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ADE-Corpus-V2 Dataset: Adverse Drug Reaction Data. This is a dataset for Classification if a sentence is ADE-related (True) or not (False) and Relation Extraction between Adverse Drug Event and Drug. DRUG-AE.rel provides relations between drugs and adverse effects. DRUG-DOSE.rel provides relations between drugs and dosages. ADE-NEG.txt provides all sentences in the ADE corpus that DO NOT contain any drug-related adverse effects.
AdversarialQA is a Reading Comprehension dataset, consisting of questions posed by crowdworkers on a set of Wikipedia articles using an adversarial model-in-the-loop. We use three different models; BiDAF (Seo et al., 2016), BERT-Large (Devlin et al., 2018), and RoBERTa-Large (Liu et al., 2019) in the annotation loop and construct three datasets; D(BiDAF), D(BERT), and D(RoBERTa), each with 10,000 training examples, 1,000 validation, and 1,000 test examples. The adversarial human annotation paradigm ensures that these datasets consist of questions that current state-of-the-art models (at least the ones used as adversaries in the annotation loop) find challenging.
Allegro Reviews is a sentiment analysis dataset, consisting of 11,588 product reviews written in Polish and extracted from - a popular e-commerce marketplace. Each review contains at least 50 words and has a rating on a scale from one (negative review) to five (positive review). We recommend using the provided train/dev/test split. The ratings for the test set reviews are kept hidden. You can evaluate your model using the online evaluation tool available on
Allocine Dataset: A Large-Scale French Movie Reviews Dataset. This is a dataset for binary sentiment classification, made of user reviews scraped from It contains 100k positive and 100k negative reviews divided into 3 balanced splits: train (160k reviews), val (20k) and test (20k).
We provide an Amazon product reviews dataset for multilingual text classification. The dataset contains reviews in English, Japanese, German, French, Chinese and Spanish, collected between November 1, 2015 and November 1, 2019. Each record in the dataset contains the review text, the review title, the star rating, an anonymized reviewer ID, an anonymized product ID and the coarse-grained product category (e.g. ‘books’, ‘appliances’, etc.) The corpus is balanced across stars, so each star rating constitutes 20% of the reviews in each language. For each language, there are 200,000, 5,000 and 5,000 reviews in the training, development and test sets respectively. The maximum number of reviews per reviewer is 20 and the maximum number of reviews per product is 20. All reviews are truncated after 2,000 characters, and all reviews are at least 20 characters long. Note that the language of a review does not necessarily match the language of its marketplace (e.g. reviews from are primarily written in German, but could also be written in English, etc.). For this reason, we applied a language detection algorithm based on the work in Bojanowski et al. (2017) to determine the language of the review text and we removed reviews that were not written in the expected language.
AmbigNQ, a dataset covering 14,042 questions from NQ-open, an existing open-domain QA benchmark. We find that over half of the questions in NQ-open are ambiguous. The types of ambiguity are diverse and sometimes subtle, many of which are only apparent after examining evidence provided by a very large text corpus. AMBIGNQ, a dataset with 14,042 annotations on NQ-OPEN questions containing diverse types of ambiguity. We provide two distributions of our new dataset AmbigNQ: a full version with all annotation metadata and a light version with only inputs and outputs.
Chinese word segmentation (CWS) trained from open source corpus faces dramatic performance drop when dealing with domain text, especially for a domain with lots of special terms and diverse writing styles, such as the biomedical domain. However, building domain-specific CWS requires extremely high annotation cost. In this paper, we propose an approach by exploiting domain-invariant knowledge from high resource to low resource domains. Extensive experiments show that our mode achieves consistently higher accuracy than the single-task CWS and other transfer learning baselines, especially when there is a large disparity between source and target domains. This dataset is the accompanied medical Chinese word segmentation (CWS) dataset. The tags are in BIES scheme. For more details see
ArCOV-19 is an Arabic COVID-19 Twitter dataset that covers the period from 27th of January till 30th of April 2020. ArCOV-19 is designed to enable research under several domains including natural language processing, information retrieval, and social computing, among others
Abu El-Khair Corpus is an Arabic text corpus, that includes more than five million newspaper articles. It contains over a billion and a half words in total, out of which, there are about three million unique words. The corpus is encoded with two types of encoding, namely: UTF-8, and Windows CP-1256. Also it was marked with two mark-up languages, namely: SGML, and XML.
The Dialectal Arabic Datasets contain four dialects of Arabic, Etyptian (EGY), Levantine (LEV), Gulf (GLF), and Maghrebi (MGR). Each dataset consists of a set of 350 manually segmented and POS tagged tweets.
ASSET is a dataset for evaluating Sentence Simplification systems with multiple rewriting transformations, as described in "ASSET: A Dataset for Tuning and Evaluation of Sentence Simplification Models with Multiple Rewriting Transformations". The corpus is composed of 2000 validation and 359 test original sentences that were each simplified 10 times by different annotators. The corpus also contains human judgments of meaning preservation, fluency and simplicity for the outputs of several automatic text simplification systems.
The ASSIN (Avaliação de Similaridade Semântica e INferência textual) corpus is a corpus annotated with pairs of sentences written in Portuguese that is suitable for the exploration of textual entailment and paraphrasing classifiers. The corpus contains pairs of sentences extracted from news articles written in European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP), obtained from Google News Portugal and Brazil, respectively. To create the corpus, the authors started by collecting a set of news articles describing the same event (one news article from Google News Portugal and another from Google News Brazil) from Google News. Then, they employed Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) models to retrieve pairs of similar sentences between sets of news articles that were grouped together around the same topic. For that, two LDA models were trained (for EP and for BP) on external and large-scale collections of unannotated news articles from Portuguese and Brazilian news providers, respectively. Then, the authors defined a lower and upper threshold for the sentence similarity score of the retrieved pairs of sentences, taking into account that high similarity scores correspond to sentences that contain almost the same content (paraphrase candidates), and low similarity scores correspond to sentences that are very different in content from each other (no-relation candidates). From the collection of pairs of sentences obtained at this stage, the authors performed some manual grammatical corrections and discarded some of the pairs wrongly retrieved. Furthermore, from a preliminary analysis made to the retrieved sentence pairs the authors noticed that the number of contradictions retrieved during the previous stage was very low. Additionally, they also noticed that event though paraphrases are not very frequent, they occur with some frequency in news articles. Consequently, in contrast with the majority of the currently available corpora for other languages, which consider as labels “neutral”, “entailment” and “contradiction” for the task of RTE, the authors of the ASSIN corpus decided to use as labels “none”, “entailment” and “paraphrase”. Finally, the manual annotation of pairs of sentences was performed by human annotators. At least four annotators were randomly selected to annotate each pair of sentences, which is done in two steps: (i) assigning a semantic similarity label (a score between 1 and 5, from unrelated to very similar); and (ii) providing an entailment label (one sentence entails the other, sentences are paraphrases, or no relation). Sentence pairs where at least three annotators do not agree on the entailment label were considered controversial and thus discarded from the gold standard annotations. The full dataset has 10,000 sentence pairs, half of which in Brazilian Portuguese and half in European Portuguese. Either language variant has 2,500 pairs for training, 500 for validation and 2,000 for testing.
The ASSIN 2 corpus is composed of rather simple sentences. Following the procedures of SemEval 2014 Task 1. The training and validation data are composed, respectively, of 6,500 and 500 sentence pairs in Brazilian Portuguese, annotated for entailment and semantic similarity. Semantic similarity values range from 1 to 5, and text entailment classes are either entailment or none. The test data are composed of approximately 3,000 sentence pairs with the same annotation. All data were manually annotated.
`best2009` is a Thai word-tokenization dataset from encyclopedia, novels, news and articles by [NECTEC]( (148,995/2,252 lines of train/test). It was created for [BEST 2010: Word Tokenization Competition]( The test set answers are not provided publicly.
A parallel news corpus in Turkish, Kurdish and English. Bianet collects 3,214 Turkish articles with their sentence-aligned Kurdish or English translations from the Bianet online newspaper. 3 languages, 3 bitexts total number of files: 6 total number of tokens: 2.25M total number of sentence fragments: 0.14M
This is a multilingual parallel corpus created from translations of the Bible compiled by Christos Christodoulopoulos and Mark Steedman. 102 languages, 5,148 bitexts total number of files: 107 total number of tokens: 56.43M total number of sentence fragments: 2.84M
BIGPATENT, consisting of 1.3 million records of U.S. patent documents along with human written abstractive summaries. Each US patent application is filed under a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) code. There are nine such classification categories: A (Human Necessities), B (Performing Operations; Transporting), C (Chemistry; Metallurgy), D (Textiles; Paper), E (Fixed Constructions), F (Mechanical Engineering; Lightning; Heating; Weapons; Blasting), G (Physics), H (Electricity), and Y (General tagging of new or cross-sectional technology) There are two features: - description: detailed description of patent. - abstract: Patent abastract.
