Datasets:

Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 1K<n<10K
Language Creators: found
Annotations Creators: expert-generated
Source Datasets: original
Licenses: apache-2.0
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category_name (string)question_query (string)keyword_query (string)answers (sequence)
"Incubation period"
"What is the incubation period of the virus?"
"Incubation period of the virus"
{ "id": [ "wuclekt6", "e3t1f0rt", "ragcpbl6", "n0uwy77g", "x23ej29m", "56zhxd6e", "zph6r4il", "djq0lvr2", "n0vmb946", "awgyxn3t", "0hnh4n9e", "it4ka7v0", "glq0lckz", "8anqfkmo", "v3gww4iv", "66ulqu11", "ti9b1etu", "k3f7ohzg", "jxtch47t", "dbzrd23n", "j3avpu1y", "1mxjklgx", "ykofrn9i", "u8goc7io", "1mxjklgx", "9mact9br" ], "title": [ "Longitudinal analysis of laboratory findings during the process of recovery for patients with COVID-19", "Epidemiological Characteristics of COVID-19; a Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis 1", "Evolving epidemiology of novel coronavirus diseases 2019 and possible interruption of local transmission outside Hubei Province in China: a descriptive and modeling study", "Clinical characteristics and durations of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Beijing: a retrospective cohort study", "Clinical features and obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective, single-centre, descriptive study", "Epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease 2019: a pooled analysis of publicly reported individual data of 1155 cases from seven countries Summary Background", "Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms", "Is a 14-day quarantine period optimal for effectively controlling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?", "The difference in the incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection between travelers to Hubei and non-travelers: The need of a longer quarantine period", "Clinical Characteristics of 34 Children with Coronavirus Disease-2019 in the West of China: a Multiple-center Case Series", "Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures", "Estimation of incubation period distribution of COVID-19 using disease onset forward time: a novel cross-sectional and forward follow-up study", "Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Compared to Controls in Chinese Han Population", "The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application", "Transmission of corona virus disease 2019 during the incubation period may lead to a quarantine loophole", "Transmission interval estimates suggest pre-symptomatic spread of COVID-19", "Transmission and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in 104 outside-Wuhan patients, China", "Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing", "Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of 91 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang, China: A retrospective, multi-centre case series", "Title: A descriptive study of the impact of diseases control and prevention on the epidemics 1 dynamics and clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Shanghai, lessons learned for", "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster", "Epidemiological characteristics of 1212 COVID-19 patients in Henan, China. medRxiv", "Incubation Period and Other Epidemiological Characteristics of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infections with Right Truncation: A Statistical Analysis of Publicly Available Case Data", "Title: The incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections among travellers from Wuhan, China", "Epidemiological characteristics of 1212 COVID-19 patients in Henan, China. medRxiv", "Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study" ], "exact_answer": [ "4 days (IQR, 2-7)", "5.84 (99% CI: 4.83, 6.85) days", "mean incubation period of 5.2 days", "4 (3-7) days", "5 days (range 2-9 days)", "7.44 days", "4 days (IQR 3–7 days)", "The median incubation period of both male and female adults was similar (7-day) but significantly shorter than that (9-day) of child cases", "1.8 and 7.2 days", "10.50 (7.75 -25.25) days", "4 days (IQR 3-6)", "median of incubation period is 8·13 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7·37-8·91), the mean is 8·62 days (95% CI: 8·02-9·28)", "4 days (IQR, 2 to 7)", "5.1 days (CI, 4.5 to 5.8 days)", "4.9 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4 to 5.4) days", "7.1 (6.13, 8.25) days for Singapore and 9 (7.92, 10.2) days for Tianjin", "6 days, ranged from 1 to 32 days", "6.7 days", "6 (IQR, 3-8) days", "6.4 days (95% 175 CI 5.3 to 7.6)", "between 3 and 6 days", "average, mode and median incubation periods are 7.4, 4 and 7 days", "5.6 days (95% CI: 4.4, 7.4)", "6.4 (5.6 -7.7, 95% CI) days", "average, mode and median incubation periods are 7.4, 4 and 7 days", "4·8 days (95% CI 4·2-5·4" ] }
"Incubation period"
"What is the length of viral shedding after illness onset?"
