื›ึผึฐืกึถื ื•ึนืก, ื“ึดื™ืงึทื™ืึทืจึฐื›ื•ึนืก, ืกึฐื˜ึฐืจึทื˜ื•ึนืŸ. ื. ืชึผึตืื•ึนืคึฐืจึทืกื˜ื•ึนืก ืฉืขโ€œื‘โ€“ืจืคโ€ื– ืœืขืจืš. ื™ืœื™ื“ ืึถืจึถืกื•ืก ืฉื‘ืœืกื‘ื•ืก. ืจืืฉ ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืžืฉืื™ื ืœืื—ืจ ืžื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืืจื™ืกื˜ื•. ื”ื•ื ืฉืžืฉ ื‘ื” ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืฉื ื” ื•ื”ืขืžื™ื“ ื›ืืœืคื™ื ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื. ืฆื ืžืœื ืกืคืจื ื•ื›ืžืขื˜ ืœื ื”ื ื™ื— ื‘ืžื“ืขื™ื ืฉื•ื ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืฉืœื ื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื•. ื‘ื™ื—ื•ื“ ืขืกืง ื‘ืžื“ืขื™ึพื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ื”ื•ื ืžื’ึตืŸ ืขืœ ืชื•ืจืช ืืจื™ืกื˜ื• ื‘ื ื“ื•ืŸ ืงื“ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื. ื‘ืกืคืจื• โ€œืชื›ื•ื ื•ืช ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื•ืชโ€ ื”ื•ื ื“ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ืœืฉื•ืช ื”ืžืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ึพื”ืื“ื. ืžื™ื—ืกื™ื ืœื• ืืช ื”ืžืืžืจ ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื: ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืžื•ืŸ. ื‘ืื—ื“ ืžืกืคืจื™ื• ื”ื•ื ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ โ€œืขื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื ื•ื˜ื” ื‘ืจื•ื—ื• ืœืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”โ€. ื‘. ื“ึดื™ืงึทื™ืึทืจึฐื›ื•ึนืก ื™ืœื™ื“ ืžึถืกึถื ึตื™ ืฉื‘ืกื™ืฆื™ืœื™ื”. ื›ืจื•ืš ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืื—ืจื™ ืชื•ืจืช ืืจื™ืกื˜ื•, ืื•ืœื ื—ื•ืœืง ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืขึดืงืจื™ื ืื—ื“ื™ื: ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืคืจ ื‘ื”ืฉืืจื•ืชึพื”ื ืคืฉ ื•ื‘ืขืฆืžื™ื•ืช ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื” ืœื”, ืœืืžืจ, ืื™ื ื• ืžื•ื“ื” ืฉื”ื™ื ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ืขืฆืžื” ืœืœื ืชืœื•ึผืช ื‘ื›ื—ื•ืช ื’ื•ืคื ื™ื™ื. ืœื“ืขืชื•, ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืคืฉ ืืœื ื”ึทืจืžื•ึนื ื™ื” ืฉื‘ืชื•ืš ื—ืžืจื™ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ. ื”ื•ื ืžืขืจื™ืฅ ืืช ื”ืžืขืžื“ ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ื•ืจื•ืื” ื‘ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืจื›ื•ืฉ ื”ืคืจื˜ ื›ืขื™ืŸ ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœื—ื•ืง ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ื’. ืึทืจึดื™ืกึฐื˜ึนื•ื›ึผึฐืกึถื ื•ึนืก ื™ืœื™ื“ ื˜ึทืจึถื ื˜. ื ืชืคืจืกื ื›ืžื•ืžื—ื” ืœืชื•ืจืช ื”ืžื•ืกื™ืงื” ื•ืœืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืชื”. ืืขืค"ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ืฉืคืข ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ื”ืคึผึดืชึผึทื’ื•ึนืจึธืึดื™ื, ื”ื•ื ืžืชื ื’ื“ ืœื”ืคืฉื˜ื•ืชื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืžืชืžื˜ื™ืงื” ื•ืžืฉื‘ื— ื›ื