Source code for accelerate.accelerator

# Copyright 2021 The HuggingFace Team. All rights reserved.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

import gc
import os
from contextlib import contextmanager
from typing import List, Optional, Union

import torch

from packaging import version

from .data_loader import prepare_data_loader
from .kwargs_handlers import DistributedDataParallelKwargs, GradScalerKwargs, KwargsHandler
from .optimizer import AcceleratedOptimizer
from .state import AcceleratorState, DistributedType, is_deepspeed_available
from .utils import (

if is_deepspeed_available():
    import deepspeed
    from .deepspeed_utils import DeepSpeedEngineWrapper, DeepSpeedOptimizerWrapper

import logging

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

[docs]class Accelerator: """ Creates an instance of an accelerator for distributed training (on multi-GPU, TPU) or mixed precision training. Args: device_placement (:obj:`bool`, `optional`, defaults to :obj:`True`): Whether or not the accelerator should put objects on device (tensors yielded by the dataloader, model, etc...). split_batches (:obj:`bool`, `optional`, defaults to :obj:`False`): Whether or not the accelerator should split the batches yielded by the dataloaders across the devices. If :obj:`True` the actual batch size used will be the same on any kind of distributed processes, but it must be a round multiple of the :obj:`num_processes` you are using. If :obj:`False`, actual batch size used will be the one set in your script multiplied by the number of processes. fp16 (:obj:`bool`, `optional`): Whether or not to use mixed precision training. Will default to the value in the environment variable :obj:`USE_FP16`, which will use the default value in the accelerate config of the current system or the flag passed with the :obj:`accelerate.launch` command. cpu (:obj:`bool`, `optional`): Whether or not to force the script to execute on CPU. Will ignore GPU available if set to :obj:`True` and force the execution on one process only. deepspeed_plugin (:obj:`DeepSpeedPlugin`, `optional`): Tweak your DeepSpeed related args using this argument. This argument is optional and can be configured directly using `accelerate config` rng_types (list of :obj:`str` or :class:`~accelerate.utils.RNGType`): The list of random number generators to synchronize at the beginning of each iteration in your prepared dataloaders. Should be one or several of: - :obj:`"torch"`: the base torch random number generator - :obj:`"cuda"`: the CUDA random number generator (GPU only) - :obj:`"xla"`: the XLA random number generator (TPU only) - :obj:`"generator"`: the :obj:`torch.Generator` of the sampler (or batch sampler if there is no sampler in your dataloader) or of the iterable dataset (if it exists) if the underlying dataset is of that type. Will default to :obj:`["torch"]` for PyTorch versions <=1.5.1 and :obj:`["generator"]` for PyTorch versions >= 1.6. dispatch_batches (:obj:`bool`, `optional`): If set to :obj:`True`, the dataloader prepared by the Accelerator is only iterated through on the main process and then the batches are split and broadcast to each process. Will default to :obj:`True` for :obj:`DataLoader` whose underlying dataset is an :obj:`IterableDataset`, :obj:`False` otherwise. kwargs_handlers (list of kwargs handlers, `optional`) A list of :obj:`KwargHandler` to customize how the objects related to distributed training or mixed precision are created. See :doc:`kwargs` for more information. Attributes - **device** (:obj:`torch.device`) -- The device to use. - **state** (:class:`~accelerate.AcceleratorState`) -- The distributed setup state. """ def __init__( self, device_placement: bool = True, split_batches: bool = False, fp16: bool = None, cpu: bool = False, deepspeed_plugin: DeepSpeedPlugin = None, rng_types: Optional[List[Union[str, RNGType]]] = None, dispatch_batches: Optional[bool] = None, kwargs_handlers: Optional[List[KwargsHandler]] = None, ): if deepspeed_plugin is None: # init from env variables deepspeed_plugin = DeepSpeedPlugin() if os.environ.get("USE_DEEPSPEED", "false") == "true" else None else: assert isinstance( deepspeed_plugin, DeepSpeedPlugin ), "`deepspeed_plugin` must be a DeepSpeedPlugin object." self.state = AcceleratorState(fp16=fp16, cpu=cpu, deepspeed_plugin=deepspeed_plugin, _from_accelerator=True) self.device_placement = device_placement self.split_batches = split_batches self.dispatch_batches = dispatch_batches # Kwargs handlers self.ddp_handler = None self.scaler_handler = None if kwargs_handlers is not None: for handler in kwargs_handlers: assert isinstance(handler, KwargsHandler), f"Unsupported kwargs handler passed: {handler}." if isinstance(handler, DistributedDataParallelKwargs): if self.ddp_handler is not None: raise ValueError("You can only pass one `DistributedDataParallelKwargs` in `kwargs_handler`.") else: self.ddp_handler = handler elif isinstance(handler, GradScalerKwargs): if self.scaler_handler is not None: raise ValueError("You can only pass one `GradScalerKwargs` in `kwargs_handler`.") else: self.scaler_handler = handler # Mixed precision attributes self.scaler = None self.native_amp = False if self.state.use_fp16: self.native_amp = version.parse(torch.