wav2vec2-large-xlsr-53-english / log_speech-recognition-community-v2_dev_data_en_validation_predictions_greedy.txt
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hi my name floora bates and i run the everyday sexes and project which for anybody who doesn't know what it is is a very simple website that collects people's experiences of daily gender inbalance hav anything on the spectrum from the more minor incidents that were often told to brush ff and not make a fuss about all the way through workplce discrimination sexual harassement to sexual assaut and even rapei set the project up just under two years ago and we've now received fifty thousand entries from women of all warks of life all over the world but one thing really shocked me and took me aback about the entries that started to flood in in the first months of the project and it's interesting because people often ask you know what were the most shocking entries and ithey expect mto reply that they were the most serious ones most harrowing stories and of course those were awful and distressng to read but the thing that really shocked me the most was the number of entries hat we receive from really young women from little girls from university students it just wasn't something that i anticipatedand its some of those stories that i want to talk about today and o share some of them with you today particularly because w're here an are beautiful university city and because just so many of the entries that we've received a suggesting that there is a real problem at yuk universities i want to take you through some of the things that we've heard about some ofthe things that are being reported to us over and over and over againso this all really started and i kind of first noticed o ral spikin activity to the website the irst time that freshesweet came round so the firs year that the website had been launched in april and suddenly when we hit freshsweek i noticed that it was a massive surge in entries to the projectand i remember it started i remember really vividly with one email and it came from a girl who was about to start studying physics at a very highly respected london university and she forward me forded me in email that she'd receive from the physics society at her university and the email said fresh s lunch this would be mainly a chance for you to scope out who's in your department and stake your claim early on the one in five girlsbut she wrote that she was going into an incredibly el-dominated area already and so here the boys in her year here male peers were being sent the message from a university affiliated society no less to view that female peers who were in the minority in this particular course very much as sexual prey and this was really just the beginning nd so many messages and storys started coming in and often they were about freshs-weeken events that were going on in freshas week so i actually started having a look at the events that were scheduled at yuk universities that yearandas you can see behind me these register few o the events that i found slaggon drag tots and vicas pimps and hos gol prose and tennis hos se yos and corporate ho rappers and slappers geiks and sluts and at almost every event the titlesends the message usually at events that were sponsored io an association with universities at these students were studying at that men are ceo's pros geeks they're powerful theyr talentd their intelligent whilst women were being valued again and again by their sexialisation aloneand the messages we received wase suggesting that this created a really serious sense of pressure for young women to dress in a certain way and it's important to say at this point that this was not about a kind of predish-morality ban it wasn't about saying women shouldn't dress in that way if they wanted to but why should it be a requirement it felt like fancy dress for the boys meant something fun meant dressing up in a whole variety of diferent ways bed every time for the girls the was a very very clear very narrow requirement of how they were expected to dress and it started to feel like it was about more than just a bett of fun and more like kind of sexual pressur and this idea of sexual pressure was really backed up by a lot of stories that we received about initiations and fresh as weak ritualsand acain oviously this is something that if people want to g they can and u know effits are free choice and if people are choosing to kind of carry out things and you talk about things being a bit of fun but many of the reports that we received made it all sound quite miitant and the idea of freedom of choice is quite complex within this unique situation where for most stdents it was their first week of university for many of them wthe first time living from home they were anxious to fit in they were king to make new friends and it was very difficult t be the person standing up and saying no one girl wrote to us in a project entry one of fesh's events organized by ahoza residence was the girl and guys pup crollwe were split into one group of girls and one of guys and each group went off on different pub croal rootsall the girls were encouraged to wear pink and dress slutty we had to come up with a sluck ame which the oldert students encouraged us to write across our breasts upon arriving at each bar oe of the oldest students which shout out a word which was code for us to either flash our tits or our us or dancin a seductive way in front of the men in the pubi didn't take part in this and didn't want to adopt a flat name i was told i was being too up tight and not getting into the spirit afresh is weekthe whole thing culminated in the irls and guys meeting up in the student union where we were informed that the oldest students had organized a competition with prizesone prize was for the slut who collected te most tyes from the guys the other was for the lad who collected the most braz from the slatsi alked out on a scene of groups of drunk male students forcefully taking off female students' brasanother entry said i went out for the freshest night of one of the women's sportsclubs argrute bumped into the men's rugby club in a bar they were putting that freshes through their initiation ceremony all the rugby freshes had their trousers around their ankles and wes standing in their boxes they were ecouraged to pick one of us to grind with themone guy grabbed me pulled me on the dance floor and then told me i had to rind on him or else he'd have to do a forfeitwhen i refused he told me i was frigid and grabbed a different fressureon the one hand i felt ashamedand embarrassed tat i felt too uncomfortable to partake fully on wat was considered to be the fun of freshesweekor i was kind of ashamed that i'd taken part in it a tallit rone my freshest week and left me feeling isolated and humiliatedanother student said it's very different for people who feel shy or uncomfortable you don't have a choice thre were strict initiations and you just had to do what they said or you issed outanother said one of the social initiations within the first month of uni was to down a bottle of beer tha a man was holding in his crouchi didn't even realize what we wre going todo as wew're facing the other way when they suddenl shouted down it bich it was awful but i felt like such a wet blanket with everyone cheering onanother we had an event as part of freshs weet where some of our friends went on stage a long-line of girls was lined up and they had to take all their clothes off they were told to race the strip then ther were competitions where you had to do various sex-positions they make it all out as a great thing but you get pushed into it and it's not a matter of choice and these wone isolated incidents this isn't cherry picing after i started writing about this i was absolutely daluged with messages from students at universities up and downthe country who had experienced similar things and felt uncomfortable or pressuredand there was also lot of evidence in what we were hearing to suggest that this kind of sexual objectification carried over beyond frescher's wke beyond the initiations and the ritualsa huge number of students mention specific competitions and point systems for sleeping with freshes particularly female freshes often coming from the oldest students he wase supposed to be there to look after them and helped them settle inone student described how ttheir student union there was an adop on the wall that was looking for peple to help out with freshes week it was a cartoon of a vulnerable-looking girl with the slogan wand to feel a little fresheranother girl said i remmber when i was a fresher i had a couple of male students discussing a point system for sleeping with female freshers while in the laundrey roomanother girl described a night where female freshes had o dress up as foxes malefreshes had to dress up as hounds and the second and third-year boys dressed as huntsman the idea was that the hounds had to catch their huntsman or foxanother student said at my university the freshsweet crew are designed to help new students but they get points for scoring with freshers especially virgins we heard about point scoring systems where people got bonus points if they took the girl's virginity or brought her nikozineone student said it wa called seal clubbing at her university at another i was called sharking and another it was simply called focofresherit seemed to be such a widely acknowledged practice that thre were these colloquial names for it at different uniersitiesand the more you hear about this the less harmless it sounds and the more sounds like part of something widr as one student pointed out when she wrote to us about a chant that her male pierce had a university tha was about slatshors and slagsthese are the world leaders the sios and the politicians of tomorro these are the attitudes about women in their place that are being drummed into them from the very first week of universityand it' important to say that these sdo sometimes happen to boys too we had one entry from a freshire man who was force to watch pawn in his underwear while a fresher woman was told to sit on his lack to see if he got an erection but in the main the stories including the ones from men that came in because they were talking about what had happened to their female pears seemed to suggest that this sexualized aspect and ofteess undercurrent of misogeneof kind of making the girls doo things that were somehow embarrassing or degrading focused much more on women and that the men's initiation seemed more to focus on things like drinking excessive amounts of alcohol or having to eat disgusting combinations of foodso these again are not isolated incidents many f you will probably know that in the last year alone weth seen events easing the slogan fk mii'm fresher pemoted at more than one university in the ukstudents have reported being groped grabbed pursued and popositioned a part of freshesweek eventswe've seen afreshe's week poster at one university that had a picture o it of a t-shirt with the words last night i was raping a woman and she cried we've seen students who ve been banned for playing a game called it's not rate ith the lead's club nite freshes violation which was advertised on utube using a video of a male freshere being asked what he was going todo at freshas violation and saying that he was going to rape a female fresher we've seen the video of lads on the bus joking and aughing about sexual assault and about miscarriges and the boys who went out in casual rate-t shirts all in the last year aloneso why does all this matter wat's the big deallematis because according to a survi eppe by the national union of students which licked specifically at female students' experiences walt at university one in seven experienced a serious physical or sexual assault twelve percent were stalked and sixty-eight percent were victims of sexual arrestmentit also matches because most perpetrators were known to the victims and most perpetrators were studentsand it marchers more than ever because only four percent of the female students who was seriously sexually assulted reported it to their academic institution and only ten percet felt able to report it to the policeand when tey were givin reasons for these low-reporting rates they were asked why didn't you feel able to report what happenedfifty-fifty percent said that they didn't report t because they were ashamed or embarrassed and forty-three percent because they thought they would be blamed for what happened so suddenly importantly this is where we come back to freshsweek jokes andinitiations and slaglapper labels the prssure on female students to dress in a certain way often university affiliated nights the ideas they're pressure to perptuate the buntrous games about chasing female students down hunting them stripping their brows you look at the statistics at nearly a hundred percent of all students who didn't report a sexual assault were either ashamed or thoughthey'd be blamedand of course it's not a simple case of cause and effect of course it's not to suggest that a male student will go to one of these events and suddenly go out and rape will sexually assalt a female pier is more complex than that is a case of saying against this backdrop what do we do given that we're dealing with the culture in which so many female students are experiencing sexual harassment and assault what would be usefulgiven that were dealing wth the culture in which female students feel unable to report and sexual listle isn't taken seriously how might these kinds of stereotypes be contributing to that problem and to that wider cultureand talking about culture you might have heard the term rape culture used recently it is used to describe a culture in which rape and sexual iolence are common and in which prevalent attitudes normas practices and media normalize excse tolerate or even condone rapean online this frequently focuses on students and young wome thanks to websites like unilard the lad bible and confessions of a uni studenti'm talking about entire websites where even though most of the articles are about women you won't see a single female namebecause they are replaced with wenches hoes clunge scank sloppy seconds pussy tramp chick bir milf slut and gashthey are part of a groing culture in which the sexual targeting of female students as prey is actively encouraged even when it vurges on sexual assault it's an atmosphere in which victims are silenced and perpetrators encouraged to seek crimes mrely as banter just part of being a ladthese are websites with articles saying things like eighty-five percentor ratecases go unreported that seems to be fairly gidodswebsites which describe a female student who has said that she doesn't want to sleep with you as an obstacle course just a game to get around websites wear posters talking about mashing a virgin and having blood stains to prove itand when criticized these sites ind their own words tend to say get a fuckan grip we're having a bit of harmless bnter a recent post that appeared on one of teir facebook pages describes a graphic incident of a ma knocking a woman clean out with one smack and leaving herfor dead on the side of the rateand yet this word bantar this cloat of irony is being used to excuse mainstream herrific fexism the normalization and blittling of rape and domestic vilence and it's a very clever way of silencing because omething's a joke it's very hard to stand up to if you objet to something and it's just a joke then youre being up tight the jokes on new yudusdon't have a sense of humour and the implication is that if something's a joke everybody gets at except you it isolates victims and makes it much harder to stand up toone female student who wrote to me said i don't find it funny these pages are not pages for jokes there are no punch lines they're not sexous jokes theyre just displays of sexism displays of misogyny i find it threatening i find it terrifying thi is not bantershe asked to remain anonymous because she said i'm afraid of these peoplei'm afraid tht these attitudes that we thought were ebbing away are coming back with forcei'm afraid that by taking a stand against pages like this i will mark myself as a target and again these are an isolated