This dataset was curated from the Bing search logs (desktop users only) over the period of Jan 1st, 2020 – (Current Month - 1). Only searches that were issued many times by multiple users were included. The dataset includes queries from all over the world that had an intent related to the Coronavirus or Covid-19. In some cases this intent is explicit in the query itself (e.g., “Coronavirus updates Seattle”), in other cases it is implicit , e.g. “Shelter in place”. The implicit intent of search queries (e.g., “Toilet paper”) was extracted using random walks on the click graph as outlined in this paper by Microsoft Research. All personal data were removed.
The Bengali Hate Speech Dataset is a collection of Bengali articles collected from Bengali news articles, news dump of Bengali TV channels, books, blogs, and social media. Emphasis was placed on Facebook pages and newspaper sources because they attract close to 50 million followers and is a common source of opinions and hate speech. The raw text corpus contains 250 million articles and the full dataset is being prepared for release. This is a subset of the full dataset. This dataset was prepared for hate-speech text classification benchmark on Bengali, an under-resourced language.
The BrWaC (Brazilian Portuguese Web as Corpus) is a large corpus constructed following the Wacky framework, which was made public for research purposes. The current corpus version, released in January 2017, is composed by 3.53 million documents, 2.68 billion tokens and 5.79 million types. Please note that this resource is available solely for academic research purposes, and you agreed not to use it for any commercial applications. Manually download at
The Bosnian web corpus bsWaC was built by crawling the .ba top-level domain in 2014. The corpus was near-deduplicated on paragraph level, normalised via diacritic restoration, morphosyntactically annotated and lemmatised. The corpus is shuffled by paragraphs. Each paragraph contains metadata on the URL, domain and language identification (Bosnian vs. Croatian vs. Serbian). Version 1.0 of this corpus is described in Version 1.1 contains newer and better linguistic annotations.
In this paper, we introduce Chinese AI and Law challenge dataset (CAIL2018), the first large-scale Chinese legal dataset for judgment prediction. CAIL contains more than 2.6 million criminal cases published by the Supreme People's Court of China, which are several times larger than other datasets in existing works on judgment prediction. Moreover, the annotations of judgment results are more detailed and rich. It consists of applicable law articles, charges, and prison terms, which are expected to be inferred according to the fact descriptions of cases. For comparison, we implement several conventional text classification baselines for judgment prediction and experimental results show that it is still a challenge for current models to predict the judgment results of legal cases, especially on prison terms. To help the researchers make improvements on legal judgment prediction.
A parallel corpus of theses and dissertations abstracts in English and Portuguese were collected from the CAPES website (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) - Brazil. The corpus is sentence aligned for all language pairs. Approximately 240,000 documents were collected and aligned using the Hunalign algorithm.
This corpus is an attempt to recreate the dataset used for training XLM-R. This corpus comprises of monolingual data for 100+ languages and also includes data for romanized languages (indicated by *_rom). This was constructed using the urls and paragraph indices provided by the CC-Net repository by processing January-December 2018 Commoncrawl snapshots. Each file comprises of documents separated by double-newlines and paragraphs within the same document separated by a newline. The data is generated using the open source CC-Net repository. No claims of intellectual property are made on the work of preparation of the corpus.
ChrEn is a Cherokee-English parallel dataset to facilitate machine translation research between Cherokee and English. ChrEn is extremely low-resource contains 14k sentence pairs in total, split in ways that facilitate both in-domain and out-of-domain evaluation. ChrEn also contains 5k Cherokee monolingual data to enable semi-supervised learning.
A dataset adopting the FEVER methodology that consists of 1,535 real-world claims regarding climate-change collected on the internet. Each claim is accompanied by five manually annotated evidence sentences retrieved from the English Wikipedia that support, refute or do not give enough information to validate the claim totalling in 7,675 claim-evidence pairs. The dataset features challenging claims that relate multiple facets and disputed cases of claims where both supporting and refuting evidence are present.
CNN/DailyMail non-anonymized summarization dataset. There are two features: - article: text of news article, used as the document to be summarized - highlights: joined text of highlights with <s> and </s> around each highlight, which is the target summary
A dataset consisting of 502 English dialogs with 12,000 annotated utterances between a user and an assistant discussing movie preferences in natural language. It was collected using a Wizard-of-Oz methodology between two paid crowd-workers, where one worker plays the role of an 'assistant', while the other plays the role of a 'user'. The 'assistant' elicits the 'user’s' preferences about movies following a Coached Conversational Preference Elicitation (CCPE) method. The assistant asks questions designed to minimize the bias in the terminology the 'user' employs to convey his or her preferences as much as possible, and to obtain these preferences in natural language. Each dialog is annotated with entity mentions, preferences expressed about entities, descriptions of entities provided, and other statements of entities.
This dataset is designed to provide training data for common sense relationships pulls together from various sources. The dataset is multi-lingual. See langauge codes and language info here: This dataset provides an interface for the conceptnet5 csv file, and some (but not all) of the raw text data used to build conceptnet5: omcsnet_sentences_free.txt, and omcsnet_sentences_more.txt. One use of this dataset would be to learn to extract the conceptnet relationship from the omcsnet sentences. Conceptnet5 has 34,074,917 relationships. Of those relationships, there are 2,176,099 surface text sentences related to those 2M entries. omcsnet_sentences_free has 898,161 lines. omcsnet_sentences_more has 2,001,736 lines. Original downloads are available here For more information, see: The omcsnet data comes with the following warning from the authors of the above site: Remember: this data comes from various forms of crowdsourcing. Sentences in these files are not necessarily true, useful, or appropriate.
Named entities are phrases that contain the names of persons, organizations, locations, times and quantities. Example: [PER Wolff] , currently a journalist in [LOC Argentina] , played with [PER Del Bosque] in the final years of the seventies in [ORG Real Madrid] . The shared task of CoNLL-2002 concerns language-independent named entity recognition. We will concentrate on four types of named entities: persons, locations, organizations and names of miscellaneous entities that do not belong to the previous three groups. The participants of the shared task will be offered training and test data for at least two languages. They will use the data for developing a named-entity recognition system that includes a machine learning component. Information sources other than the training data may be used in this shared task. We are especially interested in methods that can use additional unannotated data for improving their performance (for example co-training). The train/validation/test sets are available in Spanish and Dutch. For more details see and
53,640 Japanese tweets with annotation if a tweet is related to COVID-19 or not. The annotation is by majority decision by 5 - 10 crowd workers. Target tweets include "COVID" or "コロナ". The period of the tweets is from around January 2020 to around June 2020. The original tweets are not contained. Please use Twitter API to get them, for example.
Corpus of domain names scraped from Common Crawl and manually annotated to add word boundaries (e.g. "commoncrawl" to "common crawl"). Breaking domain names such as "openresearch" into component words "open" and "research" is important for applications such as Text-to-Speech synthesis and web search. Common Crawl is an open repository of web crawl data that can be accessed and analyzed by anyone. Specifically, we scraped the plaintext (WET) extracts for domain names from URLs that contained diverse letter casing (e.g. "OpenBSD"). Although in the previous example, segmentation is trivial using letter casing, this was not always the case (e.g. "NASA"), so we had to manually annotate the data. The dataset is stored as plaintext file where each line is an example of space separated segments of a domain name. The examples are stored in their original letter casing, but harder and more interesting examples can be generated by lowercasing the input first.
The DaNE dataset has been annotated with Named Entities for PER, ORG and LOC by the Alexandra Institute. It is a reannotation of the UD-DDT (Universal Dependency - Danish Dependency Treebank) which has annotations for dependency parsing and part-of-speech (POS) tagging. The Danish UD treebank (Johannsen et al., 2015, UD-DDT) is a conversion of the Danish Dependency Treebank (Buch-Kromann et al. 2003) based on texts from Parole (Britt, 1998).
The Dutch Book Review Dataset (DBRD) contains over 110k book reviews of which 22k have associated binary sentiment polarity labels. It is intended as a benchmark for sentiment classification in Dutch and created due to a lack of annotated datasets in Dutch that are suitable for this task.
Doc2dial is dataset of goal-oriented dialogues that are grounded in the associated documents. It includes over 4500 annotated conversations with an average of 14 turns that are grounded in over 450 documents from four domains. Compared to the prior document-grounded dialogue datasets this dataset covers a variety of dialogue scenes in information-seeking conversations.