ื’ื“ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ืงืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืžืกืงื ื•ืช ืžื™ืกื•ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉื™. ื“. ืกึฐื˜ึฐืจึทื˜ื•ึนืŸ ื™ืœื™ื“ ืœึทืžืคืกึทืงื•ืก. ืจืืฉ ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ืœืื—ืจื™ ืชึตืื•ึนืคึฐืจึทืกื˜ื•ืก (ืจืคโ€œื–โ€“ืจืกโ€ื˜). ื”ื•ื ืฉื ื” ื”ืจื‘ื” ืืช ืคื ื™ ืฉื˜ืชื• ืฉืœ ืืจื™ืกื˜ื• ื•ื”ื•ืจื”, ืฉื™ืกื•ึนื“ ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื’ื•ืคื•. ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ืขืฆืžื• ื”ื•ื ืืœื”ื•ืช. ื’ื ื”ื›ื—ื•ืช ื”ื ืžืขื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืžืจ ืจื•ื—ื ื™. ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื”ื•ื™ื” ืื™ื ื ืคืจึธื“ื™ื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžืชื—ืœืงื™ื ื•ืžื—ื•ืกืจื™ ืื™ื›ื•ืช โ€“ ื‘ื ื’ื•ื“ ืœืชื•ืจืช ื“ืžื•ืงืจื™ื˜ื•ืก. โ€“ ืืœื ื—ืžืจื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืื™ื›ื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช, ื”ืžืชื—ืœืงื™ื ืœืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืฃ. ืจืง ื”ื”ืชื”ื•ื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืงืคืฆื” ื•ื‘ืื” ื“ืจืš ืžืงืจื”, ื•ืึดืœื• ื›ืœ ื”ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืช ืฉืœืื—ืจื™ื” ื ืขืฉื™ืช ืขืค"ื™ ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื. ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืœืžื“ื ื• ืกึฐื˜ึฐืจึทื˜ื•ึนืŸ, ืฉืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื›ื—ึพื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื™ื•ืฆืจ ืืœื ื›ืœ ื“ึผึดืžื•ื™ ื”ื•ื ืคืขื•ืœื”ึพื—ื•ื–ืจืช ื•ืœื ืคืขื•ืœื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื•ืžืงื•ืจื™ืช. ืชึผึตืื•ึนืคึฐืจึทืกึฐื˜ื•ึนืก ื ืœื ืงืฉื” ืœื”ื’ื“ื™ืจ ืืช ืžื•ืฉื’ื” ื”ื›ื•ืœืœ ื•ื”ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ ืฉืœ ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื•ืœืืžืจ: ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืฉืœื ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืœืžื˜ืจืชื”, ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื” ื”ื ืžืฆื ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืฉื‘ื›ื—; ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื–ื• ืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ืื•ืชื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืกื•ื’ื™ ื”ืžืืžืจื•ืช. ื‘ ืื ื™ืฉ ื”ื ืื” ื›ื•ื–ื‘ืช, ื”ืจื™ ืžืฉืžืขื”: ื™ืฉ ื”ื ืื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื ืื”. ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ืœื ื™ืชื›ืŸ. ื”ืŸ ื’ื ื“ืขื” ื›ื•ื–ื‘ืช ืื™ื ื” ื‘ื˜ืœื” ืžืชื•ืจืช ื“ืขื”. ื’ ื™ึฐืจึตื ืืช ืขืฆืžืš ื•ืœื ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื”ืชื™ืจื ืžืคื ื™ ืื—ืจื™ื. ื“ ืžื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื‘ืขืœื™ึพืงื ืื”, ื”ื•ื ืžืฉื ื”ึพืื•ืžืœืœ. ื‘ื ื•ื”ื’ ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ืœื‘ื ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืžึตืฆืจ ืืœื ืขืœ ืฆืจืชื ื”ื, ื•ืึดืœื• ื”ื•ื ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืœื ืขืœ ืฆืจืช ืขืฆืžื• ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืืœื ื’ื ืขืœ ืืฉืจื• ืฉืœ ื–ื•ืœืชื•. ื” ืื™ึพืืคืฉืจ ืœืื“ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื ืžืชืžืจืžืจ ืขืœ ื”ืจืข. ื• ื”ืžื•ืกื™ืงื” ื ื•ื‘ืขืช ืžืชื•ืš ืฉืœืฉื” ืžืงื•ืจื™ื: ืžืชื•ืš ืฆืขืจ, ื”ื ืื”, ื”ืชืคืœืื•ืช. ืฉื›ึผืŸ ื›ืœ ืื—ืช ืžื”ืจื’ืฉื•ืช ื”ืืœื” ืžืขืœื” ืืช ื”ืงื•ืœ ืžืžืฆื‘ื” ื”ืจื’ื™ืœ ื•ื–ื•ืงืงืช ืื•ืชื• ืœืฉื™ืจื”. ื– ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœืื ืฉื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ืงื“ื™ื ืื”ื‘ื” ืœื”ื›ืจื”, ืืœื ืชื—ืœื” ื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ืื•ืชื ื•ืื—ืจ ืชืื”ื•ื‘ ืื•ืชื; ื•ืœื”ืคืš โ€“ ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื. ื— ืื”ื‘ื” ื™ืชืจื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืฉื ืื”. ื˜ ืื ืื ืฉื™ื ื™ื“ื™ื“ื™ื ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ื‘ื ื›ืกื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื›ื•ืœื, ืขืœึพืื—ืชึพื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื•ื™ ืฉื™ื“ื™ื“ื™ื• ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื ืœื›ื•ืœื. ื™ ื”ื›ื“ืื™ ืœืคืœื•ืกื•ืฃ ืœื™ืฉื ืœื• ืืฉื”? ืื ื”ื™ื ืืฉื” ื ืื” ื•ื™ืฉืจื” ื•ื‘ืชึพื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืขืœ ื ื›ืกื™ื, ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื• ืœื”ืชืงืฉืจ ืงืฉืจ ืฉืœ ื ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ. ืื•ืœื ื›ืœ ื–ื” ื‘ื™ื—ื“ ืื™ื ื• ืฉื›ื™ื— ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื•ืขืœึพื›ืŸ ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืœื• ืฉืœื ื™ืงื— ืœื• ืืฉื”. ืจืืฉื™ืชึพื›ืœ, ื—ื™ื™ึพืื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ื ืขื›ื•ื‘ ืœืžืœืื›ืช ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื”: ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ืงื“ื™ืฉ ืขืฆืžื• ื‘ืขื•ื ื” ืื—ืช ื’ื ืœืชื•ืจื” ื’ื ืœืืฉื”โ€ฆ ื‘ืฆื“ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืืฉื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืœ ื™ื“ื™ื“ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื ื•: ื—ื‘ืชื ื• ืืœื™ื• ืžืจื’ื–ืช ืขืœื™ื ื• ืชืžื™ื“ ื—ืฉื“ื™ื ืžืฆื“ ื”ืืฉื”, ื›ืึดืœื• ืื ื• ืžืžืืกื™ื ื‘ื”โ€ฆ ื•ื›ืœื•ื ื™ืฉ ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืžืขื•ืœื” ืœืืฉื”? ื™ืฆืื ื™ืช โ€“ ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉืžื™ืจื” ื›ืœืœ, ื•ืืฉื” ืฆื ื•ืขื” ืื™ื ื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืฉืžื•ืจ. ืชื“ืข, ื›ืœ ืื•ื ืก ื”ื•ื ืฉื•ืžืจ ื’ืจื•ืข ืœืฆื ื™ืขื•ืช; ื•ืื™ืŸ ืืฉื” ืฆื ื•ืขื” ืืœื ื–ื• ืฉื”ื™ื ื‘ืชึพื—ื•ืจื™ื ืœื‘ื’ื•ื“ ื‘ื‘ืขืœื” โ€“ ื•ืžืกืจื‘ืชโ€ฆ ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื—ื›ืžืชื” ืฉืœ ืืฉื” ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืงื” ืืœื ื‘ื›ืœื›ืœืชึพื”ื‘ื™ืช. ื“ึดื™ืงึตื™ืึทืจึฐื›ื•ึนืก ื ื ืคืฉ โ€“ ื–ื• ืžืœื” ืจื™ืงื” ืžืชื•ื›ืŸ. ื˜ื•ืขื™ื ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœ ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ึพื ืคืฉ! ืื™ืŸ ืจื•ื— ืื• ื ืคืฉ ืœื ื‘ืื“ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื—ื™ื”. ื›ืœ ืื•ืชื• ื”ื›ื—, ืฉืขืœึพื™ื“ื• ืื ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื” ืื• ืžืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจึพืžื”, ื”ื•ื ืžื—ื•ืœืง ื‘ืžื“ื” ืฉื•ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื•ืคื™ื ืฉืœ ื™ืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื”ืคืจื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ; ืฉื›ึผืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื™ืฉ ืžืขื•ืฆื ืœืขืฆืžื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืืœื ื’ื•ืฃ ืื—ื“ ื•ืžืื•ื—ื“, ื‘ื ื•ื™ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ื•ืžืจื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ ื”ืจื›ื‘ืชื• ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช. ื‘ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื™ื ืžื–ื™ื’ื” ืžืชืื™ืžื” ืฉืœ ืืจื‘ืขืช ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื’ื•ืฃ, ื•ื”ื: ื—ื ื•ืงืจ, ืœื— ื•ื™ื‘ืฉ. ื’ ืืฃ ืฉื”ื ืคืฉ ืื™ื ื” ื‘ืชึพืืœืžื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ื—ืœืง ื‘ืืœื•ื” ื‘ืฉืขืช ื”ืชืœื”ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ืœื•ื. ื“ ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉืœื ืœื“ืขืช ืขืชื™ื“ื•ืช. ืึทืจึดื™ืกึฐื˜ื•ึนื›ึผึฐืกึถื›ึผื•ึนืก ื ืื”ื‘ืชึพื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืืžืชื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืœืฉืงื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืžื“ืขื™ื. ื‘ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื”ื™ื ืžืขื™ืŸ ืžืฆื‘ ืคื ื™ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื”ื’ื•ืฃ. ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืชื•ืš ื–ืžืจื” ื•ื ื’ื™ื ื” ื‘ื•ืงืข ื•ืขื•ืœื” ืื•ืชื• ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืงืจื•ื™ ื”ืจืžื•ื ื™ื”, ื›ืš ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื›ื•ืœื• ื•ืžืชื•ืš ื“ืžื•ืช ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื‘ื•ืงืขื•ืช ื•ืขื•ืœื•ืช ืื™ึพืืœื• ืจืขื™ื“ื•ืช ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ืงื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื–ืžืจื”. ืกึฐื˜ึฐืจึทื˜ื•ึนืŸ ื ื”ื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ื™ื ืกื‘ืชื” ืฉืœ ื”ืชืžื“ื”. ื‘ ื”ืขึดืงืจื™ื ื”ื ืื™ื›ื•ื™ื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื. ื’ ื”ื—ื ื•ื”ืงืจ ื”ื ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช. ื“ ื—ืœืงื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืกื•ืคื™ื™ื. ื” ื’ื ื”ื›ื— ื”ื•ื ื’ื•ืฃ. ืฉื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ืึดืœื• ืžืขืœื” ืื“. ื• ื›ืœ ื‘ืขืœึพื—ื™ ืžื—ื•ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉื›ืœ. ื– ื”ื—ืœื•ืžื•ืช ื‘ืื™ื ืžืชื•ืš ืฉื”ื—ืœืง ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ึพืžืฉื›ื™ืœ ืฉืœ ื”ื ืคืฉ ืžืชืจื’ืฉ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืฉึตื ื”, ื•ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื”ื•ื ื‘ื ืขืœึพื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฉื›ืœ ืœื›ืœืœ ืชื ื•ืขื”. ื”ืืกื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืœืื—ืจื™ ืกื•ึนืงืจึทื˜ืก ืžื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉื ืฉืœ ื”ืืคื™ืงื•ืจืื™ื ืขืœ ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ื–ื• ื ืžื ื™ื: ืึธืคึผึดื™ืงื•ึผืจื•ึนืก, ืžึถื˜ึฐืจื•ึนื“ื•ืจื•ึนืก, ืึทืคึผื•ึนืœื•ึนื“ื•ึนืจ, ื–ึตื ื•ึนืŸ ื”ืฆึดื™ื“ื•ึนื ื™, ืคึตื“ืจื•ึนืก, ืคึดื™ืœื•ึนื“ึถืžื•ึนืก, ื”ืžืฉื•ืจืจ ืœื•ืงึฐืจึถืฆื™ื•ืก. ื. ืึถืคึดึผื™ืงื•ึผืจื•ึนืก ืงืœืฆืงื™ืŸ5 ืืคื™ืงื•ืจื•ืก ื‘.jpg ืึถืคึผื™ืงื•ึนืจื•ึนืก ืฉืžโ€œืโ€“ืจโ€ืข. ื™ืœื™ื“ ืกึทืžื•ึผืก, ื”ืขืžื™ื“ ืชื—ืœื” ื‘ื™ืชึพืžื“ืจืฉ ื‘ืžื™ืชึผืœึถื ึตื™ ื•ื”ืขื‘ื™ืจื• ืœืœึทืžึฐืคึผืกึถืงื•ึนื˜ ื•ืงื‘ืขื• ืื—"ื› ื‘ืืชึผื•ื ื”, ื‘ืชื•ืš ื’ื ื• โ€“ ื•ืžื›ืืŸ ื”ืฉื: ื”ืคืœื•ืกื•ืคื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื’ืŸ. ื”ื•ื ืžื™ืกื“ ืืช ื”ื”ื›ืจื” ืขืœ ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ื—ืฉื•ืช. ื’ื ื”ื”ื‘ื—ื ื” ื”ืฉื›ืœื™ืช ื ื•ื‘ืขืช ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืžื—ื™ืฉื•ืช ื•ืชืœื•ื™ื” ื‘ื”ืŸ. ื‘ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ื’ื•ืคื™ื ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ืœืš ื‘ื“ืจื›ื• ืฉืœ ื“ืžื•ืงืจื™ื˜ื•ืก: ื ืฆื—ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืžืฆื™ืื•ืชื ืฉืœ ืคืจึถื“ื™ื ื•ืจื™ืงื•ืช. ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื•ื ืื™ืŸึพืกื•ืคื™ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื•ื‘ืžืงื•ื, ื•ื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ืžืชืžื™ื“ ื•ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืขื™ื ื• ืžืขื•ืœื ื•ืขื“ ืขื•ืœื. ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืคืจ ื‘ื”ืฉื’ื—ื” ืืœื”ื™ืช ื•ืจื•ืื” ืชื›ืœื™ืชื™ื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืกื“ืจื™ ืžืขืฉื™ึพื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช. ื‘ืชื•ืจืชึพื”ืžื•ืกืจ ื”ื•ื ืžื˜ื™ืฃ ืœื—ืžื“ื”, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืœื—ืžื“ื” ืจื’ื–ื ื™ืช ื•ื‘ืชึพืจื’ืข ืืœื ืœื—ืžื“ื” ืžืชืžื“ืช, ื”ื ืื” ื•ืžื ื•ื—ื” ืขืžื”, ื”ื ืื” ืžืชื•ืš ืฉืœื•ืชึพื”ื ืคืฉ. ื•ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ: ื”ืื“ื ืื™ื ื• ื—ื™ื” ืžื“ื™ื ื™ืช ืื• ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœืœ ืžืฉืคื˜ ื˜ื‘ืขื™, ืืœื ื›ืœ ืขืงืจื• ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื•ืง ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืจืืช ื”ืขื•ื ืฉ. ื“ืžื•ืชึพื“ื™ื•ืงื ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื›ื ืžืชื•ืืจืช ื‘ืžืฉื ืชื• ืฉืœ ืืคื™ืงื•ืจื•ืก ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืื“ื ืคืจื•ืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืฆื‘ื•ืจ, ื‘ืŸึพื—ื•ืจื™ื ื