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AirDialogue, is a large dataset that contains 402,038 goal-oriented conversations. To collect this dataset, we create a contextgenerator which provides travel and flight restrictions. Then the human annotators are asked to play the role of a customer or an agent and interact with the goal of successfully booking a trip given the restrictions.
Allocine Dataset: A Large-Scale French Movie Reviews Dataset. This is a dataset for binary sentiment classification, made of user reviews scraped from It contains 100k positive and 100k negative reviews divided into 3 balanced splits: train (160k reviews), val (20k) and test (20k).
We provide an Amazon product reviews dataset for multilingual text classification. The dataset contains reviews in English, Japanese, German, French, Chinese and Spanish, collected between November 1, 2015 and November 1, 2019. Each record in the dataset contains the review text, the review title, the star rating, an anonymized reviewer ID, an anonymized product ID and the coarse-grained product category (e.g. ‘books’, ‘appliances’, etc.) The corpus is balanced across stars, so each star rating constitutes 20% of the reviews in each language. For each language, there are 200,000, 5,000 and 5,000 reviews in the training, development and test sets respectively. The maximum number of reviews per reviewer is 20 and the maximum number of reviews per product is 20. All reviews are truncated after 2,000 characters, and all reviews are at least 20 characters long. Note that the language of a review does not necessarily match the language of its marketplace (e.g. reviews from are primarily written in German, but could also be written in English, etc.). For this reason, we applied a language detection algorithm based on the work in Bojanowski et al. (2017) to determine the language of the review text and we removed reviews that were not written in the expected language.
It is a large dataset of Android applications belonging to 23 differentapps categories, which provides an overview of the types of feedback users report on the apps and documents the evolution of the related code metrics. The dataset contains about 395 applications of the F-Droid repository, including around 600 versions, 280,000 user reviews (extracted with specific text mining approaches)
This dataset provides the template sentences and relationships defined in the ATOMIC common sense dataset. There are three splits - train, test, and dev. From the authors. Disclaimer/Content warning: the events in atomic have been automatically extracted from blogs, stories and books written at various times. The events might depict violent or problematic actions, which we left in the corpus for the sake of learning the (probably negative but still important) commonsense implications associated with the events. We removed a small set of truly out-dated events, but might have missed some so please email us ( if you have any concerns.
This dataset was curated from the Bing search logs (desktop users only) over the period of Jan 1st, 2020 – (Current Month - 1). Only searches that were issued many times by multiple users were included. The dataset includes queries from all over the world that had an intent related to the Coronavirus or Covid-19. In some cases this intent is explicit in the query itself (e.g., “Coronavirus updates Seattle”), in other cases it is implicit , e.g. “Shelter in place”. The implicit intent of search queries (e.g., “Toilet paper”) was extracted using random walks on the click graph as outlined in this paper by Microsoft Research. All personal data were removed.
ChrEn is a Cherokee-English parallel dataset to facilitate machine translation research between Cherokee and English. ChrEn is extremely low-resource contains 14k sentence pairs in total, split in ways that facilitate both in-domain and out-of-domain evaluation. ChrEn also contains 5k Cherokee monolingual data to enable semi-supervised learning.
CNN/DailyMail non-anonymized summarization dataset. There are two features: - article: text of news article, used as the document to be summarized - highlights: joined text of highlights with <s> and </s> around each highlight, which is the target summary
The DBpedia ontology classification dataset is constructed by picking 14 non-overlapping classes from DBpedia 2014. They are listed in classes.txt. From each of thse 14 ontology classes, we randomly choose 40,000 training samples and 5,000 testing samples. Therefore, the total size of the training dataset is 560,000 and testing dataset 70,000. There are 3 columns in the dataset (same for train and test splits), corresponding to class index (1 to 14), title and content. The title and content are escaped using double quotes ("), and any internal double quote is escaped by 2 double quotes (""). There are no new lines in title or content.
The Dutch Book Review Dataset (DBRD) contains over 110k book reviews of which 22k have associated binary sentiment polarity labels. It is intended as a benchmark for sentiment classification in Dutch and created due to a lack of annotated datasets in Dutch that are suitable for this task.