__version__) >= version.parse("1.6") kwargs = self.scaler_handler.to_kwargs() if self.scaler_handler is not None else {} self.scaler = torch.cuda.amp.GradScaler(**kwargs) # Internal references to the training objects self._optimizers = [] self._models = [] # RNG Types if rng_types is None: self.rng_types = ["torch"] if version.parse(torch.__version__) <= version.parse("1.5.1") else ["generator"] @property def distributed_type(self): return self.state.distributed_type @property def num_processes(self): return self.state.num_processes @property def process_index(self): return self.state.process_index @property def local_process_index(self): return self.state.local_process_index @property def device(self): return self.state.device @property def is_main_process(self): """True for one process only.""" return self.process_index == 0 @property def is_local_main_process(self): """True for one process per server.""" return self.local_process_index == 0 @property def use_fp16(self): if self.distributed_type == DistributedType.DEEPSPEED: use_fp16 = self.state.deepspeed_plugin.deepspeed_config["fp16"]["enabled"] else: use_fp16 = self.state.use_fp16 return use_fp16
[docs] @contextmanager def local_main_process_first(self): """ Lets the local main process go inside a with block. The other processes will enter the with block after the main process exits. """ yield from self._goes_first(self.is_local_main_process)
[docs] @contextmanager def main_process_first(self): """ Lets the main process go first inside a with block. The other processes will enter the with block after the main process exits. """ yield from self._goes_first(self.is_main_process)
def _goes_first(self, is_main): if not is_main: self.wait_for_everyone() yield if is_main: self.wait_for_everyone()
[docs] def print(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Use in replacement of :obj:`print()` to only print once per server. """ if self.is_local_main_process: print(*args, **kwargs)
def _prepare_one(self, obj): if isinstance(obj, return self.prepare_data_loader(obj) elif isinstance(obj, torch.nn.Module): self._models.append(obj) return self.prepare_model(obj) elif isinstance(obj, torch.optim.Optimizer): optimizer = self.prepare_optimizer(obj) self._optimizers.append(optimizer) return optimizer else: return obj
[docs] def prepare(self, *args): """ Prepare all objects passed in :obj:`args` for distributed training and mixed precision, then return them in the same order. Accepts the following type of objects: - :obj:``: PyTorch Dataloader - :obj:`torch.nn.Module`: PyTorch Module - :obj:`torch.optim.Optimizer`: PyTorch Optimizer """ # On TPUs, putting the model on the XLA device will create new parameters, so the corresponding optimizer will # have parameters disconnected from the model (so no training :-( ). # If the model and optimizer have parameters on different devices we raise an error. if self.distributed_type == DistributedType.TPU: model_device, optimizer_device = self._get_devices() if model_device is not None and optimizer_device is not None and model_device != optimizer_device: raise ValueError( "The model and the optimizer parameters are not on the same device, which probably means you " "created an optimizer around your model **before** putting on the device. Make sure the line " " is before the optimizer creation in your script or remove it entirely and use " "the flag default value for `devicement_placement` in your `Accelerator` to let it handle that " "part for you." ) # If we're dealing with device placement, this deals with that by... tpu_should_fix_optimizer = self.device_placement and self.distributed_type == DistributedType.TPU if tpu_should_fix_optimizer: # 1. grabbing old model parameters old_named_params = self._get_named_parameters(*args) if self.distributed_type == DistributedType.DEEPSPEED: result = self._prepare_deepspeed(*args) else: result = tuple(self._prepare_one(obj) for obj in args) if tpu_should_fix_optimizer: # 2. grabbing new model parameters new_named_params = self._get_named_parameters(*result) # 3. building a map from the first to the second mapping = {p: new_named_params[n] for n, p in old_named_params.items()} # 4. using that map to update the parameters of the optimizer for obj in result: if isinstance(obj, torch.optim.Optimizer): obj._switch_parameters(mapping) return result if len(result) > 1 else result[0]