incidents the imperial college newspaper thelix printed a joke article which provided male students with a recipe for the date rape drug were hipnal because they said it was a full proof way to have sex on valentine's day for ceaper than the price of a hooker an exotor university society printed a shagmag in which it speculated about ho many calleries male students could burn by stripping female students naked without their consentat one uniersity the cross team were given rules that stated members don't date that's what rapers for at another university the men's hockey team held an event where the theme was rape victims and it isn't just something that happens in clubs or when students go out its some that's beginning to become pervasive in all aspects of the academic experience you see pages like this on facebook where girls completely unwittingly inuniversity university library during their work find that their pictures appear later on on facebookwe head from one girl who said that there was a group of lads at her univesity that started an anonymous page where they taked about girls who were eating at the canteen but she said because they didn't know who the people were that were doing it she had a choie to make between not eating not going to thecanteen all risking that her picture would end up on facebook with people talking about coming all over her breastsand onfacebook es wild is banter about abuse and violence ind at other places n line has also proliferated in recent yearsthese next slides may be very distressing so they come with a trigger warning for domestic violence and sexual assault if you feel e nee to look awayand again this is all part of the normalization of a society in which we joke about rape a society in which sexual assault is just something to laugh about jusvantage as part of being alad and against that backdop we get stories like these a male student at university with me outright tod me i was having sex with him that night he was calling me a lag a slot and hore he stragdled himself across my legs and started pinning me against the seat forcing kisses on me and saying now i've got youanother student said i was raped to my second year of university i had some great support from my family and some great therapyi thought this was the worst part but when i felt safe enough to tell my friends the question started was i drunk was i dressed slutterly did i know him had i let him onand imfact what happens is the boundaries begin to bcome so blurred that people aren't even aware of what they have the right to be protected fromi often speak in universities rull up and down the uka and i have a slide which ssimply sets the definition of sexual assault under uklaw which is that if somebody touches you anywhere on your body and the touching is sexual you don't consent and they dntreasobly believe that you consent then it's a form ofsexual assault but when i talk about it in universities young women come up to me afterwards saying that can't be sxual assault because it's normal that can't be sexual assault because its just what happens when i go out with my friends because there'is a massive gap between what people are protected from under te lure un what society is telling women particularly young women a parcular university is just part of life and just something that they ought to be putting up with but we can say no we can't stand up and we can shout back we ave to start now no means no it doesn't matter watyourewearing or whare you are or who you've had sex within the past ar whether youve been flirting it doesn't matter if it's someone you know if it's late atnight or if you're drunk nobody has the right to touch you sexually without your consentso what can you do to play your partthe important thing is that we need a cultural shift in attitudes in the way that we perceive women and everybody can be a part of that we can petition student unions and clubs to take a zerotolernce policy towards sexual harassment and groping we can speak up about consent and try to offset some of these normalized assumptions we can support students wh are sexually assulted to feel able to report it if they want towe can all play a part in influencing these social norms and the culture around us not letting the smal sluffs stuff slide because it's those mino incidents that contribute to the same attitudes about womn that lead to the bigger issue's happening coling women slats and slags giving them marks out of tandy humaizes them joking about rapeand assault normalizes it so we have to speak up and our voice is alodest when we raise them together thank youeeeeeeee
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ien sien e ton e te tis varited the tibates dimin eas divin lineedon't let my mask scare you i'm just tryin to stay anonymous my name is anamic nagrik i'm a proud indian and i have one problem with my country and the problem is why is india so filthy i've travelled outside india in neighboring countries in asia my fiends have been to africa and we can all agree on one thing in india we tolerate filt on our streets but why we can send a rocket to mars but we can't fix this problemwhy do we keep our houses clean and our streets dirtyeven mcdonalds was comin to bangalore iscleaning he steps of its outlet out therebut you can see how dirty it is outside are either incapable or unwilling to fix wats outside so what's the problem viabe like his and i think all overs in this audience know the answer it's not my problem i pay tax i wote isn't that enough what more should i do and som of you will say oky i want to fix it i don't even kno how to start let me take yout to dreamland in this dreamland there is no corruption the government is strong a budget goes up ten times do you think our cippies will be clea what doyou think and the answer is no i think we all realize it's not about money or system to tell it is abot us as a people look at this picture can someone shout out which city us this frorm look closey look at the furniture can you guess shout out which city is thisit's nout bangalorelook closely again to the clue out here at the bank of india the other clue is that its very poorly maintained there are pan stains everywhere this is a restaurant it is singapore and it is little india sinaporeand what does this tell us about us what a singapore's brand image cleandliness itis a fine city the enforced laws they very affluent they care about their look but when a group of indians lie in one neighborhood we seem to bring down the civic standards we can beat the world's best systems in fact i would like to say and iam an indian we are the undisputed world champions of publi filthwhy do we need a policeman when we have a traffic light because we're a society that doesn't like to follow rulesin banglo dusbins are not allowed you're expected to keep hour garbage at home till the collector camps but it doesn't seem to wor so vane neighborhood and banglor indraniker said let's put dusbins so they put dusbins and see what happened we don't like to follow rules so all the garbages outside the dusbinnow this is the problem without a societywe need to all admit that we are all ugly indians and more importantly only w can sae us from ourselves and as long as we ary mosle about it we won't solve it and so do you think there s any hope what doyou'll thinka lot of people i've given up to leave the country the stangated communities but some people said no let us trian fix this problem in an indian way by understanding the indians psychology and so social experiments began on church stret in bangalor in two thousand ten but the idea was simple let us understand indians behavior from a point of view o culture behavioral psychology let see what it takes to make an ugly indian change but most importantly without him or her realizing it we don't like to be told what to do yoet we falled into improving our behavior can be nudge and inagly indian towards better behaviour in public spaces you may hve heard the broken windows theory which says that if a place's uggly it becomes uglier to places beautiful it commands respect there is another theory in economics called the tragedy of commons hich means we care for our private spaces we don't care about public spaces india is a perfect example of both these theories in action this is coromangula that lady is throwing gubbage on the road in a beautiful part of an ubscale neighborhood and whys she doing it because someone is already thrown beforewhat can we do to make her change her behaviour without her knowing itthis is a typical example of civic problems in india pan stains on the wall this is on the wall of decconhered newspaper an church street it has been like this forever because there spanstains people unit on it nobody walks in that footpth so a few people sat and observed it and tried an experimnt this is what they did they painted the wall they painted a red band at the bottom they put some flower pots and incredibly there were no more pan stains on that wall and why because the person's sfitting pan is is trying his best to be clean he chooses to plit into the pot if ef by mistake spits in the corner of the red color masks itvone people sto pitting people actually go on the footpath it worksthere are dozens of walls in banglo with a red band at the ottom that has taken an indian solution to apply to an indian problemthis is very common duses indranego the young school boys facing a deat trat we see this very often at anyone of you never seen a death trap banlors full of dedtraps the little boys to walk around look at that footpath and if you go on aster residents thy have complained or years nothing has happened three people said let's fix it this is what they did they actually went and fixed the footpath it has remained fixed for six months what's the message if you see a problem you go fix it nobody stops you you can actually make a change don't waste your time complaininglittle beans are a problem why someimes they look like animals they made of fiber class they catch fire with cigarettes some little bins are resting theyr falling on the ground and don't little pins look so dirty that they actually bring down the aesthetics of the place the latterment is suppose to make it clean sometimes they're not they were you want them so people improvise they put letter-in trees so some eople sartan said can we design a litter bin that wil not get stolen that looks beautiful that people will use that last through weather and actually improve the arethetics of the place and so they came up with somein called the tere bin which is a designer-dasbin this is on egy road in banglo brigade road her the beautiful partifit it is not stealable nobody wants it because it's made of aterios nobody want it works it looks clean ad for the last three years there are two hundred dusbins across bangloand it has worked because somebody applied his mind to sove a problem as a problem this is in front of itipiel the usbin is exactly where united near bustop people uset t has workedand this is the biggest problem of all open gabage this is outside the corumangula club youuld think they would figure it out but they didn't and some people said let's make this os an example and this is what they didit has remained fixed it oes not afferto-up at aland the reason well-known places are taken is that if people who are rich powerful and with social pressur cannot do it then theres something wrong with usthis is outside the house of doctor rachkumar poor mr pnit rachkuman has to see this every year he's got amazing socil power he couln't fix it this is what was doneand it has remained fixed for the last six monthsthis is jepping a gur outside umbrish's house again viere chosen people who are important who can get thins done but it requires the public to do itthis is outside a slum this is cowdung thisis their children wait for their school bus which become a beautiful bus stopthis is outside a tech park every turk park in banglo thisis outeringrod as got open drains there are billion ollar companies ereapparently nobodyis willing to fix thus their al blaming somebody else a few people wen't male it a safe zon melita bus top its working and so the point is whether taslammer take parker an affluence zone you an make change this is in whidefield nearby this is actually an open toilet that slam at the back where people who use the toilet that's a wine shop distunding the jaget theaterit's crazy sosam pien from whitefield said let's fix itso they fixed it but what happened pople skill through gabbage you cannot fix a place by this painting and yo have to solve the underlying problem so undeed two five people went to all the houses and said from tomorrow we'll make a new sstem that you don't need to put your garbage on the ground see what happenedwhat is interesting is that all the peopl that slum dwellas the winp owner jagathi peole thpeple in apartments got together to solve a common problem they h'de never spoken to each other beore to complain to each other about ach other before when the community comes together to fix a common problem it is no longer a tragedy of commons this is a vctory of the commons and this particular project has spawed many many more projects and wildfieldnow look closely this is actl urin outside a wine shop indian men need to urrinate and let's accept thatlet's not getting motional about it can we make them internet in a digified way and rescue the public spare so this is a wineshop thatjuron outside the wineshop on a cun' be bordered it created an innovation but someone said let's create a dignified wif way for men to grinite and rescue a public space it resulted in something called thewonder-loo which is an open-air urinal of private space the men urinate and the rest of the wall gats rescued now who did all these proects look closely there are senior citizens that ladies in aseven tissuee holding a crowbar theretired army officers that as slam children to the wineshop onlo they all kame together nde this project there was no contract labor atholitors all done entirely by citizens and that evening people came in der car to buy their licor and used restroom in the openn everybody's happy so everybody all the stakeholders in that spot eventually got what they wanted even though they have fugeally opposin idealogies they're getting along and that's the big message out hereso what do you think is there any hopeyea that's good over four hundred such spots have been ixed but what's more interesting that ninety percento have survved and that's an excellent survival rate for for problems that were so chronic no one even knew how to start solving thembut how does it all work andthat's what i'm here to tell you it's not about going and painting a wall that is much more to it than thatand the most important thing is thiscom charloo mobantonly work no talk-by muchco-kelsa chco it's as simple as thatin india we talk too much we refuse t listen but if you decide to go and do and don't talk incredible things can be achieve don't lecture don't modelize don't create avanda's drives don't tell people whato don't act ondessending inso i know the solution to your problem because it may not even be a problem at allif you take the leadothers will follow some of you may have been an protesten darnas minigoanna protest some people join you some people ignore you it's the same thing with good work if you go into disruptive positive anarchy some will follow you some will ignore you but nobody will stop you so the only person stopping you from going out and doing good is yourself don't blame anybody else for stopping you don't xpect credit don't expect applause strianonyous don't take anybody's money use your own whatever yu means are if a person a single person does somethng within his own means you'll be surprised how many other people join you the moment you take many year almost losing your independencegandide famously said be the change you want to seethere's is t problem with that with your respect to gandegyif the situation is hopeless you first need to seethe change that o want believe that you can wo't make the changeand that's where facebook has been fantastic every before after photograph goes on facebook people say whow it's possible let me try it creating beliefs