Speech2Text2

Overview

The Speech2Text2 model is used together with Wav2Vec2 for Speech Translation models proposed in Large-Scale Self- and Semi-Supervised Learning for Speech Translation by Changhan Wang, Anne Wu, Juan Pino, Alexei Baevski, Michael Auli, Alexis Conneau.

Speech2Text2 is a decoder-only transformer model that can be used with any speech encoder-only, such as Wav2Vec2 or HuBERT for Speech-to-Text tasks. Please refer to the SpeechEncoderDecoder class on how to combine Speech2Text2 with any speech encoder-only model.

This model was contributed by Patrick von Platen.

The original code can be found here.

Tips:

  • Speech2Text2 achieves state-of-the-art results on the CoVoST Speech Translation dataset. For more information, see the official models .

  • Speech2Text2 is always used within the SpeechEncoderDecoder framework.

  • Speech2Text2’s tokenizer currently only supports inference, but not training.

Inference

Speech2Text2’s SpeechEncoderDecoderModel model accepts raw waveform input values from speech and makes use of generate() to translate the input speech autoregressively to the target language.

The Wav2Vec2FeatureExtractor class is responsible for preprocessing the input speech and Speech2Text2Tokenizer decodes the generated target tokens to the target string. The Speech2Text2Processor wraps Wav2Vec2FeatureExtractor and Speech2Text2Tokenizer into a single instance to both extract the input features and decode the predicted token ids.

  • Step-by-step Speech Translation

>>> import torch
>>> from transformers import Speech2Text2Processor, SpeechEncoderDecoderModel
>>> from datasets import load_dataset
>>> import soundfile as sf

>>> model = SpeechEncoderDecoderModel.from_pretrained("facebook/s2t-wav2vec2-large-en-de")
>>> processor = Speech2Text2Processor.from_pretrained("facebook/s2t-wav2vec2-large-en-de")

>>> def map_to_array(batch):
...     speech, _ = sf.read(batch["file"])
...     batch["speech"] = speech
...     return batch

>>> ds = load_dataset("hf-internal-testing/librispeech_asr_dummy", "clean", split="validation")
>>> ds = ds.map(map_to_array)

>>> inputs = processor(ds["speech"][0], sampling_rate=16_000, return_tensors="pt")
>>> generated_ids = model.generate(input_ids=inputs["input_values"], attention_mask=inputs["attention_mask"])

>>> transcription = processor.batch_decode(generated_ids)
  • Speech Translation via Pipelines

    The automatic speech recognition pipeline can also be used to translate speech in just a couple lines of code

>>> from datasets import load_dataset
>>> from transformers import pipeline

>>> librispeech_en = load_dataset("hf-internal-testing/librispeech_asr_dummy", "clean", split="validation")
>>> asr = pipeline("automatic-speech-recognition", model="facebook/s2t-wav2vec2-large-en-de", feature_extractor="facebook/s2t-wav2vec2-large-en-de")

>>> translation_de = asr(librispeech_en[0]["file"])

See model hub to look for Speech2Text2 checkpoints.

Speech2Text2Config

class transformers.Speech2Text2Config(vocab_size=10000, decoder_layers=6, decoder_ffn_dim=2048, decoder_attention_heads=4, decoder_layerdrop=0.0, use_cache=True, activation_function='relu', d_model=256, dropout=0.1, attention_dropout=0.0, activation_dropout=0.0, init_std=0.02, decoder_start_token_id=2, classifier_dropout=0.0, scale_embedding=True, pad_token_id=1, bos_token_id=0, eos_token_id=2, max_source_positions=6000, max_target_positions=1024, **kwargs)[source]

This is the configuration class to store the configuration of a Speech2Text2ForCausalLM. It is used to instantiate an Speech2Text2 model according to the specified arguments, defining the model architecture. Instantiating a configuration with the defaults will yield a similar configuration to that of the Speech2Text2 facebook/s2t-small-librispeech-asr architecture.

Configuration objects inherit from PretrainedConfig and can be used to control the model outputs. Read the documentation from PretrainedConfig for more information.

Parameters
  • vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 50265) – Vocabulary size of the Speech2Text model. Defines the number of different tokens that can be represented by the inputs_ids passed when calling Speech2TextModel

  • d_model (int, optional, defaults to 1024) – Dimensionality of the layers and the pooler layer.

  • decoder_layers (int, optional, defaults to 12) – Number of decoder layers.

  • decoder_attention_heads (int, optional, defaults to 16) – Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer decoder.

  • decoder_ffn_dim (int, optional, defaults to 4096) – Dimensionality of the “intermediate” (often named feed-forward) layer in decoder.

  • activation_function (str or function, optional, defaults to "gelu") – The non-linear activation function (function or string) in the pooler. If string, "gelu", "relu", "silu" and "gelu_new" are supported.

  • dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) – The dropout probability for all fully connected layers in the embeddings, and pooler.

  • attention_dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) – The dropout ratio for the attention probabilities.

  • activation_dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) – The dropout ratio for activations inside the fully connected layer.

  • classifier_dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) – The dropout ratio for classifier.

  • init_std (float, optional, defaults to 0.02) – The standard deviation of the truncated_normal_initializer for initializing all weight matrices. https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.11556>`__ for more details.

  • decoder_layerdrop – (float, optional, defaults to 0.0): The LayerDrop probability for the decoder. See the LayerDrop paper for more details.

  • use_cache (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether or not the model should return the last key/values attentions (not used by all models).

  • max_source_positions (int, optional, defaults to 6000) – The maximum sequence length of log-mel filter-bank features that this model might ever be used with.

  • max_target_positions – (int, optional, defaults to 1024): The maximum sequence length that this model might ever be used with. Typically set this to something large just in case (e.g., 512 or 1024 or 2048).

  • Example::

    >>> from transformers import Speech2Text2ForCausalLM, Speech2Text2Config
    
    >>> # Initializing a Speech2Text2 s2t_transformer_s style configuration
    >>> configuration = Speech2Text2Config()
    
    >>> # Initializing a model from the s2t_transformer_s style configuration
    >>> model = Speech2Text2ForCausalLM(configuration)
    
    >>> # Accessing the model configuration
    >>> configuration = model.config
    

Speech2TextTokenizer

class transformers.Speech2Text2Tokenizer(vocab_file, bos_token='<s>', pad_token='<pad>', eos_token='</s>', unk_token='<unk>', **kwargs)[source]

Constructs a Speech2Text2Tokenizer.

This tokenizer inherits from PreTrainedTokenizer which contains some of the main methods. Users should refer to the superclass for more information regarding such methods.

Parameters
  • vocab_file (str) – File containing the vocabulary.

  • bos_token (str, optional, defaults to "<s>") – The beginning of sentence token.

  • eos_token (str, optional, defaults to "</s>") – The end of sentence token.

  • unk_token (str, optional, defaults to "<unk>") – The unknown token. A token that is not in the vocabulary cannot be converted to an ID and is set to be this token instead.

  • pad_token (str, optional, defaults to "<pad>") – The token used for padding, for example when batching sequences of different lengths.

  • **kwargs – Additional keyword arguments passed along to PreTrainedTokenizer

batch_decode(sequences: Union[List[int], List[List[int]], np.ndarray, torch.Tensor, tf.Tensor], skip_special_tokens: bool = False, clean_up_tokenization_spaces: bool = True, **kwargs) → List[str]

Convert a list of lists of token ids into a list of strings by calling decode.

Parameters
  • sequences (Union[List[int], List[List[int]], np.ndarray, torch.Tensor, tf.Tensor]) – List of tokenized input ids. Can be obtained using the __call__ method.

  • skip_special_tokens (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not to remove special tokens in the decoding.

  • clean_up_tokenization_spaces (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether or not to clean up the tokenization spaces.

  • kwargs (additional keyword arguments, optional) – Will be passed to the underlying model specific decode method.

Returns

The list of decoded sentences.

Return type

List[str]

decode(token_ids: Union[int, List[int], np.ndarray, torch.Tensor, tf.Tensor], skip_special_tokens: bool = False, clean_up_tokenization_spaces: bool = True, **kwargs) → str

Converts a sequence of ids in a string, using the tokenizer and vocabulary with options to remove special tokens and clean up tokenization spaces.

Similar to doing self.convert_tokens_to_string(self.convert_ids_to_tokens(token_ids)).

Parameters
  • token_ids (Union[int, List[int], np.ndarray, torch.Tensor, tf.Tensor]) – List of tokenized input ids. Can be obtained using the __call__ method.

  • skip_special_tokens (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not to remove special tokens in the decoding.

  • clean_up_tokenization_spaces (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether or not to clean up the tokenization spaces.

  • kwargs (additional keyword arguments, optional) – Will be passed to the underlying model specific decode method.

Returns

The decoded sentence.

Return type

str

save_vocabulary(save_directory: str, filename_prefix: Optional[str] = None) → Tuple[str][source]

Save only the vocabulary of the tokenizer (vocabulary + added tokens).

This method won’t save the configuration and special token mappings of the tokenizer. Use _save_pretrained() to save the whole state of the tokenizer.

Parameters
  • save_directory (str) – The directory in which to save the vocabulary.

  • filename_prefix (str, optional) – An optional prefix to add to the named of the saved files.

Returns

Paths to the files saved.

Return type

Tuple(str)

Speech2Text2Processor

class transformers.Speech2Text2Processor(feature_extractor, tokenizer)[source]

Constructs a Speech2Text2 processor which wraps a Speech2Text2 feature extractor and a Speech2Text2 tokenizer into a single processor.