Original source: Website and documentatuion from the European Central Bank, compiled and made available by Alberto Simoes (thank you very much!) 19 languages, 170 bitexts total number of files: 340 total number of tokens: 757.37M total number of sentence fragments: 30.55M
EiTB-ParCC: Parallel Corpus of Comparable News. A Basque-Spanish parallel corpus provided by Vicomtech (, extracted from comparable news produced by the Basque public broadcasting group Euskal Irrati Telebista.
`generated_reviews_enth` Generated product reviews dataset for machine translation quality prediction, part of [scb-mt-en-th-2020]( `generated_reviews_enth` is created as part of [scb-mt-en-th-2020]( for machine translation task. This dataset (referred to as `generated_reviews_yn` in [scb-mt-en-th-2020]( are English product reviews generated by [CTRL](, translated by Google Translate API and annotated as accepted or rejected (`correct`) based on fluency and adequacy of the translation by human annotators. This allows it to be used for English-to-Thai translation quality esitmation (binary label), machine translation, and sentiment analysis.
The GoEmotions dataset contains 58k carefully curated Reddit comments labeled for 27 emotion categories or Neutral. The emotion categories are admiration, amusement, anger, annoyance, approval, caring, confusion, curiosity, desire, disappointment, disapproval, disgust, embarrassment, excitement, fear, gratitude, grief, joy, love, nervousness, optimism, pride, realization, relief, remorse, sadness, surprise.
In this paper, we introduce a large-scale Indonesian summarization dataset. We harvest articles from this http URL, an online news portal, and obtain 215,827 document-summary pairs. We leverage pre-trained language models to develop benchmark extractive and abstractive summarization methods over the dataset with multilingual and monolingual BERT-based models. We include a thorough error analysis by examining machine-generated summaries that have low ROUGE scores, and expose both issues with ROUGE it-self, as well as with extractive and abstractive summarization models.
A parallel corpus of KDE4 localization files (v.2). 92 languages, 4,099 bitexts total number of files: 75,535 total number of tokens: 60.75M total number of sentence fragments: 8.89M
KILT tasks training and evaluation data. - [FEVER]( | Fact Checking | fever - [AIDA CoNLL-YAGO]( | Entity Linking | aidayago2 - [WNED-WIKI]( | Entity Linking | wned - [WNED-CWEB]( | Entity Linking | cweb - [T-REx]( | Slot Filling | trex - [Zero-Shot RE]( | Slot Filling | structured_zeroshot - [Natural Questions]( | Open Domain QA | nq - [HotpotQA]( | Open Domain QA | hotpotqa - [TriviaQA]( | Open Domain QA | triviaqa - [ELI5]( | Open Domain QA | eli5 - [Wizard of Wikipedia]( | Dialogue | wow To finish linking TriviaQA questions to the IDs provided, follow the instructions [here](
The Large Spanish Corpus is a compilation of 15 unlabelled Spanish corpora spanning Wikipedia to European parliament notes. Each config contains the data corresponding to a different corpus. For example, "all_wiki" only includes examples from Spanish Wikipedia. By default, the config is set to "combined" which loads all the corpora; with this setting you can also specify the number of samples to return per corpus by configuring the "split" argument.
Machine learning models are trained to find patterns in data. NLP models can inadvertently learn socially undesirable patterns when training on gender biased text. In this work, we propose a general framework that decomposes gender bias in text along several pragmatic and semantic dimensions: bias from the gender of the person being spoken about, bias from the gender of the person being spoken to, and bias from the gender of the speaker. Using this fine-grained framework, we automatically annotate eight large scale datasets with gender information. In addition, we collect a novel, crowdsourced evaluation benchmark of utterance-level gender rewrites. Distinguishing between gender bias along multiple dimensions is important, as it enables us to train finer-grained gender bias classifiers. We show our classifiers prove valuable for a variety of important applications, such as controlling for gender bias in generative models, detecting gender bias in arbitrary text, and shed light on offensive language in terms of genderedness.
