Dataset Preview
_id (string)datasets_id (int)wiki_id (string)start_paragraph (int)start_character (int)end_paragraph (int)end_character (int)article_title (string)section_title (string)passage_text (string)
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Q1294448
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Ági Szalóki
Life
Ági Szalóki Life She started singing as a toddler, considering Márta Sebestyén a role model. Her musical background is traditional folk music; she first won recognition for singing with Ökrös in a traditional folk style, and Besh o droM, a Balkan gypsy brass band. With these ensembles she toured around the world from the Montreal Jazz Festival, through Glastonbury Festival to the Théatre de la Ville in Paris, from New York to Beijing. Since 2005, she began to pursue her solo career and explore various genres, such as jazz, thirties ballads, or children's songs. Until now, three of her six released albums
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0
Q1294448
6
610
6
1,198
Ági Szalóki
Life
were awarded Album of the Year Prize (MAHASZ Fonogram Award) in the children's records and jazz categories. "When I sing it's not important whether it's jazz or traditional music or music of any other kind", Szalóki has said. "I feel as if I'm swimming in the music. The music is like water; or air and I fly in it." She is trained in the Kodály method. Many of her projects are inspired by poetry, be it "Sunset of Rust, It is Dusk" on Lament (2005), or the Karády album of ballads (A Vágy Muzsikál, 2008). She has also performed at numerous children's concerts.
{"datasets_id": 1, "wiki_id": "Q3588472", "sp": 2, "sc": 0, "ep": 8, "ec": 209}
1
Q3588472
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Émile Dubonnet
Biography
Émile Dubonnet Émile Dubonnet (18 October 1883 - 1940) was a French balloonist active from 1908 to 1913. He participated in the 1908, 1909, and 1911 Gordon Bennett Cup in ballooning and was a member of the Aéro-Club de France. He won the La Grande Medialle de Aéro-Club de France in 1912. He holds a Fédération Aéronautique Internationale record from 1912-1913. Biography He was born on 18 October 1883 in Paris to a winemaker. In 1910 he flew over Paris in his Tellier brothers aircraft. He started from the Juvisy-sur-Orge field and made a landing at Bois de Boulogne He
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8
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Émile Dubonnet
Biography
also helped form the first professional baseball league in France, the French Baseball Union, in 1912.
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Q15446670
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Émile Gilliéron
Education and experience
Émile Gilliéron Émile Gilliéron (1850–1924) was a Swiss artist and archaeological draftsman best known for his reconstructions of Mycenaean and Minoan artifacts from the Bronze Age. Education and experience Émile Gilliéron studied at the trade school in Basel from 1872 to 1874, the Art Academy in Munich from 1875 to 1876, and finally at the studio of Isidore Pils in Paris from 1875 to 1877. In 1877, Gilliéron relocated to Athens where he began his career as an archaeological artist who produced drawings for Greek and foreign excavators, designed commemorative postage stamps for the inaugural Olympic Games (1896 and 1906),
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Émile Gilliéron
Education and experience & Professional life
and served as an art tutor for the royal family of George I. Professional life Émile Gilliéron worked as an archaeological illustrator for Heinrich Schliemann and gained a reputation for being widely recognized as the best archaeological illustrator working in Greece at the time. This reputation helped Gilliéron acquire a position assisting with fresco reconstructions at the excavation at Tiryns from 1910-1912. Gilliéron also became the chief restorer for Arthur Evans at the Palace of Minos at Knossos on Crete. For over three decades, Gilliéron worked with his son, and predecessor, also named Émile, creating reproductions of frescoes and other
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Émile Gilliéron
Professional life
artifacts for Arthur Evans. The Gilliérons can be recognized as contributing many illustrations to Evan's four-volume book, The Palace of Minos at Knossos. Some of the most famous reconstructions by the Gilliérons include the Priest King fresco, the Ladies in Blue fresco, and the painting of the throne room at the Palace of Minos. Émile Gilliéron and his son formed a family business known as E. Gillieron & Son where they sold original commissioned watercolors and other reproductions made directly from originals on Skoufa Street in Athens. The Gilliérons created replicas of metal artifacts based on molds of the original
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1,199
12
1,852
Émile Gilliéron
Professional life
masks, weapons, and vessels. They also created full-scale copies of Minoan frescoes on watercolor paper and created three-dimensional reconstructions in plaster form. By 1911 the Gilliérons had a catalog of Mycenaean antiquities consisting of over 144 pieces that could be manufactured in Germany by the Wurtemburg Electro Plate Company. The Gilliérons reworked molds taken from original antiquities to recreate an object in its undamaged form. The Gilliérons created two reconstructions of the well-known “Mask of Agamemnon” from Shaft Grave V in Grave Circle A at Mycenae, one which represented how the mask looked when it was found, and one restored
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Q15446670
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1,852
16
581
Émile Gilliéron
Professional life & Criticisms
to look like the believed original appearance. Criticisms The work of the Gilliérons can be attributed to influencing the spread of Aegean art and creating an impression of Minoan culture but the validity of the reconstructions has long been debated. The Priest King fresco, believed by Arthur Evans to depict one of the rulers of ancient Knossos, was created by piecing fragments of the original together and has been scrutinized as containing contemporary influences that were allegedly much different from the original. Other reconstructions by the Gilliérons fall under similar scrutiny, such as the Bull Leapers fresco, which may have
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2
Q15446670
16
581
20
15
Émile Gilliéron
Criticisms & Death and acknowledgements
been given the addition of a modern border. Émile Gilliéron's reconstruction of the Saffron Gatherer fresco has been proven to be incorrect, as it originally depicted a monkey, not a boy. In addition to restorations and reconstructions, it has been a matter of ongoing research whether the Gilliérons were also involved in the forgery business producing fakes with their Greek assistants. Some of the artifacts attributed to the Gilliérons and under suspicion of forgery include the chryselephantine snake goddesses, the Ring of Minos and the Ring of Nestor, and the well-known Phaistos disc on Crete. Death and acknowledgements Émile Gilliéron
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2
Q15446670
20
15
20
380
Émile Gilliéron
Death and acknowledgements
made and sold reproductions to museums and private collections all over the world up until his death in 1939. Since then The National Museum in Athens has had a gallery devoted to Gilliéron’s replicas of the Greek Bronze Age. Despite scrutiny of validity and questions of forgery, his reproductions remain valuable representations of ancient artistic achievements.