that are pathetic chivic situation can improve is the biggest lesson that the augindian movement has learnet focus on results not on who's doing it how it's being done if you ca deliver bfore e photograph ooif not and the facebook is a very brutal decider of whether the project was good or notthere are many miths about social movements which have got broken volunteers are the asiest to get banglor has got thousands of people who come out on weekends and work these are not social activicy the people who gut regular jobs to take time out to work money is no problem at all many of the projects it were shown cost less than three thousand roupies or sixty years dollars if ten people get together put three hundred rouples each you can fix a spot it's cheaper than going out for dinner or having coffee in one of banglor's upscale restaurants and the best part you can make a dramatic change without asking any bodials for hlpa lot of people are warried about the governmentthe government loves it of the citizens engage this paying taxis an voting is not an orfif you come out and work te govenment loves it the banglord and the bb empe has takenthe first step on entering partnership tot citizen movements it is unprecedented in india and whe are hopeful that other cities to iknorethat when the collective energies of the government implies the citizens are put on the common cause which is improving the ty dramatic change can happen we spent too much time fighting with the gvernment that should stopindia is truly rising what began in banglorin churc street four years a quickly spread and now there are litterally twenty to thirty teams in bangler operational all their work s on facebook and slowly across india there are thirty-to-forty cities caunper agra chennai it is named the city people are coming out i know the best prt none of them know each other nobody talks to each other the only thing that counces results so wherevergo out and do someing put poste toagleindian if your workrums anuglin den you become famous on your street other people join youthise are random photos sent by people kanpu ramit er agracha everybody's trying to copy emulate what's happeing elsewhere simple message if you want to change the world start with your own streetif you want y a streit to change you should do t if you wait for somebody else to do it it may never happen and the choice is yoursa question that is often asked hy're ugly indians anonymousso far i've rvealed my gender because of my tone of voice and the language that i speak in which i'm proficient in bu you don't know what i speak at home you don't now my age you on't know my religion you don't know my cast you dont now my poliical views you don't know why whether i ware a pony tail or have a tattoothe problem with india as we make judgments on people are not on the work they do and the reason are o theaglindin has worked is that the focused only on results not who did it whiare theyre doing it water tha motivations anonymity allows a lot of people to come and join the foldso the messageheris stop being an ugly indian from today go out and do somethingdo you think there's any hopei came here two days back with a friend to check out thi hall this is how t lookd like outside the arear that's the footpath it says way to school very helpfully so yo goint ta school tessoun should basically take that footpath kthat's exactly outside thesoulthis is what you would normally do this is called calta attitude i don't care it's not my problem an toget from ad to beal this jump overwe need to change from chalta had to come charlos warded witumi and my friend went to a construction site we got some labourers we got some inroads be fixedd so chaltahe cor changed to kam chaluif i'm going to spend eighteen minutes doig mu chalu in this auditorium i saiy i w'll spend eighteen minutes wrking outside and in eighteen minutes that place was fixedand when you go out today please walk on that footpath on the way to brigade school because it has got fixed two days ago begorting to the josh of it just outside the entrance of this hall is an opened electricity box with the gabagespent an hour in fixed it so when you go out today you will see work done by three people three days back because they felt they neded td itthe question to ask is have you made an impact n your street and we loved herdek the sat tartiks as a tak fest can taticks do anything so two daysago a hundred people from this audience came out inde the spotfixon banglo and that's the story we goneto share with you nowthis is kar circles one of banglo's favorite circles is a beautifu place but with one problem pedestrians have the cross n the road there are underpasses there beautifully designed but the problem is are either closed or if they ope they look like this that is urin that has not been cleane for years in middle fthe lady coming in is holding hernosethis look a this lady has to wait for the man to cross she walks bravely holing her nose in a dark dingy uren field room to get to work isn't that sad these girls are risking their lives and crossing togo tho college because they o want to use the underpass that girl is reading a book and taking a decsion she'd rather walk on e road than go on the underpass thisgoal goes to college with a nose closedis the mayor of banglo we invited him to cme and inspect this and he said you tried for years to fix it can the public help the public sed yes and so a group of public rent in clean displace the mayor came and joined they transformed the subway and for the last three weeks it's been running well this is hat itlooks like now so two days ago the ted volunteers came a their entering the subwact to check it outthis is a clean subwa see how different it islook at how many people are walking thes smiling there is a friendly place all it takes to convert a public space is a little bit of sincerity and effort and the public has rescued a subway they came her to see the change that they wanted to beand this is what they didin the next one-hour hundred people from this room actually went ad cleaned up the subways thiis all hw they look ten subways were painted as we swek the subways are being cleaned and come next week they well allopen six subways in classi kill open because of efort taken by people that dead this is what itlooks likeif i want to walk from the library to freedham park its very difficultbut what they have done now is bngler is a beautiful underconnected pedestrian walkways with are lyng dormant they've been rescued we have cared cirtalen for cars and we have a pedestrian circle for pedestriansso what do you think is there any hopeall the people who work on the spot fixed give thourselves a big handphrasiseeeea
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ondeminutete ope in compicated inteeininbuilteeopeleintete an peteleic otelin in ecatimeis etol there welli work at the cetti institute that's almost my name cetti search for extra terrestrial intelligence and otherwise i look for aliens and whn i tell people that ated a cocktail party they usually look at me with a mildly incredulous look on their face i try to keep my own face somewhat dispassionate and a lot of people think kind of idealistic ridiculous maybe even hopeless but i just wantto talk to you a little bit about why i think that the job i have is actually a privilegegive you little better the motivation from m getting into this line of work if that's what you call it hing whips can we go back hallo come in earththere we go is the o valley radio observatory behind the sierre nevadas in nineteen-sixty eight i was working there collecting data for my thesis anas kind lonely it's kinda tedeous yo's collecting dta so i would amuse myself by taking photos at nigther telescopes or even of myself because yunowit at ight i would be the only homonid within about thirty miles so here pictures of my self eobservatory had just acquired a new book written by russian cosmologist by the name of joseph schlowski and n expanded and translated and edited by a little known cornell astronomer by name of karl segenand i remer reading that book and at three in the morning reading this book and it was explaining how the antentis i was using to measue the spins of galaxies could also be used to communicate to send bits o information from one star system to another now at three o'clock in the morning when you're all alone haven't had much sleep that was a very romantic idea but it was that iea the fact that you could in't fact prove that there's somebody out there just using e same technology that appealed to me so much that twenty years later i took a job at the setty institute now i have to say that my memory is notoriously porous ani'v often wondered whether there was any truth in this story was you misremembering something but recently just blew up this old negaive of mind and sure enough there you can see the schlawskin's segend book underneath that analog calculating deviceso it's true now the idea for ding this it wasn't very old at the time that i made that photo the idea dates from nineteen-sixty won a young astronomer by the name of frank drake used this antenna in west virginia pointed at a couple of nearby strs in the hopes of eves dropping on e-tnow frank didn't hear anything actually he did but it turned out to be the usair force which doesn't count has extra terrestrial intelligence but drake's idea here became very popular because it was very appealing and il get back to thatandon the basis of this experims which didn't didnt succeed wehave been doing sety ever sice not continuously but ever since we still haven't heard anything-we still havent hard anythingin fact we don't know about any life beyond earth but i'm going to uggest to you that that's going to change rather soon and' partreoinfact a majority ofreaso why i think that's gong to change it's that the equipment's getting better thi is the island telescope arey about three hundred and fifty miles from whatever seat you're in right now this is something that we're using today to searchorite and the electronics have gotten very much better too this is frank drake's electronics in nineteen-sixty this is the aslen telescope aray electronics today some pund it with too much time on his hands has reckened that the new experiments are approximately a hundred trillion times better than they were in ineteen-sixty hundred qwlenty times better that's a degree of an improvement that will look out on your reportcardokabutsomething that's not appreciated by the public is in fact that the experiment continues to get better and consequently tends to get faster this little plot in every time you show plot you lose ten percent of the audience i have the twelve of these butwhat what i plotted here is just some metric that shows how fast wr searching in othewars we'relooking for a needle in a haystack when yo on to big the haystack is it's the galaxy butwe're going through the haystack no longer with a teaspoon but with ta skiplower because of this increase in speed infact those of yow who are still conscious and mathematically competent will note that this is a semi-log plotin other words the rate of increase is exponantial itis exponantially improving how expinantial is an overworked word you hear it on media all the time they don't really know what exponential means but this is exponantial in fact it's doubling every eighteen months and of course every card-carrying member the digerati knows that thatsmoore's law so this means that over th course of next two dozen years will be able to look at a million star systems a million star systes looking for signals that would prove somebody's out there well a million star systems icite interesting i mean how mny of those star systems have planetsand he facts are we didn'tknow the answer to that even as recently us fifteen years ago andin fact we really didntknow it even as recently six months ago but now we do recent results suggest that virtually every star has planets nd more than one theyreyou nokittensget a litter you don't get one kitten you get a punchin fact this is a pretty accurate estimate of the umber of planets in r galaxy just our galaxyremind the nonastronomy majors among you that our alaxyis on one of a hundred billion that we can see wth our telescopes that's a lot o real estate mit of course most these plans are gonto ben worthless like mercury or neptune neptunes probably not very big in your feso the question is what fraction of these planets o're actually suitable for life we don't know th answer to that either but we will learn that answer this year thanks to nass kepler's space telescope and in fact the smart money which is to say to people who work on this project the mart money is suggesting that the fraction of planets that might be suitable for life is may beone in a thousand one in a hudred something like thatwhile even taking the pessimistic estimate that i one in a thousand that means that there are at least a billion cousins of the earthjust in our own galaxyowi've given you a lot of numbers here but there mostly big numbers oso you now keep that on mind there's plenty of real estate plenty of real estate inuniverse and if we're the only bit of real estate in which there are some interesting occupants that makes you a miracle and i know you like to think you're a miraclebut if you do science you learn rather quickly that every time you think youre a miracle you're wrong so poplly op the caseso the bottom line is this because of the increase in speed and because of the vast amount of habitable real estate n the cosmos i figure we're gonna pick up a signal within two ozen years and i feel strongly enough about that to make a bet with you either we're gongto find et in the next two dozen years or i'll buy you a cup of coffeeso that's not so bad i mean neither with two zen years yho open up your brows and there's news of a signal or you now yo get a cup of coffee now let me tell you about some aspect of this that people don't think about and thatis what what happenes what i say is true i mean who knows but suppose it happens suppose sometime in the next two dozen years towe pick up a faint wine that tells us we have some cosmic companywhat is the effect what's the consequence i might be a ground zero for this i happen't to know what the consequence fr me would be because we've had false alarms this is nineteen-ninety-seven insophoto i made it about three o'clock in the morning in mountain view here when we wre watching the computer monitors because we picked up a signal that we thought this is the realdeala i kept waiting for the men in black to show upi kept waiting for ikept waiting for my mom to call somebody to call the government-to call nobody called nobody called i was so nervous that i couldn't sit on i just nt wandered around taking photos like thi one just for someing todowhile at nine thirty in the morning with my head down on my desk coase i obviously hadn't slept all night the phone rings and it's tenew york times and i tink ther's a lesson than that and that lesson is that if we pick up a signal thmdo the medio will be onored faster than a weazel on ballbearings it's gon to be fast okayoucan be sure thatno secrecy okay that's what happens to e kin ta ruins my h whole week because whatever i've got playing tha week out the window but what about you what's i gona do to youin the anser we don't know the answer we don't know t that's gonadudo not in a long termnot even very uch in this short term that would be a bit like asking chris columbus and forteen-ny-one hey chars what happens if it turns out that the's a continent between here and japan where you're sailing to what will be the consequences for humanity if that turns out to be the case any christ pobly would offer you ome answer that you might not have understood but i probably wouldnt hve been right and i thik to predict what finding eti's goingmean we can't preict that either but hear a couple of things i can't say to begin with it's going to be a society that's way in-advance of aran yu're non hear from alieniander thoughts here not building transmitters thy're gna be ahead of us maybby few thousand meres mab few million yeres but substantially ahead of us and that means if you can understand anything that they're