"Length of viral shedding after illness onset"
{ "id": [ "r5a46n9a", "k36rymkv" ], "title": [ "Viral Kinetics and Antibody Responses in Patients with COVID-19", "Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study" ], "exact_answer": [ "2 days (range, 3-38 ) in nasopharyngeal swabs, 19 days (range, 5-37) in sputum and 18 days (range, 7-26) in stools", "20·0 days (IQR 17·0-24·0)" ] }
"Incubation period"
"What is the incubation period across different age groups?"
"Incubation period across different age groups"
{ "id": [ "giabjjnz", "djq0lvr2", "awgyxn3t", "gxk5t1yp" ], "title": [ "Children are unlikely to have been the primary source of household SARS-CoV-2 infections", "Is a 14-day quarantine period optimal for effectively controlling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?", "Clinical Characteristics of 34 Children with Coronavirus Disease-2019 in the West of China: a Multiple-center Case Series", "Significantly longer Covid-19 incubation times for the elderly, from a case study of 136 patients throughout China" ], "exact_answer": [ "7.74 d ± 3.22", "median incubation period of both male and female adults was similar (7-day) but significantly shorter than that (9-day) of child cases", "10.50 (7.75 -25.25) days", "15 -64 age group, the median incubation time of 7.00 +1.10 −0.90 days" ] }
"Asymptomatic shedding"
"What is the proportion of patients who were asymptomatic?"
"Proportion of patients who were asymptomatic"
{ "id": [ "bmsmegbs", "7w1bhaz6", "xsqgrd5l", "56zhxd6e", "atnz63pk", "ofoqk100", "k3f7ohzg", "vhtc0jvq", "c5be70t6" ], "title": [ "A considerable proportion of individuals with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in Tibetan population", "High incidence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, Chongqing, China", "High transmissibility of COVID-19 near symptom onset", "Epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease 2019: a pooled analysis of publicly reported individual data of 1155 cases from seven countries", "Estimating the Asymptomatic Proportion of 2019 Novel Coronavirus onboard the Princess Cruises Ship, 2020", "Clinical Characteristics of 24 Asymptomatic Infections with COVID-19 Screened among Close Contacts in Nanjing, China", "Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing", "Journal Pre-proof COVID-19 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: Two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals COVID-19 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: Two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals", "The role of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections: rapid living systematic review and meta-analysis" ], "exact_answer": [ "21.7%", "19%", "there were 32 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients, including five household/family clusters and four asymptomatic patients", "49 (14.89%) were asymptomatic", "17.9%", "The remaining 7 (29.2%) cases showed normal CT image and had no symptoms during hospitalization.", "13 (5.0%) asymptomatic cases", "32.6%", " 29% (95% CI 23 to 37%) is an upper bound of SARS-CoV-2 infections that remain asymptomatic throughout" ] }
"Asymptomatic shedding"
"What is the proportion of pediatric patients who were asymptomatic?"
"Proportion of pediatric patients who were asymptomatic"
{ "id": [ "xsgxd5sy", "dmrtsxik", "7w1bhaz6", "jvhrp51s", "j58f1lwa", "mar8zt2t", "jsjxdmi2", "hd4qul4t", "pqg0g1nx" ], "title": [ "Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019", "Articles Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study", "High incidence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, Chongqing, China", "Title: The clinical and epidemiological features and hints of 82 confirmed COVID-19 pediatric cases aged 0-16 in Wuhan, China", "Preliminary epidemiological analysis on children and adolescents with novel coronavirus disease 2019 outside Hubei Province, China: an observational study utilizing crowdsourced data", "The different clinical characteristics of corona virus disease cases between children and their families in China -the character of children with COVID-19", "Title Page Running Title: Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Clinical Characteristics of Children with COVID-19: A Rapid Review and Meta- Analysis", "A follow-up study of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 from Western China", "Clinical and Transmission Dynamics Characteristics of 406 Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China: A Review" ], "exact_answer": [ "20 (27.03%) cases", "ten (28%) patients", "28.6%", "8 no symptoms", "2 (8.0%) cases", "Six children (66.7%)", "19% had no symptoms", "Eleven children (34%) were asymptomatic", "asymptomatic infections and mild cases account for 44.8%" ] }
"Asymptomatic shedding"
"What is the asymptomatic transmission during incubation?"
