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Model Card for Zephyr 7B Ξ²

Zephyr is a series of language models that are trained to act as helpful assistants. Zephyr-7B-Ξ² is the second model in the series, and is a fine-tuned version of mistralai/Mistral-7B-v0.1 that was trained on on a mix of publicly available, synthetic datasets using Direct Preference Optimization (DPO). We found that removing the in-built alignment of these datasets boosted performance on MT Bench and made the model more helpful. However, this means that model is likely to generate problematic text when prompted to do so. You can find more details in the technical report.

Model description

  • Model type: A 7B parameter GPT-like model fine-tuned on a mix of publicly available, synthetic datasets.
  • Language(s) (NLP): Primarily English
  • License: MIT
  • Finetuned from model: mistralai/Mistral-7B-v0.1

Model Sources

Performance

At the time of release, Zephyr-7B-Ξ² is the highest ranked 7B chat model on the MT-Bench and AlpacaEval benchmarks:

Model Size Alignment MT-Bench (score) AlpacaEval (win rate %)
StableLM-Tuned-Ξ± 7B dSFT 2.75 -
MPT-Chat 7B dSFT 5.42 -
Xwin-LMv0.1 7B dPPO 6.19 87.83
Mistral-Instructv0.1 7B - 6.84 -
Zephyr-7b-Ξ± 7B dDPO 6.88 -
Zephyr-7b-Ξ² πŸͺ 7B dDPO 7.34 90.60
Falcon-Instruct 40B dSFT 5.17 45.71
Guanaco 65B SFT 6.41 71.80
Llama2-Chat 70B RLHF 6.86 92.66
Vicuna v1.3 33B dSFT 7.12 88.99
WizardLM v1.0 70B dSFT 7.71 -
Xwin-LM v0.1 70B dPPO - 95.57
GPT-3.5-turbo - RLHF 7.94 89.37
Claude 2 - RLHF 8.06 91.36
GPT-4 - RLHF 8.99 95.28

In particular, on several categories of MT-Bench, Zephyr-7B-Ξ² has strong performance compared to larger open models like Llama2-Chat-70B:

image/png

However, on more complex tasks like coding and mathematics, Zephyr-7B-Ξ² lags behind proprietary models and more research is needed to close the gap.

Intended uses & limitations

The model was initially fine-tuned on a filtered and preprocessed of the UltraChat dataset, which contains a diverse range of synthetic dialogues generated by ChatGPT. We then further aligned the model with πŸ€— TRL's DPOTrainer on the openbmb/UltraFeedback dataset, which contains 64k prompts and model completions that are ranked by GPT-4. As a result, the model can be used for chat and you can check out our demo to test its capabilities.

You can find the datasets used for training Zephyr-7B-Ξ² here

Here's how you can run the model using the pipeline() function from πŸ€— Transformers:

# Install transformers from source - only needed for versions <= v4.34
# pip install git+https://github.com/huggingface/transformers.git
# pip install accelerate

import torch
from transformers import pipeline

pipe = pipeline("text-generation", model="HuggingFaceH4/zephyr-7b-beta", torch_dtype=torch.bfloat16, device_map="auto")

# We use the tokenizer's chat template to format each message - see https://huggingface.co/docs/transformers/main/en/chat_templating
messages = [
    {
        "role": "system",
        "content": "You are a friendly chatbot who always responds in the style of a pirate",
    },
    {"role": "user", "content": "How many helicopters can a human eat in one sitting?"},
]
prompt = pipe.tokenizer.apply_chat_template(messages, tokenize=False, add_generation_prompt=True)
outputs = pipe(prompt, max_new_tokens=256, do_sample=True, temperature=0.7, top_k=50, top_p=0.95)
print(outputs[0]["generated_text"])
# <|system|>
# You are a friendly chatbot who always responds in the style of a pirate.</s>
# <|user|>
# How many helicopters can a human eat in one sitting?</s>
# <|assistant|>
# Ah, me hearty matey! But yer question be a puzzler! A human cannot eat a helicopter in one sitting, as helicopters are not edible. They be made of metal, plastic, and other materials, not food!