{"datasets_id": 3, "wiki_id": "Q206961", "sp": 2, "sc": 0, "ep": 10, "ec": 63}
3
Q206961
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Épinay-sur-Seine
History & Transport
Épinay-sur-Seine History On 7 August 1850, a part of the territory of Épinay-sur-Seine was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Deuil-la-Barre, a part of the territory of Saint-Gratien, and a part of the territory of Soisy-sous-Montmorency to create the commune of Enghien-les-Bains. Francis, Duke of Cádiz (13 May 1822 – 17 April 1902), king consort of Spain, took up residence at the château of Épinay-sur-Seine in 1881 until his death in 1902. The castle is currently the Épinay-sur-Seine city hall. From 1902 it was home to the Epinay Studios. Transport Épinay-sur-Seine is served by Épinay-sur-Seine station on Paris
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3
Q206961
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63
10
269
Épinay-sur-Seine
Transport
RER line C. It is also served by Épinay-Villetaneuse station on the Transilien Paris – Nord suburban rail line. Charles de Gaulle Airport is located about 13 km (8.1 mi) away from Épinay-sur-Seine.
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4
Q281625
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Ócsa
The Árpád Age Romanesque church
Ócsa The Árpád Age Romanesque church The church was originally built in the 13th century by the Premonstratensians for use as a monastery. During the 16th century the village was reformed and the structure was given to the village for use as a public place of worship. One of the most beautiful Romanesque churches preserved in Hungary, it has 3 naves, a cross nave, and two western towers, following the style common to Hungarian medieval architecture. It was renewed in the 20th century, according to the plans of modern-day architect (hu:Foerk Ernő). The church is interesting not only for
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4
Q281625
6
565
10
81
Ócsa
The Árpád Age Romanesque church & Bird observatory
its architecture, but for the murals of Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary, the Legendary painted on the northern walls. Numerous preserved houses and structures in the vicinity recall the life and times of the Hungarian medieval age, including tools, furniture, and other objects of interest. Bird observatory A long-standing bird observatory known as the Ócsai Madárvárta is located nearby.
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5
Q2601144
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8
20
Øyvind Storflor
Club career & International career
Øyvind Storflor Club career He made his debut for Rosenborg in 1999. In 2000, he was loaned out for Byåsen, and in 2001 he was sold to Moss for 500,000 kr. In January 2003, Storflor returned to Rosenborg for NOK 1,000,000. He came on a free transfer to Strømsgodset before the 2009 season. Winning the Norwegian Cup with the club in 2011 and Eliteserien in 2013, he stepped down to play for Ranheim in the 2017 season. However, the club achieved promotion from OBOS-ligaen through the play-offs the same year and has played in the top division since 2018. International career
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5
Q2601144
10
0
10
215
Øyvind Storflor
International career
Storflor has four caps for the Norwegian national team. His first three caps all came in a pre-season tournament in January 2005. On 10 October 2014 he was subbed into the World Cup qualifying match versus Slovenia.
{"datasets_id": 6, "wiki_id": "Q368292", "sp": 2, "sc": 0, "ep": 6, "ec": 565}
6
Q368292
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Últimas Noticias
Sister publications
Últimas Noticias Sister publications In 1956 Capriles Ayala acquired the newspaper La Esfera, which was sold in 1966. On February 3, 1958, he founded the evening newspaper El Mundo. In 1959 he bought the magazine Élite; 1962 he acquired the magazines Venezuela Gráfica and Páginas (the latter of which folded in 1999); in 1966 he founded Diario Crítica in Maracaibo, which closed in 1990; in 1968 he founded the Suplemento Cultural to Últimas Noticias; in 1969 he founded the sports daily Extra (which folded a year later). In 1970 he founded Dominical, the Sunday magazine of Últimas Noticias, and the
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6
Q368292
6
565
10
79
Últimas Noticias
Sister publications & Changes in the newspaper
magazin Hipódromo; in 1972 he bought Kena (folded in 1999) and founded Kabala (folded in 1999) and Alarma (folded in 1973); in 1974 he founded the Maracaibo newspaper El Vespertino, which folded in 1982; in 1988 he founded Guía Hípica, which folded in 2007. In 2005 La Cadena Capriles founded URBE and the sports publication Líder and acquired Urbe Bikini; in 2009, it founded El Mundo Economía y Negocios. Other media enterprises currently owned by La Cadena Capriles include La Cadena Multicolor and PlanetaurbeTV. Changes in the newspaper Until 1999, the visual format of Últimas Noticias did not follow any particular
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Q368292
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79
10
709
Últimas Noticias
Changes in the newspaper
formula and according to one commentator, the newspaper looked disorganized. But as of October 2000, certain new parameters were laid down in an effort to make the layout simpler and better organized. At the same time the newspaper adopted a more colloquial tone and aimed to be more of a guide to daily life. In mid-2002 the newspaper began printing in colour on every page. Between 2004 and 2006 it launched four regional editions (for different areas of Greater Caracas) in addition to the national one. Between 2009 and 2011, Últimas Noticias became a major multimedia operation, with its website providing an
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Q368292
10
709
12
13
Últimas Noticias
Changes in the newspaper & Pre-2013 sale
abundance of material, including podcasts, videos, video chats, interviews, sound galleries, and the like. Últimas Noticias radio presents music and interviews around the clock. Launched the first news app in the country and develop its own low cost tablet. In 2013 the British financier Robert Hanson bought Ultimas Noticias for his private company Hanson Family Holdings for a figure reported as $US98 million. In 2014, he was accused by newspaper staff of turning it into "a Socialist Party mouthpiece", but the editor, Hector Davila, replied that his only instructions from Hanson were "to run a balanced and profitable newspaper". Pre-2013 sale
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Últimas Noticias
Pre-2013 sale & Reporters attacked
Marcos Ruiz, a reporter for Últimas Noticias, was one of a group of journalists handing out leaflets in Caracas in favor of press freedom on August 13, 2009, when he was set upon by at least four supporters of President Hugo Chávez, who punched and beat him with clubs. According to Últimas Noticias, “12 journalists employed by its newspaper group were injured. The paper ran a front-page headline declaring: "Enough with the violence!”. Reporters attacked According to PEN, the other journalists attacked on August 13 included Manuel Alejandro Álvarez, César Batiz, Greasi Bolaños, Sergio Moreno González, Octavio Hernandez, Jesús Hurtado,
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859
Últimas Noticias
Reporters attacked
Gabriela Iribarren, Glexis Pastran, Fernando Peñalver, and Marie Rondón, all of them employees of La Cadena Capriles. “The journalists, who were wearing press credentials, were protesting against the government's approval of a new education law that would restrict press freedom”, noted PEN. “The assailants reportedly hit and kicked the journalists, leaving them seriously injured, as well as accusing them of being 'defenders of the oligarchy' in the 'people's territory'. The government reportedly issued a statement condemning the attack and the Attorney General started an investigation. However, as of 21 August only one suspect had been arrested, despite the fact that
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Últimas Noticias
Reporters attacked
there are reportedly photos of the attack that should make it easy to identify the others. According to local news reports, the assailants work for the government-owned broadcaster AvilaTV. Government officials, including President Chávez, have reportedly accused the 12 journalists who were attacked of being 'provocative' and taking a 'political stand,' leading them to fear action that the Attorney General may take action against them". César Batiz investigated the assassination of journalist Orel Sambrano, who at the time of his murder had been writing columns about the rise in drug trafficking, and has written (in collaboration with Jesus Yajure) about the
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Últimas Noticias
Reporters attacked & Criticism of Venezuelan government
failure of police to arrest suspects in the killing of journalist, film producer, and entrepreneur Jacinto Lopez. Criticism of Venezuelan government Últimas Noticias published a great deal of investigative journalism that has placed it at odds with the administration of Hugo Chávez. Among an example of this is an August 2011 exposé by César Batiz of Derwick Associates, a firm accused of bribery and overbilling and currently the target of several lawsuits in the United States. At a meeting of his Council of Ministers in May 2012, Chávez accused Últimas Noticias of manipulating information concerning the announcement of his presidential candidacy.