"Asymptomatic transmission during incubation"
{ "id": [ "eflwztji", "v3gww4iv", "56zhxd6e", "v3gww4iv", "st5vs6gq" ], "title": [ "Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19", "Transmission of corona virus disease 2019 during the incubation period may lead to a quarantine loophole", "Epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease 2019: a pooled analysis of publicly reported individual data of 1155 cases from seven countries Summary Background", "Transmission of corona virus disease 2019 during the incubation period may lead to a quarantine loophole", "Title: The serial interval of COVID-19 from publicly reported confirmed cases Running Head: The serial interval of COVID-19" ], "exact_answer": [ "44% of transmission prior to symptom onset", "(73.0%) were infected before the symptom onset of the first-generation cases", "In 102 (43.78%) infector-infectee pairs, transmission occurred before infectors' symptom onsets", "(73.0%) were infected before the symptom onset of the first-generation cases", "12.6% of reports indicating pre-symptomatic transmission" ] }
"Persistence of sources"
"What is the length of viral shedding in stool?"
"Length of viral shedding in stool"
{ "id": [ "k86ljbxu", "ouca1bol", "r5a46n9a", "1fyag5x3", "we9kzreh", "1fyag5x3" ], "title": [ "Do children need a longer time to shed SARS- CoV-2 in stool than adults?", "Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in clinical specimens and clinical characteristics of 10 patients with COVID-19 in Macau", "Viral Kinetics and Antibody Responses in Patients with COVID-19", "Virus shedding patterns in nasopharyngeal and fecal specimens of COVID-19 patients 2 3", "Title Persistent viral shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces -a rapid review", "Virus shedding patterns in nasopharyngeal and fecal specimens of COVID-19 patients 2 3" ], "exact_answer": [ "100% positive on the third week after onset and 30% positive 29 days later", "detected in feces till 14 days after the onset of symptoms", "18 days (range, 7-26)", "22.0 days (IQR 15.5 to 23.5)", "1 to 33 days and in 1 patient up to 47 days", "22.0 days (IQR 15.5 to 23.5)" ] }
"Persistence of sources"
"What is the length of viral shedding from the nasopharynx?"
"Length of viral shedding from nasopharynx"
{ "id": [ "1fyag5x3", "r5a46n9a", "1fyag5x3" ], "title": [ "Virus shedding patterns in nasopharyngeal and fecal specimens of COVID-19 patients 2 3", "Viral Kinetics and Antibody Responses in Patients with COVID-19", "Virus shedding patterns in nasopharyngeal and fecal specimens of COVID-19 patients 2 3" ], "exact_answer": [ "10.0 days (IQR 8.0 to 17.0)", "12 days (range, 3-38 )", "10.0 days (IQR 8.0 to 17.0)" ] }
"Persistence of sources"
"What is the length of viral shedding in urine?"
"Length of viral shedding in urine"
{ "id": [ "1fyag5x3" ], "title": [ "Virus shedding patterns in nasopharyngeal and fecal specimens of COVID-19 patients 2 3" ], "exact_answer": [ "all patient data were and urine samples were all negative, except for urine samples from two 53 severe cases at the latest available detection point (16 or 21 d.a.o)" ] }
"Persistence of sources"
"What is the length of viral shedding in blood?"
"Length of viral shedding in blood"
{ "id": [ "ac4aesoa" ], "title": [ "Comparisons of nucleic acid conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 of different samples in ICU and non-ICU patients Conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in ICU and non-ICU patients Letter to the Editor Comparisons of nucleic acid conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 of different samples in ICU and non-ICU patients" ], "exact_answer": [ "15.67 ±6.68 days in non-ICU group and 22.25 ±3.62 days in ICU group" ] }
"Persistence of sources"
"What is the prevalence of viral shedding in blood?"
"Prevalence of viral shedding in blood"
{ "id": [ "r5a46n9a" ], "title": [ "Viral Kinetics and Antibody Responses in Patients with COVID-19" ], "exact_answer": [ "12 plasmas (5.7%) from 9 patients (14.3%) were positive" ] }
"Diagnostics"
"What is the sensitivity and specificity of COVID-19 tests?"