going to say then you might be able to short circuit history by getting information from a society that's way beyond our own now you might find that a bit hyperbolic and maybe it is but nonetheless it's conceivable that thi will happen you could consider thi dont kno ivin julius caesar english lescense ind the key to the library of ongress it would change his daythats one another thing that's forsure going to happenis that it will calibrate us we will know that we're not that miracle that were just another duck in a row were not the only kids on the blok and i think t that's philosophically a very profound thing to learn we're not a miracle okthe third thing that it might tell ou s somewhat vague but i think interesting and importnt andhtis if you find a sigal coming from a more advanced socity cause they will be that will tell you something about our own possibilities that were not inevitably doomed to self-destruction because they survive their technology we cound do it too normally when you lookinto the universe you're looking backin-time ihthat's interesting to casmoloists but in this sense you actually can look into the future hazily but you canlook ito future so those are all the sorts of things that would c fofdetectionnow let me talk a little bit about something that happens even in the meantimeand that is setti i think it's important because it's exploration and it's non only exploraionis comprehensil xpalways reading books about explorers i find the explanation very interesting artic expl people like magellan aonsshackleton sefranklin down theirs scott all these guys is really nifty exprestion tha there just doing it cause i want to exploreyou might say all that's kind of a frivolous opportunity but that'snot frivolous that's not a frivolous activity beause i'm a think af ance you dont most ancer programd to ollow one another along long line but their cuplancs may be one percent of those ants that are what they call pioneer ants and there the ones that wand er offtheyre the ones you' finds on kitchen countertop t getam iv your thumb before they find the sugar o butthose aunts eve toul most of them get wiped out those answer the ones that are essetial to the survival of the hive so exploration is important i also think that exploration is important in terms of being able to address what i think is a critical lack in our society and that's the lack of science literacy the lack of the ability to een understand science now look a lot has ben written about the deplorable state of sciece literacy in this country ve heard about itwell hers one example in fact poles taken polis tain ten yearsago jus lroughly one-third of the public things iti aliens or noninally out there were looking for otherebut they're here rihtsailing tesgies and heir saucers and occasionally abducting people for experiments thir parents wouldn't approve of well that would be interesting if it was true in job's security fror me but i don'think te evidence is very good that's more you know sad than significant but there are other things that people believe that are significant like the efficacy of homeopathy or that evolution is just sort of crazy idea by scientists without any legs oevoluionall tatr gloal warming ththese sorts of ideas don't really have any valiity you can't trust to scientistsnowwe got ta sell that prubeb ecause tat's a critically important problemymiht well okhow we gontasolve that problem was sely willet me suggest to you that ceti obviously can't selve the problem and an address the problemit can address the problem by getting young people interested in science lus science is hard it has a reputation of being hart and e facts are it is high and that's a result of four hundred years of science imen the eighteenth century in the eighteenth century you could become an expert on any field of science in an afternoon by going to a library you could find a librayin the nineteenth century of yu had a basement lab you could make major scientific discoveries in your own home right because it was all the scient jist ling around waiting for somebody to pick it upwell that's not touru any more today you got to spend years it grad school and post positions just to figure out what the important questions are it's hard there's no doubt about it an infacuous an example they exbos on finding the hex bos onask the x ten people you see on the street do you think isworth while to spend billions of swiss ranks looking for the higs bos oni'm get the answer youre gongto get is well i don't nowhat the hig bos on is and i don't now t's important and probably most othe people wouldn't even know the value of a swiss frankoi yet we're spending illions of swiss franks on this problemcase that doesn't get people interest in science because they can't comprehend what it's about sety on hhands really simple fore gona use these big antanaswen r gono try nese drop on signals everybody can understand that yes technologically is very sophisticated but everybody gets the deaso that's one thing the other thing is it's xciting science it's exciting because w're naturally interested in other intelligent beings and ithink that's part of our hard wiring i mean ere hardwire to be interested nbeings that might be if you will competitors or if you'resthe romantic sort possibly even matesokand this is analegus to ur interest in things that have big teethy'r interest in things tat have big teeth you can see the evolutionary value that and you can alo see the practical consequences by watching watching animal planetyuowthey make very few programs about gerbals mostly bad things tat have big teethokay so we're intrested in these sorts of thingsam ot justit kids this allows you to pay it forward by using this subjectas a hook to science because sedi involves all kinds of science obviously biology obviously astronomy but aso geology chemistry various scientific diciplens all can be presented in the guyse of we're looking for et so to me thi thiis interesting and important and in fact it's my policy eventhough i give a lot of talks to adults you give talks to dulds and two days later theyre back where hey were but if you give talks to kids in at one and fifty of them some lite bulb goes off and ininchiai never thought of that and then the o you read a book or a magazine whatever they get interested in somethingnow it's my thy supported only by anecdotal prsonall anecdotal evidence but onetheless that kids get intereste in something between the ages of eight and eleventey got to get im thereso all right give talks to dultset's fine but i try and make ten-percent of the talx that i give try and make those for kidsi rememer when a guy came to or high school actually rose actually my junior high school wasin sixth gradeand he gots some talk all i remember from it was one word electronics this was like duston hoffman in the graduate right when he said plastics whatever that means plastics set electronics don't remember anything else in fact i don't remember anyting that my six-grade teacher said all year but i remember electronics nso i got interested in electronics anstudied to get my han license i was waring up stuff here i m at about fifteen or someindoing that sortice upthat ad a big effect on meso that's my point that you can get have a big effect on these kids in fact this disreminds mean a cuple years ago hi give a talk at a school in paloalto where the were about a dozen eleven year-olds thad come to this talk id been brought in to talk to these kids for an hour elevenyorls here all sitting in a little semicircle looking up at me with big eyes and i started thre was wipor behind me ad istart off b writing a one with twenty-two zeroslookthis is a number of stars in the visile universe and this number is so big there's noteven a name for itand one of these kids shot up his hand and he saw actually the rsn' name ford it's a sextile quadrohxterightnow that kid was wrong by fords foreorders of magnitude btthere was no doubt about it these kids were smart oso stop giving the lecture all hi wanted to do was ask questionsin fact my last comments to these kids i said you know you kids are smarter tan the people i work withowthy dedn't even care about thatwhat they wanted whatthey wnwas my email dress so they could ask me more questions just say look my job is a privilege because we're in a special time previous enerations couldnt do this experiment at allihtin another generation down the line i think we will have succeeded s to me it is a privilege and when i look in the mirror you know the facts are that i really don't see myself what i see is thegeneration behind me used as some kids from hoff school fourth graters talked there but two weeks ago someh like i think tif you can instill some interest in science and how it works well that's a payoff beyond easy measure thank you very mucheee e eee eeeo oeeeeeiliti
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tendith camochan eiteeieeeneeieaeaeee eeeewhat did your digital footprint say about youwhat i mean by digital foot frint i mean all the stuff that we leave online the digital tracks and traces the stuff that makes up other people's perception of whorear as well as our ownsome of those things are really visible and some o thm are really invisible sothigs that youve you've watched the trail of things you've watched on yucheb that recommends something else some ofetings like your search historybut lots of the things that eliev onliner stuffed are entirely within our control and are about our own of creative processso i want you to start off by thinking about what the last thing that you shared online wasnow this migt ae been two or three minutes ago this migh av been hours ago thes mit aebeen days ago what was that las thing that you sharediu igt been smeting on faceworke and mit bes somting on snapchat i know that i distprotected tweeto automatic lagers i like to be a little bit smug when i'm speakingbut what was that last thingwhat des that thing about youif someone is looking a that what does that tell you does that tell youthat's on what you are as i telling about your interests maybe it sys something that's really positive or querky so ganabing a bit smug thiis baking of minehmaybe it shows that you've got interest maybe it shows tat you do particular kind of job maybe it shows a particular kind of hobby that you havemade us somting you'd really want to show to the world some ingreally positive so if someone looks at that you'd hink brilliant i recognize that person as myself and i think that's what i' would like to portray to peoplei may be portrayng different parts of herself to different kinds of audiences so i're even gofen rightsabout having different kinds of identities for different kinds of context so resenting yourself in the onstage ways and off-stage ways fut has spin off-stager hos come onstage an feels very relevant rightbutsometimes you have to have different kinds of alenities and they don't always stay totally separate and in fact some other things sharonline may be the not presenting exactly how youd one to do itsi is my polite version of recarin something slightly inappropriate online this is my cat godfrey he's on twitto and instagram please don't judge me judgement that's you might be sharing stuff that you don't really intend to geawider eiring now godfrye's not to embarrous althogh i have to say dunt aske his consent to use his image which i really shod offbut maybe something gets out of hanri smething gos nordent you don't expect it to get seanand then your idetity starts to be this slight model of things that intended for different kinds of udiences you get this idea of context collapse where your friends and your colleagues and people who runawr people who yu are crak craftt maybe they all converge in the same space they all start to see different parts of your idensity and that's quite challenging andwhn you're showing the social media that's really likely to happenyour parents might be on faceboork people who you don't know mount tinet people who ou do know when you're sharing stuff ind anonymous spaces you have to be thinking about what thet identity's projecing about you and what you wanted to project about youand is luch about what you share and where you share it i's also who you share acreature itwith ou can choose but most of us don't choose toso even dowing some research with students at university of edinburugh and we've been asking them to tell us how they use socialevethey think aboutheir identity onlineand sixty-one percent of them very very rarely check their privacy settigsand five percent of them have found something oline that they did not want to see they thought it' been taken away didn'posted itso prosy settings and who yu share withthe circles that you share with materyou share to these networks they share further on you have control of tht but most of us choose not to exercise that and that's kind of interesting so we have tese footprints we have these things thate visible we have thee things tht are invisiblewe also create other people's footprints for thembut we don't always think about it that wayso we have an all the social midia platform stability to ttacg peopleand that's great that's lovely you can see you re all in te same place and it's really good untill ye've turn down this one invitation to do something quite important and someone tags union event somewhere else that's not so greatisome takin of photo and it's not a good photos it has a really serious consequence a lot of training teachers particularly in the uasaphanha pictures of them drinking not drinking on derage just drinking when theyres live in the twenties have been enough to impact on their employment potential because that's an image that their employers don't want to have of themsometimes it's much less important that sis like you haven't got me at the right sidei don't like that picture that picture is not very flatteringthat matcher to though you have to respect wule's wiches andwe're still trying to figure out this etteqet about what we tg what we share how arditial footprints are constructed and how we are constructing by other people every dayso again when we did research lor students eleven percento peple said they had been tagged in an unwanted way in a photograph eleven per cent as a huge number and gain theam outer seriousness potentially there are some professioal bodies ind things that from the moment that you start university ome is from before that your presence-online actually is part of your professional identity student nurses arived from the day they start university to consider themselves a professionaltt is how thy spose to presenthemselves online that's a really big ask i have to sayso that'stuf tat you're sharing now the stuff that you share every dy can have long-time consequencesthe thing is though i'm standing a bit scary and i love social media i'm on all of the social media if you google m you will find me all over the place i totally love these things they are creative fantastic tools tey are like a big giant yawn shop for iominetotyand it's a huge swet of things that it be creative and wonderful and create marvelleus things i'm not going to disuade you from setting stuff up thae can be really good things about being present online again without students in the research sixteen percent of them hadhead approaches for jobs for volunteering opportunities because of having presence online i had professional oportunities because i shae pick cooking pictures it can be really fantastic to build up your network it is a really positive thingas long as yure being deliberative and think bout what you're doingbecause once something is out there it's really had to get it backthese thinks t of hands they grow they network you end up with this big tangle of things if yu wantto take back a post you might delete it i one place it might avebeen copied to someone else if you want to e removed you might have to ask your friends to kind of rforget it was ever there and to remove a screenshot of it as wellit's not that easy to take steff back once it's out htis not impossible the stuff that posted wonowse teenager online just about young enough to expose the sp-onlimnesitynager that has disappeared and some oter unpolice about some of this i really missbut you have to assume stuff was decorand a little bitind trying to cut it back is is difficult so i want you to thinkten years ahead its twenty-twenty-six i have noded what state the world is in especially affr th lat few weeksthinkhead is twenty-twenty-six what does the digital footprinte stuff that you are leaving now say about youi it saying then wrighte things is that history of you pas we will all have a history of us recorded in lots of different places what does tht say about you iwhat you want it toand whe you post something next time i wantyou to think about tat i wantthink this thing that i'm sharing this post is comment it might be silly it doesn't be serious having a personality's ninety porcent of wat social mediens about being fun and lively is finebut i only think about what ware you created you create ing sm in beautiful and complex like thestelcheholegue glass sculpture m you can't see everything maybe different audiecy different thingsbut interesting and complex and a brilliant presentation of you that'swht we ne to thik about when you think making at ditional footprint for the futureand i want to think aout that whenyoure thinking about how you deal with stuff that you don't want to say online foretherjust tbe thinking about elong-term view of itit might be femeral it might secrown forever but always be thinkng how do i make my degital footprints say the right thing about me and how can i make that a choice that i've taken cotrol off thank youeee teeeneai an te