Bias, Risks, and Limitations

Zephyr-7B-Ξ² has not been aligned to human preferences for safety within the RLHF phase or deployed with in-the-loop filtering of responses like ChatGPT, so the model can produce problematic outputs (especially when prompted to do so). It is also unknown what the size and composition of the corpus was used to train the base model (mistralai/Mistral-7B-v0.1), however it is likely to have included a mix of Web data and technical sources like books and code. See the Falcon 180B model card for an example of this.

Training and evaluation data

During DPO training, this model achieves the following results on the evaluation set:

  • Loss: 0.7496
  • Rewards/chosen: -4.5221
  • Rewards/rejected: -8.3184
  • Rewards/accuracies: 0.7812
  • Rewards/margins: 3.7963
  • Logps/rejected: -340.1541
  • Logps/chosen: -299.4561
  • Logits/rejected: -2.3081
  • Logits/chosen: -2.3531

Training hyperparameters

The following hyperparameters were used during training:

  • learning_rate: 5e-07
  • train_batch_size: 2
  • eval_batch_size: 4
  • seed: 42
  • distributed_type: multi-GPU
  • num_devices: 16
  • total_train_batch_size: 32
  • total_eval_batch_size: 64
  • optimizer: Adam with betas=(0.9,0.999) and epsilon=1e-08
  • lr_scheduler_type: linear
  • lr_scheduler_warmup_ratio: 0.1
  • num_epochs: 3.0

Training results

The table below shows the full set of DPO training metrics:

Training Loss Epoch Step Validation Loss Rewards/chosen Rewards/rejected Rewards/accuracies Rewards/margins Logps/rejected Logps/chosen Logits/rejected Logits/chosen
0.6284 0.05 100 0.6098 0.0425 -0.1872 0.7344 0.2297 -258.8416 -253.8099 -2.7976 -2.8234
0.4908 0.1 200 0.5426 -0.0279 -0.6842 0.75 0.6563 -263.8124 -254.5145 -2.7719 -2.7960
0.5264 0.15 300 0.5324 0.0414 -0.9793 0.7656 1.0207 -266.7627 -253.8209 -2.7892 -2.8122
0.5536 0.21 400 0.4957 -0.0185 -1.5276 0.7969 1.5091 -272.2460 -254.4203 -2.8542 -2.8764
0.5362 0.26 500 0.5031 -0.2630 -1.5917 0.7812 1.3287 -272.8869 -256.8653 -2.8702 -2.8958
0.5966 0.31 600 0.5963 -0.2993 -1.6491 0.7812 1.3499 -273.4614 -257.2279 -2.8778 -2.8986
0.5014 0.36 700 0.5382 -0.2859 -1.4750 0.75 1.1891 -271.7204 -257.0942 -2.7659 -2.7869
0.5334 0.41 800 0.5677 -0.4289 -1.8968 0.7969 1.4679 -275.9378 -258.5242 -2.7053 -2.7265
0.5251 0.46 900 0.5772 -0.2116 -1.3107 0.7344 1.0991 -270.0768 -256.3507 -2.8463 -2.8662
0.5205 0.52 1000 0.5262 -0.3792 -1.8585 0.7188 1.4793 -275.5552 -258.0276 -2.7893 -2.7979
0.5094 0.57 1100 0.5433 -0.6279 -1.9368 0.7969 1.3089 -276.3377 -260.5136 -2.7453 -2.7536
0.5837 0.62 1200 0.5349 -0.3780 -1.9584 0.7656 1.5804 -276.5542 -258.0154 -2.7643 -2.7756
0.5214 0.67 1300 0.5732 -1.0055 -2.2306 0.7656 1.2251 -279.2761 -264.2903 -2.6986 -2.7113
0.6914 0.72 1400 0.5137 -0.6912 -2.1775 0.7969 1.4863 -278.7448 -261.1467 -2.7166 -2.7275
0.4655 0.77 1500 0.5090 -0.7987 -2.2930 0.7031 1.4943 -279.8999 -262.2220 -2.6651 -2.6838
0.5731 0.83 1600 0.5312 -0.8253 -2.3520 0.7812 1.5268 -280.4902 -262.4876 -2.6543 -2.6728
0.5233 0.88 1700 0.5206 -0.4573 -2.0951 0.7812 1.6377 -277.9205 -258.8084 -2.6870 -2.7097
0.5593 0.93 1800 0.5231 -0.5508 -2.2000 0.7969 1.6492 -278.9703 -259.7433 -2.6221 -2.6519
0.4967 0.98 1900 0.5290 -0.5340 -1.9570 0.8281 1.4230 -276.5395 -259.5749 -2.6564 -2.6878
0.0921 1.03 2000 0.5368 -1.1376 -3.1615 0.7812 2.0239 -288.5854 -265.6111 -2.6040 -2.6345
0.0733 1.08 2100 0.5453 -1.1045 -3.4451 0.7656 2.3406 -291.4208 -265.2799 -2.6289 -2.6595
0.0972 1.14 2200 0.5571 -1.6915 -3.9823 0.8125 2.2908 -296.7934 -271.1505 -2.6471 -2.6709
0.1058 1.19 2300 0.5789 -1.0621 -3.8941 0.7969 2.8319 -295.9106 -264.8563 -2.5527 -2.5798
0.2423 1.24 2400 0.5455 -1.1963 -3.5590 0.7812 2.3627 -292.5599 -266.1981 -2.5414 -2.5784
0.1177 1.29 2500 0.5889 -1.8141 -4.3942 0.7969 2.5801 -300.9120 -272.3761 -2.4802 -2.5189
0.1213 1.34 2600 0.5683 -1.4608 -3.8420 0.8125 2.3812 -295.3901 -268.8436 -2.4774 -2.5207
0.0889 1.39 2700 0.5890 -1.6007 -3.7337 0.7812 2.1330 -294.3068 -270.2423 -2.4123 -2.4522
0.0995 1.45 2800 0.6073 -1.5519 -3.8362 0.8281 2.2843 -295.3315 -269.7538 -2.4685 -2.5050
0.1145 1.5 2900 0.5790 -1.7939 -4.2876 0.8438 2.4937 -299.8461 -272.1744 -2.4272 -2.4674
0.0644 1.55 3000 0.5735 -1.7285 -4.2051 0.8125 2.4766 -299.0209 -271.5201 -2.4193 -2.4574
0.0798 1.6 3100 0.5537 -1.7226 -4.2850 0.8438 2.5624 -299.8200 -271.4610 -2.5367 -2.5696
0.1013 1.65 3200 0.5575 -1.5715 -3.9813 0.875 2.4098 -296.7825 -269.9498 -2.4926 -2.5267
0.1254 1.7 3300 0.5905 -1.6412 -4.4703 0.8594 2.8291 -301.6730 -270.6473 -2.5017 -2.5340
0.085 1.76 3400 0.6133 -1.9159 -4.6760 0.8438 2.7601 -303.7296 -273.3941 -2.4614 -2.4960