"Sensitivity and specificity of COVID-19 tests"
{ "id": [ "9p7hqk1u", "aa7slcnc", "na8odvj7", "py38bel4", "5skk3nj4", "cv3qgno3", "chln5r8w", "s7uqawbd" ], "title": [ "Journal Pre-proof COVID-19 pneumonia: a review of typical CT findings and differential diagnosis COVID-19 pneumonia: a review of typical CT findings and differential diagnosis", "Highly accurate and sensitive diagnostic detection of SARS-CoV-2 by digital PCR", "Serological detection of 2019-nCoV respond to the epidemic: A useful complement to nucleic acid testing", "Clinical significance of IgM and IgG test for diagnosis of highly suspected COVID-19 infection", "Imaging manifestations and diagnostic value of chest CT of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Xiaogan area", "Rapid Molecular Detection of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Virus RNA Using Colorimetric LAMP", "Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR or CT?", "Rapid colorimetric detection of COVID-19 coronavirus using a reverse tran- scriptional loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) diagnostic plat- form: iLACO" ], "exact_answer": [ "97% sensitivity of chest CT for the diagnosis of COVID-19", "The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of RT-dPCR were 90%, 100% and 93 %, respectively", "The areas under the ROC curves of IgM and IgG were 0.988 and 1.000, respectively.", "The positive detection rate of combination of IgM and IgG for patients with COVID-19 negative and positive nucleic acid test was 72.73% and 87.50%.", "the overall accuracy rate of CT examination in the present study was 97.3%", "colorimetric LAMP assay showed 100% agreement with the RT-qPCR results across a range of C q values", "sensitivity was therefore 97.2%", "iLACO is very sensitive, and as low as 10 copies of ORF1ab gene were detected successfully" ] }
"Seasonality"
"How does temperature affect the transmission of COVID-19?"
"Effects of temperature on the transmission of COVID-19"
{ "id": [ "r141na6j", "mdyojac2", "vc2eheb6", "fcaeoyxd", "drzphrqj", "eob22inx", "ekal5251", "og0zw56h", "lmjaldcs" ], "title": [ "Eco-epidemiological assessment of the COVID-19 epidemic in China", "Climate effect on COVID-19 spread rate: an online surveillance tool", "Causal empirical estimates suggest COVID-19 transmission rates are highly seasonal", "Climate affects global patterns of COVID-19 early outbreak dynamics", "Preliminary evidence that higher temperatures are associated with lower incidence of COVID-19, for cases reported globally up to 29th February 2020", "Climatic factors influence COVID-19 outbreak as revealed by worldwide mortality", "Relationship between Average Daily Temperature and Average Cumulative Daily Rate of Confirmed Cases of COVID-19", "Journal Pre-proof Correlation between weather and Covid-19 pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia Correlation Between Weather and Covid-19 Pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia", "Meteorological factors correlate with transmission of 2019-nCoV: Proof of incidence of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Hubei Province, China" ], "exact_answer": [ "Adjusted incidence rate ratios suggested brighter, warmer and drier conditions were associated with lower incidence", "a plausible negative correlation between warmer climate and COVID-19 spread rate", "a 1 • C increase in local temperature reduces new COVID-19 cases per 1 million people by 13%, with a 95% confidence interval of [-21%, -4%]", "Temperature and humidity strongly impact the variation of the growth rate of Covid-19 cases across the globe", "higher average temperature was strongly associated with lower COVID-19 incidence for temperatures of 1°C and higher", "Temperature is positively correlated with UV-index, for which one unit of increase results in a ~15% decrease in the mortality rate", "when there is a significant difference in the daily mean temperature between two regions of a country, a significant difference exists also in the average cumulative daily rate of confirmed cases", "temperature average ( 0 C) was significantly correlated with covid-19 (r=.392; p<.001)", "minimum temperature changes by 1 degree, and 72 incremental cases will change in the opposite direction" ] }
"Seasonality"
"How does humidity affect the transmission of COVID-19?"
"Effects of humidity on the transmission of COVID-19"
{ "id": [ "6anr4xdw", "qz2joxys", "fcaeoyxd", "eob22inx" ], "title": [ "Effects of temperature variation and humidity on the death of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China", "Role of temperature and humidity in the modulation of the doubling time of COVID-19 cases", "Title: Climate Affects Global Patterns Of Covid-19 Early Outbreak Dynamics", "Climatic factors influence COVID-19 outbreak as revealed by worldwide mortality" ], "exact_answer": [ "both per 1 unit increase of temperature and absolute humidity were related to the decreased COVID-19 death counts", "doubling time correlates positively with temperature and inversely with humidity, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of progression of COVID-19 with the arrival of spring and summer in the north hemisphere", "humidity strongly impact the variation of the growth rate of Covid-19 cases across the globe", "Each additional Celsius degree decreases mortality rate by ~4%, while a 1% increase in relative humidity raises" ] }
"Seasonality"
"How does seasonality affect the transmission of COVID-19?"