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econposin holteie poju ite doting hatiejonian jane ii aweniams james and i'm experimental particle physicis in what that means is that i get together wth a few thousands of my closest colleagues and we take the smallest possible things in nature and we accelerate them up to the highest possible speeds and we slam them inoeach other to see what happensreason we did this is because we'relooking for things that mankind has never seen beorevery fundamental physical scalesand so i'm here to share with you what someoniy alled a dark photon is but to do so i ed to set a lttlebit of historical context unsuccessful click lering u i ed to sait a littlebitof a historical context andflashback to eighteen-ninety-four when eminent physicist albert michaelson said the following he stood in front of audiences froat the universit of chicago and he said the followingthe more important fundamental laws and facts of physical science have all bee discovered and these are now so firmly established at the possibility of their ever being supplanted in consequence of new discoveries is exceedigly remote a couple of decades previous electricity of magnetism had been shown to be two parts of the same force electromagnetism and this was considered such a gigantic rake hrough hetime thatthre was a prevalent attitude amongst a lot of physicst that this was petymuturet andthe rest were some minor details but sometimes i wonder if people like thi michaelson didn't needto because we've gat to get the nobel but i wonder somtimes if people saythings like s with such defenditive authority just so they can ensure their place and history as like grand historical straiteman so tht we look back a hundred years later and mrvel at how completely wrong they were a different albert nineteen-o-five special relativity nineteen-fifteen geeral relativity and in their early decades of the nineteen-hundreds quantum mechanics and thn thy ned to put quantum mechanics together with relativity led to something called quantum field theory andanyone of these things by themselves required such a complete paradime shifton or understanding of nature tats very basic scales that it's hard to imagine how michaelson could have been more wrong in his pronouncenso this a quantum field theory that we ame up with was wastelanguage that llowed us to understand is amazing interplay between m theory and experiment in paricle physics and physics itwentieth century that culminated in a thing that we call the standard model of particle physics and sits is essentially a list f all the particles e fundamental particles we know and the ways thatthey interact and its nicely summarised in this diagram from movie particle fever it desn't have any significance beyond its just really ce way to put it down on slide and essentially have two basic classes of particles yo have the outer ring which is matter particles and there are a qorx in electron and they have thes inner ring which which populated by the so-called force carrying particles or gauge bos onsandso thisi it's a amazing most shockingly successful experimental thersoch so that i actually earns that name the standard model capital s cpitalmimanddia utmaybe a fw ears may have prirked up when i said that word bows n one hered heard ofthe higs bows-onho haven't heard of the higs boson perhaps you know by its more asensationalistic name the kanye particles sary the god particlesophysicis don't care much for that name because it obscures the truly awsome nature of this particle butonetheless in a july of two thousand twelveskis may toed the collaboration to the experiments at the large adron collidor atlas the one that i work on and see amas a complementary experimentits he large headrun clliter at sern near genevaannounced the discovery with his brand new particle the the higgs bozon iois its thculbist discovers amazing triumph with a culbination of decades of work by thousands of physicists and it really was it really was a fantastic triumph wastelast remaining piece of the standard model puzzle to be pluged inand so you might think that hen once this was plugged in we all can have turned to each other and said wow isn't this grate fnally a hundred and twenty years later wefinallyyuno reached michelson's dreamed of end of physics is what we said to each other absolutely nt we know for a fact that the santer model is not a complee pitcher it is amazingly successful but iitcannot bethe complet picture of nature at its fundamental scales inerl beween theory ad expres and also weve learned our historical lesso not to say things like tbutwe o know that this interplay between theirin experiment and these aazing paradiinterests that happened in the twentieh century also went over to oter related fields of physics and so we know for the fact that the standard models incmpletebutits its so experemitatly successful that any new thing that comes has to build a planet it still has to be true at the end of dayso the barrier that we face now in partice physics is not the same onethat was in eighteen-nineties theone that michaelson is posidethe uestion atowhethr we should even bother to keep searching for new physicsthe barriory face now is slightly different s the question of how to keep searching for new physics andi'll give you a flavor of what i mean by showngyou an arialwips an arial view of the large hadron collider so this is a twenty-seven kilometer around tunnel on the bordr of france and switzerland a hundred metres under the ground but to make it more localthis what i wullook like around loure manhattan soat the lic we collicte two beams of protons at the highest energyes mankind is ever used in a chalyderxperiment thirteen terror electron volts so this give you a sense of h scale wehave these two beams he place where w focused them togeter and a clied them with build a big detector thereaso sis gives youre sense of the scope of some of tese experiments and to get up to higher energies othe higher entergies where henew revolutionary physics may be hiding we to build bigger machines and so this is the next generation of machines theyre planned to be someting like a hundred kilometers around callide particles at a hundred tera electron bots what is that itis that the only directon we can go an absolutely hasto happen and this thisis being planned and this is absolutely the thig needs to be done but is that the only direction we can go the answer is no and this is where somethng called dark photon comes in this gamma is the symbol we often use for e photonand tedjust means dark nso tis s were te dark photon comes ibefore we talk about dark photon w pobably familiarize ourselves with eregular photon so the regular photon you know quite well its thyoumay havheadependent on how youlook atas eiter a wave or a particle has properties to both and the photon is the particle-manifestation of lit andso when youre camera takes a photo please if you have cameras tke them out and take a photo of meposing like your camera will take deygossno poyour camera witwiththat photo ist is collecting a few billion photons when yu're standing outside at noon the square meter around you is absorbing something like a thousand billion-billion photons a secondmvery bright and coherent photons make up blazers andsome of the dimos photons we know are those that have been travlling for fourteen billion years from a fraction of a second after the bg bank and are just now arriving sto be collected and mstudied by astronomersthe most energetic photons we know of come from astrophysical sources like hypernovethe least energetic know of are the ones that carry the soft rock hits of the seventies viaam radiosoyou'revery familiar with regular photons or at least you think you are because as a particle physicst we have a fent slightly different way of thinking about photons in addition to all these thingsit's also a special type of force-carrying particle and to give you an apreciation of what i mean by hti have to take a brief fora into coladerophysics and into quantum fieldtheory but i promise it will not be painful because you arrate basicaly know wat a collision is so youred no what microscopic collisions are so if you take two billiard balls they smack together and fly apart greatin physics we like to keep track of things as they evolve in time so we ant look at this same collision on te billiard table as it evolves in timeso at one at some pointa time the balls ar facedfar apart they get closer together they smack togther and fly apart and we draw lines to this and this gives us a trajectory of this collision as it happened in sacetimethese billiard balls are movn petty slow and they're they're pretty large so if we want to go to the very very smallest fundamental scales the smallest uncuttable particle scales and if we want to go up to the highest energy highest highest speeds possible i almost the speed of lightthe rules change because quantum field theorytakes over there and you can't think of collusions in the same wayso instead of billieralls lets collide oanother particle that you know quite well and thy ill use qute a bit in collideorphysics the electronelectron an its antiparticle deposit ron as time goes on theyget closer together something happens and then electron epositor on come of theother side ok would that something happens can be as as a collision and it can take a few forms one of them they can pass right by each other's not very interesting one ting they can do is they can actually annihilate and create a new particle according to very strict rules of quantum field theory this particle can be split into other particles another thig that can do though is thy can get close enough to each other so that they feel each other ifeel they feel a force much like one planet can be said to feel the gravitational force o another one as they go round each other these diselectron opositoron can be said to fiel the electromagnetic force beweeparticle leve that means directually exchanging another type of photonis type of particle a special type of particle a force-carrying particle and for electromaticism this is thephotone each one of forces has a forcecarrying partile associated with it but as that all of themthe answer is no his development of thi standard model in te twentieth century led us to understand that there wre other fundamental forces that we had missed before and one ofthem is called the strong force this was discovered and this is the one that hold corx bounded to protons and neutrons andhence keeps your body from flying apart and keeps the sidewalk fom from dissolving underneath your feet and its forece care is caled the glu-on aappropriate name theon of te other forces be foundcalled eweakforce and the weakforce you pobably best-know is responsible for radioactive decay in its kind of an oddbalx that has three different force-carrying partileassociated with w plus wminus and zbozons but is that all of themthe answers that we don't know there actually could be other fundamental forces out there but because so many people s physical forces because so many people hav ben working on this for so long somany clever people and so many much fibler than i and so many'm ogea experiments performed we have narrowed down the possible way that we could have missed new forces and hence new force carrying particles to a very few one way is if the particles are supermassive and wat to bee my mass is not the typical you know like a massive bouncer-at a bar type colloquial sense mass the particle level is a very as an intrinsic property of a particle and so so what i mean by ifyou remember ecl hem square this indicates an equivalencs beween energy ind mass andso woften measure we often express the masses of fundamental particles in terms of energy so youll see the giga electron volt here and so the proton snataforce carrye burns a particle yo know quite well the proton has a massive about one gig electronble the newly discovered higg's particle has a mass aout a hundred twenty-five times that and then the most massive fundamental particle we know of is the topqork and it has a massive abot a hundred seventy-two times thatfor reference the w z force carriers have masses closer to the higs and the electron has a supersmall massso one way we could have missed new force-force carrying particles as if they're just supermassive we haven't built a large enough collider with enough energy to get up there like i said we a build a larger collider to getto higher energies to find the new particlesvi said that cost money that's not where you've goand getthe money thatsthtake u cost money to get up thereand so is tht the only way no another one of the very very few ways we could avemissed physical forces ould have missed tem so far is if they have a very small mass smaller thanthe mass of the proton and if they interact very very slightly with our everyday electromagnetic word or everyday worldand you might tink smake na sense because it is sai that to get to the higher thigher masses we ned more money so haven't we covered the broke end of the spectrum alreadythe answer comes fom fact that from very very slightly interacting thing sowhat i mean by t is tthe most important force won onforces thatwen owe the most important force chorces n terms of physics in terms of experiment iselectromaticism because it's the only one we can do anything directly ithwithterms of instrumentssome newphysics effect doesn't eventually result in an electromagnetic interaction we won'tknow about itsoif nature had forinstence conspired to hide some new force from ew force-carrying particle that had a very very small mass and that alo interacted really really slightly with our everyelectromagnetic world so slighthtwe never sen it beforetwould have escaped the detection of all the previous experimentsts is by contrast to the regular photon we call it the dark photono the's ben a new force carrier sooka you might be thinking that's all well and good man but thiis like a staff n the dark you have anyexternal motivation for byond itmight exist ti meang a lot of things might existas a god question i like thewhat yu think andthe answers yes there's a lot ifmotivonofox on i one thing it's because this dark actually has something to do with dark matterso we like tolok at hubblo photographs so take your favourite spiral galaxy count oplp the stuff you can see that gives me the amount of luminous matter in the galaxynow ploy your favorite textbook on gravity and take that number and put it into the eqation that tells you how fast a star should be moving as cas a function how far away from the center of the galaxy it is yo'll get this predictionnowoend yur local astronomer and get her to measure those speeds of those particles they're totally off from the