0.065 1.81 3500 0.6074 -1.8237 -4.3525 0.8594 2.5288 -300.4951 -272.4724 -2.4597 -2.5004
0.0755 1.86 3600 0.5836 -1.9252 -4.4005 0.8125 2.4753 -300.9748 -273.4872 -2.4327 -2.4716
0.0746 1.91 3700 0.5789 -1.9280 -4.4906 0.8125 2.5626 -301.8762 -273.5149 -2.4686 -2.5115
0.1348 1.96 3800 0.6015 -1.8658 -4.2428 0.8281 2.3769 -299.3976 -272.8936 -2.4943 -2.5393
0.0217 2.01 3900 0.6122 -2.3335 -4.9229 0.8281 2.5894 -306.1988 -277.5699 -2.4841 -2.5272
0.0219 2.07 4000 0.6522 -2.9890 -6.0164 0.8281 3.0274 -317.1334 -284.1248 -2.4105 -2.4545
0.0119 2.12 4100 0.6922 -3.4777 -6.6749 0.7969 3.1972 -323.7187 -289.0121 -2.4272 -2.4699
0.0153 2.17 4200 0.6993 -3.2406 -6.6775 0.7969 3.4369 -323.7453 -286.6413 -2.4047 -2.4465
0.011 2.22 4300 0.7178 -3.7991 -7.4397 0.7656 3.6406 -331.3667 -292.2260 -2.3843 -2.4290
0.0072 2.27 4400 0.6840 -3.3269 -6.8021 0.8125 3.4752 -324.9908 -287.5042 -2.4095 -2.4536
0.0197 2.32 4500 0.7013 -3.6890 -7.3014 0.8125 3.6124 -329.9841 -291.1250 -2.4118 -2.4543
0.0182 2.37 4600 0.7476 -3.8994 -7.5366 0.8281 3.6372 -332.3356 -293.2291 -2.4163 -2.4565
0.0125 2.43 4700 0.7199 -4.0560 -7.5765 0.8438 3.5204 -332.7345 -294.7952 -2.3699 -2.4100
0.0082 2.48 4800 0.7048 -3.6613 -7.1356 0.875 3.4743 -328.3255 -290.8477 -2.3925 -2.4303
0.0118 2.53 4900 0.6976 -3.7908 -7.3152 0.8125 3.5244 -330.1224 -292.1431 -2.3633 -2.4047
0.0118 2.58 5000 0.7198 -3.9049 -7.5557 0.8281 3.6508 -332.5271 -293.2844 -2.3764 -2.4194
0.006 2.63 5100 0.7506 -4.2118 -7.9149 0.8125 3.7032 -336.1194 -296.3530 -2.3407 -2.3860
0.0143 2.68 5200 0.7408 -4.2433 -7.9802 0.8125 3.7369 -336.7721 -296.6682 -2.3509 -2.3946
0.0057 2.74 5300 0.7552 -4.3392 -8.0831 0.7969 3.7439 -337.8013 -297.6275 -2.3388 -2.3842
0.0138 2.79 5400 0.7404 -4.2395 -7.9762 0.8125 3.7367 -336.7322 -296.6304 -2.3286 -2.3737
0.0079 2.84 5500 0.7525 -4.4466 -8.2196 0.7812 3.7731 -339.1662 -298.7007 -2.3200 -2.3641
0.0077 2.89 5600 0.7520 -4.5586 -8.3485 0.7969 3.7899 -340.4545 -299.8206 -2.3078 -2.3517
0.0094 2.94 5700 0.7527 -4.5542 -8.3509 0.7812 3.7967 -340.4790 -299.7773 -2.3062 -2.3510
0.0054 2.99 5800 0.7520 -4.5169 -8.3079 0.7812 3.7911 -340.0493 -299.4038 -2.3081 -2.3530

Framework versions

  • Transformers 4.35.0.dev0
  • Pytorch 2.0.1+cu118
  • Datasets 2.12.0
  • Tokenizers 0.14.0

Citation

If you find Zephyr-7B-Ξ² is useful in your work, please cite it with:

@misc{tunstall2023zephyr,
      title={Zephyr: Direct Distillation of LM Alignment}, 
      author={Lewis Tunstall and Edward Beeching and Nathan Lambert and Nazneen Rajani and Kashif Rasul and Younes Belkada and Shengyi Huang and Leandro von Werra and ClΓ©mentine Fourrier and Nathan Habib and Nathan Sarrazin and Omar Sanseviero and Alexander M. Rush and Thomas Wolf},
      year={2023},
      eprint={2310.16944},
      archivePrefix={arXiv},
      primaryClass={cs.LG}
}

Open LLM Leaderboard Evaluation Results

Detailed results can be found here

Metric Value
Avg. 52.15
ARC (25-shot) 62.03
HellaSwag (10-shot) 84.36
MMLU (5-shot) 61.07
TruthfulQA (0-shot) 57.45
Winogrande (5-shot) 77.74
GSM8K (5-shot) 12.74
DROP (3-shot) 9.66
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