Original source: Website and documentatuion from the European Central Bank, compiled and made available by Alberto Simoes (thank you very much!) 19 languages, 170 bitexts total number of files: 340 total number of tokens: 757.37M total number of sentence fragments: 30.55M
EiTB-ParCC: Parallel Corpus of Comparable News. A Basque-Spanish parallel corpus provided by Vicomtech (, extracted from comparable news produced by the Basque public broadcasting group Euskal Irrati Telebista.
This is a parallel corpus made out of PDF documents from the European Medicines Agency. All files are automatically converted from PDF to plain text using pdftotext with the command line arguments -layout -nopgbrk -eol unix. There are some known problems with tables and multi-column layouts - some of them are fixed in the current version. source: 22 languages, 231 bitexts total number of files: 41,957 total number of tokens: 311.65M total number of sentence fragments: 26.51M
EXAMS is a benchmark dataset for multilingual and cross-lingual question answering from high school examinations. It consists of more than 24,000 high-quality high school exam questions in 16 languages, covering 8 language families and 24 school subjects from Natural Sciences and Social Sciences, among others.
A dataset to study Fake News in Portuguese, presenting a supposedly false News along with their respective fact check and classification. The data is collected from the ClaimReview, a structured data schema used by fact check agencies to share their results in search engines, enabling data collect in real time. The FACTCK.BR dataset contains 1309 claims with its corresponding label.
Contains Farsi (Persian) datasets for Machine Learning tasks, particularly NLP. These datasets have been extracted from the RSS feed of two Farsi news agency websites: - Hamshahri - RadioFarda
The GenericsKB contains 3.4M+ generic sentences about the world, i.e., sentences expressing general truths such as "Dogs bark," and "Trees remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere." Generics are potentially useful as a knowledge source for AI systems requiring general world knowledge. The GenericsKB is the first large-scale resource containing naturally occurring generic sentences (as opposed to extracted or crowdsourced triples), and is rich in high-quality, general, semantically complete statements. Generics were primarily extracted from three large text sources, namely the Waterloo Corpus, selected parts of Simple Wikipedia, and the ARC Corpus. A filtered, high-quality subset is also available in GenericsKB-Best, containing 1,020,868 sentences. We recommend you start with GenericsKB-Best.
Giga-word corpus for French-English from WMT2010 collected by Chris Callison-Burch 2 languages, total number of files: 452 total number of tokens: 1.43G total number of sentence fragments: 47.55M
This dataset is intended to advance topic classification for German texts. A classifier that is efffective in English may not be effective in German dataset because it has a higher inflection and longer compound words. The 10kGNAD dataset contains 10273 German news articles from an Austrian online newspaper categorized into 9 categories. Article titles and text are concatenated together and authors are removed to avoid a keyword-like classification on authors that write frequently about one category. This dataset can be used as a benchmark for German topic classification.
The GoEmotions dataset contains 58k carefully curated Reddit comments labeled for 27 emotion categories or Neutral. The emotion categories are admiration, amusement, anger, annoyance, approval, caring, confusion, curiosity, desire, disappointment, disapproval, disgust, embarrassment, excitement, fear, gratitude, grief, joy, love, nervousness, optimism, pride, realization, relief, remorse, sadness, surprise.
Strongly Generalizable Question Answering (GrailQA) is a new large-scale, high-quality dataset for question answering on knowledge bases (KBQA) on Freebase with 64,331 questions annotated with both answers and corresponding logical forms in different syntax (i.e., SPARQL, S-expression, etc.). It can be used to test three levels of generalization in KBQA: i.i.d., compositional, and zero-shot.
The dataset for the variable-misuse task, described in the ICLR 2020 paper 'Global Relational Models of Source Code' [] This is the public version of the dataset used in that paper. The original, used to produce the graphs in the paper, could not be open-sourced due to licensing issues. See the public associated code repository [] for results produced from this dataset. This dataset was generated synthetically from the corpus of Python code in the ETH Py150 Open dataset [].
This dataset contains 93700 hotel reviews in Arabic language.The hotel reviews were collected from website during June/July 2016.The reviews are expressed in Modern Standard Arabic as well as dialectal Arabic.The following table summarize some tatistics on the HARD Dataset.
The HAREM is a Portuguese language corpus commonly used for Named Entity Recognition tasks. It includes about 93k words, from 129 different texts, from several genres, and language varieties. The split of this dataset version follows the division made by [1], where 7% HAREM documents are the validation set and the miniHAREM corpus (with about 65k words) is the test set. There are two versions of the dataset set, a version that has a total of 10 different named entity classes (Person, Organization, Location, Value, Date, Title, Thing, Event, Abstraction, and Other) and a "selective" version with only 5 classes (Person, Organization, Location, Value, and Date). It's important to note that the original version of the HAREM dataset has 2 levels of NER details, namely "Category" and "Sub-type". The dataset version processed here ONLY USE the "Category" level of the original dataset. [1] Souza, Fábio, Rodrigo Nogueira, and Roberto Lotufo. "BERTimbau: Pretrained BERT Models for Brazilian Portuguese." Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems. Springer, Cham, 2020.
This dataset is a new knowledge-base (KB) of hasPart relationships, extracted from a large corpus of generic statements. Complementary to other resources available, it is the first which is all three of: accurate (90% precision), salient (covers relationships a person may mention), and has high coverage of common terms (approximated as within a 10 year old’s vocabulary), as well as having several times more hasPart entries than in the popular ontologies ConceptNet and WordNet. In addition, it contains information about quantifiers, argument modifiers, and links the entities to appropriate concepts in Wikipedia and WordNet.
These files contain text extracted from Stormfront, a white supremacist forum. A random set of forums posts have been sampled from several subforums and split into sentences. Those sentences have been manually labelled as containing hate speech or not, according to certain annotation guidelines.
A collection of news article headlines in Hausa from VOA Hausa. Each headline is labeled with one of the following classes: Nigeria, Africa, World, Health or Politics. The dataset was presented in the paper: Hedderich, Adelani, Zhu, Alabi, Markus, Klakow: Transfer Learning and Distant Supervision for Multilingual Transformer Models: A Study on African Languages (EMNLP 2020).
PUBHEALTH is a comprehensive dataset for explainable automated fact-checking of public health claims. Each instance in the PUBHEALTH dataset has an associated veracity label (true, false, unproven, mixture). Furthermore each instance in the dataset has an explanation text field. The explanation is a justification for which the claim has been assigned a particular veracity label. The dataset was created to explore fact-checking of difficult to verify claims i.e., those which require expertise from outside of the journalistics domain, in this case biomedical and public health expertise. It was also created in response to the lack of fact-checking datasets which provide gold standard natural language explanations for verdicts/labels. NOTE: There are missing labels in the dataset and we have replaced them with -1.
This repository contains a dump of thousands of public domain works in Hebrew, from Project Ben-Yehuda, in plaintext UTF-8 files, with and without diacritics (nikkud). The metadata (pseudocatalogue.csv) file is a list of titles, authors, genres, and file paths, to help you process the dump. All these works are in the public domain, so you are free to make any use of them, and do not need to ask for permission. There are 10078 files, 3181136 lines
HebrewSentiment is a data set consists of 12,804 user comments to posts on the official Facebook page of Israel’s president, Mr. Reuven Rivlin. In October 2015, we used the open software application Netvizz (Rieder, 2013) to scrape all the comments to all of the president’s posts in the period of June – August 2014, the first three months of Rivlin’s presidency.2 While the president’s posts aimed at reconciling tensions and called for tolerance and empathy, the sentiment expressed in the comments to the president’s posts was polarized between citizens who warmly thanked the president, and citizens that fiercely critiqued his policy. Of the 12,804 comments, 370 are neutral; 8,512 are positive, 3,922 negative. Data Annotation: A trained researcher examined each comment and determined its sentiment value, where comments with an overall positive sentiment were assigned the value 1, comments with an overall negative sentiment were assigned the value -1, and comments that are off-topic to the post’s content were assigned the value 0. We validated the coding scheme by asking a second trained researcher to code the same data. There was substantial agreement between raters (N of agreements: 10623, N of disagreements: 2105, Coehn’s Kappa = 0.697, p = 0).
The Hindi Discourse Analysis dataset is a corpus for analyzing discourse modes present in its sentences. It contains sentences from stories written by 11 famous authors from the 20th Century. 4-5 stories by each author have been selected which were available in the public domain resulting in a collection of 53 stories. Most of these short stories were originally written in Hindi but some of them were written in other Indian languages and later translated to Hindi.
The Hong Kong Cantonese Corpus (HKCanCor) comprise transcribed conversations recorded between March 1997 and August 1998. It contains recordings of spontaneous speech (51 texts) and radio programmes (42 texts), which involve 2 to 4 speakers, with 1 text of monologue. In total, the corpus contains around 230,000 Chinese words. The text is word-segmented, annotated with part-of-speech (POS) tags and romanised Cantonese pronunciation. Romanisation scheme - Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) POS scheme - Peita-Fujitsu-Renmin Ribao (PRF) corpus (Duan et al., 2000), with extended tags for Cantonese-specific phenomena added by Luke and Wang (see original paper for details).