predction this means tit hous to be more stuff there than what we can see in i it's not luminous it's dark that's where dark matter tis word dark matter comes from canalgodantyo local astrophysicist and asks her to show you the energy budget of the universeshe'll tell you that theres overflets breakdown of all that stuff that exists in the universe shl thll it is over five times as much dark matter as there is regular matternow gedent your local particle theorists and ask her what dark matter is she'll tellyou we don't know we have a lot of ideas though aso experimental adthere are lot of people looking for dark matter directdirect-detection necessarilcladerophysices like mebu other direct detection dark matter experiments excuse me they have seen some weerd thingsand so i don' ave time erabout i'm justig totell you get the dark matter experiment experimentals into the room with particle theories get them to talk together and compare nodes and work work it outeventually the particle theatres will turn to and she'll say ya no if there wee alow mass if there were a new force-carring particles that had amass a little less than the mas protonand if it interacted really really slightly with her everydayworldthis would explain a lot of the dark mattered crazinss that she seen dark matter experimentalist and the as ukno sa particle goes a cliater phisie is yhou gothat's a dark photon i might be able to crcreate that theclider experiment sho partially because of it's relationship to dark matter partially for other reasonstht dn't have time to go int yes partially just because this field of dark phton searching has heated up quinte a bit in the last few yearsso this is a state of things as like two thousand eight and that white space' completely unexplored and that's exactly wher a dark photine should live if it's con help explain these darkmatter anomalies now flashforward to today six years later this is a state of thingsthose though shaded regions re exclusions places where darkm dark coaton can't live ndlines are a planned experiments to take place in the net year s owhat changed some theorists in fact nitalyatoo phillip schooster ruvenesseg and james borken pointed out the weekend indeed look in this space for dark photonndo so on cheep they made some calculaions nmade the observ that we can use existing fixed target facilities that were built for other particle physical purposes to look for this dark photon and so were all the experimentalist rubber hands together and say ye thisis good we can do this and so these experiments are al over the world there in russia thergrmany the italy californiathereare actually three experiments taking place that are planned to happen at a facility in virginia called thomas jefferson national accelerator facility orjefferson lablumna focused briefly on one called apex is thatsthe one that i work onsjefferson leb bybycontrast tothe alli cworby collide two beams of protons at really high energies like terra electron volts at jeffersn lab it's one beamf electrons that you get up to tgig electron voalts gvscale electron goes into an experimental hallokonce it goes into experimental hall thisas wellooks like for apex the beam comes in over my head i goes into to this target enclosure where you hold a chunk of metal fixed so what happens wen the electrons encounter umpchunk of metal an on lessloo at he diagramso the collectio ofchunk of metal is a dense collection of atoms with large nucleso when an electron tcomzana gets close to ucleaus they feel each other and they exchange a photon then as the electron bends around the snucleus it spits off anothe photon which splits into a couple of particles the weekend detectoccaswe detect those particles we calculate the mass of the particle they came from andwe've bent those upand overwhelmingly it's just a ackground noise shape this smooth background shape but occasionally if a dark photon exists you'll creat a dark photon instead very very rarely andso yobichas actual mass so youre loking for tiny bump ontop f the smooth background thing so we did this for the apix expeiment in july of two thousand ten who reheld a testrun apov concept testrum in an ideal world we would have seen somethng like this you now howe to work too hard to convince sombony that as like a bup tht's infacto simulationand what we saw was this and if you think that doesn'tlook like anything you write that was just a background spectrum and in fact the thing we'd be looking for would be a much subtler effect tolooed closer to ne on the right than nth leftbutso we did not see dark photon otherwise yo wouldhave heard about it but we did rule out a small space where one can liveprove the feasibility of the experimentwhich will happen sometimesin couple of years i said other experiments are looking too so this dark photon race is onsoso finally what is a dark photona dark photon would be a new force carrying prticle much like the regular photon is the force-carryng particle of electromagnetismit's dark because it inteacts so slightly with hour everyday electromagnetic world thateffectively been hidden from all previous experiments and because it could help explain someothe odd astrophysical results related to dark matter it's because it interacts so slightly with our everyday world we need to perform specialized experiments but had existing facilities to look for a tiny dark coat on signal on top of a huge backgroundscuse meit's potentially revolutionary because it wolld would be thet unabiguous evidence of a fundamental particle not predicted by the wildly successful standard model that we know and lovebut i meani know the crowd here alittle bit after spendig the whole unoyou know what what wull this do for you anean whwould you get fif we found a dark phot on soon be able to idont wol take dark photos with your phonepossibly probably not and you may be ome thewrong person asked tho because i'm an experimentalist not a product developmentalistamini looked for a dark photon because am interested in the funamental open questions of physics like what is dark matter and more importantly i loked for a darkfoot ongzi look at this plot i think ot wonder what's there muc like wingere hiking youlook at a hill an k i wonder what could be in that next hiden valley wepushed the limits of human knowledge because we'r curious ithat being said i do now that simple pushing of te limits of human knowledge for curiosity sake by my particle physics fbr has led eventually to such things as c-t-skins pet scans major eventes in ara power the worldwide webiav noited what the discovery of dark photon will be beyond expanding hour understanding of the universe the rest of y will be up to youso at the end of the day though mis it possible that everything l one of these experimentscould come up completely emptyyes absolutely i mean these were experiments because eser eperiments and in particle physics there's no such thing as failure because even if you don't find something you've still gained an important piece of information about nature the only failure is to stop searching thank youeeeee
5
eas ied ie eaaman an ahaamanmy name is marcus beler am the mcoffe professor of engineering it at my tea and i'm also a member of the centre for computational signc and engineering in the schwartzman college of computingin this to i'll be talking about te nexus of materialized sound and sonfied materialwe'lgotna be talking about halw vibration sound and matter interact and ho we can use music to design new and better materialswe think about biologicl structures such as a spider web we can see the very detailed very intricate very complex structuresif we look in a spider web in this case a three dimensional spide wher there are many internal structures they go really from the macros scale all waydowntog nanoscalerernou flying inside the wobstructure and we can see that this eb has very complex architectural features as we are closer we see more more of those architectural features emerge and become visiblewe go even closer we can look inside each of the circle filamens we can recognize that each circfilmeof itself consists f a hiberarchical structure this hyracucal structure ranges from the molecular scale the individual protin molecules which are assembled atam byadam to form secondary structures to form tertiary structures to form bundles or proteins ultimately forming filamens assembling into bundles of filamens and fibroles then forming the filamens the silk iber that you can see in the web so you can see that the webstructure really has a structure that goes from the maro scale all the way down to the nano scalehow are these materials built while these materials are built in nature by encoding structural information through the genetic sequence usually encoded by dnth dnletters encode information about how proteens are built proteins are built from primary sequences these genetic information letters forming sequences of amino asets forming secondary structures such as alphahelisads or better sheets and these in turn form more complicated structures such as collogen in bones spidersill consisting of betar sheat and alphahelics mixtures to also more complex structures like viruses what you see in this light in this picture here is the pathogen of kove nintin which has the spike proteen sticking out on the surface which gives this virus its name the coronovirus or crownsthis coronovirus is encoded by sequences of amino assits andquoded by letters of arney or diana to netig informatin this ternetic information provides the building plan for how this virus is actually builtjust like te viruss built from the bottom up forming hirarchical structures across-defen length scales and time scales we lo know tha in engineering we might be able to use such an approach as well thinking about an architectural system like the athletouer you cn also recognize that this system has features as well the gial from the macro altheway down to nanyl scaleeven though engineers have been using hirachical principles foran extenderd period of time we have not yet been able to tun simultaneously molecular scale all the way to te microscopic levelone other feature thatis really interesting is a unifying pitheme on feature across-diffeent manifestations of matterthat is the equivalent vibrations to matter to soundthe universlity of waves and vibrations is something we see in molecules we can recognize at the quantum-mechanical level we can describe matter as collections of waves we can also see that sound is an overlaying of signwaves harmonic waves to create more compicated sound structures and woe can also see that spiders for instants use waves as a way of communicating and understanding the environment waves sound vibration are universal and we can use perhaps vvibrations un sound as a way of defining material models optimizing materials and even inventing and highly new materials by using veparationshere we show how we can evolve the way hor arcosystems are builtthinking about a spider e spider uses vibration as a ave sensing the environment communicating with other spiders sensing-threat detecting prey and many other thingsthey use the signals they collect process it n their brain and make decisions make decisions about ho to built the web just like an autonomous weedy printer they build webbs by assembling materials in spacedepositing materils in space repairing the web and interacting with other spiders forming a autonomous material system a smart material system nd intelligent material systemhumans operated onaver similar way when humans build things hen we create a painting play an instrument we sense the environment we make decisions about what to do next itool to use we thinking bout woodcarving what kind of action do nexs to create a certain pattern e playinga instrument we decide on what key to play next dependin what we hearthese kind of processes are very smilar what the spider does the question is can we incorporate some of those feedback mechanisms some of these autonomous ways of reating materials of creating matter through sensing processing information in noal networks increating new things from it can we utilyze those and impleent those and technological solutions to create matur as arnt static but matirsatar alive that can iteract with the environment in innovated fror novel waysin fact one way to do that is to trnslate matter because matter has equivalenes to vibrations into sound and se soundess a way of designing new matterthe way we do this is we have a material composition of material struture we can understand that as a set of fibrations we cancompute the set of vibrations magan into audible sound andmanipulate the sound we can make new sound we can change the soundand we can then use a reverse translation to move sund back into matter by doing this we dessolve the designproblem which really consists of assembling a set of building gloks cunnallike lego building blocks indrostructuresin the case of sound at building blocks are signd waves or insruments or melodies or keys on a pianowe can assmble complex pieces of structure complex pieces of sound complex melodies simultaneously play intersecting inner-waving and create rally complicated designs in sound which then wecan trnslate back into material so the question is what kind of material wilt a certain composition like for bach or bethoven may be representcan we utilyze this idea in designing entighly new aterials that nature has not yet inventedcan we come up with engineering solutions to sustainable materials that we cannot otherwise obtainsound is the relly elegant way of capturing multiple levels in the material organization recall the spydar web it has manyt if instructures recall we were going from the big lrge-scale into the web and we can recognize from the beginnin the architectural levels structural details all way down to the molecular scales and the individual atoms and make up the amino ascets which are the building blocks of proteinsthese aemino assets to proteins to assemblies or proteins to fillamen's fibers to the entire web architecture is a really complicated puzzle by using sound we can hear simultaneously all these different levels each level ontributes a particular type of frequency spectrum by listening to it our ear or brain can process the information and we can design new hirarchical structures just likei musicwe think about matter and molecules let's take a closer look if you open a chemistry tax book most likely you ind a drawing of a molecule like enzine in this case these kind of models change over time but i ould say theyre all wrong because these pictures in a textbook ar static they look like static drawings when in fact molecules are continuously moving theyare vibrating andmovin all thetimethese viperations and movements is acually what defines the structure of these moleculeseach molecule has a unique fingerprint of sound just like you can hear hear he vibrations of a guitar you can hear e vibrations creating or becall musicin a similarway vibrations of molalso have a unique sound ad we can make it autible by transposing the frequencies intaudible range so that ubrain can process the informationwhat you hear here is the sounding of a complex protein structure a ii te pent an epeitenthe protein is vibrating all the time its continuously moving these movements and motions can be made in audible sound just like playing multiple guitars multiple instruments and multiple structures in musical composition by having a model of a protein in soud who can begin to understand the protein better have another way of understanding structure wequickly process information we can understand questions like mutations we can understand how proteins might change their folding geoetry as muttions happen we can understand how diseases might be treated by developing antibodies or drugs that bind to the protein all these aspects can be very easily done and heard in soundspace one discovery made recently is that eah of the amino assets the twenty natural building blocks for ll-pro teins calemino assets have a unique sound they have a unique fingerprint in other words thy have a unique key on a piano they all sound different what you hear now is the sound of each of the twenty ammunute asit going from begining to