---
language:
- en
- nl
datasets:
- mustc
tags:
- audio
- speech-translation
- automatic-speech-recognition
license: mit
pipeline_tag: automatic-speech-recognition
widget:
- example_title: Librispeech sample 1
src: https://cdn-media.huggingface.co/speech_samples/sample1.flac
- example_title: Librispeech sample 2
src: https://cdn-media.huggingface.co/speech_samples/sample2.flac
---
# S2T-SMALL-MUSTC-EN-NL-ST
`s2t-small-mustc-en-nl-st` is a Speech to Text Transformer (S2T) model trained for end-to-end Speech Translation (ST).
The S2T model was proposed in [this paper](https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.05171) and released in
[this repository](https://github.com/pytorch/fairseq/tree/master/examples/speech_to_text)
## Model description
S2T is a transformer-based seq2seq (encoder-decoder) model designed for end-to-end Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and Speech
Translation (ST). It uses a convolutional downsampler to reduce the length of speech inputs by 3/4th before they are
fed into the encoder. The model is trained with standard autoregressive cross-entropy loss and generates the
transcripts/translations autoregressively.
## Intended uses & limitations
This model can be used for end-to-end English speech to Dutch text translation.
See the [model hub](https://huggingface.co/models?filter=speech_to_text) to look for other S2T checkpoints.
### How to use
As this a standard sequence to sequence transformer model, you can use the `generate` method to generate the
transcripts by passing the speech features to the model.
*Note: The `Speech2TextProcessor` object uses [torchaudio](https://github.com/pytorch/audio) to extract the
filter bank features. Make sure to install the `torchaudio` package before running this example.*
You could either install those as extra speech dependancies with
`pip install transformers"[speech, sentencepiece]"` or install the packages seperatly
with `pip install torchaudio sentencepiece`.
```python
import torch
from transformers import Speech2TextProcessor, Speech2TextForConditionalGeneration
from datasets import load_dataset
import soundfile as sf
model = Speech2TextForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("facebook/s2t-small-mustc-en-nl-st")
processor = Speech2TextProcessor.from_pretrained("facebook/s2t-small-mustc-en-nl-st")
def map_to_array(batch):
speech, _ = sf.read(batch["file"])
batch["speech"] = speech
return batch
ds = load_dataset(
"patrickvonplaten/librispeech_asr_dummy",
"clean",
split="validation"
)
ds = ds.map(map_to_array)
inputs = processor(
ds["speech"][0],
sampling_rate=16_000,
return_tensors="pt"
)
generated_ids = model.generate(input_ids=inputs["input_features"], attention_mask=inputs["attention_mask"])
translation = processor.batch_decode(generated_ids, skip_special_tokens=True)
```
## Training data
The s2t-small-mustc-en-nl-st is trained on English-Dutch subset of [MuST-C](https://ict.fbk.eu/must-c/).
MuST-C is a multilingual speech translation corpus whose size and quality facilitates the training of end-to-end systems
for speech translation from English into several languages. For each target language, MuST-C comprises several hundred
hours of audio recordings from English TED Talks, which are automatically aligned at the sentence level with their manual
transcriptions and translations.
## Training procedure
### Preprocessing
The speech data is pre-processed by extracting Kaldi-compliant 80-channel log mel-filter bank features automatically from
WAV/FLAC audio files via PyKaldi or torchaudio. Further utterance-level CMVN (cepstral mean and variance normalization)
is applied to each example.
The texts are lowercased and tokenized using SentencePiece and a vocabulary size of 8,000.
### Training
The model is trained with standard autoregressive cross-entropy loss and using [SpecAugment](https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.08779).
The encoder receives speech features, and the decoder generates the transcripts autoregressively. To accelerate
model training and for better performance the encoder is pre-trained for English ASR.
## Evaluation results
MuST-C test results for en-nl (BLEU score): 27.3
### BibTeX entry and citation info
```bibtex
@inproceedings{wang2020fairseqs2t,
title = {fairseq S2T: Fast Speech-to-Text Modeling with fairseq},
author = {Changhan Wang and Yun Tang and Xutai Ma and Anne Wu and Dmytro Okhonko and Juan Pino},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2020 Conference of the Asian Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (AACL): System Demonstrations},
year = {2020},
}
```