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Q368292
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22
1,093
Últimas Noticias
Criticism of Venezuelan government
“First I get this copy where it says 'Chávez will announce his candidacy between June 1 and 11'”, said Chávez. “And later I receive another copy ... and the headline says: 'Chávez still doesn't know when he will announce his candidacy'. So I ask myself: why did they change the headline? What are they trying to manipulate?'”. Últimas Noticias explained that it publishes six editions a day and that headlines are frequently changed from one edition to the next in order to improve on clarity. The second headline Chávez saw had in fact appeared in that day's first edition, while
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Q368292
22
1,093
30
245
Últimas Noticias
Criticism of Venezuelan government & Post-2013 sale & Censorship allegations
the first headline he saw had appeared in the other five editions. Post-2013 sale In 2013, Últimas Noticias was sold to a party then unidentified and commentary criticizing the Venezuelan government declined. This was supposedly due to the new owners of Útimas Noticias being close to the Venezuelan government. It later transpired that the new owner was the British financier Robert Hanson. Censorship allegations Following alleged censorship by the newspapers director during the 2014 Venezuelan protests, Chief Researcher Tamoa Calzadilla along with others resigned. Nathalie Alvaray, the first woman Media VP in the country and leader of all the innovation
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30
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Últimas Noticias
Censorship allegations
and convergence projects resigned a week before In January 2015, Venezuelans responded on social media to the controversial headline, "Maduro's Tour Was a Success", portraying that President Nicolas Maduro's meeting with Saudi Arabia was successful despite other outlets calling it a failure. The title led to Venezuelans making their own satirical headlines criticizing the newspaper's allegedly biased title.
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7
Q33343
2
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571
Đông Hà
Vietnam War
Đông Hà Vietnam War During the Vietnam War, Đông Hà was the northernmost town in South Vietnam and was the location of a strategically important United States Marine Corps Đông Hà Combat Base, to support Marine positions along the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The 3rd Marine Division had overall command and control of this operational area. Large numbers of NVA operated in the DMZ area. 3rd Marine Division intelligence estimated the combat strength of NVA and VC forces in the DMZ area in January 1968 was 40,943 troops. Đông Hà was overrun on March 31, 1972, during the initial
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Q33343
6
571
6
847
Đông Hà
Vietnam War
assaults of the North Vietnamese Easter Offensive. Tourists come to Đông Hà nowadays, especially ex-servicemen from the U.S. and Vietnam, who nearly always include a DMZ tour in their programs. The contemporary Vietnamese singer Như Quỳnh was born in Đông Hà in 1970.
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Q43252470
2
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İnci Asena
Life & Literature career
İnci Asena Life She was born to Muhtar and Nihal in İstanbul, Turkey in 1948. She is the younger sister of Duygu Asena, a notable journalist. She graduated from the School of English studies at İstanbul University. In 1966, she participated at the Miss Turkey beauty contest under the pseudonym Aylin Öndersev, which actually was her aunt's name, who died young. She won the contest. She married to journalist Halit Çapın, and gave birth to a daughter named Berfu. Her marriage ended with divorce lasting briefly. Literature career In 1990, she established a publishing company named Adam Yayınları. Her poems appeared
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10
254
İnci Asena
Literature career
in Adam Sanat, a literary periodical of the company. In some of her poems, she used the pen name Ani Toros. She also wrote books, and is a member of PEN International.
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9
Q5071133
2
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Şamlı, Zangilan
Şamlı, Zangilan Şamlı is a village in the Zangilan Rayon of Azerbaijan.
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Q388957
2
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14
73
Şeref Has
Profesional career & International career & Personal life
Şeref Has Profesional career Has transferred to Fenerbahçe from Beyoğluspor in 1955. He was one of the fan favourites when he was playing. He played for Fenerbahçe between 1955–69, scoring 168 goals. He won the Turkish League 4 times and the Istanbul League title twice. International career Has played 37 times for Turkey, starting as captain 10 times. Personal life Has' brother, Mehmet Ali Has, was also a Turkish professional footballer.
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11
Q1888877
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621
Şerefli, Adıyaman
Geography
Şerefli, Adıyaman Geography Akdag mountain, which is within Toros mountain systems, stretches from southwest to north around Şerefli village. Land forms are rippled degrassively from Sarikaya Tor located on the north to the agricultural planes on the south. Almost each height and valley has a name attributed by local dwellers. The hill which is located on the north east (coordinates 37.805089, 38.088731) is known as 'Kulluk Tepe' (kulluk is a local hat worn by females), the fertile valley located on the southeast is known as ''Cavurd'' (Coordinates 37°47'45.2"N 38°05'24.7"E), agricultural plantations on the north is known as ''Kayanin Onu''
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Q1888877
6
621
10
437
Şerefli, Adıyaman
Geography & Vegetation
(37°48'39.3"N 38°04'43.5"E), flat fields located on the south are known as ''Duz'' (37°48'00.6"N 38°04'47.9"E). There are also allegorical place names named after local historical figures such as Mışo'nun Cukuru. Vegetation Oak trees are sporadically existent at relatively higher elevations. Majority of the elevated locations have been subject to water and land erosion. Due to the long and dry summer seasons, grasslands and forest vegetation are at minute amount. Lands that are uncultivated are covered by wilding and scrub. Aquatic plants grow in In reeds and marshy places. Some of these aquatic plants like yarpuz, sirim, pincar are edible and regularly
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Q1888877
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437
14
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Şerefli, Adıyaman
Vegetation & Wild Animals
picked by locals every spring. Thorn apples, rose hips, turpentine trees, wild pears grow naturally without anthropogenic involvement. Wild Animals Falcons, hawks, owls, partridges, quails, sparrows, pigeons, crows are primary bird species. Capturing and petting partridges is a common hobby among local men. Hunting partridges and quails for dietary purposes is also popular. Sarikaya Tor hosts most of these bird species as its steep and rocky structure acts as a safe heaven. Local men do not welcome strangers with hunting purposes. Serefli people can get territorial and they even often abstain from hunting on a land owned by a different
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Q1888877
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18
449
Şerefli, Adıyaman
Wild Animals & Climate
person. The occurrences of attempted homicides and bodily harms due to territorial disputes are not uncommon. Rabbits, foxes, weasels are other wild animals living in the village's habitat. Climate Serefli village's summer weather trend can be classified as Csa on Koopen-Geiger climate classification system. It has long and dry summers. After the construction of Ataturk Dam, the increasing humidity levels likened the region's climate to Mediterranean climate. A considerable amount of precipitation is observed in cold winter months. August is the driest time of the year with a 1 mm average rain fall. 135 mm rainfall rate makes Decembers the
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449
26
29
Şerefli, Adıyaman
Climate & Agriculture & History
month with the highest precipitation rate. July is the hottest month with an average 30.2 °C. An average temperature of 4.3°C qualifies Januaries as the coldest month. The annual average temperature is 25.9 °C. Agriculture Serefli has fertile lands. The primary agricultural activity was tobacco cultivation until Turkish government imposed quota on tobacco harvests. The quota restrictions restrained the dweller's main income source dramatically, which caused a migration wave to cities in a pursuit of employment chances. Fig, grape, apple, pistachio, wheat, lentil, chick pea, barley are primary products harvested by Serefli farmers. History The village has been known as
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26
707
Şerefli, Adıyaman
History
Şerefli since the foundation of Ottoman Empire (1259). The founders of the village were Turkic people belonging to Amini group of Karakecililer Turkmen Tribe who moved into the region with Seljuk forays. The neighboring village, Kizilhisar, was also founded by Amini group of Karakecililer Turkmen Tribe. The village community is very well-known for their loyalty to governments. As traditionally observed in Turkmen tribes, they have always unconditionally accepted and supported the central governments. The Ottoman Empire used this Turkmen village as an outpost to keep the other villages populated by the Kurds and other minorities under surveillance and control.