the end dthese are the sounds of life these sounds can e utilyzed to build models or proteins in faculty here now is the musical representation of thespike protein of covid nineteen's pathogen atenband tatton bentebthis is a very large protein with about three thousand amineo asets because the protein is so big and has such a complicated folding gerometry the musical composition tha results from this protein to reflect its structure s very long in fact is about one hour and fifty minutes longthe protein itself is hirarchical in nature it has primary sequence as we've talked about before encoded by the genetic information of the virus again there are thirty thousand basic levels information in the genetic code of the virus three thousand of these encode this particular proteinthen we have secondary structures like atherhiliseason better sheets and vannum coils and other structures as well thes are teenfolded into complex dramatries the resulting music is a very complicated piece because we have many intimelodies weaving into another creating what we call in music counterpointcounterpoint is a concept introduced and used very heavily byon sebastian back for instance cuple hundred years ago so he has already utilized some of the structural features we find in poteinsby using sound or music as a way of modelling proteins wecan build pairpowerfur coding models that we can use in artificial intelligence applicationsin fact in reason work we have used proteins to build data sets to represent thousands and hundreds of oe hours of music that reflect these poteins and train artificial know networks to listen to themthese aris can then generate newmuic based on what they have learntthese new musical compositions can then once generated be translated back into proteins because we have a unique mapping between the protein sound and the genetic information so we can go protein from material to sound through the understading of the equivalence of waves and matter we can use waves or sound as a way of creating newsound editinghe sound manipulating the sound coming up woth new design solutions not only by human but also using aisand we can use the new sound translating that back into materials we can materialize soundthis nexis of matter and sound is very exciting because it allows us o use different techniques to solve various design problems in the case of kobi nineteen one of thedesign problems werefter of course is to think about ways of creating ntibodies molecules or proteins that can bind to the protein in the virus more strongly tha the protein conbind to the human cellwhat here now is one of these proteins that we have generalled using aiband bidn't a metinotand you can see in the picture how thos protein looks likethis is a protein that nature has not yet invented no how do we create this welisten to many diferent kinds of coronovarous spike proteins different species different evolutionary stages of the koronovar is not only the current cobinintine but many other culabiruss wethen let the aimethod generate new music that reflects the innate structures in these particular type of protein which spike-proteinse in virusus and the resulting piece is a composition that reflects a protein gemetry poting sequence tat has something to do with his corona virious p spike proteins but has not yet been found in naturethis kind of composition tas kind of sequence might infect hold the key-ton antibody because it matches the types of sequences we find inthe protein in the genetic informationhey you can hear a piano composition that reflects the moment of inection this is a protein structure that resembles the moment when the virus spike potein attaches to he human cellpo defor gaven the popo onodoring the attachment process the protein changes its orientation slightly and you can hear this attachment in a slide change in thespectrum of frequencies and vibrations and you can make it audible hrough music so music here provides a microscope into world of molecula emotions into the word of infection detachment and the interaction of thevirus ultimately with the human bodyvibrations could also be seen in ther manifestations for instance and surface waves waterwaves in lake is a very common phenomenan infact this phnomena of having sun shining on a lake or in water bodies having waves creating surface waves in he water and seeng the glittering of this resulting product is something that's been very important in human evolutionhumans use these glittering concepts as a way of finding watr not only humans wt many animals as wellit's a way of detecting water by using surface wavesso e've been trynas whether we can think about using the deeper structures of waterwaves surface waves generated not nly by windloading or other envirenmental influences but also generating those through the mechanical signatures of vibrations encoded in the proteinsso ive created an experimental setup or we can excite water through the innate vibrations in the protei and make them visible you can then see at the microscopic level with your eyes how these protein excite water and what kind of unique patterns they form turns out different protein states different vibrations we can see the different patterns formed with our eyes from the moleculous scale it provides yet another way of vsualizing nanoscopic elements nanoscopic events manoscopic features not only without ears like in music but also using our eyes by looking at wave wave patterns these wavepannents can destoret reality as shown here in this animation you can see how we h've used acamera to film the surface of a wave and watching the refections of the environment in this case trees and brushes in a snowy landscapebecause there's a slihd windloading on this water body there are slight surface waves and the serface waves distort the image recorded by the camera so even though you can recognize the image as a slide distortionthis distortioned the inceptionism of creating ediven image based on an environmental inflence is something weller to explore and see whether we can use a similar concept to see how reality might be distoted or changed by visualizing protein vibrations in ater imaging water waves generate by potin vibratons is in fact a powerful way of detecting proteins we have done here as weh've selected a number of dfferent proteins and visualized them in water waves and water surface waves and then train the nuronetwork against thousands of images for each of these proteins wat the nunetwr can learn through thes training process is what are the wave patterns that associated with each of the protein structuresthis is how it looks like for one of examples you can see thte as a really interesting innate pattern that is formig on the surface because of protein vibrations so these mechnic alvoperations of the proteins are causing these surface wves which in turn create very interesting panes that can bpicked up with he eyes over the high-speed cameraeach protein has a unique spectrum iberations as i mentioned earlier you could hear that n the music i've played here is a graphical visual representation of the same idea you can see this bardchar the fingerpen of two different proteins in the left-hand sideits potin cost six one seven which is the situatin when the kova nantine pathrogen is bound to the human cllon th right and side you see a poten cost six m eighteen it's the case when nevarus is not attached to the human cell sa right-handside not-infected left hanside infectedthis protein is a very particularly important aspect of understanding the infection processe of cobeninteen into the human bodywe've trained a newal netork against many different proteins and detecte the surface waves we can do another experiment now and film or record photos of surface waves associae with different proteins and use a nol network to classify wht kind of protein has casti surface wavesinfact r method works will you well you can see on the left-hand side is a protein calle one-o-seven-m this protein is shaded in a bownish color and you can see in this barchar the highest probabilty of prediction for thes scenario is the brown color which in fact reflects this particulary protein one o-ceven mit byfa the highest pobability so the model is perfectly oto-predict the structure edding go through this takgraph and see that every single case the highest prediction byfa reflects the actual protein tat is causing the vibration so the method is able to y just looking at the pictures of the surface waves immediately detacked what is the underlying protein causing thes vibrationslet's look at the midtal part six and seventeen and six a eighteen other proteins shown before thes are the infection stages when the molecular interaction begins between the kovinand kimpathogen and the human body six-onth seventeen is the attached stage six meighteen is detached state and even though the structure is ver similar as only very bay slight molecular change very sligt change in the vibrational spectrum as you have seen on the previous picture the method is able to pick up the differences very well the highest probability in sixt-am eighteen is a light blue which reflects that particular structure so it's able to pedict thatsix seventeen is of greenish color in te same idea the highest probability is for this particular structures te method canally distingish manny different classes of proteins small bak but can also describe very suttle differences in vibrational spectra very suttlw differences in proting folding states through these surface waveswe can use this method to develop an approach called protein inceptionismwe can try to see whether we can find patterns that are found in these surface waves in water generated by the proteins in other images taken off mountain landscape may be taken off lakes taking off anything we can seewith our eyes would an take photo and identify whether we can see some of those inete features that are seen in these protein vibrations impacting on surface waves alser in other systems where and how do we recognize molecula vaberations in other everydayobjects reuse the deep dream algorithm to do that and apply the nual network with trained against all these arious protin vibrations he can picture here his is how the vibrational spectrum looks like embedded realized in this waterwave surface structureif we apply the protein inception algorithm to that it will infect recognize all these different patterns which are unique to this particular proteinand that's how the now let work works the inner layers determine features that are unique to that particular proteinand c whic protein has been creating the vibrations we can use some image processing to see these features itle more clearly and this picture here shows how the prcessing of this results in these bagetilacu structures are those i the unique fingerprints or structures that are actually causing these particular resonances in the newootworkthe resonance is in the newnotwork generated by the protein inceptionism algorithm really is a powerful way of viualizing how certain features can be magnified and made more visible amplified resognate in these imagers just like resonances happen in musical instruments like a guitar he becasee resonnance as an image generated ultimately by the molecular vibrationsnow fwe look at another situation where we have waterwaves in a river you can see this as the original picture and these waves are now not casted by proteins these waves infectrcaled flowing water of roxand you can see how the algorithm picks up certain features in these waterways which again do not occur because of proteins but have similar features as the one seen in proteincost water waves ain with some processing of the images you can see thate as certain paronan emerges these are all the areas aspagadilike structures where the algorithm detects resonances of the inner detailed structure that are caused by these protein vibrations supporting vibrations are also seen in ivers this is an example of a coastal landscape we have three elements we have the waterwe have rocs and we have air and in fact the algoithum detects these features aprotein mibrations in allthree animals some of them in the water waves which is not surprising because both of them are waterwaves we also see some of these ideas being resembled in rocks some ofthe feature some other patterns in rocks resemble those seen in the proteins and we can also see a few of those being picked up in the sky and ganysis ty analysis using the image processing and you can see where on the image we can pick up the features that arnatural that are innate to the proting mibrations matter as sound and sound as matter in fact we have seen that we think about the representation of material we can think of it as a collection of vibrations we canmake it audible we can also make the vibrations visible in other states of matter like in liquids in waterfinstance as surface waves and we can utilyze varius ways of manipulating matter of creating new materials by either creating new sound or using sound as a way of detecting information in existing musical compositions you can ask the question what kind of material did bethoven create by analyzing the compositions he madewe can also see protein vibrations or the features of proten vibrations the unique signatures of librational spectrum in other forms using the protein inception a algorithm with beeng able to sho that these viperations can be seen not only in waterwavs there can be seen in other states of mata that can be seen landscapes that can be seen i plants that can be seen in the sky in snow an any other elements thank you so much for your atten
6
dobut i'd like to strt by asking you to imagine yourself in the following scenarioyou are a high school senior or the paren of a high school senior and youare interested in a potential college and so you arrange for a campus visit and you go on a campus tour and everything looks great and the people are friendly but after a few minutes something strange starts to dawn on you that this campus has a really horrible smoking habiteverybody you see is smoking outside everybody smells like cigarette smoke infact yugota have lunch in a dining hall and students are actually bragging about how much they smoke one student says yesterday i smoked three packs ll by myself and another student says nice i did that last week high five and you think to yourself well this is pretty strange thit's anotherwise grea school but they have a sort of a weard bad habit and they're oddly celebrational about it so i'm not sure i wantno go hereso imagine you go o a second campus tour look at a second college and it's very similar to the first the campus looks really beautiful people are friendly eccept this college has a bad junk food habiteverybody who sees eatingjunk food there's junk food rappers everywhere there's nothing nutritious to eat in the dining hall and again people are bragging about how much they're eating so one student says last night i had a whole pizza by myself and another student says nice i did the same thing last week high fiveso if these two scenario stound a little far fetched imagine a third scenario is you go visit another college and again it looks really great the people are friendly eccept at this college everybody ooks tiredyou see people falling asleep at their computers you visit a class and people are dozing off in class and just looks generally like everyone could use a great nap ihtso what's crazy to me about this is that i've neverseen a campus ful of people who are all smokers or a campus full of people who were all sleep deprived campus ful of people who look tired and sleep rtia campus full of people who are all eate junk food but a campus full of people who are all sleep deprived and tyred describes every colleg and university i think that i've ever seen and actually mos high schools at wells especially during later parts of fthe semester and what's interesting is that the effects of being sleep deprived all the time can be just as bad as smking and just as bad as any too much junk food and yet lots of students would actually choose to go to a college where everyone looks sleep deprived because it looks like it really hardworking college where people are very productive in