The MRQA 2019 Shared Task focuses on generalization in question answering. An effective question answering system should do more than merely interpolate from the training set to answer test examples drawn from the same distribution: it should also be able to extrapolate to out-of-distribution examples — a significantly harder challenge. The dataset is a collection of 18 existing QA dataset (carefully selected subset of them) and converted to the same format (SQuAD format). Among these 18 datasets, six datasets were made available for training, six datasets were made available for development, and the final six for testing. The dataset is released as part of the MRQA 2019 Shared Task.
Parallel corpora from Web Crawls collected in the ParaCrawl project and further processed for making it a multi-parallel corpus by pivoting via English. Here we only provide the additional language pairs that came out of pivoting. The bitexts for English are available from the ParaCrawl release. 40 languages, 669 bitexts total number of files: 40 total number of tokens: 10.14G total number of sentence fragments: 505.48M Please, acknowledge the ParaCrawl project at This version is derived from the original release at their website adjusted for redistribution via the OPUS corpus collection. Please, acknowledge OPUS as well for this service.
MultiReQA contains the sentence boundary annotation from eight publicly available QA datasets including SearchQA, TriviaQA, HotpotQA, NaturalQuestions, SQuAD, BioASQ, RelationExtraction, and TextbookQA. Five of these datasets, including SearchQA, TriviaQA, HotpotQA, NaturalQuestions, SQuAD, contain both training and test data, and three, including BioASQ, RelationExtraction, TextbookQA, contain only the test data
First benchmark dataset for sentence entailment in the low-resource Filipino language. Constructed through exploting the structure of news articles. Contains 600,000 premise-hypothesis pairs, in 70-15-15 split for training, validation, and testing.
NewsQA is a challenging machine comprehension dataset of over 100,000 human-generated question-answer pairs. Crowdworkers supply questions and answers based on a set of over 10,000 news articles from CNN, with answers consisting of spans of text from the corresponding articles.
This is a movie review dataset in the Korean language. Reviews were scraped from Naver movies. The dataset construction is based on the method noted in Large movie review dataset from Maas et al., 2011.
Fused Head constructions are noun phrases in which the head noun is missing and is said to be "fused" with its dependent modifier. This missing information is implicit and is important for sentence understanding.The missing heads are easily filled in by humans, but pose a challenge for computational models. For example, in the sentence: "I bought 5 apples but got only 4.", 4 is a Fused-Head, and the missing head is apples, which appear earlier in the sentence. This is a crowd-sourced dataset of 10k numerical fused head examples (1M tokens).
PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling This dataset contains 108,463 human-labeled and 656k noisily labeled pairs that feature the importance of modeling structure, context, and word order information for the problem of paraphrase identification. The dataset has two subsets, one based on Wikipedia and the other one based on the Quora Question Pairs (QQP) dataset. For further details, see the accompanying paper: PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling ( PAWS-QQP is not available due to license of QQP. It must be reconstructed by downloading the original data and then running our scripts to produce the data and attach the labels. NOTE: There might be some missing or wrong labels in the dataset and we have replaced them with -1.
dataset consisting of parsed Parsed ASTs that were used to train and evaluate the DeepSyn tool. The Python programs are collected from GitHub repositories by removing duplicate files, removing project forks (copy of another existing repository) ,keeping only programs that parse and have at most 30'000 nodes in the AST and we aim to remove obfuscated files
The QCRI Educational Domain Corpus (formerly QCRI AMARA Corpus) is an open multilingual collection of subtitles for educational videos and lectures collaboratively transcribed and translated over the AMARA web-based platform. Developed by: Qatar Computing Research Institute, Arabic Language Technologies Group The QED Corpus is made public for RESEARCH purpose only. The corpus is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Copyright Qatar Computing Research Institute. All rights reserved. 225 languages, 9,291 bitexts total number of files: 271,558 total number of tokens: 371.76M total number of sentence fragments: 30.93M
A parallel corpus of full-text scientific articles collected from Scielo database in the following languages: English, Portuguese and Spanish. The corpus is sentence aligned for all language pairs, as well as trilingual aligned for a small subset of sentences. Alignment was carried out using the Hunalign algorithm.