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Şerefli, Adıyaman
History
Likewise, the village has maintained its firm stand against Kurdish separatist organization PKK since 1980. Turkish Army recruited the village's men as village guards in an effort to reinforce the army's anti-PKK campaign in the region. PKK threatened the village and plotted attacks for a couple of times. The Kurdish separatists considered Serefli village as a hostile base weakening their foothold in the region. Geographical and strategical knowledge of Serefli village guards boosted Turkish Armed Force's operations against the PKK which is listed as a terrorist organization by international authorities. PKK launched a night raid targeting the houses
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Şerefli, Adıyaman
History
of village mukhtar (headman), mukhtar's brother, and the chief of village guards in the spring of 1991. Those targeted three households were accommodated by women, children, and civilians. The attacking PKK militants opened a barrage of gunfire by their AK47s, machine guns and sidearms. A hand grenade thrown into a house did not detonate. The assailants also attempted to launch a rocket propelled grenade but the reacting village guard's suppressive fire stopped them. PKK terrorists fled using the darkness of night as cover. One civilian woman was killed by PKK fire. Serefli village is also known for its
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Şerefli, Adıyaman
History
people's willingness to enlist in Turkish Armed Forces. Majority of Serefli men choose military and law enforcing careers. In Turkmen culture, one's forsaking his life for his country is considered to be holy, which is also known as martyrdom. Turkish Government entitles martyr title to the servicemen killed during military service. Specialist Sergeant Hakki Yildiz, a local Serefli man who chose military career, was entitled as martyr after he lost his life in a firefight against PKK in Bingol-Genc. Serefli people take pride in their patriotism and state loyalty despite the threats and pressure from surrounding ethnic
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Şerefli, Adıyaman
History & Politics & Transport
fractions. Politics Serefli ballot boxes usually yield to center-right parties. The ruling political party, AKP, has received the majority of the votes in elections since 2003. ANAP, MHP, DYP, and DP were the other popular political parties before AKP. Majority of Serefli dwellers supported the military coup done by General Kenan Evren on 12 September 1982. Votes for liberal democrat parties and pro-Kurdish parties are not uncommon, either. Transport Adiyaman province is served by an airport and a coach station. Shuttle buses connect Serefli village with Adiyaman Province's city center.
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Škoda VOS
Background & The car
Škoda VOS Background In 1949 the plant at Mladá Boleslav assembled the last Škoda Superbs, large six-cylinder limousines evoking the style of American cars in the late 1930s. The authorities needed a more modern replacement and instructed Škoda to develop one. This was the car that would become the Škoda VOS. The letters VOS indicated a “special car for the government” in Czech or Slovak („Vládní Osobní Speciál"or „Vládny Osobný Špeciál“). The car The car went into production in 1950 with the coach builder (even then better known as a producer of buses) Karosa: final assembly took
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Škoda VOS
The car
place at Škoda’s own plant. The form of the car was unremarkable, despite having been designed by Oldrich Meduna whose reputation till that point came from his work designing military tanks. The mechanical architecture was also conventional, with a front-mounted engine driving the rear wheels. More remarkable, at least in terms of European cars of the time, was a large 5.2-litre engine delivering 120 PS (88 kW). The engine came from a Praga truck. Because of the weight of the armour plating, the standard car weighed nearly 4 tons, however. The top speed was restricted to 80 km/h (50 mph) on the orders of
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Škoda VOS
The car & Celebrity connections
the interior ministry. A “Light-weight” version without all the armour plating was also listed. Unusually for the time, the car was fitted with air-conditioning. However, the air conditioning mechanism occupied most of the space in the boot/trunk, and it became common for dignitaries moving by VOS to travel followed by a second car to carry luggage. Celebrity connections Famous owners included President Gottwald, Enver Hoxha, Zhu De, Ana Pauker and Mao Zedong. Ana Pauker, the infamous female communist leader of the Romanian Workers' Party (later to become the Romanian Communist Party ) had a Škoda VOS built for running on tracks, reaching
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18
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Škoda VOS
Celebrity connections & The end
speeds of up to 115 km/h with a total weight of 5 tons. The model is now up for display in the train Station of Sinaia. The driver's secure wind shield is smashed after a supposed attempted attack on the lady also known as "Stalin with skirt" near the Roşiori Nord train station. The end Production of the VOS ended in 1952, by when 107 had been built. Škoda were not invited to replace the car, and the nation’s political elite switched their allegiance to the Tatra 603.