achieving great thingsand so as a sleep researcher i've been fascinated by tbiology and neuroscience of sleep for over a decadeand i h've a lab at williams ollege that studies mice we look at what happens in the brainanbody during sleep we look at how the neurons and bain control sleepbut i have to say as father as a teacher and as a colleague to a lot of hardworking colleagues ardworking people inufound fascination for how we tolerate sleep deprivation is as a socyand it's not just students in our schools o it's really everywhere whenever i ride public transportation whether it's a bus or a subwayi see people who just look exhausted and in fact ou can see peo ple taking naps on their morning or afternoon commute and sneak them inand in our public life it's reall not uncommon to see people dozing off and in general in repulicprofessional lives pople really just look i'm exhausted is even crazier than that to me which is that not only are people exhausted but some people choose to be sleep-deprived and some people actually wear it is a badge of honor htcause in order to be sleep deprived you must be really hard working you must have a lot of important things to do and you must be very vry productive or else why would yu be sleep deprived first placei've actually been a part of job committees where job applicants wll brag about the fact that they only get three or four hours a sleep at night actually just a couple months ago i was looking at facebook in one of these meams that somhow just shows up in your feed for no reason i read ihad tens f thousands of likes and said no one looks back on their life and remembers the nights they had plenty of sleepthe implication being that if you get plenty of sleep you'e somehow missing out on your life's greatest potential and in all the things that you could be doingand so tis is really interesting to me and i wonder actually if people would brag about the fact that thy're not gtting nough sleep if they knew that the health benefits of getting sleep were just as important as the benefts of not smoking or thebenefits of eating a good nutritian and natini junk foodsleep scientists have made so many great discoveries over the past ten years and i'm surprised that more people don't know about them so here's just a couplef examples and yol have to excuse me becuse i'm a biology professorso when you're sleeping your petruetary glande which sits right below your brain surges its production of growth formongrowth hormone is released much more when you're sleepingthan when you're awake and growth woron essentially causes threeeffects muscle growth bone growth and fat metabolismhow many people would take a pill that caused muscle growth bone growth and fat metabolism if there is a company that sold this pill that would make billions of dollars and imgine most consumers would pay a lot for this and yet we get it for free when when we're sleeping and its always odd to me when i see people working out at the gym and they spent hours a day at the gym they say they don't get enough sleep at nightit's kinda funny thing to me you know that your muscles arent actually growing when you're working out or you're not losing weight when you're working ot that all happens when you're sleeping and i don't think most people know thatuse another example is the cells in the biochemistry are the biochemicals that make up your immue system and circulate through your bloodstream they actually change when you're sleeping comparing to when you're awake and when you're sleeping they're particularly good at seeking out viruses bacteria and other microorganisms o stop infection in disease and this is why when you don't et enough sleep you're much more prone to getting sic and it's why when you're sick i'mthe best thing you can do is to get a good night sleepand so in addition to these health benefits of sleep people who don't get enough asleep are at a highre risk for high blood pressue heart disease diabetes obspsychologically people at a much higher risk for anxiety and depression we all know that when ou are sleep deprived you lose focus you lose the ability to pay attention an has been asked to estimated by the ntional sleep foundation that over sixty billion dollars is lost in the united states annualannully just to am unproductive workers because theyre so leep-deprivedall of this is really important but i think italso igsomething that we ll know everybody in this room knows to be true which is that it really sucks to be sleep-derivedfeels so awful to be sleep-deprived and try to kep your eyelids open they re allasuddeoheavydo things lie whenwhen you're at speaker evet like this where you do that headob ting where you tryin tokeep your head awake and you fall asleep for a second in some distant part of your brain is like not now not now an youre tryng to keep yourself awake and i know this just as well as anyone else this is the worst picture of me ever takenit's also the most ironic picture of me ever taken because i was so tired i fell asleep in the middle of theday because i had spent the entire night working on a talk about the benefits of sleepanoi did not do that last nightso i know this just s well as everybody else i'm an really awful to e sleep deprived but here's where there's good news because he good news is that the opposite is also truethe opposite being that people who are chronically sleep-deprived when they develop habbit to get a regular amount of sleep i'm every single day they all of a sudden feel like years have been taken of their life they're suddenly alive and awake and hve the energy of someone much younger and they just feel great and they wonder why they didn't do it before but thre's also a lot of sleep science to back this upone of my colleagues ran lots of studies on varsity athletes at stanford university and she recruited varusity athletes for sleep studies in which they were essentially forced to get a good night sleep over several weeks and whic he found was that compared to players who didn't take part in th sleep study everything about these athletes who slpt in improved their speed improved theirstrength improved the number of mistakes and errors they made went waydown their chances of gettinginto ccussion went way down and they were generally much better at the sporthsame ting happens in the classroom when students are recruited for sleep studies where they get much more asleep their creativity increases their problem solving increases on their test scores increase ad their grades increase and so it just seems that everything gets much better once somebody declares themelves that derginnaagood night asleep every single night very consistently and the greatest paradox in this i hink is that the people who don't get enough sleep because they'd like t accomplish more during theday actually find that they're more productive when they get more sleep and not less productive because even though thy re not awake as long they are much more productive when they've gotten enoug sleep and thre's lots of measure studies on this that ou're actually able to get more done when yo get a good night sleep not lessso why are we so bad at this if this is alltrue then why is a society are we not good at this and this is actually where i feel like the analogy between sleep deprivation junk food and smoking goes downit's because when peoplesmoke or have junk food 'they're doing it for the short-term awardit's immediately satisfying when people choose to do those things but there is nothing satisfying sleep deprivation like we've already talked aboutso why do people do it and i asked my colleagues this i survey students all the time and the same three answers come up again and gain and againone we have busy lives and we'd like to get more done two were stressed their stress ing anxiety keeps us awake sometimes and thre's lots of stressers in our lifead three on misis a very ewtrend is that we're addicted to our gadgets at nightwe love looking at our smart phones tablets computers and thre's all sorts of appsnow that just occupy our time before we go to bed there's email facebook twitter instagram not to mention outube netflix and a long list of great tedtoxs that we can seeso so what do we do about all of this and this is where i actully get some insight from the mice that we study in our lab because it actually turns out that all animals need sleep all animals get the same benefit of sleep humans do but it's amazingly easy to keep a mouse awakeit's asleep to-private mouse you don't really have to do very much if you want nta tress out a mouse a little bit you can ive him a new roommate and giving him a new roommate will keep him awake for little while or you can move him to a different cage that he's not used to and the stress of going to a new home will keep him awake hours past his bedtimeyou might ask what is the mouse equivalent of watching youtbe or being addicted to email and it turns out t's actually able we can duplicate this as well with somthing atis putting u a paper towel in a mouse's cage we watt up a paper towel give it to the moue the mouse s entertained by this for hours it will explore the contors of paper towel lit'll kick it around it'll play with it and il again it'll stay up hours past its bedtimeso the take-home point from this think is that we're hardwire to needsleep but we're also hardwire to be sleep deprived at a moment's notice based on stressful things and exciting things happening in our lives and it actually turns out when the mouse is playing with the paper towel a surge of dopomine is bein released in its brain and the same thing happens when we scroll on a smartphone every time you swipe up on a facebook apoor or an email or anything else we actlly get a little surge of dopamine in our brains and that surge of dopemine keeps us awakeso what o we do about all ohsespecially when we have a life that is much more complicated than that of a mous ppertowel is bad enough for a mouse but we have all these nice gadgets now that we didn't hve ten years ago to immediately give us all these thingsso its here where i feel like i have three ideas worth spreadingand the first idea is that we need just completely embrace sleep as a culterwe need to treat this as healthy and no jo applicant should bragg about only getting three or four hours of sleep no student should high- five another student in the dining hall for pointing all nighter and in general we should jut be much more sleep consciousess as a societyi actually went to a doctor on a couple weeks ago anhshowed up at the doctor's office i had to check a little form about thehealthy habits in my life andit was a long list and itwas thins ike doi have a smoke detector in my home do i wear my sea belt do i take a daily vitomin and i toght this was a great list but nowhere on the list was do iget si to eight hours asleep at night and i thoughtas very odd we need to treat health asleep as a health issue just as much is smoking or just as much as eating a eating a balance dietnumber two is we need to relearn how to go to bedit's amazing you know who the best sleepers are in american society is actually our kids which is funny because it takes a while to get them tosleepbut once theyare asleep they actually sleep very soundly and they have a nice quantity and quality of sleep and i think hat that's because we take the time to put them to bed prperlywe brush their teeth we give them some water we change their clothes ind o their pajamas we dimm the lights we read them a story ad this whole thirty-minute forty-minute process really prepars them for a great night of sleep and they sleep very soundly once they finally go to sleepcan you imagne what it would be like to put our kids tosleep the same way that w put ourselves to sleepif we gave our kids right screens said play whatever you want for thirt minutes but maybe it'll turn into two hours ourkids would never sleep and this would be really detrimental nd so we need to put ourselves to bed essentially the same way we need to justremember i what we did when we were six years old and i think that this gets lost sometime aroun high school we don't s parents put our high schoolers to be and somewear around the elementary school ages to high school ages people forget how to go to bed and we magically assume that we 'll fall asleep after being worried and plain with our gadgets and so we need to dim the light'sdevelop a nice habit a enighttime routine an we ned to take anything that has a screen on it and push it away thirty or forty-five minutes before we go to bed and try not to look at it until we wake up the next morningfinally imkids are the best sleeers but if you ask adults who are the best sleepers out of the adultcommunity what people find is that the best sleepers are the ones who embrace good wake habits as well o people who have good time management and productivity skills actually sleep better at night because they have such a well-balanced day and there are so many books written on the topic of productivity time management and lots of tips you ca find online but i tell students this can be someting as easy as just knowing if you're a morning person or a nightperson what time of day are you most productive nd do your best work during atime of day what time of day are you least productive and do the mindless tasks that you jst need a gun it done at that time of day i'm ask where you work best how you work best even justbyte asing students these kinds of questions they discover the answers for themselves and everyone is different because really you get a good night sleep not because sleep is funbut because if you get a good night to sleep it makes you ave a better days wake it makes you more productive an more time efficient and you get more done but it's reciprocalif you have a betterdays waik and you get more done and you'are more productive it actually causes you to have a better night sleep and this i sort of a reenforcing cycle and it works really great and i'm a little disappointed in myself that i didn't figure out these techniques into years in my life i sudied studying sleep before i realized these good night sleep habits and these great der are productivity habitsand when i think about that i actually try to get a little frusrated because when i was in school i ad sex education a nutrition education drug awareness resistance education but no one ever told me how to go to bed and none ever told me how i could get more done duringda these are things i just picked up on my own and i think these are so valuable things that we could actually be teaching high school kids college kids and so just recently at williams college we actually taught our first course called the science of sleep and the art of productivity and i was really afraid that no one would sign up for this clss and in the end it turned out people were hungry for it college students overenrolled in theclass and we wound up letting a lot more people inwe initially intended but it was amazing they loved learning about sleep habbets they loved talking about ho they could get more done during the day and it worked out really well and now what we're trying to do is take these messages and spred them across our campus and the community to try to embrace a culture of sleep that everyone is proud ofbecause it's really true no one looks back o their life and remembers the nights they had plenty of sleepthis is true but the opposite is also truenobody looks back on their life and remembers the time they were exhaustedright and i'll hate this picture of me but the funny thing about this day is i don't remember a single thing about this day the onl reason i remember this is because a picture was taken of mei remember the times i was awake and alert and i had a life of o good experiences when i was awakenot when i was exhausted and i choose to optimise tose times now i choose to try to be awake as much as i can so can enjoy those great experiences with my family and with my friendsso i think the takehole message is to get a good night sleep not because it's fun but because it makes you so much happier during the day and this is what i wish for all of you i wish that everybody has a good nights sleep for a better-days wake and a better days wake for a good night tosleep thank youii