SETimes – A Parallel Corpus of English and South-East European Languages The corpus is based on the content published on the news portal. The news portal publishes “news and views from Southeast Europe” in ten languages: Bulgarian, Bosnian, Greek, English, Croatian, Macedonian, Romanian, Albanian and Serbian. This version of the corpus tries to solve the issues present in an older version of the corpus (published inside OPUS, described in the LREC 2010 paper by Francis M. Tyers and Murat Serdar Alperen). The following procedures were applied to resolve existing issues: - stricter extraction process – no HTML residues present - language identification on every non-English document – non-English online documents contain English material in case the article was not translated into that language - resolving encoding issues in Croatian and Serbian – diacritics were partially lost due to encoding errors – text was rediacritized.
SimpleQuestions is a dataset for simple QA, which consists of a total of 108,442 questions written in natural language by human English-speaking annotators each paired with a corresponding fact, formatted as (subject, relationship, object), that provides the answer but also a complete explanation. Fast have been extracted from the Knowledge Base Freebase ( We randomly shuffle these questions and use 70% of them (75910) as training set, 10% as validation set (10845), and the remaining 20% as test set.
The SNLI corpus (version 1.0) is a collection of 570k human-written English sentence pairs manually labeled for balanced classification with the labels entailment, contradiction, and neutral, supporting the task of natural language inference (NLI), also known as recognizing textual entailment (RTE).
Social Bias Frames is a new way of representing the biases and offensiveness that are implied in language. For example, these frames are meant to distill the implication that "women (candidates) are less qualified" behind the statement "we shouldn’t lower our standards to hire more women."
Given a partial description like "she opened the hood of the car," humans can reason about the situation and anticipate what might come next ("then, she examined the engine"). SWAG (Situations With Adversarial Generations) is a large-scale dataset for this task of grounded commonsense inference, unifying natural language inference and physically grounded reasoning. The dataset consists of 113k multiple choice questions about grounded situations (73k training, 20k validation, 20k test). Each question is a video caption from LSMDC or ActivityNet Captions, with four answer choices about what might happen next in the scene. The correct answer is the (real) video caption for the next event in the video; the three incorrect answers are adversarially generated and human verified, so as to fool machines but not humans. SWAG aims to be a benchmark for evaluating grounded commonsense NLI and for learning representations. The full data contain more information, but the regular configuration will be more interesting for modeling (note that the regular data are shuffled). The test set for leaderboard submission is under the regular configuration.
The problem of verifying whether a textual hypothesis holds the truth based on the given evidence, also known as fact verification, plays an important role in the study of natural language understanding and semantic representation. However, existing studies are restricted to dealing with unstructured textual evidence (e.g., sentences and passages, a pool of passages), while verification using structured forms of evidence, such as tables, graphs, and databases, remains unexplored. TABFACT is large scale dataset with 16k Wikipedia tables as evidence for 118k human annotated statements designed for fact verification with semi-structured evidence. The statements are labeled as either ENTAILED or REFUTED. TABFACT is challenging since it involves both soft linguistic reasoning and hard symbolic reasoning.
This is a collection of Quran translations compiled by the Tanzil project The translations provided at this page are for non-commercial purposes only. If used otherwise, you need to obtain necessary permission from the translator or the publisher. If you are using more than three of the following translations in a website or application, we require you to put a link back to this page to make sure that subsequent users have access to the latest updates. 42 languages, 878 bitexts total number of files: 105 total number of tokens: 22.33M total number of sentence fragments: 1.01M
A parallel corpus of TED talk subtitles provided by CASMACAT: The files are originally provided by 15 languages, 14 bitexts total number of files: 28 total number of tokens: 67.67M total number of sentence fragments: 3.81M
ThaiSum is a large-scale corpus for Thai text summarization obtained from several online news websites namely Thairath, ThaiPBS, Prachathai, and The Standard. This dataset consists of over 350,000 article and summary pairs written by journalists.
ToTTo is an open-domain English table-to-text dataset with over 120,000 training examples that proposes a controlled generation task: given a Wikipedia table and a set of highlighted table cells, produce a one-sentence description.