"Effects of seasonality on the transmission of COVID-19"
{ "id": [ "f4hj35dr", "zxx7tikz", "f3qeoyvf", "okvu49y3", "3p2dl8yf", "x4qdiln9", "f4hj35dr", "nzat41wu", "rnn8wr50" ], "title": [ "Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the post-pandemic period", "Susceptible supply limits the role of climate in the COVID-19 pandemic", "Title: Modeling the Corona Virus Outbreak in IRAN", "Application of the ARIMA model on the COVID- 2019 epidemic dataset", "Potential impact of seasonal forcing on a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic", "A spatial model of CoVID-19 transmission in England and Wales: early spread and peak timing", "Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the post-pandemic period", "Social distancing strategies for curbing the COVID-19 epidemic", "Title: Seasonality and uncertainty in COVID-19 growth rates 2 3 4 Affiliation" ], "exact_answer": [ "Winter/spring establishments favored longer-lasting outbreaks with shorter peaks (Fig 3A) , while autumn/winter establishments led to more acute outbreaks (Fig 3B) ", "summer temperatures will not substantially limit pandemic growth", "available data is too small to identify seasonal patterns and make predictable variation in value", "prevalence and incidence of COVID-2019 are not influenced by the seasonality", "seasonal variation might slow down a pandemic", "Seasonal changes in transmission rate could shift the timing of the peak into winter months", "HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 cause annual wintertime outbreaks of respiratory illness in temperate regions (9, 10), suggesting that wintertime climate and host behaviors may facilitate transmission, as is true for influenza", "If SARS-Cov-2 transmission is similarly subject to seasonal forcing, summer outbreaks would naturally have lower peaks than winter outbreaks", "risk will decline across the northern 129 hemisphere this summer, remain active in the tropics, and increase in the southern hemisphere as The overall conclusion is that although COVID-19 might decrease temporarily during summer, 139 there is still a moderate probability that it is weakly affected by summer weather, and that it 140 could return in autumn and pose increasing risks by winter" ] }
"Physical science"
"What purity of ethanol inactivates COVID-19?"
"Purity of ethanol to inactivate COVID-19"
{ "id": [ "c1n994j6", "c1n994j6", "c1n994j6" ], "title": [ "Efficient inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations and alcohols", "Efficient inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations and alcohols", "Efficient inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations and alcohols" ], "exact_answer": [ "WHO 21 formulation I, based on 85 % ethanol, efficiently inactivated the virus with reduction 22 factors", "Both alcohols, ethanol (Fig. 9 2A) and 2-propanol ( Fig. 2B) were able to reduce viral titers in 30 s exposure", "minimal concentration of 30 % ethanol or 2-propanol is sufficient for viral 12 inactivation" ] }
"Physical science"
"What is the temperature used for inactivating COVID-19?"
"Temperature used for inactivating COVID-19"
{ "id": [ "dm1wkpnv", "d48u5w0h" ], "title": [ "Can N95 respirators be reused after disinfection? And for how many times?", "Rapid evidence summary on SARS-CoV-2 survivorship and disinfection, and a reusable PPE protocol using a double-hit process" ], "exact_answer": [ "heating (dry or in the presence humidity) <100 °C can preserve the filtration", "60°C for 90 minutes" ] }
"Physical science"
"What is the UVGI intensity used for inactivating COVID-19?"
"UVGI intensity used for inactivating COVID-19"
{ "id": [ "dm1wkpnv", "d48u5w0h" ], "title": [ "Can N95 respirators be reused after disinfection? And for how many times?", "Rapid evidence summary on SARS-CoV-2 survivorship and disinfection, and a reusable PPE protocol using a double-hit process" ], "exact_answer": [ "254 nm, 8 W lamp, and 475 cm 2 internal area", "at least 1,000 mJ/cm 2" ] }
"Metaresearch"
"How large is the sample size used in COVID-19 studies?"