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Šubši-mašrâ-Šakkan
The sources
Šubši-mašrâ-Šakkan The sources A tablet recovered in Nippur lists grain rations given to the messenger of a certain Šubši-mašrâ-Šakkan during Nazi-Marrutaš’ fourth year (1304 BC). There is a court order found in Ur, dated to the sixteenth year of Nazi-Maruttaš (1292 BC), in which Šubši-mašrâ-šakkan is given the title šakin māti, lúGAR KUR, “governor of the country.” It is an injunction forbidding harvesting reeds from a certain river or canal. The poetic work, Ludlul bēl nēmeqi, describes how the fortunes of Šubši-mašrâ-Šakkan, a rich man of high rank, turned one day. When beset by ominous signs, he incurred the wrath of
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Šubši-mašrâ-Šakkan
The sources
the king, and seven courtiers plotted every kind of mischief against him. This resulted in him losing his property, “they have divided all my possessions among foreign riffraff,” friends, “my city frowns on me as an enemy; indeed my land is savage and hostile,” physical strength, “my flesh is flaccid, and my blood has ebbed away,” and health, as he relates that he “wallowed in my excrement like a sheep.” While slipping into and out of consciousness on his death bed, his family already conducting his funeral, Urnindinlugga, a kalû, or incantation priest, was sent by Marduk to presage his
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Šubši-mašrâ-Šakkan
The sources
salvation. The work concludes with a prayer to Marduk. The text is written in the first person, leading some to speculate that the author was Šubši-mašrâ-Šakkan himself. Perhaps the only certainty is that the subject of the work, Šubši-mašrâ-Šakkan, was a significant historical person during the reign of Nazi-Maruttaš when the work was set. Of the fifty eight extant fragmentary copies of Ludlul bēl nēmeqi the great majority date to the neo-Assyrian and neo-Babylonian periods.
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Żeby Polska była Polską
Żeby Polska była Polską "Żeby Polska była Polską" (Let Poland be Poland, or – less commonly, For Poland to be Poland) is one of the best-known Polish protest songs written in 1976 by the Polish singer-songwriter Jan Pietrzak, with music by Włodzimierz Korcz. The song became an informal anthem of the Solidarity period in the People's Republic of Poland. From June 1976 protests against the Soviet-style communism imposed in Poland, all the way to the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in the 1990s, it was the symbol of the political opposition to the Communist regime. The song was widely popular
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Żeby Polska była Polską
Background
among the members of Solidarity (NSZZ Solidarność), and won first-prize at the 1981 National Festival of Polish Song in Opole. It won the main prize at the 1981 National Festival of Polish Song in Opole. It is one of Pietrzak's best-known works. Background As Jan Pietrzak notes, he rarely wrote such serious pieces, but he was motivated to do so in 1976, after the workers' protests in the Ursus factory. Music was composed by Włodzimierz Korcz, while an unconfirmed anecdote suggests that the title-phrase was coined by Agnieszka Osiecka. Pietrzak performed the song at the stage of his own political Kabaret
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Żeby Polska była Polską
Background
pod Egidą as an ending theme. When the censors forbade the Cabaret to do an encore of it, it became habitual that it was sung by the audience. It gained popularity in the following years, with people copying it on tape recorders, and – during the emergence of Solidarity in 1980, it was often played from the workers radio stations and internal speakers. In June 1981 Pietrzak performed the song at the 19th National Festival of Polish Song in Opole, winning first-prize awards for the "hit song of the season" and "the audience choice." The communist authorities tried to repress the song,
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Żeby Polska była Polską
Background & Cultural significance
which is one of the reasons why, despite numerous performances – some gathering thousands of people on the streets, all chanting – there are no recordings from that period. One of the largest public performances took place in Warsaw, at the crossroads of major streets (Aleje Jerozolimskie and Marszałkowska Street). For his support of the anti-communist opposition, Pietrzak was arrested in the aftermath of the introduction of the martial law in Poland in 1981. Cultural significance In spite of its mainly historical context, the song resonated with the millions of people in the communist Poland, particularly as a dream of
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Żeby Polska była Polską
Cultural significance
freedom. It became one of the anthems of Solidarity. As Józef Tischner noted: "The solemn words of the song tell of the everlasting and indomitable Polish spirit". Eventually however it lost popularity, due to critical voices among some of the Solidarity advisors that the references contained in it were "nationalistic, chauvinistic and backward". Nonetheless the song is still popular, and is often performed to a standing audience. The song inspired Ronald Reagan to name his own speech after it: Let Poland be Poland. He also presented Pietrzak with an engraved plaque bearing that title. The song was also quoted by Queen
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Żeby Polska była Polską
Cultural significance
Elizabeth II during her speech in the Polish parliament.
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Žabokreky
History & Geography
Žabokreky Žabokreky is a village and municipality in Martin District in the Žilina Region of northern Slovakia. History In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1282. Geography The municipality lies at an altitude of 426 metres and covers an area of 5.231 km². It has a population of about 1110 people.
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Əlirzalı
Əlirzalı Əlirzalı is a village and municipality in the Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan. It has a population of 1,006.
{"datasets_id": 17, "wiki_id": "Q278549", "sp": 2, "sc": 0, "ep": 6, "ec": 208}
17
Q278549
2
0
6
208
Γ-convergence
Applications
Γ-convergence Applications An important use for \Gamma-convergence is in homogenization theory. It can also be used to rigorously justify the passage from discrete to continuum theories for materials, for example, in elasticity theory.
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0
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(I Wish I Knew How It Would Feel to Be) Free/One
Content
(I Wish I Knew How It Would Feel to Be) Free/One Content "(I Wish I Knew How It Would Feel to Be) Free/One" is a cover song of Billy Taylor's "I Wish I Knew How It Would Feel to Be Free" and U2's One.
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.mn
Second top domain
.mn Second top domain In 2012 a new top domain was registered for Mongolia, intended for domain names in the local language. This top domain is .мон. Registrations for the domain opened in May 2014. The first site http://мон.мон became active during that month.
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20
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2
0
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01 Gallery
01 Gallery 01 Gallery (or Zero One Gallery) is a contemporary art gallery located in downtown Los Angeles, California, U.S., founded by art dealer and curator John Pochna. The gallery is known for its contributions to the lowbrow art movement, as it frequently exhibits pieces with heavy graffiti and street art influences. In April 2007, Pochna partnered with Brandon Coburn, and Jim Ulrich. Founded in 1980 and christened Zero Zero by Pochna, the gallery was originally an after hours bar in Melrose. The gallery's current name derives from a conceptual understanding of the creative process. As Kyle Lina explains, "Zero is
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01 Gallery
when there's nothing--one when there's something. The space between the zero and the one is the creative act". Over time, 01 Gallery developed a long standing relationship with the Los Angeles punk community, as it has debuted bands such as The Screamers. As the gallery's clientele diversified, Pochna's aims for the gallery evolved. Pochna states, "[We're] not a punk rock gallery, not a graffiti art gallery, not a rebel gallery. Not any of those stupid names they used to call us." 01 Gallery has been frequented by Los Angeles residents such as Raymond Pettibon, David Lee Roth, Tomata du Plenty and John
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01 Gallery
Trivia
Belushi. This diverse clientele has led 01 Gallery to be thought of as analogous to Andy Warhol's Factory. "Its eccentric mix of artists and patrons made it [Los Angeles'] answer to the Factory, though the creations were more 'lowbrow' than pop." The gallery opened with works by Robert Williams, Tomata du Plenty and Saber. It has also exhibited Anthony Ausgang, Raymond Pettibon, Gomez Bueno, Walter Robinson, Richard Hambleton, Futura 2000 and Fred Tomaselli. Notable past curators include Walter Hopps and Carlo McCormick. Trivia Soon after the gallery's naissance, Pochna allowed the gallery's Melrose address to be used as a business address for
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01 Gallery
Trivia
an escort service in order to fund the gallery. An exhibition at Zero One Gallery is documented in The Devil and Daniel Johnston. Pochna is interviewed in the film. The gallery's Melrose space was rumored to be haunted by the ghosts of Joan Crawford, Rock Hudson, and Rita Hayworth.