HoVer is an open-domain, many-hop fact extraction and claim verification dataset built upon the Wikipedia corpus. The original 2-hop claims are adapted from question-answer pairs from HotpotQA. It is collected by a team of NLP researchers at UNC Chapel Hill and Verisk Analytics.
The hrenWaC corpus version 2.0 consists of parallel Croatian-English texts crawled from the .hr top-level domain for Croatia. The corpus was built with Spidextor (, a tool that glues together the output of SpiderLing used for crawling and Bitextor used for bitext extraction. The accuracy of the extracted bitext on the segment level is around 80% and on the word level around 84%.
The Croatian web corpus hrWaC was built by crawling the .hr top-level domain in 2011 and again in 2014. The corpus was near-deduplicated on paragraph level, normalised via diacritic restoration, morphosyntactically annotated and lemmatised. The corpus is shuffled by paragraphs. Each paragraph contains metadata on the URL, domain and language identification (Croatian vs. Serbian). Version 2.0 of this corpus is described in Version 2.1 contains newer and better linguistic annotations.
In this paper, we introduce a large-scale Indonesian summarization dataset. We harvest articles from this http URL, an online news portal, and obtain 215,827 document-summary pairs. We leverage pre-trained language models to develop benchmark extractive and abstractive summarization methods over the dataset with multilingual and monolingual BERT-based models. We include a thorough error analysis by examining machine-generated summaries that have low ROUGE scores, and expose both issues with ROUGE it-self, as well as with extractive and abstractive summarization models.
The dataset contains around 500K articles (136M of words) from 7 Indonesian newspapers: Detik, Kompas, Tempo, CNN Indonesia, Sindo, Republika and Poskota. The articles are dated between 1st January 2018 and 20th August 2018 (with few exceptions dated earlier). The size of uncompressed 500K json files (newspapers-json.tgz) is around 2.2GB, and the cleaned uncompressed in a big text file (newspapers.txt.gz) is about 1GB. The original source in Google Drive contains also a dataset in html format which include raw data (pictures, css, javascript, ...) from the online news website
It is a Turkish news data set consisting of 273601 news in 17 categories, compiled from print media and news websites between 2010 and 2017 by the Interpress ( media monitoring company.
JFLEG (JHU FLuency-Extended GUG) is an English grammatical error correction (GEC) corpus. It is a gold standard benchmark for developing and evaluating GEC systems with respect to fluency (extent to which a text is native-sounding) as well as grammaticality. For each source document, there are four human-written corrections (ref0 to ref3).
A parallel corpus of KDE4 localization files (v.2). 92 languages, 4,099 bitexts total number of files: 75,535 total number of tokens: 60.75M total number of sentence fragments: 8.89M
Data-To-Text Generation involves converting knowledge graph (KG) triples of the form (subject, relation, object) into a natural language sentence(s). This dataset consists of English KG data converted into paired natural language text. The generated corpus consists of ∼18M sentences spanning ∼45M triples with ∼1500 distinct relations.
KILT tasks training and evaluation data. - [FEVER]( | Fact Checking | fever - [AIDA CoNLL-YAGO]( | Entity Linking | aidayago2 - [WNED-WIKI]( | Entity Linking | wned - [WNED-CWEB]( | Entity Linking | cweb - [T-REx]( | Slot Filling | trex - [Zero-Shot RE]( | Slot Filling | structured_zeroshot - [Natural Questions]( | Open Domain QA | nq - [HotpotQA]( | Open Domain QA | hotpotqa - [TriviaQA]( | Open Domain QA | triviaqa - [ELI5]( | Open Domain QA | eli5 - [Wizard of Wikipedia]( | Dialogue | wow To finish linking TriviaQA questions to the IDs provided, follow the instructions [here](
This dataset contains over 63,000 book reviews in Arabic.It is the largest sentiment analysis dataset for Arabic to-date.The book reviews were harvested from the website Goodreads during the month or March 2013.Each book review comes with the goodreads review id, the user id, the book id, the rating (1 to 5) and the text of the review.
The LAMBADA evaluates the capabilities of computational models for text understanding by means of a word prediction task. LAMBADA is a collection of narrative passages sharing the characteristic that human subjects are able to guess their last word if they are exposed to the whole passage, but not if they only see the last sentence preceding the target word. To succeed on LAMBADA, computational models cannot simply rely on local context, but must be able to keep track of information in the broader discourse. The LAMBADA dataset is extracted from BookCorpus and consists of 10'022 passages, divided into 4'869 development and 5'153 test passages. The training data for language models to be tested on LAMBADA include the full text of 2'662 novels (disjoint from those in dev+test), comprising 203 million words.
LIAR is a dataset for fake news detection with 12.8K human labeled short statements from's API, and each statement is evaluated by a editor for its truthfulness. The distribution of labels in the LIAR dataset is relatively well-balanced: except for 1,050 pants-fire cases, the instances for all other labels range from 2,063 to 2,638. In each case, the labeler provides a lengthy analysis report to ground each judgment.
Motion recognition is one of the basic cognitive capabilities of many life forms, yet identifying motion of physical entities in natural language have not been explored extensively and empirically. Literal-Motion-in-Text (LiMiT) dataset, is a large human-annotated collection of English text sentences describing physical occurrence of motion, with annotated physical entities in motion.
This is LiveQA, a Chinese dataset constructed from play-by-play live broadcast. It contains 117k multiple-choice questions written by human commentators for over 1,670 NBA games, which are collected from the Chinese Hupu website.
LST20 Corpus is a dataset for Thai language processing developed by National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Thailand. It offers five layers of linguistic annotation: word boundaries, POS tagging, named entities, clause boundaries, and sentence boundaries. At a large scale, it consists of 3,164,002 words, 288,020 named entities, 248,181 clauses, and 74,180 sentences, while it is annotated with 16 distinct POS tags. All 3,745 documents are also annotated with one of 15 news genres. Regarding its sheer size, this dataset is considered large enough for developing joint neural models for NLP. Manually download at
Mac-Morpho is a corpus of Brazilian Portuguese texts annotated with part-of-speech tags. Its first version was released in 2003 [1], and since then, two revisions have been made in order to improve the quality of the resource [2, 3]. The corpus is available for download split into train, development and test sections. These are 76%, 4% and 20% of the corpus total, respectively (the reason for the unusual numbers is that the corpus was first split into 80%/20% train/test, and then 5% of the train section was set aside for development). This split was used in [3], and new POS tagging research with Mac-Morpho is encouraged to follow it in order to make consistent comparisons possible. [1] Aluísio, S., Pelizzoni, J., Marchi, A.R., de Oliveira, L., Manenti, R., Marquiafável, V. 2003. An account of the challenge of tagging a reference corpus for brazilian portuguese. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language. PROPOR 2003 [2] Fonseca, E.R., Rosa, J.L.G. 2013. Mac-morpho revisited: Towards robust part-of-speech. In: Proceedings of the 9th Brazilian Symposium in Information and Human Language Technology – STIL [3] Fonseca, E.R., Aluísio, Sandra Maria, Rosa, J.L.G. 2015. Evaluating word embeddings and a revised corpus for part-of-speech tagging in Portuguese. Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society.
MC-TACO (Multiple Choice TemporAl COmmonsense) is a dataset of 13k question-answer pairs that require temporal commonsense comprehension. A system receives a sentence providing context information, a question designed to require temporal commonsense knowledge, and multiple candidate answers. More than one candidate answer can be plausible. The task is framed as binary classification: givent he context, the question, and the candidate answer, the task is to determine whether the candidate answer is plausible ("yes") or not ("no").
Machine learning models are trained to find patterns in data. NLP models can inadvertently learn socially undesirable patterns when training on gender biased text. In this work, we propose a general framework that decomposes gender bias in text along several pragmatic and semantic dimensions: bias from the gender of the person being spoken about, bias from the gender of the person being spoken to, and bias from the gender of the speaker. Using this fine-grained framework, we automatically annotate eight large scale datasets with gender information. In addition, we collect a novel, crowdsourced evaluation benchmark of utterance-level gender rewrites. Distinguishing between gender bias along multiple dimensions is important, as it enables us to train finer-grained gender bias classifiers. We show our classifiers prove valuable for a variety of important applications, such as controlling for gender bias in generative models, detecting gender bias in arbitrary text, and shed light on offensive language in terms of genderedness.