"Sample size used in COVID-19 studies"
{ "id": [ "wuclekt6", "ragcpbl6", "56zhxd6e", "djq0lvr2", "0hnh4n9e", "it4ka7v0", "tne83uu0", "glq0lckz", "ti9b1etu", "1mxjklgx", "u8goc7io", "r5a46n9a", "giabjjnz", "bmsmegbs", "56zhxd6e", "atnz63pk", "k3f7ohzg", "dmrtsxik", "jvhrp51s", "ouca1bol", "ac4aesoa", "4aps0kvp", "3q2bj7cr", "nrdiqees", "as6tbfrh", "5ciaonf0", "niw61l9r", "pd70i3d8", "9mact9br" ], "title": [ "Longitudinal analysis of laboratory findings during the process of recovery for patients with COVID-19", "Evolving epidemiology of novel coronavirus diseases 2019 and possible interruption of local transmission outside Hubei Province in China: a descriptive and modeling study", "Epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease 2019: a pooled analysis of publicly reported individual data of 1155 cases from seven countries Summary Background", "Is a 14-day quarantine period optimal for effectively controlling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?", "Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures", "Estimation of incubation period distribution of COVID-19 using disease onset forward time: a novel cross-sectional and forward follow-up study", "Epidemiologic Characteristics of COVID-19 in Guizhou, China Affiliations: Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention Abstract", "Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Compared to Controls in Chinese Han Population", "Transmission and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in 104 outside-Wuhan patients, China", "Epidemiological characteristics of 1212 COVID-19 patients in Henan, China. medRxiv", "Title: The incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections among travellers from Wuhan, China", "Viral Kinetics and Antibody Responses in Patients with COVID-19", "Children are unlikely to have been the primary source of household SARS-CoV-2 infections", "A considerable proportion of individuals with asymptomatic SARS- CoV-2 infection in Tibetan population", "Epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease 2019: a pooled analysis of publicly reported individual data of 1155 cases from seven countries Summary Background", "Estimating the Asymptomatic Proportion of 2019 Novel Coronavirus onboard the Princess Cruises Ship, 2020", "Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing", "Articles Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study", "Title: The clinical and epidemiological features and hints of 82 confirmed COVID-19 pediatric cases aged 0-16 in Wuhan, China", "Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in clinical specimens and clinical characteristics of 10 patients with COVID-19 in Macau", "Comparisons of nucleic acid conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 of different samples in ICU and non-ICU patients Conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in ICU and non-ICU patients Letter to the Editor Comparisons of nucleic acid conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 of different samples in ICU and non-ICU patients", "Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes", "Prolonged viral shedding in feces of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019", "History of coronary heart disease increases the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients: a nested case-control study", "Title: Clinical characteristics associated with COVID-19 severity in California", "Title: Epidemiological and clinical features of 291 cases with coronavirus disease 2019 in areas adjacent to Hubei, China: a double-center observational study", "Neurological Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study", "Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Severe Illness Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the Early Stage", "Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study" ], "exact_answer": [ "59 cases", "49 cases", "587 cases", "2015 cases", "36 individuals", "sample size of 1211", "162 cases", "69 hospitalized patients", "104 cases", "1212 patients", "88 confirmed cases", "67 patients", "40 articles", "83 cases", "329 cases", "634 cases,", "262 patients", "36 children", "82 confirmed cases", "10 cases", "thirty-two patients", "16 people", "three paediatric cases", "275 publicly reported confirmed cases", "54 patients", "291 patients", "214 patients", "61 patients", "183 cases" ] }
"Hypertension"
"What is the RR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with hypertension?"
"RR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with hypertension"
{ "id": [ "4mnmaky6", "yx8b2moc" ], "title": [ "The relationship of COVID-19 severity with cardiovascular disease and its traditional risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "Incidence, clinical characteristics and prognostic factor of patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis Running title: Predictors of clinical prognosis of COVID-19" ], "exact_answer": [ "pooled crude relative risk of ~3-5 for hypertension, diabetes, and CVD", "hypertension (RR = 4.48; 95% CI" ] }
"Hypertension"
"What is the HR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with hypertension?"
"HR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with hypertension"
{ "id": [ "7s9ot4vq", "ol21k1a8" ], "title": [ "Comorbidity and its impact on 1,590 patients with COVID-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis", "Title: Characteristics and outcomes of a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 patients in the Province of Reggio" ], "exact_answer": [ "hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.07-2.32)", "HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6" ] }
"Hypertension"
"What is the OR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with hypertension?"