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1. FC Mülheim
History
1. FC Mülheim History Spielvereinigung Oberhausen und Styrum was established through the union of a number of local sports clubs including Styrumer Spielverein 08, Styrum 08 and Oberhausener Spielverein. An attempt to form a football side within the association led to the creation of an independent club, Erster Fußballclub Mülheim-Ruhr-Styrum, in July 1923. The team began play in the Westdeutschen Spielverband over the objections of its parent. 1. FC Mülheim-Styrum played lower-tier ball for much of the period leading up to World War II, advancing as far as second-tier play just before the conflict broke out. The team was able to
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1. FC Mülheim
History
carry on until 1943 when they suspended play due to the war. After the war, they became part of the Landesliga Niederrhein (III), and later the Verbandsliga Niederrhein (III), before disappearing into lower level play in 1958. They won promotion to the Amateurliga Niederrhein (III) in 1971, capturing the title there that same season. A successful promotion playoff put the team through to the Regionalliga West (II). After the 1973–74 season, German football was restructured; the second tier 2. Bundesliga was introduced and the Regionalligen replaced by the Amateuroberligen (III). Mülheim's fourth place result was not good enough to qualify
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1. FC Mülheim
History
the team for the new second division circuit, but they were still able to join the 2. Bundesliga-Nord when Blau-Weiß 90 Berlin refused the promotion they had earned through their third place finish in the Regionalliga Berlin (II). The club changed its name to 1. FC Mülheim after the 1974–75 season and were sent down after a 17th place finish in their next campaign. That was followed by a 17th place finish in the Amateurliga Niederrhein (III) and relegation to lower tier competition. Despite these failures, they made appearances in the early rounds of the German Cup from 1975 to
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1. FC Mülheim
History
1977. Mülheim has since suffered a steady decline and currently plays in the Kreisliga A(VIII) after relegation from the Bezirksliga in 2011.
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103rd SS Heavy Panzer Battalion
Operational history
103rd SS Heavy Panzer Battalion Operational history The unit was originally formed on 1 July 1943 as the II Battalion, 11th SS Panzer Regiment and sent to Yugoslavia to fight as infantry; however, at the end of November, the battalion was converted back to armoured. The Battalion was then issued six Tiger I tanks in February for training, but then ordered to give them to another unit in March 1944. Another six Tiger Is arrived at the training grounds on 26 May and four more in August. On 20 October, all ten Tigers were given to the training unit and the
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22
Q3952215
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103rd SS Heavy Panzer Battalion
Operational history
103rd was outfitted with the Tiger II before being ordered to the Eastern Front, as part of the III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps. On 14 November 1944 the unit was redesignated 503rd Heavy SS Panzer Battalion. It had a total of 39 (instead of the full complement of 45) Tiger IIs and was loaded onto trains on 27 January 1945, and sent to the Eastern Front in the Army Group Vistula sector. By 15 April 1945, the 503rd reported a total of 12 Tiger IIs, of which 10 were still operational. The 503rd ended the war fighting in the Battle
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103rd SS Heavy Panzer Battalion
Operational history
of Berlin as part of Kampfgruppe Mohnke.
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106.5 Central Radio
UTV
106.5 Central Radio UTV Central Radio launched on 25 September 2008. Following Ofcom relaxations on local programming requirements, the station began taking UTV Radio's networked evening and overnight shows in late March 2009. On 16 December 2009, it was announced by owners UTV Media that the station would be closing on Christmas Eve of that year (24 December) and the station's broadcasting licence returned to the UK broadcasting regulator, Ofcom. UTV cited the unfortunate launch of the station in the midst of a recession as a primary reason for the decision, and the station's consequent unprofitability. UTV did not anticipate
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23
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106.5 Central Radio
UTV & Niocom
the station becoming viable for the foreseeable future, saying: We won the licence against strong competition, but unfortunately had to launch the station in the middle of the worst recession in memory. We have been looking closely at the station’s viability and unfortunately given the economic climate we have taken the difficult decision to close the station. Niocom On 24 December 2009, the day that Central Radio was scheduled to close, it was announced that a buyer had been found, revealed to be competitor Niocom in January 2010. The company also operated the neighbouring Southport station Dune FM at the time
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23
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14
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106.5 Central Radio
Niocom & UKRD
of the sale. On 12 January 2010, the station co-emplaced and began to share resources with sister station Dune FM. A month later, OFCOM granted permission for Central Radio to co-locate with sister station Dune FM in Southport. Programme management, production, administrative, engineering and management resources were to be shared between the two stations, but the programming on Central Radio remained editorially focused on the Preston, Leyland and Chorley areas. In December 2010, Niocom sold Dune FM, and from 1 February 2011 the programming syndication ended with Central Radio becoming as a fully independent service. UKRD On 14 June 2011 it was
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23
Q4546626
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106.5 Central Radio
UKRD
announced that UKRD, owners of the 107 The Bee in neighbouring Blackburn had purchased the Central Radio licence and planned to merge the service with its East Lancashire station 107 The Bee. Three days later, Central Radio ceased broadcasting with Drivetime presenter - Leyland born Andy Hilbert - playing the final record, Unforgettable by Nat King Cole. On 1 July 2011, 106.5fm became a simulcast of The Bee but with local news and adverts.