The MedDialog dataset (English) contains conversations (in English) between doctors and patients.It has 0.26 million dialogues. The data is continuously growing and more dialogues will be added. The raw dialogues are from and All copyrights of the data belong to and
MENYO-20k is a multi-domain parallel dataset with texts obtained from news articles, ted talks, movie transcripts, radio transcripts, science and technology texts, and other short articles curated from the web and professional translators. The dataset has 20,100 parallel sentences split into 10,070 training sentences, 3,397 development sentences, and 6,633 test sentences (3,419 multi-domain, 1,714 news domain, and 1,500 ted talks speech transcript domain). The development and test sets are available upon request.
The dataset consists of tweets belonging to #MeToo movement on Twitter, labelled into different categories. Due to Twitter's development policies, we only provide the tweet ID's and corresponding labels, other data can be fetched via Twitter API. The data has been labelled by experts, with the majority taken into the account for deciding the final label. We provide these labels for each of the tweets. The labels provided for each data point includes -- Relevance, Directed Hate, Generalized Hate, Sarcasm, Allegation, Justification, Refutation, Support, Oppose
Arabic Poetry Metric Classification. The dataset contains the verses and their corresponding meter classes.Meter classes are represented as numbers from 0 to 13. The dataset can be highly useful for further research in order to improve the field of Arabic poems’ meter classification.The train dataset contains 47,124 records and the test dataset contains 8316 records.
We introduce MKQA, an open-domain question answering evaluation set comprising 10k question-answer pairs sampled from the Google Natural Questions dataset, aligned across 26 typologically diverse languages (260k question-answer pairs in total). For each query we collected new passage-independent answers. These queries and answers were then human translated into 25 Non-English languages.
The MNIST dataset consists of 70,000 28x28 black-and-white images in 10 classes (one for each digits), with 7,000 images per class. There are 60,000 training images and 10,000 test images.
Posing reading comprehension as a generation problem provides a great deal of flexibility, allowing for open-ended questions with few restrictions on possible answers. However, progress is impeded by existing generation metrics, which rely on token overlap and are agnostic to the nuances of reading comprehension. To address this, we introduce a benchmark for training and evaluating generative reading comprehension metrics: MOdeling Correctness with Human Annotations. MOCHA contains 40K human judgement scores on model outputs from 6 diverse question answering datasets and an additional set of minimal pairs for evaluation. Using MOCHA, we train an evaluation metric: LERC, a Learned Evaluation metric for Reading Comprehension, to mimic human judgement scores.
The MRQA 2019 Shared Task focuses on generalization in question answering. An effective question answering system should do more than merely interpolate from the training set to answer test examples drawn from the same distribution: it should also be able to extrapolate to out-of-distribution examples — a significantly harder challenge. The dataset is a collection of 18 existing QA dataset (carefully selected subset of them) and converted to the same format (SQuAD format). Among these 18 datasets, six datasets were made available for training, six datasets were made available for development, and the final six for testing. The dataset is released as part of the MRQA 2019 Shared Task.
Recent work in semantic parsing for question answering has focused on long and complicated questions, many of which would seem unnatural if asked in a normal conversation between two humans. In an effort to explore a conversational QA setting, we present a more realistic task: answering sequences of simple but inter-related questions. We created SQA by asking crowdsourced workers to decompose 2,022 questions from WikiTableQuestions (WTQ), which contains highly-compositional questions about tables from Wikipedia. We had three workers decompose each WTQ question, resulting in a dataset of 6,066 sequences that contain 17,553 questions in total. Each question is also associated with answers in the form of cell locations in the tables.
This dataset contains sentences and short paragraphs with corresponding shorter (compressed) versions. There are up to five compressions for each input text, together with quality judgements of their meaning preservation and grammaticality. The dataset is derived using source texts from the Open American National Corpus ( and crowd-sourcing.
The Third International Chinese Language Processing Bakeoff was held in Spring 2006 to assess the state of the art in two important tasks: word segmentation and named entity recognition. Twenty-nine groups submitted result sets in the two tasks across two tracks and a total of five corpora. We found strong results in both tasks as well as continuing challenges. MSRA NER is one of the provided dataset. There are three types of NE, PER (person), ORG (organization) and LOC (location). The dataset is in the BIO scheme. For more details see
MultiBooked is a corpus of Basque and Catalan Hotel Reviews Annotated for Aspect-level Sentiment Classification. The corpora are compiled from hotel reviews taken mainly from The corpora are in Kaf/Naf format, which is an xml-style stand-off format that allows for multiple layers of annotation. Each review was sentence- and word-tokenized and lemmatized using Freeling for Catalan and ixa-pipes for Basque. Finally, for each language two annotators annotated opinion holders, opinion targets, and opinion expressions for each review, following the guidelines set out in the OpeNER project.
Parallel corpora from Web Crawls collected in the ParaCrawl project and further processed for making it a multi-parallel corpus by pivoting via English. Here we only provide the additional language pairs that came out of pivoting. The bitexts for English are available from the ParaCrawl release. 40 languages, 669 bitexts total number of files: 40 total number of tokens: 10.14G total number of sentence fragments: 505.48M Please, acknowledge the ParaCrawl project at This version is derived from the original release at their website adjusted for redistribution via the OPUS corpus collection. Please, acknowledge OPUS as well for this service.
MultiReQA contains the sentence boundary annotation from eight publicly available QA datasets including SearchQA, TriviaQA, HotpotQA, NaturalQuestions, SQuAD, BioASQ, RelationExtraction, and TextbookQA. Five of these datasets, including SearchQA, TriviaQA, HotpotQA, NaturalQuestions, SQuAD, contain both training and test data, and three, including BioASQ, RelationExtraction, TextbookQA, contain only the test data
Multi-XScience, a large-scale multi-document summarization dataset created from scientific articles. Multi-XScience introduces a challenging multi-document summarization task: writing the related-work section of a paper based on its abstract and the articles it references.
The NarrativeQA dataset for question answering on long documents (movie scripts, books). It includes the list of documents with Wikipedia summaries, links to full stories, and questions and answers.
A parallel corpus of News Commentaries provided by WMT for training SMT. The source is taken from CASMACAT: 12 languages, 63 bitexts total number of files: 61,928 total number of tokens: 49.66M total number of sentence fragments: 1.93M
First benchmark dataset for sentence entailment in the low-resource Filipino language. Constructed through exploting the structure of news articles. Contains 600,000 premise-hypothesis pairs, in 70-15-15 split for training, validation, and testing.
This is a movie review dataset in the Korean language. Reviews were scraped from Naver movies. The dataset construction is based on the method noted in Large movie review dataset from Maas et al., 2011.
Fused Head constructions are noun phrases in which the head noun is missing and is said to be "fused" with its dependent modifier. This missing information is implicit and is important for sentence understanding.The missing heads are easily filled in by humans, but pose a challenge for computational models. For example, in the sentence: "I bought 5 apples but got only 4.", 4 is a Fused-Head, and the missing head is apples, which appear earlier in the sentence. This is a crowd-sourced dataset of 10k numerical fused head examples (1M tokens).
Texts from the Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg (Breton Language Board) provided by Francis Tyers 2 languages, total number of files: 278 total number of tokens: 2.12M total number of sentence fragments: 0.13M
This dataset is a compilation of the OneStopEnglish corpus of texts written at three reading levels into one file. Text documents are classified into three reading levels - ele, int, adv (Elementary, Intermediate and Advance). This dataset demonstrates its usefulness for through two applica-tions - automatic readability assessment and automatic text simplification. The corpus consists of 189 texts, each in three versions/reading levels (567 in total).
This is a new collection of translated movie subtitles from IMPORTANT: If you use the OpenSubtitle corpus: Please, add a link to to your website and to your reports and publications produced with the data! This is a slightly cleaner version of the subtitle collection using improved sentence alignment and better language checking. 62 languages, 1,782 bitexts total number of files: 3,735,070 total number of tokens: 22.10G total number of sentence fragments: 3.35G
This is a collection of copyright free books aligned by Andras Farkas, which are available from Note that the texts are rather dated due to copyright issues and that some of them are manually reviewed (check the meta-data at the top of the corpus files in XML). The source is multilingually aligned, which is available from In OPUS, the alignment is formally bilingual but the multilingual alignment can be recovered from the XCES sentence alignment files. Note also that the alignment units from the original source may include multi-sentence paragraphs, which are split and sentence-aligned in OPUS. All texts are freely available for personal, educational and research use. Commercial use (e.g. reselling as parallel books) and mass redistribution without explicit permission are not granted. Please acknowledge the source when using the data! 16 languages, 64 bitexts total number of files: 158 total number of tokens: 19.50M total number of sentence fragments: 0.91M
A collection of translation memories provided by the JRC. Source: 25 languages, 299 bitexts total number of files: 817,410 total number of tokens: 2.13G total number of sentence fragments: 113.52M
The Finlex Data Base is a comprehensive collection of legislative and other judicial information of Finland, which is available in Finnish, Swedish and partially in English. This corpus is taken from the Semantic Finlex serice that provides the Finnish and Swedish data as linked open data and also raw XML files.