"OR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with hypertension"
{ "id": [ "v6frcc5r", "vof63qat", "o56j4qio", "3ti3y4y9", "ubqexcof", "4su6v83t", "avwk4fwi" ], "title": [ "Effects of hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease on COVID-19 diseases severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictive symptoms and comorbidities for severe COVID-19 infection", "Prevalence of comorbidities in the novel Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis Prevalence of comorbidities in the Novel Wuhan Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Cardiovascular Diseases and COVID-19 Mortality and Intensive Care Unit Admission: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "Title Page Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis", "The role of comorbidities and clinical predictors of severe disease in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis Emails", "Journal Pre-proof Patients with arterial hypertension and COVID-19 are at higher risk of ICU admission Patients with arterial hypertension and COVID-19 are at higher risk of ICU admission" ], "exact_answer": [ "There were significant correlations between COVID-19 severity and hypertension [OR=2.3 [95% CI (1.76, 3.00), P<0.01]", "hypertension (1.97, 95% CI 1.40 -2.77)", "Higher risk of hypertension (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.46–3.83)", "OR: 2.69, 95%CI 1.", "hypertension: OR = 2.72, 95% CI (1.60,4.64), P = 0.0002", "HTN (n= 10, OR= 2.35, 95% CI 1.83-3.02, I 2 = 0.0%, Q-value= 7.38, P= 0.597)", "hypertension had a significantly increased risk of ICU admission (OR¼2.54; 95% CI, 1.83e3.54; P<0.0001; I 2 ¼42%)" ] }
"Hypertension"
"What is the mortality rate for COVID-19 patients with hypertension?"
"Mortality rate for COVID-19 patients with hypertension"
{ "id": [ "r0r1kvkp" ], "title": [ "Development and external validation of a prognostic multivariable model on admission for hospitalized patients with COVID-19" ], "exact_answer": [ "Patients with hypertension, showed a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0·001)." ] }
"Diabetes"
"What is the OR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with diabetes?"
"OR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with diabetes"
{ "id": [ "oqo8pa1p", "v6frcc5r", "yx8b2moc", "ubqexcof", "4su6v83t" ], "title": [ "Risk factors for severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients : a systematic review and meta analysis", "Effects of hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease on COVID-19 diseases severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Incidence, clinical characteristics and prognostic factor of patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis Running title: Predictors of clinical prognosis of COVID-19", "Title Page Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis", "The role of comorbidities and clinical predictors of severe disease in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis Emails" ], "exact_answer": [ "OR = 3.04 [2.01, 4.60]", "[OR=2.67, 95% CI (1.91, 3.74), P<0.01]", "2.49; 95% CI, ; n = 10; I 2 = 44%", "OR=3.68, 95% CI (2.68, 5.03), P < 0.00001;", "OR= 3.54, 95% CI 1.79-7.01, I 2 = 58.4%, Q-value= 19.22, P= 0.014" ] }
"Diabetes"
"What is the RR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with diabetes?"
"RR for severe infection in COVID-19 patients with diabetes"
{ "id": [ "4mnmaky6", "u6uqroi0", "4mnmaky6" ], "title": [ "The relationship of COVID-19 severity with cardiovascular disease and its traditional risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "Journal Pre-proof Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia -A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression Title: Diabetes Mellitus is Associated with Increased Mortality and Severity of Disease in COVID-19 Pneumonia -A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression Short Title: Diabetes and COVID-19 Diabetes Mellitus is Associated with Increased Mortality and Severity of Disease in COVID- 19 Pneumonia -A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression", "The relationship of COVID-19 severity with cardiovascular disease and its traditional risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis" ], "exact_answer": [ "relative risk estimate of 2.81 (2.01-3.93)", "RR 2.45 [1.79, 3.35], p<0.001; I 2 : 45%, p=0.04", "diabetes (9 studies; 3.20 [2.26-4.53]" ] }
"Diabetes"
"What is the HR for death in COVID-19 patients with diabetes?"
"HR for death in COVID-19 patients with diabetes"
{ "id": [ "nrdiqees", "ol21k1a8" ], "title": [ "History of coronary heart disease increases the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients: a nested case-control study", "Title: Characteristics and outcomes of a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 patients in the Province of Reggio" ], "exact_answer": [ "HR=1.1, p=0.61", "HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.2" ] }
"Diabetes"
"What is the AHR for death in COVID-19 patients with diabetes?"
"AHR for death in COVID-19 patients with diabetes"
{ "id": [ "skknfc6h" ], "title": [ "Comorbid Diabetes Mellitus was Associated with Poorer Prognosis in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study" ], "exact_answer": [ "[aHR]=3.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 12.21" ] }