Dataset Card for S2ORC: The Semantic Scholar Open Research Corpus

Dataset Summary

A large corpus of 81.1M English-language academic papers spanning many academic disciplines. Rich metadata, paper abstracts, resolved bibliographic references, as well as structured full text for 8.1M open access papers. Full text annotated with automatically-detected inline mentions of citations, figures, and tables, each linked to their corresponding paper objects. Aggregated papers from hundreds of academic publishers and digital archives into a unified source, and create the largest publicly-available collection of machine-readable academic text to date.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[More Information Needed]


The text in the dataset is in English.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Example Paper Record:

   "title":"Knowledge-rich, computer-assisted composition of Chinese couplets",
   "paperAbstract":"Recent research effort in poem composition has focused on the use of automatic language generation...",

      "Computer Science"
         "name":"John Lee",

Data Fields

Identifier fields

  • paper_id: a str-valued field that is a unique identifier for each S2ORC paper.

  • arxiv_id: a str-valued field for papers on

  • acl_id: a str-valued field for papers on the ACL Anthology.

  • pmc_id: a str-valued field for papers on PubMed Central.

  • pubmed_id: a str-valued field for papers on PubMed, which includes MEDLINE. Also known as pmid on PubMed.

  • mag_id: a str-valued field for papers on Microsoft Academic.

  • doi: a str-valued field for the DOI.


  • Resolved citation links are represented by the cited paper's paper_id.
  • The paper_id resolves to a Semantic Scholar paper page, which can be verified using the s2_url field.
  • We don't always have a value for every identifier field. When missing, they take null value.

Metadata fields

  • title: a str-valued field for the paper title. Every S2ORC paper must have one, though the source can be from publishers or parsed from PDFs. We prioritize publisher-provided values over parsed values.

  • authors: a List[Dict]-valued field for the paper authors. Authors are listed in order. Each dictionary has the keys first, middle, last, and suffix for the author name, which are all str-valued with exception of middle, which is a List[str]-valued field. Every S2ORC paper must have at least one author.

  • venue and journal: str-valued fields for the published venue/journal. Please note that there is not often agreement as to what constitutes a "venue" versus a "journal". Consolidating these fields is being considered for future releases.

  • year: an int-valued field for the published year. If a paper is preprinted in 2019 but published in 2020, we try to ensure the venue/journal and year fields agree & prefer non-preprint published info. Missing years are replaced by -1. We know this decision prohibits certain types of analysis like comparing preprint & published versions of a paper. We're looking into it for future releases.

  • abstract: a str-valued field for the abstract. These are provided directly from gold sources (not parsed from PDFs). We preserve newline breaks in structured abstracts, which are common in medical papers, by denoting breaks with ':::'.

  • inbound_citations: a List[str]-valued field containing paper_id of other S2ORC papers that cite the current paper. Currently derived from PDF-parsed bibliographies, but may have gold sources in the future.

  • outbound_citations: a List[str]-valued field containing paper_id of other S2ORC papers that the current paper cites. Same note as above.

  • has_inbound_citations: a bool-valued field that is true if inbound_citations has at least one entry, and false otherwise.

  • has_outbound_citations a bool-valued field that is true if outbound_citations has at least one entry, and false otherwise.

We don't always have a value for every metadata field. When missing, str fields take null value, while List fields are empty lists.

Data Splits

There is no train/dev/test split given in the dataset

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

Academic papers are an increasingly important textual domain for natural language processing (NLP) research. Aside from capturing valuable knowledge from humankind’s collective research efforts, academic papers exhibit many interesting characteristics – thousands of words organized into sections, objects such as tables, figures and equations, frequent inline references to these objects, footnotes, other papers, and more

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

To construct S2ORC, we must overcome challenges in (i) paper metadata aggregation, (ii) identifying open access publications, and (iii) clustering papers, in addition to identifying, extracting, and cleaning the full text and bibliometric annotations associated with each paper. The pipeline for creating S2ORC is:

  1. Process PDFs and LATEX sources to derive metadata, clean full text, inline citations and references, and bibliography entries,
  2. Select the best metadata and full text parses for each paper cluster,
  3. Filter paper clusters with insufficient metadata or content, and
  4. Resolve bibliography links between paper clusters in the corpus.

Who are the source language producers?

S2ORC is constructed using data from the Semantic Scholar literature corpus (Ammar et al., 2018). Papers in Semantic Scholar are derived from numerous sources: obtained directly from publishers, from resources such as MAG, from various archives such as arXiv or PubMed, or crawled from the open Internet. Semantic Scholar clusters these papers based on title similarity and DOI overlap, resulting in an initial set of approximately 200M paper clusters.


Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

Semantic Scholar Open Research Corpus is licensed under ODC-BY.

Citation Information

      title={S2ORC: The Semantic Scholar Open Research Corpus},
      author={Kyle Lo and Lucy Lu Wang and Mark Neumann and Rodney Kinney and Dan S. Weld},


Thanks to @bhavitvyamalik for adding this dataset.

Models trained or fine-tuned on s2orc

None yet