A parallel corpus of GNOME localization files. Source: 187 languages, 12,822 bitexts total number of files: 113,344 total number of tokens: 267.27M total number of sentence fragments: 58.12M
Parallel corpora from Web Crawls collected in the ParaCrawl project 40 languages, 41 bitexts total number of files: 20,995 total number of tokens: 21.40G total number of sentence fragments: 1.12G
This is a Croatian-English parallel corpus of transcribed and translated TED talks, originally extracted from The corpus is compiled by Željko Agić and is taken from provided under the CC-BY-NC-SA license. 2 languages, total number of files: 2 total number of tokens: 2.81M total number of sentence fragments: 0.17M
A parallel corpus of Ubuntu localization files. Source: 244 languages, 23,988 bitexts total number of files: 30,959 total number of tokens: 29.84M total number of sentence fragments: 7.73M
This is a corpus of parallel sentences extracted from Wikipedia by Krzysztof Wołk and Krzysztof Marasek. Please cite the following publication if you use the data: Krzysztof Wołk and Krzysztof Marasek: Building Subject-aligned Comparable Corpora and Mining it for Truly Parallel Sentence Pairs., Procedia Technology, 18, Elsevier, p.126-132, 2014 20 languages, 36 bitexts total number of files: 114 total number of tokens: 610.13M total number of sentence fragments: 25.90M
The OrangeSum dataset was inspired by the XSum dataset. It was created by scraping the "Orange Actu" website: Orange S.A. is a large French multinational telecommunications corporation, with 266M customers worldwide. Scraped pages cover almost a decade from Feb 2011 to Sep 2020. They belong to five main categories: France, world, politics, automotive, and society. The society category is itself divided into 8 subcategories: health, environment, people, culture, media, high-tech, unsual ("insolite" in French), and miscellaneous. Each article featured a single-sentence title as well as a very brief abstract, both professionally written by the author of the article. These two fields were extracted from each page, thus creating two summarization tasks: OrangeSum Title and OrangeSum Abstract.
PearRead is a dataset of scientific peer reviews available to help researchers study this important artifact. The dataset consists of over 14K paper drafts and the corresponding accept/reject decisions in top-tier venues including ACL, NIPS and ICLR, as well as over 10K textual peer reviews written by experts for a subset of the papers.
People's Daily NER Dataset is a commonly used dataset for Chinese NER, with text from People's Daily (人民日报), the largest official newspaper. The dataset is in BIO scheme. Entity types are: PER (person), ORG (organization) and LOC (location).
Person SenTiment (PerSenT) is a crowd-sourced dataset that captures the sentiment of an author towards the main entity in a news article. This dataset contains annotation for 5.3k documents and 38k paragraphs covering 3.2k unique entities. The dataset consists of sentiment annotations on news articles about people. For each article, annotators judge what the author’s sentiment is towards the main (target) entity of the article. The annotations also include similar judgments on paragraphs within the article. To split the dataset, entities into 4 mutually exclusive sets. Due to the nature of news collections, some entities tend to dominate the collection. In the collection, there were four entities which were the main entity in nearly 800 articles. To avoid these entities from dominating the train or test splits, we moved them to a separate test collection. We split the remaining into a training, dev, and test sets at random. Thus our collection includes one standard test set consisting of articles drawn at random (Test Standard -- `test_random`), while the other is a test set which contains multiple articles about a small number of popular entities (Test Frequent -- `test_fixed`).
A parallel corpus originally extracted from The original documents are written in English and have been partly translated into 21 languages. The original manuals contain about 500,000 words. The amount of actually translated texts varies for different languages between 50,000 and 380,000 words. The corpus is rather noisy and may include parts from the English original in some of the translations. The corpus is tokenized and each language pair has been sentence aligned. 23 languages, 252 bitexts total number of files: 71,414 total number of tokens: 3.28M total number of sentence fragments: 1.38M
To apply eyeshadow without a brush, should I use a cotton swab or a toothpick? Questions requiring this kind of physical commonsense pose a challenge to state-of-the-art natural language understanding systems. The PIQA dataset introduces the task of physical commonsense reasoning and a corresponding benchmark dataset Physical Interaction: Question Answering or PIQA. Physical commonsense knowledge is a major challenge on the road to true AI-completeness, including robots that interact with the world and understand natural language. PIQA focuses on everyday situations with a preference for atypical solutions. The dataset is inspired by, which provides users with instructions on how to build, craft, bake, or manipulate objects using everyday materials. The underlying task is formualted as multiple choice question answering: given a question `q` and two possible solutions `s1`, `s2`, a model or a human must choose the most appropriate solution, of which exactly one is correct. The dataset is further cleaned of basic artifacts using the AFLite algorithm which is an improvement of adversarial filtering. The dataset contains 16,000 examples for training, 2,000 for development and 3,000 for testing.
A well-structured summarization dataset for the Persian language consists of 93,207 records. It is prepared for Abstractive/Extractive tasks (like cnn_dailymail for English). It can also be used in other scopes like Text Generation, Title Generation, and News Category Classification. It is imperative to consider that the newlines were replaced with the `[n]` symbol. Please interpret them into normal newlines (for ex. `t.replace("[n]", "\n")`) and then use them for your purposes.
In Task 6-1, the participants are to distinguish between normal/non-harmful tweets (class: 0) and tweets that contain any kind of harmful information (class: 1). This includes cyberbullying, hate speech and related phenomena. In Task 6-2, the participants shall distinguish between three classes of tweets: 0 (non-harmful), 1 (cyberbullying), 2 (hate-speech). There are various definitions of both cyberbullying and hate-speech, some of them even putting those two phenomena in the same group. The specific conditions on which we based our annotations for both cyberbullying and hate-speech, which have been worked out during ten years of research will be summarized in an introductory paper for the task, however, the main and definitive condition to 1 distinguish the two is whether the harmful action is addressed towards a private person(s) (cyberbullying), or a public person/entity/large group (hate-speech).
PolEval is a SemEval-inspired evaluation campaign for natural language processing tools for Polish.Submitted solutions compete against one another within certain tasks selected by organizers, using available data and are evaluated according topre-established procedures. One of the tasks in PolEval-2019 was Machine Translation (Task-4). The task is to train as good as possible machine translation system, using any technology,with limited textual resources.The competition will be done for 2 language pairs, more popular English-Polish (into Polish direction) and pair that can be called low resourcedRussian-Polish (in both directions). Here, Polish-English is also made available to allow for training in both directions. However, the test data is ONLY available for English-Polish.
`prachathai-67k`: News Article Corpus and Multi-label Text Classificdation from The prachathai-67k dataset was scraped from the news site Prachathai. We filtered out those articles with less than 500 characters of body text, mostly images and cartoons. It contains 67,889 articles wtih 12 curated tags from August 24, 2004 to November 15, 2018. The dataset was originally scraped by @lukkiddd and cleaned by @cstorm125. You can also see preliminary exploration at
This is the Penn Treebank Project: Release 2 CDROM, featuring a million words of 1989 Wall Street Journal material. This corpus has been annotated for part-of-speech (POS) information. In addition, over half of it has been annotated for skeletal syntactic structure.
dataset consisting of parsed Parsed ASTs that were used to train and evaluate the DeepSyn tool. The Python programs are collected from GitHub repositories by removing duplicate files, removing project forks (copy of another existing repository) ,keeping only programs that parse and have at most 30'000 nodes in the AST and we aim to remove obfuscated files
QED, is a linguistically informed, extensible framework for explanations in question answering. A QED explanation specifies the relationship between a question and answer according to formal semantic notions such as referential equality, sentencehood, and entailment. It is an expertannotated dataset of QED explanations built upon a subset of the Google Natural Questions dataset.
The QCRI Educational Domain Corpus (formerly QCRI AMARA Corpus) is an open multilingual collection of subtitles for educational videos and lectures collaboratively transcribed and translated over the AMARA web-based platform. Developed by: Qatar Computing Research Institute, Arabic Language Technologies Group The QED Corpus is made public for RESEARCH purpose only. The corpus is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Copyright Qatar Computing Research Institute. All rights reserved. 225 languages, 9,291 bitexts total number of files: 271,558 total number of tokens: 371.76M total number of sentence fragments: 30.93M
Question Answering in Context is a dataset for modeling, understanding, and participating in information seeking dialog. Data instances consist of an interactive dialog between two crowd workers: (1) a student who poses a sequence of freeform questions to learn as much as possible about a hidden Wikipedia text, and (2) a teacher who answers the questions by providing short excerpts (spans) from the text. QuAC introduces challenges not found in existing machine comprehension datasets: its questions are often more open-ended, unanswerable, or only meaningful within the dialog context.