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1068 Near East earthquake
Geologic setting & Effects
1068 Near East earthquake Geologic setting The Dead Sea Transform is a 1,000 km (620 mi) transform fault that spans from the Red Sea in the south to the East Anatolian Fault in Turkey to the north. The southern extent of the DST is known as the Wadi Araba fault (after the Arabah valley). This portion of the DST runs 160 kilometers (99 mi) from north of Aqaba to south of the Dead Sea and has a slip rate of 4 ±2 mm per year. Effects The earthquake's effects were seen from as far north as Banyas (in the present day coastal region of
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24
Q16000534
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100
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1068 Near East earthquake
Effects
Syria) to the Hejaz region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. The ancient city of Ayla, located at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba where modern Aqaba stands today, was destroyed. Paleoseismic investigations have revealed more than 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) of fault rupture, beginning just north of Eilat, that were dated between 900 and 1,000 years before present. A magnitude of at least 7.0 was presented based on the reported damage and the extent of the observed fault breaks. Alarm was caused at Saint Catherine's Monastery on the Sinai Peninsula, and there was damage in the ancient city of Tinnis, but
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24
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1068 Near East earthquake
Effects
not farther to the west along the Egyptian coast in Alexandria. In Cairo the only damage was to a corner of the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As in Fustat. Seismologist Nicholas Ambraseys described one account of the effects at Ramallah as destructive and with a large loss of life (15,000 deaths, several hundred of which were boys at a school). He also expanded on the effects to the north in Banyas, where 100 were killed, and in Jerusalem, where the roof of the Dome of the Rock was "displaced and then returned to its former position". Those that were affected
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24
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14
427
1068 Near East earthquake
Effects & Other events
by the heavy damage in Ramallah apparently migrated to Jerusalem, which indicated to Ambraseys that the effects there were otherwise minimal. Other events In addition to the event in 1068, the southern portion of the DST has experienced three other historical events (all having an estimated magnitude of 6.5–7.0) with two in the northern section near the Dead Sea, and one closer to Aqaba. The event in 1212 caused significant damage to towns in the Arabah Valley as well as the destruction of a church on the Sinai Peninsula. In 1293, near the southern portion of the Dead Sea, an
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1068 Near East earthquake
Other events
earthquake destroyed three towers of a castle and caused damage between the Dead Sea and Gaza. In 1458, another event again affected the southern Dead Sea area, this time causing a 2.2 m (7 ft 3 in) left-lateral offset at the Tilah Castle. The castle was built across the fault during Roman or Byzantine times and the building that housed the water tank sustained the displacement.
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10 Million People
Background and release
10 Million People Background and release In early June 2014, Example intended to release "Seen You" as the album's fourth single. On 30 June, however, he stated that the fourth single would be "10 Million People". The EP features remixes from Kove, Critikal, Static Revenger, Mike Millrain and Eli & Fur as well as the album version of the song. The Kove remix was uploaded to UKF Music on 16 August. Example has said that "'10 Million People' was written after watching a documentary on early 90s rave culture. I found this video online where they were interviewing people at an
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10 Million People
Background and release & Music video
illegal rave. The guy with the microphone said to one of the revellers, 'Surely this whole rave thing is just a fad'. And the raver replied, 'Well 10 million people can't be wrong'." He also stated that the song feels "timeless" to him and is his favorite song on the album. Music video The singer confirmed on his Twitter page that the music video was filmed during his performance on the 2014 FIB Festival, hosted in Benicássim on 19 July. He uploaded the video onto his VEVO channel on 27 August 2014.
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10th Lok Sabha
Maharashtra
10th Lok Sabha Maharashtra (Plain Text Format) AhmednagarGENGadakh YeshawantraoMINC AkolaGENFundkar Pandurang PundlikMBJP AmravatiGENPratibha Devisinha Patil (W)FINC AurangabadGENMoreshwar SaveMSHS BaramatiGENAjit Annatrao PawarMINC BeedGENKshirsagar Kesharbai Sonajirao Alias Kaku (W)FINC BhandaraGENPraful Manohar Bhai PatelMINC Buldhana(SC)Wasnik Mukul BalkrishnaMINC ChandrapurGENPotdukhe ShantaramMINC ChimurGENMuttemwar Vilas BaburaoMINC Dahanu(ST)Damu Barku ShingdaMINC Dhule(ST)Chaure Bapu HariMINC ErandolGENPatil Vijay NavalMINC HingoliGENGundewar Vilasrao NagnathraoMSHS IchalkaranjiGENMane Balaso Alias Rajaram ShankarraoMINC JalgaonGENGunavant Rambhau SarodaMBJP JalnaGENAnkushrao TopeMINC KaradGENChavan Prithviraj DajishahebMINC KhedGENNavale Vidura VithobaMINC KolabaGENA.R. AntulayMINC KolhapurGENGaikwad Udaysingrao NanasahebMINC KopargaonGENKale Shankarrao DeoramMINC LaturGENPatil Shivraj VishwanathMINC Mgaon(ST)Kahandole Zamru MangluMINC Mumbai-NorthGENRam NaikMBJP Mumbai-North-CentralGENDighe Sharad ShankarMINC Mumbai-North-EastGENGuradas KamatMINC Mumbai-North-WestGENSunil DuttMINC Mumbai-SouthGENDeora MurliMINC Mumbai-South-CentralGENMohan RawaleMSHS NagpurGENMeghe Dattaji RaghobajiMINC NandedGENSuryakants Patil (W)FINC Nandurbar(ST)Gavit Manikrao HodalyaMINC NashikGENPawar Vasant NiwruttiMINC Osmanabad(SC)Kamble Arvind TulshiramMINC Pandharpur(SC)Thorat Sandipan BhagwanMINC ParbhaniGENDeshmukh Ashokrao AnandraoMSHS PuneGENAnna JoshiMBJP RajapurGENSudhir SawantMINC RamtekGENBhonsle Tejsingharao LaxmanraoMINC RatnagiriGENGovindram NikamMINC SangliGENPatil Prakashbapu VasantraoMINC SataraGENBhosale Prataprao BaburaoMINC SolapurGENSadul Dharmanna MondayyaMINC ThaneGENKapse Ramchandra GaneshMBJP WardhaGENGhangare Ramchandra MarotraoMCPM WashimGENAnantrao Vitthalrao DeshmukhMINC YavatmalGENUttamrao Deorao PatilMINC
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1144 papal election
Election of Lucius II
1144 papal election Election of Lucius II Pope Celestine II died on 8 March 1144 at Rome, after a pontificate of only five months. The election of his successor took place in the shadow of this municipal revolution, which opposed the secular rule of the Pope. Celestine II was unable to recover full control over the city of Rome; in addition he had to face also the demands of the king Roger II of Sicily. This problem remained unresolved on his death, because he had refused to confirm the privileges granted to Roger by his predecessor Innocent II. The cardinals present
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539
6
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1144 papal election
Election of Lucius II
at Rome elected Cardinal Gerardo Caccianemici, priest of the titulus of S. Croce in Gerusalemme and former canon regular of S. Frediano di Lucca. The details concerning the place of the election or the exact date of electoral proceedings are not registered. Since the elect was chancellor of the Holy See and close collaborator of both Innocent II and Celestine II, it may be assumed that the cardinals wanted to continue their policy, friendly towards the Empire and hostile towards the king Roger. The elect took the name Lucius II and received episcopal consecration on 12 March 1144.