def prepare_model(self, model): if self.device_placement: model = if self.distributed_type == DistributedType.MULTI_GPU: kwargs = self.ddp_handler.to_kwargs() if self.ddp_handler is not None else {} model = torch.nn.parallel.DistributedDataParallel( model, device_ids=[self.local_process_index], output_device=self.local_process_index, **kwargs, ) elif self.distributed_type == DistributedType.MULTI_CPU: kwargs = self.ddp_handler.to_kwargs() if self.ddp_handler is not None else {} model = torch.nn.parallel.DistributedDataParallel(model, **kwargs) if self.native_amp: model.forward = torch.cuda.amp.autocast()(model.forward) model.forward = convert_outputs_to_fp32(model.forward) return model def _prepare_deepspeed(self, *args): deepspeed_plugin = self.state.deepspeed_plugin self.deepspeed_config = deepspeed_plugin.deepspeed_config batch_sizes = [obj.batch_size for obj in args if hasattr(obj, "batch_size")] if len(batch_sizes) == 0: raise ValueError( "You must specify a training or evaluation dataloader in `accelerate.prepare()` when using DeepSpeed." ) batch_size_per_device = min(batch_sizes) if deepspeed_plugin.is_train_batch_min else max(batch_sizes) if len(batch_sizes) > 1: f"Since you passed both train and evaluation dataloader, `is_train_batch_min` (here \ {deepspeed_plugin.is_train_batch_min} will decide the `train_batch_size` ({batch_size_per_device})." ) self.deepspeed_config["train_batch_size"] = ( batch_size_per_device * deepspeed_plugin.gradient_accumulation_steps * self.num_processes ) result = [self._prepare_one(obj) if isinstance(obj, else obj for obj in args] model = None optimizer = None for obj in result: if isinstance(obj, torch.nn.Module): model = obj elif isinstance(obj, (torch.optim.Optimizer, dict)): optimizer = obj if deepspeed_plugin.auto_opt_mapping: is_adam = isinstance(optimizer, torch.optim.Adam) is_adamw = isinstance(optimizer, torch.optim.AdamW) if (is_adam or is_adamw) and deepspeed_plugin.offload_optimizer_device == "cpu": defaults = optimizer.defaults optimizer = deepspeed.ops.adam.DeepSpeedCPUAdam( model.parameters(), lr=defaults["lr"], bias_correction=True, betas=defaults["betas"], eps=defaults["eps"], weight_decay=defaults["weight_decay"], amsgrad=defaults["amsgrad"], adamw_mode=is_adamw, ) # useful when only eval_dataloader is given into `accelerator.prepare()` if model is not None: engine = DeepSpeedEngineWrapper( args=None, model=model, optimizer=optimizer, config_params=self.deepspeed_config, dist_init_required=False, ) for i in range(len(result)): if isinstance(result[i], torch.nn.Module): result[i] = engine elif isinstance(result[i], torch.optim.Optimizer): result[i] = DeepSpeedOptimizerWrapper(engine.optimizer, engine) self.deepspeed_engine = engine # pointing for deepspeed_engine.backward() self._models.append(engine) self._optimizers.append(engine.optimizer) assert ( len(self._models) == 1 ), "You can't use same `Accelerator()` instance with 2 models when using DeepSpeed" if self.distributed_type == DistributedType.DEEPSPEED: assert hasattr( self, "deepspeed_engine" ), "You need to pass the model along the optimizer when using Deepspeed." return tuple(result) def prepare_data_loader(self, data_loader): return prepare_data_loader( data_loader, self.device, num_processes=self.num_processes, process_index=self.process_index, split_batches=self.split_batches, put_on_device=self.device_placement, rng_types=self.rng_types.copy(), dispatch_batches=self.dispatch_batches, ) def prepare_optimizer(self, optimizer): return AcceleratedOptimizer(optimizer, device_placement=self.device_placement, scaler=self.scaler)
[docs] def backward(self, loss, **kwargs): """ Use :obj:`accelerator.backward(loss)` in lieu of :obj:`loss.backward()`. """ if self.distributed_type == DistributedType.DEEPSPEED: self.deepspeed_engine.backward(loss, **kwargs) elif self.scaler is not None: self.scaler.scale(loss).backward(**kwargs) else: loss.backward(**kwargs)
[docs] def unscale_gradients(self, optimizer=None): """ Unscale the gradients in mixed precision training with AMP. This is a noop in all other settings. Args: optimizer (:obj:`torch.optim.Optimizer` or :obj:`List[torch.optim.Optimizer]`, `optional`): The optimizer(s) for which to unscale gradients. If not set, will unscale gradients on all optimizers that were passed to :meth:`~accelerate.Accelerator.prepare`. """ if self.state.use_fp16 and self.native_amp: if optimizer is None: # TODO: this unscales all optimizers where we should only unscale the one where parameters are. optimizer = self._optimizers elif not isinstance(optimizer, (tuple, list)): optimizer = [optimizer] for opt in optimizer: while isinstance(opt, AcceleratedOptimizer): opt = opt.optimizer self.scaler.unscale_(opt)