The RONEC (Named Entity Corpus for the Romanian language) dataset contains over 26000 entities in ~5000 annotated sentence, belonging to 16 distinct classes. It represents the first initiative in the Romanian language space specifically targeted for named entity recognition
ROPES (Reasoning Over Paragraph Effects in Situations) is a QA dataset which tests a system's ability to apply knowledge from a passage of text to a new situation. A system is presented a background passage containing a causal or qualitative relation(s) (e.g., "animal pollinators increase efficiency of fertilization in flowers"), a novel situation that uses this background, and questions that require reasoning about effects of the relationships in the background passage in the background of the situation.
scb-mt-en-th-2020: A Large English-Thai Parallel Corpus The primary objective of our work is to build a large-scale English-Thai dataset for machine translation. We construct an English-Thai machine translation dataset with over 1 million segment pairs, curated from various sources, namely news, Wikipedia articles, SMS messages, task-based dialogs, web-crawled data and government documents. Methodology for gathering data, building parallel texts and removing noisy sentence pairs are presented in a reproducible manner. We train machine translation models based on this dataset. Our models' performance are comparable to that of Google Translation API (as of May 2020) for Thai-English and outperform Google when the Open Parallel Corpus (OPUS) is included in the training data for both Thai-English and English-Thai translation. The dataset, pre-trained models, and source code to reproduce our work are available for public use.
A parallel corpus of full-text scientific articles collected from Scielo database in the following languages: English, Portuguese and Spanish. The corpus is sentence aligned for all language pairs, as well as trilingual aligned for a small subset of sentences. Alignment was carried out using the Hunalign algorithm.
A new multi-target dataset of 5.4K TLDRs over 3.2K papers. SCITLDR contains both author-written and expert-derived TLDRs, where the latter are collected using a novel annotation protocol that produces high-quality summaries while minimizing annotation burden.
SentimentWortschatz, or SentiWS for short, is a publicly available German-language resource for sentiment analysis, and pos-tagging. The POS tags are ["NN", "VVINF", "ADJX", "ADV"] -> ["noun", "verb", "adjective", "adverb"], and positive and negative polarity bearing words are weighted within the interval of [-1, 1].
SETimes – A Parallel Corpus of English and South-East European Languages The corpus is based on the content published on the news portal. The news portal publishes “news and views from Southeast Europe” in ten languages: Bulgarian, Bosnian, Greek, English, Croatian, Macedonian, Romanian, Albanian and Serbian. This version of the corpus tries to solve the issues present in an older version of the corpus (published inside OPUS, described in the LREC 2010 paper by Francis M. Tyers and Murat Serdar Alperen). The following procedures were applied to resolve existing issues: - stricter extraction process – no HTML residues present - language identification on every non-English document – non-English online documents contain English material in case the article was not translated into that language - resolving encoding issues in Croatian and Serbian – diacritics were partially lost due to encoding errors – text was rediacritized.
SimpleQuestions is a dataset for simple QA, which consists of a total of 108,442 questions written in natural language by human English-speaking annotators each paired with a corresponding fact, formatted as (subject, relationship, object), that provides the answer but also a complete explanation. Fast have been extracted from the Knowledge Base Freebase ( We randomly shuffle these questions and use 70% of them (75910) as training set, 10% as validation set (10845), and the remaining 20% as test set.
DFKI SmartData Corpus is a dataset of 2598 German-language documents which has been annotated with fine-grained geo-entities, such as streets, stops and routes, as well as standard named entity types. It has also been annotated with a set of 15 traffic- and industry-related n-ary relations and events, such as Accidents, Traffic jams, Acquisitions, and Strikes. The corpus consists of newswire texts, Twitter messages, and traffic reports from radio stations, police and railway companies. It allows for training and evaluating both named entity recognition algorithms that aim for fine-grained typing of geo-entities, as well as n-ary relation extraction systems.
The SMS Spam Collection v.1 is a public set of SMS labeled messages that have been collected for mobile phone spam research. It has one collection composed by 5,574 English, real and non-enconded messages, tagged according being legitimate (ham) or spam.
About SNOW T15: The simplified corpus for the Japanese language. The corpus has 50,000 manually simplified and aligned sentences. This corpus contains the original sentences, simplified sentences and English translation of the original sentences. It can be used for automatic text simplification as well as translating simple Japanese into English and vice-versa. The core vocabulary is restricted to 2,000 words where it is selected by accounting for several factors such as meaning preservation, variation, simplicity and the UniDic word segmentation criterion. For details, refer to the explanation page of Japanese simplification ( The original texts are from "small_parallel_enja: 50k En/Ja Parallel Corpus for Testing SMT Methods", which is a bilingual corpus for machine translation. About SNOW T23: An expansion corpus of 35,000 sentences rewritten in easy Japanese (simple Japanese vocabulary) based on SNOW T15. The original texts are from "Tanaka Corpus" (
Social Bias Frames is a new way of representing the biases and offensiveness that are implied in language. For example, these frames are meant to distill the implication that "women (candidates) are less qualified" behind the statement "we shouldn’t lower our standards to hire more women."
The SOFC-Exp corpus consists of 45 open-access scholarly articles annotated by domain experts. A corpus and an inter-annotator agreement study demonstrate the complexity of the suggested named entity recognition and slot filling tasks as well as high annotation quality is presented in the accompanying paper.
This is a collection of parallel corpora collected by Hercules Dalianis and his research group for bilingual dictionary construction. More information in: Hercules Dalianis, Hao-chun Xing, Xin Zhang: Creating a Reusable English-Chinese Parallel Corpus for Bilingual Dictionary Construction, In Proceedings of LREC2010 (source: and Konstantinos Charitakis (2007): Using Parallel Corpora to Create a Greek-English Dictionary with UPLUG, In Proceedings of NODALIDA 2007. Afrikaans-English: Aldin Draghoender and Mattias Kanhov: Creating a reusable English – Afrikaans parallel corpora for bilingual dictionary construction 4 languages, 3 bitexts total number of files: 6 total number of tokens: 1.32M total number of sentence fragments: 0.15M
Here are two different adversaries, each of which uses a different procedure to pick the sentence it adds to the paragraph: AddSent: Generates up to five candidate adversarial sentences that don't answer the question, but have a lot of words in common with the question. Picks the one that most confuses the model. AddOneSent: Similar to AddSent, but just picks one of the candidate sentences at random. This adversary is does not query the model in any way.
KorQuAD 1.0 is a large-scale Korean dataset for machine reading comprehension task consisting of human generated questions for Wikipedia articles. We benchmark the data collecting process of SQuADv1.0 and crowdsourced 70,000+ question-answer pairs. 1,637 articles and 70,079 pairs of question answers were collected. 1,420 articles are used for the training set, 140 for the dev set, and 77 for the test set. 60,407 question-answer pairs are for the training set, 5,774 for the dev set, and 3,898 for the test set.
KorQuAD 2.0 is a Korean question and answering dataset consisting of a total of 100,000+ pairs. There are three major differences from KorQuAD 1.0, which is the standard Korean Q & A data. The first is that a given document is a whole Wikipedia page, not just one or two paragraphs. Second, because the document also contains tables and lists, it is necessary to understand the document structured with HTML tags. Finally, the answer can be a long text covering not only word or phrase units, but paragraphs, tables, and lists. As a baseline model, BERT Multilingual is used, released by Google as an open source. It shows 46.0% F1 score, a very low score compared to 85.7% of the human F1 score. It indicates that this data is a challenging task. Additionally, we increased the performance by no-answer data augmentation. Through the distribution of this data, we intend to extend the limit of MRC that was limited to plain text to real world tasks of various lengths and formats.
The Serbian web corpus srWaC was built by crawling the .rs top-level domain in 2014. The corpus was near-deduplicated on paragraph level, normalised via diacritic restoration, morphosyntactically annotated and lemmatised. The corpus is shuffled by paragraphs. Each paragraph contains metadata on the URL, domain and language identification (Serbian vs. Croatian). Version 1.0 of this corpus is described in Version 1.1 contains newer and better linguistic annotations.
Given a partial description like "she opened the hood of the car," humans can reason about the situation and anticipate what might come next ("then, she examined the engine"). SWAG (Situations With Adversarial Generations) is a large-scale dataset for this task of grounded commonsense inference, unifying natural language inference and physically grounded reasoning. The dataset consists of 113k multiple choice questions about grounded situations (73k training, 20k validation, 20k test). Each question is a video caption from LSMDC or ActivityNet Captions, with four answer choices about what might happen next in the scene. The correct answer is the (real) video caption for the next event in the video; the three incorrect answers are adversarially generated and human verified, so as to fool machines but not humans. SWAG aims to be a benchmark for evaluating grounded commonsense NLI and for learning representations. The full data contain more information, but the regular configuration will be more interesting for modeling (note that the regular data are shuffled). The test set for leaderboard submission is under the regular configuration.