The TupleInf Open IE dataset contains Open IE tuples extracted from 263K sentences that were used by the solver in “Answering Complex Questions Using Open Information Extraction” (referred as Tuple KB, T). These sentences were collected from a large Web corpus using training questions from 4th and 8th grade as queries. This dataset contains 156K sentences collected for 4th grade questions and 107K sentences for 8th grade questions. Each sentence is followed by the Open IE v4 tuples using their simple format.
Turkish Wikipedia Named-Entity Recognition and Text Categorization (TWNERTC) dataset is a collection of automatically categorized and annotated sentences obtained from Wikipedia. The authors constructed large-scale gazetteers by using a graph crawler algorithm to extract relevant entity and domain information from a semantic knowledge base, Freebase. The constructed gazetteers contains approximately 300K entities with thousands of fine-grained entity types under 77 different domains.
Shrinked version (48 entity type) of the turkish_ner. Original turkish_ner dataset: Automatically annotated Turkish corpus for named entity recognition and text categorization using large-scale gazetteers. The constructed gazetteers contains approximately 300K entities with thousands of fine-grained entity types under 25 different domains. Shrinked entity types are: academic, academic_person, aircraft, album_person, anatomy, animal, architect_person, capital, chemical, clothes, country, culture, currency, date, food, genre, government, government_person, language, location, material, measure, medical, military, military_person, nation, newspaper, organization, organization_person, person, production_art_music, production_art_music_person, quantity, religion, science, shape, ship, software, space, space_person, sport, sport_name, sport_person, structure, subject, tech, train, vehicle
Twitter users often post parallel tweets—tweets that contain the same content but are written in different languages. Parallel tweets can be an important resource for developing machine translation (MT) systems among other natural language processing (NLP) tasks. This resource is a result of a generic method for collecting parallel tweets. Using the method, we compiled a bilingual corpus of English-Arabic parallel tweets and a list of Twitter accounts who post English-Arabic tweets regularly. Additionally, we annotate a subset of Twitter accounts with their countries of origin and topic of interest, which provides insights about the population who post parallel tweets.
This is a collection of translated documents from the United Nations. This corpus is available in all 6 official languages of the UN, consisting of around 300 million words per language
WikiAuto provides a set of aligned sentences from English Wikipedia and Simple English Wikipedia as a resource to train sentence simplification systems. The authors first crowd-sourced a set of manual alignments between sentences in a subset of the Simple English Wikipedia and their corresponding versions in English Wikipedia (this corresponds to the `manual` config), then trained a neural CRF system to predict these alignments. The trained model was then applied to the other articles in Simple English Wikipedia with an English counterpart to create a larger corpus of aligned sentences (corresponding to the `auto`, `auto_acl`, `auto_full_no_split`, and `auto_full_with_split` configs here).
This dataset gathers 728,321 biographies from wikipedia. It aims at evaluating text generation algorithms. For each article, we provide the first paragraph and the infobox (both tokenized). For each article, we extracted the first paragraph (text), the infobox (structured data). Each infobox is encoded as a list of (field name, field value) pairs. We used Stanford CoreNLP ( to preprocess the data, i.e. we broke the text into sentences and tokenized both the text and the field values. The dataset was randomly split in three subsets train (80%), valid (10%), test (10%).
The Wikicorpus is a trilingual corpus (Catalan, Spanish, English) that contains large portions of the Wikipedia (based on a 2006 dump) and has been automatically enriched with linguistic information. In its present version, it contains over 750 million words.
XGLUE is a new benchmark dataset to evaluate the performance of cross-lingual pre-trained models with respect to cross-lingual natural language understanding and generation. The benchmark is composed of the following 11 tasks: - NER - POS Tagging (POS) - News Classification (NC) - MLQA - XNLI - PAWS-X - Query-Ad Matching (QADSM) - Web Page Ranking (WPR) - QA Matching (QAM) - Question Generation (QG) - News Title Generation (NTG) For more information, please take a look at
The Yelp reviews dataset consists of reviews from Yelp. It is extracted from the Yelp Dataset Challenge 2015 data. The Yelp reviews full star dataset is constructed by Xiang Zhang ( from the above dataset. It is first used as a text classification benchmark in the following paper: Xiang Zhang, Junbo Zhao, Yann LeCun. Character-level Convolutional Networks for Text Classification. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 28 (NIPS 2015).