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114th Armed Police Mobile Division
History
114th Armed Police Mobile Division History Originally the unit was the 111th Division of the North-East Army which fought against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War, it was later transferred to the Eighth Route Army's Shandong Military Region, and then again to the North East People's Volunteer Army; the unit was redesignated the 114th on transfer to the 38th Army. As the 114th, under the 38th Army, the division fought as part of the People's Volunteer Army (Chinese People's Volunteers (CPV) or Chinese Communist Forces (CCF)) during the Korean War with a standard strength of approximately 10,000 men. At that
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28
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594
6
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114th Armed Police Mobile Division
History
time it consisted of the 340th, 341st, and 342nd Regiments. It fought the Turkish Brigade at the Battle of Wawon, November 27–29, 1950. The formation remained for many years with the 38th Group Army in the Shenyang Military Region, as the 114th Mechanized Infantry Division. In 1996, as part of the reform of the People's Liberation Army in the 1990s the 114th (together with 13 other divisions, and some 500,000 personnel) was transferred to the People's Armed Police (PAP), becoming People's Armed Police Unit 8640, and the mechanized reserve of the PAP under the direct control of the PAP headquarters. The 114th
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28
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1,235
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114th Armed Police Mobile Division
History
was chosen to represent the PAP during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade. After the 2017 reform, the division was divided into two detachments (regiment-sized): the 5th Mobile Detachment (garrison Dingzhou, Hebei) and the 6th Mobile Detachment (garrison Baoding, Hebei) under the PAP 1st Mobile Corps.
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115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
History
115th Infantry Regiment (United States) History The 115th Infantry has long claimed lineage and honors that have not been recognized by the U.S. Army Center of Military history. The unit's official lineage and honors certificate only recognizes lineage extending back to 1881, while the regiment has traditionally held that it was descended from Cresap's Rifles, a company of infantry raised in 1775. The mismatch stems from a lineage system unique in the U.S. armed forces to the Army National Guard, which requires continuous militia presence in a particular community or, if a unit is moved, proof that the same members
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29
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574
10
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115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
History & Revolutionary War
served in the unit at both locations. Because of a lack of support for militia units in the 1870s, many, including the First Maryland (predecessor to the 115th) ceased to exist as organized militia units. Army National Guard lineage rules state that any unit that becomes inactive has its lineage terminated, and that such lineage cannot be "resurrected," even if a unit with identical designation is later established. Revolutionary War The 115th Infantry claims lineage back to the earliest militia units formed to protect the frontier of western Maryland. The birthdate of the unit, 14 June 1775, is also the
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115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
Revolutionary War
birthdate of the United States Army. The first two companies to leave Maryland were assembled in Frederick in the summer of 1775 under the command of Captains Cresap and Price; they were organized in response to the Continental Congress' call to active duty. They left Frederick in August and marched 551 miles (887 km) in 21 days to report to General Washington in September to support Washington's efforts to drive the British out of Boston. These personnel later became part of the 1st Maryland Regiment, "Maryland 400" or "Maryland Line," who repeatedly charged a numerically superior British force during the Battle
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794
14
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115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
Revolutionary War & 1880s to 1910s
of Long Island, sustaining heavy casualties, but allowing General Washington to successfully evacuate the bulk of his troops to Manhattan. This action is commemorated in Maryland's nickname, the "Old Line State." 1880s to 1910s A direct descendant of this regiment was organized 29 September 1881 as the First Battalion of Infantry, Maryland Army National Guard, from existing independent companies at Hagerstown and Frederick, Maryland. This is the date of organization officially recognized as the start of the regiment's lineage by the U.S. Army. It was expanded and redesignated First Regiment of Infantry on 7 May 1886 by the consolidation of
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29
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1,063
115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
1880s to 1910s
the First Battalion of Infantry with several more independent companies of infantry throughout the state. The unit mustered into federal service 11 May 1898 as the First Maryland Infantry Regiment, U.S. Volunteers, and was assigned to the Second Army Corps during the Spanish–American War. The regiment was mustered out of Federal Service 15 March 1899 without serving outside the continental United States. On 28 June 1916 the regiment was again called into active service and saw duty at Eagle Pass, Texas during the Mexican Border Incident. Two of the battalion commanders who served during this period were Majors Milton A. Reckord
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1,063
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422
115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
1880s to 1910s & First World War
(future Adjutant General, State of Maryland) and D. John Markey (future regimental commander). The unit was mustered out of federal service on 4 November 1916. First World War In October 1917, while at Camp McClellan, Alabama, the First Maryland was consolidated with the Fourth and Fifth Maryland Infantry Regiments to form the 115th Infantry Regiment. The 115th became one of the four regiments brought together into the 29th Infantry Division, which was formed in July 1917, at Sea Girt, New Jersey. The division wasn't even a year old when it received its baptism of fire in France. Company K,
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29
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422
18
1,039
115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
First World War
115th, was the first unit in the 29th Division to engage the enemy when it repelled a German raid in July 1918. During the Meuse-Argonne offensive they would fight for 21 straight days, moving over 6 miles (9.7 km), throwing back elements of six enemy divisions, and suffering a staggering 4,781 casualties in the process. After the Armistice was signed, the Twenty-Ninth Division was brought home in July 1919 and dissipated. The 1st Battalion, 115th Infantry, is authorized two campaign streamers for its service in World War I: one for Alsace and one for Meuse-Argonne. The next time the division would be
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29
Q4547528
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1,039
22
366
115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
First World War & Second World War
reformed was for the maneuvers in 1936. Following the First World War, the regiments returned to state status and assumed their previous designations, First Maryland and Fifth Maryland (the Fourth Regiment was not re-established after the war). Second World War On 3 February 1941, the First Maryland Infantry Regiment, Maryland Army National Guard, was inducted into federal service as the 115th Infantry Regiment at Frederick, Maryland as part of the second partial mobilization of the National Guard for World War II, and then moved to Fort George G. Meade on 18 February 1941 to join the 29th Infantry Division. The regiment
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29
Q4547528
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366
22
934
115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
Second World War
completed in-processing, traded in its equipment for modern equipment, and started to repeat its division level training. It was then transferred to the A.P. Hill Military Reservation on 22 April 1942 to participate in maneuvers, and then moved to the Carolina Maneuvers to participate in large unit maneuvers on 8 July 1942. It then moved on to Camp Blanding to fill its empty personnel slots on 19 August 1942, and then staged at Camp Kilmer on 20 September 1942, and shipped out from the New York Port of Embarkation on 5 October 1942 on the RMS Queen Mary and RMS
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29
Q4547528
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934
22
1,553
115th Infantry Regiment (United States)
Second World War
Queen Elizabeth. They arrived in England on 11 October 1942, and then were attached to the 1st Infantry Division in preparation for the D-Day invasion. They moved with the 1st Infantry Division from 2 June 1944, and remained with 1st Infantry Division until 7 June 1944, when they returned to the 29th Infantry Division for further operations. Their participation in the Normandy Campaign continued until it was over on 24 July 1944. They immediately moved into the Northern France Campaign on 25 July 1944, which continued until it was over on 14 September 1944. During this period the 115th Infantry Regiment
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