Swahili is spoken by 100-150 million people across East Africa. In Tanzania, it is one of two national languages (the other is English) and it is the official language of instruction in all schools. News in Swahili is an important part of the media sphere in Tanzania. News contributes to education, technology, and the economic growth of a country, and news in local languages plays an important cultural role in many Africa countries. In the modern age, African languages in news and other spheres are at risk of being lost as English becomes the dominant language in online spaces. The Swahili news dataset was created to reduce the gap of using the Swahili language to create NLP technologies and help AI practitioners in Tanzania and across Africa continent to practice their NLP skills to solve different problems in organizations or societies related to Swahili language. Swahili News were collected from different websites that provide news in the Swahili language. I was able to find some websites that provide news in Swahili only and others in different languages including Swahili. The dataset was created for a specific task of text classification, this means each news content can be categorized into six different topics (Local news, International news , Finance news, Health news, Sports news, and Entertainment news). The dataset comes with a specified train/test split. The train set contains 75% of the dataset and test set contains 25% of the dataset.
The Switchboard Dialog Act Corpus (SwDA) extends the Switchboard-1 Telephone Speech Corpus, Release 2 with turn/utterance-level dialog-act tags. The tags summarize syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic information about the associated turn. The SwDA project was undertaken at UC Boulder in the late 1990s. The SwDA is not inherently linked to the Penn Treebank 3 parses of Switchboard, and it is far from straightforward to align the two resources. In addition, the SwDA is not distributed with the Switchboard's tables of metadata about the conversations and their participants.
Webbnyheter 2012 from Spraakbanken, semi-manually annotated and adapted for CoreNLP Swedish NER. Semi-manually defined in this case as: Bootstrapped from Swedish Gazetters then manually correcte/reviewed by two independent native speaking swedish annotators. No annotator agreement calculated.
This is a collection of Quran translations compiled by the Tanzil project The translations provided at this page are for non-commercial purposes only. If used otherwise, you need to obtain necessary permission from the translator or the publisher. If you are using more than three of the following translations in a website or application, we require you to put a link back to this page to make sure that subsequent users have access to the latest updates. 42 languages, 878 bitexts total number of files: 105 total number of tokens: 22.33M total number of sentence fragments: 1.01M
This is a collection of translated sentences from Tatoeba 359 languages, 3,403 bitexts total number of files: 750 total number of tokens: 65.54M total number of sentence fragments: 8.96M
A parallel corpus of TED talk subtitles provided by CASMACAT: The files are originally provided by 15 languages, 14 bitexts total number of files: 28 total number of tokens: 67.67M total number of sentence fragments: 3.81M
Thai Toxicity Tweet Corpus contains 3,300 tweets annotated by humans with guidelines including a 44-word dictionary. The author obtained 2,027 and 1,273 toxic and non-toxic tweets, respectively; these were labeled by three annotators. The result of corpus analysis indicates that tweets that include toxic words are not always toxic. Further, it is more likely that a tweet is toxic, if it contains toxic words indicating their original meaning. Moreover, disagreements in annotation are primarily because of sarcasm, unclear existing target, and word sense ambiguity. Notes from data cleaner: The data is included into [huggingface/datasets]( in Dec 2020. By this time, 506 of the tweets are not available publicly anymore. We denote these by `TWEET_NOT_FOUND` in `tweet_text`. Processing can be found at [this PR](
ThaiNER (v1.3) is a 6,456-sentence named entity recognition dataset created from expanding the 2,258-sentence [unnamed dataset]( by [Tirasaroj and Aroonmanakun (2012)]( It is used to train NER taggers in [PyThaiNLP]( The NER tags are annotated by [Tirasaroj and Aroonmanakun (2012)](( for 2,258 sentences and the rest by [@wannaphong]( The POS tags are done by [PyThaiNLP]('s `perceptron` engine trained on `orchid_ud`. [@wannaphong]( is now the only maintainer of this dataset.
`thaiqa_squad` is an open-domain, extractive question answering dataset (4,000 questions in `train` and 74 questions in `dev`) in [SQuAD]( format, originally created by [NECTEC]( from Wikipedia articles and adapted to [SQuAD]( format by [PyThaiNLP](
ThaiSum is a large-scale corpus for Thai text summarization obtained from several online news websites namely Thairath, ThaiPBS, Prachathai, and The Standard. This dataset consists of over 350,000 article and summary pairs written by journalists.
This is the Tilde MODEL Corpus – Multilingual Open Data for European Languages. The data has been collected from sites allowing free use and reuse of its content, as well as from Public Sector web sites. The activities have been undertaken as part of the ODINE Open Data Incubator for Europe, which aims to support the next generation of digital businesses and fast-track the development of new products and services. The corpus includes the following parts: Tilde MODEL - EESC is a multilingual corpus compiled from document texts of European Economic and Social Committee document portal. Source: Tilde MODEL - RAPID multilingual parallel corpus is compiled from all press releases of Press Release Database of European Commission released between 1975 and end of 2016 as available from Tilde MODEL - ECB multilingual parallel corpus is compiled from the multilingual pages of European Central Bank web site Tilde MODEL - EMA is a corpus compiled from texts of European Medicines Agency document portal as available in at the end of 2016 Tilde MODEL - World Bank is a corpus compiled from texts of World Bank as available in in 2017 Tilde MODEL - Travel Destinations is a multilingual parallel corpus compiled from description texts of travel destinations as available in in 2017 Tilde MODEL - is a multilingual parallel corpus compiled from Riga tourist attractions description texts of web site in 2017 Tilde MODEL - Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society is a parallel corpus compiled from texts of Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society web site in 2017 Tilde MODEL - is a parallel corpus from texts of Müpa Budapest - web site of Hungarian national culture house and concert venue compiled in spring of 2017 Tilde MODEL - is a parallel corpus from texts of portal of the best of Latvian and foreign creative industries as compiled in spring of 2017 Tilde MODEL - is a multilingual parallel corpus from texts of portal compiled in spring of 2017 30 languages, 274 bitexts total number of files: 125 total number of tokens: 1.43G total number of sentence fragments: 62.44M
ToTTo is an open-domain English table-to-text dataset with over 120,000 training examples that proposes a controlled generation task: given a Wikipedia table and a set of highlighted table cells, produce a one-sentence description.
Tunisian Sentiment Analysis Corpus. About 17k user comments manually annotated to positive and negative polarities. This corpus is collected from Facebook users comments written on official pages of Tunisian radios and TV channels namely Mosaique FM, JawhraFM, Shemes FM, HiwarElttounsi TV and Nessma TV. The corpus is collected from a period spanning January 2015 until June 2016.
The data set is taken from kemik group The data are pre-processed for the text categorization, collocations are found, character set is corrected, and so forth. We named TTC4900 by mimicking the name convention of TTC 3600 dataset shared by the study
On social media, Arabic speakers tend to express themselves in their own local dialect. To do so, Tunisians use "Tunisian Arabizi", which consists in supplementing numerals to the Latin script rather than the Arabic alphabet. TUNIZI is the first Tunisian Arabizi Dataset including 3K sentences, balanced, covering different topics, preprocessed and annotated as positive and negative.
TURKCorpus is a dataset for evaluating sentence simplification systems that focus on lexical paraphrasing, as described in "Optimizing Statistical Machine Translation for Text Simplification". The corpus is composed of 2000 validation and 359 test original sentences that were each simplified 8 times by different annotators.
Twitter users often post parallel tweets—tweets that contain the same content but are written in different languages. Parallel tweets can be an important resource for developing machine translation (MT) systems among other natural language processing (NLP) tasks. This resource is a result of a generic method for collecting parallel tweets. Using the method, we compiled a bilingual corpus of English-Arabic parallel tweets and a list of Twitter accounts who post English-Arabic tweets regularly. Additionally, we annotate a subset of Twitter accounts with their countries of origin and topic of interest, which provides insights about the population who post parallel tweets.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, it set out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected. The Declaration was adopted by the UN General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 during its 183rd plenary meeting. The dataset includes translations of the document in 464 languages and dialects. © 1996 – 2009 The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights This plain text version prepared by the “UDHR in Unicode” project,
United nations general assembly resolutions: A six-language parallel corpus. This is a collection of translated documents from the United Nations originally compiled into a translation memory by Alexandre Rafalovitch, Robert Dale (see 6 languages, 15 bitexts total number of files: 6 total number of tokens: 18.87M total number of sentence fragments: 0.44M