[docs] def clip_grad_norm_(self, parameters, max_norm, norm_type=2): """ Should be used in place of :func:`torch.nn.utils.clip_grad_norm_`. """ self.unscale_gradients() torch.nn.utils.clip_grad_norm_(parameters, max_norm, norm_type=norm_type)
[docs] def clip_grad_value_(self, parameters, clip_value): """ Should be used in place of :func:`torch.nn.utils.clip_grad_value_`. """ self.unscale_gradients() torch.nn.utils.clip_grad_value_(parameters, clip_value)
[docs] def gather(self, tensor): """ Gather the values in `tensor` accross all processes and concatenate them on the first dimension. Useful to regroup the predictions from all processes when doing evaluation. Note: This gather happens in all processes. Args: tensor (:obj:`torch.Tensor`, or a nested tuple/list/dictionary of :obj:`torch.Tensor`): The tensors to gather across all processes. Returns: :obj:`torch.Tensor`, or a nested tuple/list/dictionary of :obj:`torch.Tensor`: The gathered tensor(s). Note that the first dimension of the result is `num_processes` multiplied by the first dimension of the input tensors. """ return gather(tensor)
[docs] def pad_across_processes(self, tensor, dim=0, pad_index=0, pad_first=False): """ Recursively pad the tensors in a nested list/tuple/dictionary of tensors from all devices to the same size so they can safely be gathered. Args: tensor (nested list/tuple/dictionary of :obj:`torch.Tensor`): The data to gather. dim (:obj:`int`, `optional`, defaults to 0): The dimension on which to pad. pad_index (:obj:`int`, `optional`, defaults to 0): The value with which to pad. pad_first (:obj:`bool`, `optional`, defaults to :obj:`False`): Whether to pad at the beginning or the end. """ return pad_across_processes(tensor, dim=dim, pad_index=pad_index, pad_first=pad_first)
[docs] def unwrap_model(self, model): """ Unwraps the :obj:`model` from the additional layer possible added by :meth:`~accelerate.Accelerator.prepare`. Useful before saving the model. Args: model (:obj:`torch.nn.Module`): The model to unwrap. """ return extract_model_from_parallel(model)
[docs] def wait_for_everyone(self): """ Will stop the execution of the current process until every other process has reached that point (so this does nothing when the script is only run in one process). Useful to do before saving a model. """ wait_for_everyone()
[docs] def save(self, obj, f): """ Save the object passed to disk once per machine. Use in place of :obj:``. Args: obj: The object to save. f (:obj:`str` or :obj:`os.PathLike`): Where to save the content of :obj:`obj`. """ save(obj, f)
[docs] def free_memory(self): """ Will release all references to the internal objects stored and call the garbage collector. You should call this method between two trainings with different models/optimizers. """ self._optimizers = [] self._models = [] self.deepspeed_engine = None gc.collect() torch.cuda.empty_cache()
def _get_named_parameters(self, *args): named_parameters = {} for obj in args: if isinstance(obj, torch.nn.Module): obj = extract_model_from_parallel(obj) named_parameters.update({n: p for n, p in obj.named_parameters()}) return named_parameters def _get_devices(self, *args): model_device = None optimizer_device = None for obj in args: # Loop through model parameters and stop at the first once we have its device. if isinstance(obj, torch.nn.Module): for param in obj.parameters(): model_device = param.device break # Loop through optimizer parameters groups and stop at the first once we have its device. if isinstance(obj, torch.optim.Optimizer): for param_group in obj.param_groups: if len(param_group["params"]) > 0: optimizer_device = param_group["params"][0].device break return (model_device, optimizer_device) def get_state_dict(self, model): is_zero_3 = False if is_deepspeed_available(): if isinstance(model, DeepSpeedEngineWrapper) and self.distributed_type == DistributedType.DEEPSPEED: is_zero_3 = self.state.deepspeed_plugin.zero_stage == 3 if is_zero_3: state_dict = model._zero3_consolidated_fp16_state_dict() else: model = self.unwrap_model(model) state_dict = model.state_dict() for k in state_dict: if state_dict[k].dtype == torch.float16: state_dict[k] = state_dict[k].float() return state_dict
[docs] @contextmanager def autocast(self): """ Will apply automatic mixed-precision inside the block inside this context manager, if it is enabled. Nothing different will happen otherwise. """ if self.native_amp: autocast_context = torch.cuda.amp.autocast() autocast_context.__enter__() yield autocast_context.__exit__() else: yield
@property def optimizer_step_was_skipped(self): """ Whether or not the optimizer update was skipped (because of gradient overflow in mixed precision), in which case the learning rate should not be changed. """ for optimizer in self._optimizers: if optimizer.is_overflow: return True return False