Speech2Text2Processor offers all the functionalities of AutoFeatureExtractor and Speech2Text2Tokenizer. See the __call__() and decode() for more information.

Parameters
__call__(*args, **kwargs)[source]

When used in normal mode, this method forwards all its arguments to AutoFeatureExtractor’s __call__() and returns its output. If used in the context as_target_processor() this method forwards all its arguments to Speech2Text2Tokenizer’s __call__(). Please refer to the doctsring of the above two methods for more information.

as_target_processor()[source]

Temporarily sets the tokenizer for processing the input. Useful for encoding the labels when fine-tuning Speech2Text2.

batch_decode(*args, **kwargs)[source]

This method forwards all its arguments to Speech2Text2Tokenizer’s batch_decode(). Please refer to the docstring of this method for more information.

decode(*args, **kwargs)[source]

This method forwards all its arguments to Speech2Text2Tokenizer’s decode(). Please refer to the docstring of this method for more information.

classmethod from_pretrained(pretrained_model_name_or_path, **kwargs)[source]

Instantiate a Speech2Text2Processor from a pretrained Speech2Text2 processor.

Note

This class method is simply calling AutoFeatureExtractor’s from_pretrained() and Speech2Text2Tokenizer’s from_pretrained(). Please refer to the docstrings of the methods above for more information.

Parameters
  • pretrained_model_name_or_path (str or os.PathLike) –

    This can be either:

    • a string, the model id of a pretrained feature_extractor hosted inside a model repo on huggingface.co. Valid model ids can be located at the root-level, like bert-base-uncased, or namespaced under a user or organization name, like dbmdz/bert-base-german-cased.

    • a path to a directory containing a feature extractor file saved using the save_pretrained() method, e.g., ./my_model_directory/.

    • a path or url to a saved feature extractor JSON file, e.g., ./my_model_directory/preprocessor_config.json.

  • **kwargs – Additional keyword arguments passed along to both PreTrainedFeatureExtractor and PreTrainedTokenizer

save_pretrained(save_directory)[source]

Save a Speech2Text2 feature extractor object and Speech2Text2 tokenizer object to the directory save_directory, so that it can be re-loaded using the from_pretrained() class method.

Note

This class method is simply calling save_pretrained() and save_pretrained(). Please refer to the docstrings of the methods above for more information.

Parameters

save_directory (str or os.PathLike) – Directory where the feature extractor JSON file and the tokenizer files will be saved (directory will be created if it does not exist).

Speech2Text2ForCausalLM

class transformers.Speech2Text2ForCausalLM(config)[source]

The Speech2Text2 Decoder with a language modeling head. Can be used as the decoder part of EncoderDecoderModel and SpeechEncoderDecoder. This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (Speech2Text2Config) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, encoder_hidden_states=None, encoder_attention_mask=None, head_mask=None, cross_attn_head_mask=None, past_key_values=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, use_cache=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]
Args:
input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)):

Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

Indices can be obtained using Speech2Text2Tokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

What are input IDs?

attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional):

Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

  • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

  • 0 for tokens that are masked.

What are attention masks?

encoder_hidden_states (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional):

Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder.

encoder_attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional):

Mask to avoid performing attention on the padding token indices of the encoder input. This mask is used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional):

Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

  • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

  • 0 indicates the head is masked.

cross_attn_head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (decoder_layers, decoder_attention_heads), optional):

Mask to nullify selected heads of the cross-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

  • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

  • 0 indicates the head is masked.

past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True):

Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head). The two additional tensors are only required when the model is used as a decoder in a Sequence to Sequence model.

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).

labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional):

Labels for computing the masked language modeling loss. Indices should either be in [0, ..., config.vocab_size] or -100 (see input_ids docstring). Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size].

use_cache (bool, optional):

If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).

  • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

  • 0 for tokens that are masked.

output_attentions (bool, optional):

Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

output_hidden_states (bool, optional):

Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

return_dict (bool, optional):

Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

Returns

A CausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (Speech2Text2Config) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Language modeling loss (for next-token prediction).

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) – Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

  • cross_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Cross attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

  • past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor tuples of length config.n_layers, with each tuple containing the cached key, value states of the self-attention and the cross-attention layers if model is used in encoder-decoder setting. Only relevant if config.is_decoder = True.

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

Example:

>>> from transformers import SpeechEncoderDecoderModel, Speech2Text2ForCausalLM, Wav2Vec2Model, Speech2Text2Config, Wav2Vec2Config

>>> encoder = Wav2Vec2Model(Wav2Vec2Config())
>>> decoder = Speech2Text2ForCausalLM(Speech2Text2Config())

# init speech2text model
>>> model = SpeechEncoderDecoderModel(encoder=encoder, decoder=decoder)

Return type

CausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)